Saak, Therese – (b. 1868)
Boehmian vocalist
Therese Saak was born (Dec 2, 1868) in Prague, the daughter of a stage director. She made her stage debut as Agathe in Der Freischutz (1884) in Berlin. Saak also performed with the Coburg and Dresden court operas. Therese studied under Aglaja von Orgeni in Dresden and sang the title role of Edmund Kretschmer’s opera Schon-Rotraud (1887). She was best known for her performances as Ortrud in Lohengrin and Lenore in Fidelio, and was later attached with the Weimar court theatre from 1901.

Saal, Therese – (1782 – 1855)
Austrian soprano vocalist
Saal was born in Pressburg, Hungary, the daughter of the singer and actor, Ignaz Saal (1761 – 1836). She was trained by her parents and performed with the Vienna Imperial Theatre from 1793 onwards. Saal performed the parts of Gabriel and Eva in the first performance of Joseph Hayden’s Die Schopfung (1798), and the part of Hannchen in Die Jahreszeiten (1801). She retired in 1805. Therese Saal died (Sept 26, 1855) aged seventy-three.

Saalburg, Baroness von    see   Schroder, Marie Louise

Saalfeld, Ada Louise – (fl. 1902 – 1906)
American children’s author, she was born Ada Sutton in Brooklyn, New York. Her published works included the popular Peter Rabbit series Mr Bunny: His Book (1902) and Teddy Bear (1906).

Saarinen, Aline Milton Bernstein – (1914 – 1972)
American art critic and media personality
Aline Bernstein was born (March 25, 1914) in New York City. She graduated from Vassar College (1935) and was married firstly to Joseph Louchheim, a public official, from whom she was later divorced (1951), and secondly (1954) to the noted Finnish born architect, Eero Saarinen (1910 – 1961). Saarinen was appointed managing director of the publication, Arts News (1946 – 1948), and wrote the text for, 5000 Years of Art: a Pictorial History. She also wrote articles for the New York Times. Saarinen was best remembered for her study of the major American art collectors entitled, The Proud Possessors (1958), and the account of her husband’s career. Eero Saarinen and his work (1962). Saarinen later turned down a diplomatic post in order to become a correspondent for NBC News, where she expounded her definite views on birth-control and abortion. Aline Saarinen was later appointed to head the NBC office in Paris (1971 – 1972), becoming the first woman to head on overseas news station.

Saarwerden, Walpurga von – (c1359 – 1418)
German heiress
Walpurga von Saarwerden was the daughter of Johann II. Count of Saarwerden, and married (1376) Friedrich III, Count von Moers (c1353 – 1417) to whom she bore eleven children. With the death of her brother Count Heinrich II in 1397, Walpurga’s son Friedrich IV (c1379 – 1448) inherited Saarwerden. The Bishop of Metz ineffectually attempted to contest the succession on the grounds that Saarwerden could not descend in the female line. With his father’s death Friedrich inherited the county of Moers as well.

Sabalsjaray, Nibuya – (1951 – 1974)
Uruguayan unionist
Nibuya Sabalsjaray was born into a poor family and was trained as a school teacher. From there she became involved with the union movement, and was arrested after her involvement in a major demonstration against the dictatorship. She died in prison aged only twenty-three, after two days of torture. She was later revered as one of Uruguay’s political martyrs.

Sabate i Puig de Delmas, Maria Dolors – (1904 – 1982)
Spanish poet
Maria Dolors Sabate was born at Cassia de la Selva, Barcelona, and studied music at the Liceu Conservatory in Barcelona, from which she graduated successfully (1927). Maria Dolors wrote occasional and lyrical poetry on a wide range of personal themes, including religion, family, nature, and death. This collection entitled Poesies (Poetry) was published posthumously (1983).

Sabatier, Apollonie – (1822 – 1889)
French courtesan and salonniere
Born Josephine Savatier, she was trained as a courtesan and became exceptionally famous during the Second Empire period, taking the name of Apollonie Sabatier. She held a fashionable salon in the Rue Frochot in Paris, where artists and literary figures such as Gustave Flaubert, Gustave Dore, Judith Gautier, Victor Hugo, Hector Berlioz, Alfred de Musset, the musician Ernest Reyer, and many others. Having been the mistress of the Belgian millionaire Alfred Mosselman with his death (1867) Apollonie became the long time mistress of the British art collector Sir Richard Wallace.
Theophile Gautier wrote articles concerning Apollonie and she one of the ladies who inspired the collection of poems entitled Les Fleurs du Mal (Flowers of Evil) (1857) by Charles Baudelaire. Edmond de Goncourt gave her the nickname of ‘La Presidente.’ Apollonie was portrayed by Gustav Courbet in his painting L’Ateloier du peintre (1855) and was sculpted as Woman Bitten by a Snake (1847) by Auguste Clesinger, now preserved within the Musee d’Orsay in Paris. Her portrait was painted by Vincent Vidal.

Sabbatia    see   Sebastia

Sabbonieta, Antonia del Balzo, Contessa di – (1451 – 1538)
Italian courtier and dynastic wife
Antonia del Balzo was the second daughter of Pietro del Balzo, Prince di Altamura and Grand Constable of the Kingdom of Naples and his wife Maria Donata Orsini. Her younger sister Isabella del Balzo was the wife of Federigo IV of Aragon, King of Naples. their ancestor Francesco I del Balzo, Duke of Andria was also the ancestor of Elizabeth of York, the wife of Henry VII, King of England (1485 – 1509). Antonia became the wife (1479) of Gianfrancesco di Gonzaga (1443 – 1496), the first Conte di Sabbioneta.
Antonia had lioterary tastes and held her courts at Gazzuolo and at the palace of Casalmaggiore near Cremona, where she entertained artists and painters, as well as various important foreign visitors. She survived her husband for over four decades (1496 – 1538) as the Dowager Contessa di Sabbonieta. The patron of humanists and poetsand writers such as Matteo Bandello, the contessa attended the court of Isabella d’Este in Mantua and that of Elisabetta Gonzaga in Urbino, and several of Isabella’s letters to Antonia have survived. Contessa Antonia died aged eighty-seven. Her eleven children were,

Sabie, Camille – (1904 – 1998)
American athlete
Camille Sabie was born in New York, the daughter of James Sabie. She attended secondary school in Newark, New Jersey before attending the Newark State Normal School (now Kean University) where she trained in track and field events. Sabie became a national champion in the one hundred yard hurdles broke the world broadjump record (1922). Camille competed in the Paris Olympic Games (1924) where she lead the American team in the broadjump event which she won, displacing former record holder Nancy Voorhees, and was a member of the relay team. Her later married name was Malbrock. Camille Sabie Malbrock died (March 20, 1998).

Sabin, Florence Rena – (1871 – 1953) 
American public health scientist and blood-cell researcher
Florence Sabin was born in Central City, Colorado, and she studied at Smith College before going on to study medicine at John Hopkins University Medical School. There she was appointed as assistant to the Department of Anatomy and became the first ever female professor (1917). She was the author of the laboratory text, An Atlas of the Medulla and Mi-brain (1901). Sabin became the first woman to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1925) and served as the first woman president of the American Anatomical Society. Florence Sabin was appointed as head of the Department of Cellular Studies at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1925 – 1938), and was later received at the White House by President J. Edgar Hoover (1929). A noted writer and public educator, who felt deeply concerned with social issues she opposed the prohibition laws because of the divisions they caused within American society. She retired to live in Colorado (1938).

Sabin, Pauline Morton – (1887 – 1955)
American anti-prohibitionist and political figure
Pauline Sabin was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of a railway executive, and was the granddaughter of J. Sterling Morton, governor of Nebraska and US secretary of agriculture (1893 – 1897). She was educated at private schools in Chicago and in Washington, D.C. she was married (1907) to a wealthy sportsman, James Hopkins Smith, to whom she bore two sons, and from whom she was divorced prior to WW I. During the war she worked with the French ambulance corps and then established an interior decorating business. She remarried (1916) to a finance executive, Charles H. Sabin. A supporter of the Republican Party, she assisted with the founding of the Women’s National Republican Club in New York, and served as first president (1921 – 1926). A skillfull political organiser, she was appointed as delegate to the Republican National Conventions (1924) and (1926), and co-chaired the unsuccessful relelection campaign of senator James Wadsworth (1926).
Sabin opposed prohibition claiming that it served only to subvert and corrupt officials and police, and resigned from the Republican National Committee, denouncing the the continued support granted prohibition by President Hoover and his administration (1929). She established a group of upper class ladies to form WONPR (Women’s Organization for National Prohibition Reform) in Chicago (1929), which grew to become three times the size of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1933). Her group was the first organization to endorse the Democratic repeal campaign (1932), and when the repeal amendment was ratified, the WONPR was disbanded (Dec, 1933). Widowed in 1936, Sabin remarried to her third husband, Dwight Davis, former governor general of the Philippines (1929 – 1932) and donor of the international tennis trophy, the Davis Cup. During WW II she was appointed director (1940 – 1943) of the volunteer special services of the American Red Cross, was resigned after internal disputes. Pauline Morton Sabin died (Dec 27, 1955) aged sixty-eight, in Washington, D.C.

Sabina, Poppaea      see     Poppaea Sabina

Sabina, Vibia – (c84 – 138 AD)
Roman Augusta (128 – 138 AD)
Vibia Sabina was the daughter of Lucius Vibius Sabinus, and his wife Matidia Salonina, the widow of Mindius, and the niece of the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD). She was married (100 AD) to Trajan’s successor, Hadrian (76 – 138 AD), possibly at the instigation of the empress Plotina. They remained childless. Though the Imperial couple lived estranged, they appeared together on state occasions, and she was accorded the Imperial title (128 AD). She is represented on surviving coinage. Hadrian’s praetorian prefect, Septicius Clarus and his secretary, the historian Suetonius were dismissed from Imperial office because of indiscreet behaviour towards the empress, though the exact details remain a matter of mystery (121 – 122 AD). She was deified by her husband after her death. Rumours that Hadrian ordered her to be poisoned or forced to commit suicide are almost certainly fictitious.

Sabina of Ansbach – (1529 – 1575)
Electress consort of Brandenburg (1571 – 1575)
Princess Sabina was born (May 12, 1529) the second daughter of George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1484 – 1543) and his second wife Hedwig, the daughter of Karl I, Duke of Munsterburg-Oels (1476 – 1536). Sabina was married (1548) to Johann George (1525 – 1598), the electoral prince of Brandenburg as his second wife. Her husband later succeeded his father the Elector Johann George (1571) and she became consort. The electress died (Nov 2, 1575) aged forty-six. Sabina had borne eleven children of whom only three daughters survived infancy,

Sabina of Bavaria – (1492 – 1564)
German duchess consort of Wurttemburg (1511 – 1550)
Princess Sabina was born (April 23, 1492) in Munich, the daughter of Albert V der Weise (the Wise), Duke of Bavaria (1469 – 1508) and his wife Archduchess Kunigunde, sister to the Emperor Maximilian I. Sabina was married at Stuttgart (1511) to Duke Ulrich of Wurttemburg (1487 – 1550), to whom she bore two children. The marriage was miserable, and the duchess was cruelly mistreated by her husband, both publically and privately. They later seperated, and by the time of Ulrich’s death, the duchess had resided at her brother’s court in Munich for some years. Her son Christopher (1515 – 1568) succeeded his father as Duke of Wurttemburg (1550 – 1568) whilst her daughter Anna (1513 – 1530) died unmarried aged seventeen. Sabina was then Dowager Duchess of Wurttemburg (1550 – 1564). Duchess Sabina died at Nuertingen (Aug 30, 1564), aged seventy-two, being interred within the abbey of St George, Tubingen.

Sabina of Mercia – (d. c819)
Anglo-Saxon Christian martyr
Sabina was the daughter of Coenwulf, king of Mercia. She refused to marry a local nobleman and went on a religious pilgrimage with her two sisters Alfrida and Eadgyth, intending to visit Rome. All three sisters were murdered by hired assassins at Kassel, where they were buried and venerated as saints (Dec 8) for several centuries in the Chapelle des Trois Vierges (Chapel of the Three Virgins).

Sabina of Simmern – (1528 – 1578)
Bavarian princess and political victim
Countess Sabina of Simmern was born (June 13, 1528) the daughter of Johann II, Count Palatine of Simmern and his wife Beatrix of Baden. Her marriage at Speyer (1544) to Count Lamoral van Egmond (1522 – 1568) was attended by the emperor Charles V. Sabina bore Lamoral thirteen children, and the couple remained devoted to each other all their married life. With the deteriorating political conditions between her husband and the Spanish government in the Netherlands headed by Margaret of Parma, and her husband’s own particular enemy Cardinal Granvelle, Sabina became involved in quarrels with Anna od Saxony, the wife of William of Orange, over matters of court precedence. Her husband was finally taken prisoner (Sept 9, 1567) with the connivance of the Duke of Alva. Though allowed to provide Lamoral with his meals during his impisonment, Sabina was not permitted to visit her husband, and bitterly complained about this to Philip II, but her entreaties fell on deaf ears.
Egmond was publicly beheaded with Count van Hoorne in Brussels (June 5, 1568). His last letter to Sabina has survived and remains a testament to their marital affection. Fearing reprisals from the Duke of Alva, Sabina and her children, accompanied by a few servants, fled to the convent of Cambre for refuge, where several of her relatives were nuns, and who persuaded the reluctant mother superior to grant them all refuge. Her homes were ransacked by Spanish troops, Sabina’s famous tapestries being looted for the benefit of the Escorial Palace in Madrid. Despite interventions on her behalf by the emperor Maximilian II, Albert III of Bavaria, and her own brother Wolfgang of Simmern, Philip of Spain remained unmoved by the plight of Sabina and her children. The duke of Alva even went so far as to advise the king that Sabina’s sons should be forcibly taken to Spain to be educated, and her daughters all forced to become nuns. However, Philip ignored this harsh advice, and granted her a small annuity, though she remained harassed by the demands of her creditors. Alva himself seems to have finally relented and eventually granted Sabina the castle of Gaesbeck, formerly the property of her late husband.
Eventually, after long, protracted and painful negotioations, which included intervention by Pope Gregory XIII himself, Count van Egmond’s property and possessions were restored to Sabina’s children. She lived to witness this. Sabina and Lamoral’s numerous children included, Count Philipvan Egmond (1558 – 1590) who served as governor of Artois, and Charles van Egmond, Prince de Gavre, Governor of Namur (c1564 – 1620). Countess Sabina died (June 19, 1578) at Antwerp, aged fifty. She was interred with Lamoral at Sotteghem.

Sabina Katharina of Ostfriesland – (1581 – 1618)
Friesian heiress and sovereign ruler
Countess Sabina Katharina was the daughter of Enno III, Count of Ostriesland (East Friesland), and his wife Walpurga von Rietberg. She became the wife of her kinsman Johann III, Count of Ostfriesland (c1565 – 1625) who ruled Ostfriesland in her right. She left children.

Sabina Lampadia – (fl. c370 – 377 AD) 
Roman poet
Sabina Lampadia was the daughter of C. Ceionius Rufius Volusianus Lampadius, prefect of Rome (365 AD), and his wife Caecilia Lolliana. She is most probably to be indentified as the wife of the senator and writer Julius Naucellius, who owned property in Spoletium, and which she later gave to their son Sabinus, who was probably also a senator.  Sabina Lampadia es attested by a surviving inscription which records that she paid for the erection of an altar to Attis and Rhea in the Phrygianum.

Sabine of Wurttemburg – (1549 – 1581)
German landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel (1567 – 1581)
Princess Sophia Sabine was born (July 2, 1549) at Mompelgard in Wurttemburg, the third daughter of Christopher, Duke of Wurttemburg-Stuttgart (1550 – 1568), and his wife Anna Maria (1526 – 1589), the daughter of George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1484 – 1543). Sabine became the wife (1566) of William V the Wise (1532 – 1592), Landgrave of Kassel (1567 – 1592), and bore him a large family of eleven children. They were an especially devoted married couple, famous for their conjugal felicity. Landgravine Sabine died (Aug 17, 1581) aged thirty-two, at Rotenburg. Her husband never remarried. Sabine left five surviving children,

Sabinia Furia Tranquillina     see     Tranquillina, Sabinia Furia

Sabinin, Martha von – (1831 – 1892)
Russian pianist and composer
Born Marfa Stepanova Sabinina (May 30, 1831), she trained under Schumanns, Peter Cornelius, and Franz Liszt, and became a teacher of aristocratic girls at Weimar in Saxony (1854 – 1860), before being appointed as court music teacher to the children of Tsar Alexander II (1855 – 1881) in St Petersburg. Martha performed valuable hospital work during the Russo-Turkish War (1876 – 1878) and then retired from the world to become a nun with the Tsarist Sisters of the Annunciation. Martha von Sabinin died in the Crimea as an abbess.

Sabla Wangel (1) – (c1490 – 1568)
Ethiopian empress consort (1508 – 1540)
Sabla Wangel came from an important family in the Ganz region and was married to the Emperor Lebna Dengel at the time of his accession (1508) or several years earlier. When the kingdom was invaded by the Muslims led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim of Adal (1526) she shared the tribulations of the dynasty and the country over several decades. Her eldest son Fiqtor was killed in battle (1539) and her son Minas was captured by the invaders. With the death of the emperor (1540) Sabla Wangel remained with the court in Tigre whilst her second son the Emperor Galawdewos rallied the people.
The Dowager Empress joined the contingent of troops at Dabarwa near Asmara which were sent to assist the Ethiopians by Joao III of Portugal (1541) and her prescence there di much to raise the hopes of the people and the spirits of the army. The people provided provisions for the Portugese troops, and the empress herself assisted the nursing of the wounded and dying. Eventually Galawdewos succeeded in killing Ahmad and her son Minas was returned to her (1543). Galawdewos was later killed during a revolt of the Galla nomads (1559) and Sabla Wangel assisted her grandson Sartsa Dengel (1563 – 1597) to assert his claim to the Imperial throne against that of various pretenders.

Sabla Wangel (2) – (c1630 – 1689)
Ethiopian empress consort (1667 – 1682)
Sabla Wangel was the daughter of Gabra Maskal and became the wife of the Emperor Johannes I, whom she survived as Empress Dowager (1682 – 1689). The empress was famous for her extensive patronage of literature and the arts. She was the mother of six children including the emperors Iyasu I the Great (c1662 – 1706) and Tewoflos (c1668 – 1708). Her fourth son, Prince Galawdewos (Claudius) was killed when struck by lightning (1692). Empress Sabla Wangel died (Jan, 1689).

Sable, Avoise de – (c1037 – 1067)
French heiress and medieval aristocrat
Avoise de Sable was the daughter of Geoffrey le Vieux, siegneur de Sable. Sometimed called Hedwig or Blanche in charters, she was married (c1052) to Robert I, seigneur de Craon (c1035 – 1098), a younger son of Rainald I, Count of Nevers, who survived her and died whilst on crusade in Palestine.

Sabliere, Margeurite de la       see    La Sabliere, Margeurite de

Sabourova, Salome     see    Solomonia Yurievna

Sabran, Beatrice de – (c1187 – 1215)

French mediaeval noblewoman and dynastic heiress
Beatrice de Sabran was the daughter of Raimon III de Sabran, Seigneur de Uzes, by his first wife Garsende, Countess of Forcalquier, the daughter and heiress of William II (Guillaume), Count of Forcalquier. Beatrice was married (1202) to Andrew Guigues (1185 – 1237), Dauphin of Vienne, as his first wife. She bore him an only child, Beatrice of Vienne (1205 – after 1248) who became the wife of Amaury VI de Montfort, Comte de Evreux, and left issue. Because of the lack of a male heir, Andrew later divorced Beatrice (c1210).

Sabran, Delphine de – (1283 – 1360)
French saint
Delphine de Signe was the daughter of Guillaume de Signe de Glandeve, and his wife Delphine de Barras, and m. Eleazar de Sabran, count di Ariano (1285 – 1323). She inherited the rich fief of Puy-Michel, and she and her husband lived togther as brother and sister because of their own religious inclinations. Later resident at the Neapolitan court, they enrolled as members of the Third Order of St Francis (1317), and took formal vows of celibacy. Delphine was a close friend and confidante of Queen Sanchia, the wife of Robert, King of Naples. Widowed in 1323, the canonisation of her husband was eventually accomplished by his godson, Pope Urban V. The countess retired to the palace of Cassasano, near Quisisona, between Naples and Castellmare, where she lived as a religious recluse until her death. She slowly renounced all her property, and, distributing it amongst her friends and servants, the countess even begged in the streets, so that she would not be guilty of pride.

Becoming increasingly afflicted with dropsy, in 1343 she returned to Naples, and with Queen Sanchia, entered the Franciscan convent of the Holy Cross. With the queen’s death (1345), Delphine removed to Apt and resided at her own hermitage at Cabrieres as an absolute recluse. Delphine de Sabran died at Apt (Nov 26, 1360). Urban V took the initial steps for beginning her caninization (1363) but died before this could be completed. She was credited with miracles and telepathic abilities.

Sabran, Eleonore de Jean de Manville, Comtesse de – (1749 – 1827)
French salonniere and letter writer
Born Francoise Eleonore de Jean de Manville (March 3, 1749) in Paris, she was the daughter of M. de Jean de Manville, from an ancient family in the Languedoc region, and his first wife Madamoiselle de Montigny. Educated in Paris, she married (1769) the hero, Eleazar Joseph, Comte de Sabran-Gramont (1700 – 1775), a man more than fifty years her senior, to whom she bore two children including Delphine de Sabran, Marquise de Custrine. Madame de sabran was the maternal grandmother of the French author Marquis Astolphe de Custine. With her husband’s death, the comtesse removed to the Chateau d’Anizy, near Laon.
Eleonore met (1777) Stanislas Jean, Chevalier de Boufflers (1738 – 1815), the future statesman and man of letters. The two became intimate, and this attachment remained firm until his death. They never married before the Revolution, because of their difference in rank. Her pre-Revolutionary salon attracted those interested in moderate reform. She fled France with her son to Switzerland (1789), but returned to Paris in 1790. The situation worsened, and the comtesse fled to Prussia, marrying the chevalier during their exile. They returned to Paris in 1800, and were received at the court of Napoleon Bonaparte, where the comtesse was admired as a reminder of the previous court. Madame de Sabran died (Feb 27, 1827) aged seventy-seven, in Paris.

Sabran, Madeleine Louise Charlotte de Foix-Rabat, Comtesse de – (1693 – 1768)
French society figure and courtier
Marie Madeline Charlotte de Foix-Rabat was the daughter of Francois Gaston de Foix, Comte de Rabat and his wife Dorothee Theodore de Poudens de Villepinte. She became the wife of Comte Jean Honore de Sabran and then became the mistress (1718) of Philippe II d’Orleans, Regent of France (1715 – 1723). A famous Regency period beauty Madame de Sabran was considered to be one of the most clever and fascinating Frenchwomen of her generation. Her liaison with Orleans lasted virtually until his death.
According to the Memoires of the Duc de Saint-Simon ‘she seemed quite unconscious of her lovely face and beautiful tall figure, and her modest looks would never have deceived anybody.’ However possessing little wealth and much ambition she made the mistake of interfering in business. When Orleans later attempted to dismiss her Madame de Sabran refused to leave his entourage at the Palais-Royal. His last mistress (1720) the Duchesse de Falaris was Madame de Sabran’s cousin. She later attended the salon of Madame Du Deffand in Paris.

Sabuco, Olivia – (1562 – 1625)  
Spanish scholar
Olivia Sabuco was the daughter of Miguel Sabuco. She was long believed to be the author of the seven volume collection of dialogues on various subjects including mathematics and astronomy, entitled Nueva filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre, no conocida ni alcanzada de los grandes filosofos antiguos, la quae mejora la vida y salud humana (1587), as her name appeared on the title page of the surviving copy of this work. However modern scholars now attribute the work to her father, a claim which was first forwarded by an early modern biographer (1900).

Saburova, Irina Evgenievna – (1905 – 1980)
Russian poet and writer
Saburova resided in Latvia where she was employed as a journalist with the local Russian language newspaper in Riga. During WW II she went to live in Germany, but spent some time interned in a concentration camp. After the war Saburova worked in broadcasting in Munich, Bavaria, and achieved some fame as a popular writer. She was best known for the work Korabli Starogo Goroda, a novel based on her own experiences in Riga before the war. Irina Saburova died in Munich.

Sacajawea – (c1786 – 1812)
Native American Indian guide
Sacajawea was born into the Shoshone tribe but was captured and sold into slavery by the French trader Toussaint Charbonneau as a young girl. Charbonneau married Sacajawea and she then accompanied him as interpreter, together with their baby, as the only woman in the party, when he joined the expedition across America (1804 – 1806) led by Meriwether Lewis (1774 – 1809) and William Clark. Sacajawea assisted the party in dealing with hostile native tribes and with the organization of much needed guides and supplies. She accompanied Charbonneau to St Louis (1810), where they intended to settle, but Sacajawea became homesick for her own land, and they returned to Dakota. There she died young, though there was some mystery surrounding her death.

Sacco, Nicola – (1891 – 1927)
Italian-American anarchist
Nicola Sacco was born in Italy. Following the murders of a paymaster and a guard at a shoe factory at South Braintree, in Massachusetts (April, 1920), after the theft of a significant payroll, Sacco and fellow anarchist Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888 – 1927) were arrested for the crimes. Both were tried and convicted on circumstantial evidence (1921). Because it was believed that they were victims of political prejudice because of their association with anarchy, several international protests were made on their behalf. However, all appeals were refused, and despite the confession of a third party, they were sentenced to death by electrocution. Posthumous pardons were granted them five decades later (1977). Modern research has revealed that Sacco was most probably guilty, but that Vanzetti was innocent of the charges.

Sach, Amelia – (1873 – 1903)
British murderess
Together with an accomplice, Annie Walters, Sach ran a nursing home in East Finchley, London, where she advertised locally that she provided amenities and nursing for unmarried mothers, and agreed to find homes for the illegitimate children for a reasonable fee. Actually Annie Walters then killed the infants with chlorodyne, and disposed of the bodies wherever she thought convenient. The pair was then caught when Walters began taking infants home with her ‘for company.’ Their subsequent deaths aroused suspicion, and she was apprehended by the police, which led to the arrest of Amelia Sach. Infant corpses were uncovered in the garden and Sach and Walters were hanged together inside Holloway Prison, becoming the first women to be executed there.

‘Sacharissa’   see   Sidney, Dorothy

Sacher, Maja – (1896 – 1989)
Swiss art patron and sculptor
Maja was born (Feb 7, 1896) in Basel. She studied in Munich, Bavaria, and then with A. Bourdelle in Paris. She was married to Emanuel Hoffmann and founded the Emanuel Hoffmann Folundation in Brussels in his memory (1933). Her financial contributions led to the establishment of the Basel Museum of Contemporary Art (1980). Her second husband was the noted industrialist and conductor Paul Sacher (1906 – 1999).

Sachs, Nelly Leonie – (1891 – 1970) 
Jewish-German poet and author
Nelly Sachs was born in Berlin, Prussia, the daughter of Wilhelm Sachs, an industrialist and inventor, and his wife Margarethe Karger. She was privately educated, but also attended the Hoch Toechterschule (girls’ school). With the outbreak of WW II, Nelly fled the Nazi regime (1940) and became a resident of Stockholm, Sweden. Sachs wrote the verse play Eli, and  a series of lays entitled Scenic Poetry, for which she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature (1966), which she shared with the poet Shmuel Agnon, and she was also the author of In the Habitations of Death (1947) and The Seeker, and Other Poems, in English (1970). Her poetry has been translated into many languages, and the German town of Dortmund instituted and funded the Nelly Sachs Prize for Literature, of which she was the first prize winner (1961).

Sack, Erna – (1898 – 1972)
German soprano
Sack was born (Feb 6, 1898) in Berlin, Prussia, where she studied music and singing technique, as well as in Prague, Bohemia. She made her stage debut as a contralto at the Stadtische Opera in Berlin (1925), and then concentrated on her career as a coloratura, performing in Wiesbaden and Breslau prior to joining the Dresden State Opera (1935). Richard Strauss (1864 – 1949) created the role of Isotta in his, Die schweigsame Frau, especially for her, and then sang Zerbinetta under Strauss’s direction at Covent Garden in London (1936). Erna Sack (her professional name) made successful concert tours of the USA, Austria, and Italy, and finally settled in Wiesbaden. Erna Sack died (March 2, 1972) aged eighty-four, in Mainz.

Sackville, Diana Sambrooke, Lady – (c1731 – 1778)
British Hanoverian society figure
Lady Sackville attended the court of George III and Queen Charlotte, and also visited France during the latter part of the reign of Louis XV. She was mentioned in the letters of the antiquarian Horace Walpole.

Sackville, Dame Sylvia Mary   see   De La Warr, Sylvia Mary Harrison, Countess

Sackville, Victoria West, Lady – (1862 – 1936)
British peeress and doplimatic figure
Victoria West was the natural daughter of the second Baron Sackville and his mistress Fabia Santiago. She was married to her kinsman the diplomat Lionel Sackville-West, third Baron Sackville and became the Baroness Sackville. Lady Sackville was the mother of the novelist Vita Sackville-West.

Sackville-West, Vita – (1892 – 1962) 
British poet and novelist
Vitctoria Mary Sackville-West was born at Knole Park in Kent, the daughter of Lionel Sackville-West, third Baron Sackville amd his wife Victoria, the illegitimate daughter of the second Baron Sackville. She was educated at home, and was then married (1913) to the author and diplomat, Sir Harold Nicolson (1886 – 1968) the third son of Sir Arthur, first Baron Carnock (1849 – 1928), to whom she bore three sons. Vita is best remembered for her lesbian relationship with Violet Trefusis, the daughter of Mrs Keppel, the mistress of Edward VII (1901 – 1910), which relationship almost destroyed her marriage, and later on as the lover of author Virginia Woolf, whose famous phantasy novel, Orlando (1928), was partly based on her.
Sackville-West described her family’s historic home in her work Knole and the Sackvilles (1922), and it was used as the setting for her novel The Edwardians (1930). Her lengthy poem ‘The Land’ (1926) was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. Vita was also remembered for her famous gardens at the Nicolson home of Sissinghurst Castle in Kent, an Elizabethan estate which the Nicolsons’ acquired in 1930, and she was awarded the CH (Companion of Honour) (1948). Other novels included Passenger to Teheran (1926), Twelve Days (1928), All Passion Spent (1931), and No Signposts in the Sea (1961). Her famous poem ‘The Garden’ was the Heinemann Prize and her verses were published as Collected Poems (1933). The lives of herself and her husband were written by their son Nigel Nicolson in Portrait of a Marriage (1973).

Sacusa    see   Secusa

Sada Kaur – (c1755 – 1832)
Indian Sikh princess
Sada Kaur was the wife of Gurbajsh Singh and it was her fervour that inspired him to fight the Afghans. Gurbajsh Singh was killed in battle (1784). She married her daughter Mahtab Kaur to the young Ranjit Singh to whom Sada Kaur became guardia after the death of his father (1792). The princess was involved with Ranjit Singh’s capture of the city of Lahore in the Punjab (1799). Sada Kaur later became involved in a criminal conspiracy with the British leader Metcalfe. She was captured in her attempt to flee to the British (1821). Her estates were confiscated and she died under house arrest.

Sadako (1) – (1013 – 1094)

Japanese empress consort
Sadako was born Princess Teishi, the third daughter of the emperor Sanjo (1011 – 1016) and his second wife, the Empress Kenshi (994 – 1027). Sadako became the second wife (1028) of Prince Atsunaga (1009 – 1045) who ascended the throne as Emperor Go-Suzaku (1036 – 1045), whereupon Sadako became the first empress and chief consort. She survived her husband for five decades as Empress Dowager Yomei-monin (1045 – 1094). Her children were,

Sadako (2) – (1884 – 1951)
Japanese empress consort (1912 – 1936)
Sadako was born (June 25, 1884), the daughter of Prince Kujo Michitaka. She entered the Imperial palace as a concubine (1898) and was later married (1900) to the Emperor Taisho (1912 – 1926) after she had become pregnant. Sadako was the mother of the future Emperor Showa (Hirohito) (1901 – 1989) and three other sons. After her husband became ill the empress resided with him at the Summer Palace of Yokonama (1920 – 1926). She survived her husband as Empress Dowager for twenty-five years (1926 – 1951).
An attractive, charming, and sophisticated woman, the empress possessed a deep knowledge of state affairs, and had consultive and veto powers over most of the domestic arrangements concerning the Imperial household. She allied herself with the powerful Prince Saionji in order to try to prevent war, and later, in order to show her displeasure of the emperor’s involvement with WW II, prior to the attack on Pearl Harbour (1941), the Empress Dowager withdrew from the Imperial court and resided in retirement at her villa at Numazu. Eventually through the intervention of her daughter-in-law, Empress Nagako, mother and son became reconciled (1942) and the Dowager Empress returned to Tokyo. Empress Sadako died (May 17, 1951) aged sixty-six. She was interred within the Musahino Imperial Museum, west of Tokyo.

Sade, Laura de – (1307 – 1348)
French beauty and poetic muse
Laura was married (1325) to Hughes de Sade. The poet Petrarch first set eyes on her (April 6, 1327) in the church of St Clara, Avignon, in Provence, and for the next twenty years Laura remained Petrarch’s poetic inspiration and the source for all his platonic affections, being honoured by him in the same manner Dante honoured Beatrice Portinari. Laura died during the Black Death epidemic in 1348.

Though there remains some scholarly debate as to whether Petrarch’s beloved was actually to be identified with Laura de Sade, the family themselves never doubted it. The Abbe de Sade, correspondent of Voltaire, and uncle of the infamous marquis de Sade, produced the study of his famous ancestress Memoires pour la vie de Francois Petrarque (1764 – 1767). When the upheavals of the the Revolution caused the church at Avignon to be demolished, the marquis de Sade had Laura’s remains transferred to the Chateau de La Coste, Provence.

Sade, Madeleine Laure de – (1771 – 1844)
French noblewoman and literay figure
Madeleine de Sade was born (April 17, 1771), the daughter of the infamous Alphonse Donatien, Marquis de Sade and his wife Renee Pelagie de Launay de Montreuil. She survived a childhood attack of smallpox (1780) and was educated by nuns at the convent of sainte-Aure, where she became a boarder. Madeleine developed into an unattractive, piously religious, and inward looking young woman, and these attributes, recorded by her own father in his surviving letters to her mother, Madame de Sade, combined with her father’s notorious reputation ensured that she remained unmarried and apart from contemporary society. Madeleine de Sade died aged seventy-three.

Sade, Marie Eleonore de Maille, Comtesse de – (1712 – 1777)
French courtier
Marie Eleonore de Maille was the daughter of the Marquis de Caraman and was cousin to Louise Renee de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth, the famous mistress to Charles II of England (1660 – 1685).  Marie Eleonore served at in Paris as lady-in-waiting to Charlotte, Princesse de Conde, cousin to King Louis XV (1715 – 1774), and was the wife (1733) of Jean Baptiste, Comte de Sade (1702 – 1767), the ambassador to Cologne, St Petersburg, and London. With the death of the Prince de Conde (1740) the comtesse continued to reside at the Hotel de Conde in Paris, where she raised her son until she sent him to Avignon in Provence to be raised by his grandmother (1744). Madame de Sade later served at the court of Versailles as lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Leszczynszka, the wife of Louis XV. Prior to 1765 the comtesse lived apart from her husband as a boarder with the Carmelite nuns in Paris. The comtesse was the mother of the infamous roue and author, Donatien Alphonse, Marquis de Sade (1740 – 1814). Her two daughters died in infancy.

Sadeq, Nariman    see   Nariman

Sadhe (Sadeh) – (fl. c2040 BC)
Egyptian queen
Sadhe was one of the wives of King Mentuhopte II. Her shrine and shaft tomb were discovered at Der el-Bahri, near Thebes (1920), located behind the tomb temple of Mentuhopte I. Queen Sadhe was interred near her were the tombs of five other royal women, including Queen Kawit. Her mummy, now preserved in the Cairo Museum, reveals that she held the title of ‘King’s Wife,’ and that she died young, aged around twenty.

Sadije – (1876 – 1934)
Queen mother of Albania
Sadije Toptani was born in Tirana (Aug 28, 1876), the daughter of the powerful political figure, Salah Bey Toptani, and was sister to Essad Pasha. Sadije became the second wife of Xhemal Pasha Zogy after the death of his first wife.  Sadije became the mother of King Zogyu (1895 – 1961) and his six glamorously beautiful sisters, and was grandmother to King Leka I.  When her son Zog ascended the Albanian throne, Madame Zogyu was elevated by royal decree as HRH the Queen Mother and she herself supervised the activities of the royal kitchen in order to prevent her son being poisoned.  Queen Sadije died (Nov 25, 1934) aged fifty-eight, at the palace at Tirana.

Sadler, Agnes – (fl. 1386)
English rebel
Agnes Sadler was one of the peasants who became a leader in a local revolt at Romley during the reign of Richard II. This followed in the aftermath of the earlier rebellion led by Wat Tyler (1381).

Sadler, Christine – (1908 – 1983)
American author and journalist
Attached firstly to the Nashville Banner and then with the Washington Post (1937), Sadler was born (April 7, 1908) in Silver Point, Tennessee, and became the first female reporter to cover a major political event when she covered the Republican National Convention (1940). Sadler was later the editor of McCall’s magazine, a position she retained for twenty-five years (1946 – 1971). She was the author of such biographical works as America’s First Ladies and Children of the Whitehouse. Christine Sadler died (June 25, 1983) aged seventy-five, in Washington, D.C.

Sadler, Flora Munro – (1912 – 2000)
Scottish astronomer
Born Flora McBain (June 4, 1912) in Aberdeen, she attended the university there, where she studied mathematics and philosophy. She formed a member of the British Expedition which travelled to Siberia in Russia in order to study the total eclipse of the sun in Omsk (1936). Shortly afterwards she became the first woman scientist to be a member of staff at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, London. Sadler served for almost four decades (1937 – 1973) as the principal scientific officer at the Nautical Almanac Office at the Observatory. Flora Sadler worked on navigational and astronomical tables and represented Britain at the Moon and Astronomical Ephemerides (1948 – 1970), organized by the International Astronimcal Union Commission. Flora Munro Sadler died (Dec 25, 2000) aged eighty-eight, in Aberdeen.

Sadler, Kate – (fl. 1878 – 1893)
British artist and water colour painter
Kate Sadler resided at Horsham in London, and specialized as a flower painter, most nobtably of azaleas and chrysanthemums. Her works were exhibited at various exhibitions, including at the Royal Academy and at the New Watercolour Society.

Sadlier, Mary Anne – (1820 – 1903)
Irish-American novelist, translator, and writer
Born Mary Anne Madden (Dec 31, 1820) in Cootehill, Ireland, she was married to James Sadlier, the publisher and bookbinder, and was sister-in-law to the Catholic publisher Denis Sadlier (1817 – 1885). Sadlier published well over fifty novels such as The Red Hand of Ulster (1850), The Blakes and the Flanagans (1855), Con O’Regan (1864) and Maureen Dhu (1870). Mary Anne Sadlier died (April 5, 1903) aged eighty-two.

Saefryth (Saefrida) – (fl. 850 – 852)
Anglo-Saxon queen consort
Nothing is recorded of her antecedents and she was married to King Beorhtwulf of Mercia, being consort during his short reign. During this time the queen’s name with the title regina frequently appeared with the king’s in royal charters which recorded grants made to the church of Worcester, of which they appear to have been patrons. Nothing else is known of Queen Saefryth except that she was the mother of Beorhtwulf’s son Beorhtferth, who was living in 850, but did not succeed his father of the Mercian throne (852).

Saelfryd (Saelfrid, Sethryda) – (c612 – c660)
Anglo-Saxon virgin saint
Saelfryd was the stepdaughter of Anna, King of East Anglia, being the daughter of his first wife Saewara, and her first husband, who was perhaps the East Anglian prince Ragenhere, who was killed in battle in 617. She was the half-sister to saints Ethelburga of Faremoutier, Sexburga, Withburga, Etheldreda (Audrey) and Ethelburga of Barking. With her half-sister Ethelburga and her niece Earcongota of Kent, Saelfryd travelled to Gaul in order to take up the religious life in. They were welcomed and received by Abbess Burgundofara (St Fara) at the abbey later known as Faremoutier in the forest of Brie. Saelfryd succeeded Fara as abbess (657) and died c660, being succeeded in office by her sister Ethelburga. Canonized a saint, her feast was observed and celebrated (Jan 10 and July 7).

Saenger von Mossau, Renata (Maria Renata) – (1680 – 1749)
German witch
Saenger von Mossau was sent to become a Benedictine nun (1699) in Unter-Zell, and was later elected as prioress (1740). One of her nuns died claiming to be haunted by demons (1746), after which several other of the sisters began sufferring convulsive fits. One of them on her deathbed denounced the mother superior as an agent of Satan. The allegations were given credence and the convent searched. Incriminating evidence such as strange robes and poisons were found in Renata’s room.
In an attempt at penitence, she confessed her full involvement to a Benedictine monk, revealing that she had been taught the occult in childhood, as well as developing her skill with poison from such an age. Renata claimed to have become a nun solely in order to sow the misery and strife which led to her career being exposed. Renata Saenger von Mossau was condemned to be publicly beheaded, and her remains burnt (June, 1749).

Saewara – (c595 – c622)
Anglo-Saxon princess
Saewara probably belonged to the dynasty of the kings of Essex, and may possibly have been the daughter of King Saebert and his wife Aethelgoda. She was married firstly to the East Anglian prince Ragenhere, the son and heir of King Raedwald of East Anglia (c593 – 626). She bore him two daughters, Saelfryd and Sisetrude both of whom became nuns in France. Ragenhere was killed in battle (617) whereupon Saewara was then remarried to his brother Prince Anna (who only became king long after her death) as his first wife. There were no children of her second marriage. Her daughters were educated at the Abbey of St Marie at Chelles, near Paris.

Safiya bint Musafir – (fl. c670 – 674)
Arab poet
Safiya bint Musafir was best remembered for her verses ‘At the Badir Trench.’ This she penned to commemorate the deaths of fourteen Muslim martyrs, who were killed at the battle of Badr at Medina in Saudi Arabia.

Safiye Baffo – (c1548 – 1618)
Ottoman Valide Sultan
Safiye Baffo was of Greek birth and became the chief wife of the Sultan Murad III (1545 – 1595). She became the mother of his son and successor Sultan Mehmet III (1567 – 1603) and received the title of Haseki (princess favourite). With her son’s accession (1595) Safiye was created Valide Sultan (queen mother).

Safiye Osmanoglu – (1696 – 1778)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Safiye was born (Oct 13, 1696) in Constantinople, the third daughter of Sultan Mustafa II Gazi (Fighter for the True Faith) (1695 – 1703) by an unidentified concubine. Safiye was half-sister to the sultans Mahmud I (1730 – 1754) and Osman III (1754 – 1757). Safiye was married four times for dynastic and political considerations. Her first husband (1703) was Maktulzade Ali Pasha to whom she marriede when she was only seven. She bore him two children before his death two decades afterwards (1723). She was married secondly (1726) to Mirza Mehmed Pasha (died 1728), thirdly to Kara Mustafa (died 1736), and fourthly (1740) to Alayali Haci Ebubekir Pasha (c1674 – 1759). Safiye Osmanoglu survived her last husband by two decades and died (May 15, 1778) aged eighty-one.

Safrida (Saffrida) – (c670 – c705)
Anglo-Saxon countess
Safrida’s parentage remains unknown, but she was perhaps connected to the royal families of Essex or Mercia. She was married (c685) to Didan (died after 726), the earldorman of Ozford, a great landowner. Their only child was St Frideswide who Safrida placed under the care of Abbess Elgiva of Winchester (c695) to be trained for the religious life. Safrida is thought to have been either converted or influenced by the preaching of St Wilfred, Bishop of Hexham. Safrida died before her daughter came of age.

Sagan, Francoise – (1935 – 2004)
French novelist, dramatist and author
Born Franoise Quoirez in Cajarc, she was educated in private schools and by nuns in Paris. She left the Sorbonne after only one year and returned to Paris where she wrote her first novel, the extremely successful Bonjour tristesse (1954), in only four weeks. It was published when she was only eighteen, using the name of ‘Sagan’, which she adopted from a character in the works of Marcel Proust. This work was made into a successful film (1958). Her other works included, Un Certain Sourire (A Certain Smile) (1956), also made into a film (1958) and Aimez-vous Brahms? (1959). Later works included Dans un mois dans un an (Those Without Shadows) (1959) which was filmed in English as Goodbye Again (1961) and the ballet Le Rendezvous manque (The Missed Rendezvous) (1958). Her later novels included L’Echarde (The Splinter) (1966) and La Femme Fardee (The Unmade Bed) (1981).

Sagan, Ginetta – (1925 – 2000)
Jewish-Italian war heroine
Sagan was born at Milan in Lombardy, the daughter of a physician. She worked as a clerk in Milan, and began working to help Jews escape Italy with the resistance movement during WW II.
Ginetta was raped and tortured by the Fascists, who shot her father and sent her mother to her death at Auschwitz. She became popularly known as ‘Topolino’ (the little mouse). After her release she was nursed back to health by Catholic nuns. She later went to the USA (1951) where she became the founder member of the California Chapter of Amnesty International in the USA, and was the founder and editor of Matchbox (1973), the organization’s newsletter. Sagan was later awarded the US Presidential Medal of Honour (1994) and the Grand Ufficiale del Merito Della Repubblica (1996) from the Italian government. Ginetta Sagan died at Atherton in California.

Sagan, Leontine – (1899 – 1974) 
Austrian actress and film director
Born Leontine Schlesinger in Vienna, she trained as an actress under Max Reinhardt (1873 – 1943). Leontine Sagan achieved international fame with her appearance in the all-female film Madchen in Uniform (Girl in Uniform) (1931), which was based upon the famous novel by Christa Winsloe entitled Gestern und Heute (Yesterday and Today) (1930), and dealt openly with sexual themes. Leontine later went to England where she directed the film Men of Tomorrow (1932) for Alexander Korda. She later worked in South Africa and was one of the co-founders of the National Theatre of Johannesburg.

Sagan, Wilhelmina de Biron-Kurland, Duchesse de – (1781 – 1839)
German heiress
Wilhelmina de Biron, Princess of Kurland was born (Feb 8, 1781), the eldest daughter of the Duke of Kurland and his third wife Countess Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Medem. Her younger sister was the famous salonniere the Duchesse de Dino. With the death of her father without a male heir Wilhelmina inherited the dukedom of Sagan (1800 – 1839). Beautiful, violent and passionate the duchesse was the mistress of the Austrian chancellor Prince Metternich and was married three times. The duchesse died (Nov 29, 1839) aged fifty-eight.

Sage, Kay Linn – (1898 – 1963)
American painter, artist, and poet
Sage was born (June 25, 1898) in Albany, New York. She was the author of the volume of verse entitled The More I Wonder (1957). Kay Sage died (Jan 8, 1963) aged sixty-four.

Sager, Ruth – (1918 – 1997)
American geneticist and scientific researcher
Sager was born (Feb 7, 1918) in Chicago, Illinois. She was a pioneer in the field of non-nuclear (cytoplasmic) genetics, and was appointed to head the cancer genetics department at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Ruth Sager died (March 29, 1997) aged seventy-nine.

Saggione, Maria Margherita    see   Gallia, Maria Margherita

Sagheddu, Maria – (1914 – 1939)
Sardinian nun and saint
Sagheddu was the daughter of a poor shepherd. Her father died during her early childhood and Maria received only the most rudimentary of education. Though a sullen and rebellious child, the death of a favourite sister led to a religious conversion, and Maria joined the Catholic Action Movement. Maria left home and travelled to Italy, where she entered a Trappistine Abbey of St Joseph near Rome and became Sister Maria Gabriella. She prayed for the unifaction of Christianity and offered herself as a victim for this cause. Maria Gabriella’s death soon afterwards of pulmonary tuberculosis, was seen to be divine acceptance of her offering to God. She was later beatified.

Sahakaduxt – (fl. c700 – c730)
Armenian hymnographer, poet, and scholar
Sahakaduxt was the sister of Stepannos Siwneci, the noted musical theorist. She lived in a cave near Erevan as a religious ascetic and composed devotional poems and liturgical chants. Her only surviving work was Srp’uhi Mariam (Saint Mary). She taught sacred music to students and musicians.

Sahlin, Anne – (1930 – 2003) 
Australian editor
Anna Sahlin was born in New York, and educated in Connecticut and at Smith College. She toured France by car (1951) and was married (1953) to Nils Sahlin, the public executive.
Anne edited several books for Princeton University, before her family immigrated to Australia (1969). Anne Sahlin published many books for Macquarie Library, ABC Enterprises, and other Australian publishing firms, and was firmly committed to civil rights. Anne campaigned strenuously for educational causes for over fifty years, and provided financial assistance to the Tranby Aboriginal College.

Saignant, Jeanne – (fl. c1440 – c1460)
French madam
Madame Saignant was the owner and manager of a bathouse and brothel at Dijon in Burgundy, which she operated successfully for several decades. A woman who possessed beauty combined with sensible business acumen, Jeanne was assisted by her husband in this venture, and the couple benefited from the patronage of several highly placed persons.

Saint-Agathe, Delphine Angelique Madeleine Peyre de Chateauneuf, Comtesse de – (1767 – 1851)
French peeress
Delphine Peyre de Chateauneuf was born (May 9, 1767) in Nice, the elder daughter of Jerome Peyre de Chateauneuf, marquis de chateauneuf (1728 – 1793) and his wife Rosalie de Villenenuve-Vence. She was married (1790) to Joseph Benoit Guiglionda, Comte de Saint-Agathe (1744 – 1820), whom she survived three decades as the Dowager Comtesse de Saint-Agathe. The couple had no children. Through her mother she was a descendant of the famous letter writer and salonniere, the Maequise de Sevigne, being a direct descendant of Madame’s daughter, the Comtesse de Grignan. Madame de Saint-Agathe died (July 31, 1851) in Nice, aged eighty-four.

Saint-Aignan, Francoise Gere-de Rance, Duchesse de – (c1642 – 1728)
French aristocrat and courtier
Francoise Gere-de Rance was known as Madamoiselle de Luce before she became the second wife (1680) of Francois Honorat de Beauvilliers, (1607 – 1687), Duc de Saint Aignan, and attended the court of Louis XVI and Madame de Maintenon at Versailles. She survived her elderly husband for over thirty years (1687 – 1728) as the Dowager Duchesse de Saint-Aignan and died in the reign of Louis XV. The duchesse was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole. She was the stepmother of Paul de Beauvilliers (1648 – 1714), second Duc de Saint-Aignan and Duc de Beauvilliers.

Saint-Aignan, Helene Francoise Stephanie Turgot, Duchesse de – (1729 – 1784)
French courtier and political activist
Helene Turgot was sister to Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, the controller-general of France under Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Helene was married (1757) to Paul Hippolyte Beauviller, Duc de Saint-Aignan, and was particularly noted for her firm Jansenist beliefs.

St Albans, Alice Barnham, Viscountess    see   Barnham, Alice

St Albans, Beatrix Frances Petty-Fitzmaurice, Duchess of – (1877 – 1953)
British Victorian and Edwardian society figure
Lady Beatrix Petty-Fitzmaurice was the daughter of Henry Fitzmaurice, the fifth Marquess of Lansdowne and his wife Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton, the daughter of James Hamilton, the first Duke of Abercorn. Beatrix was married firstly (1897) to Henry de La Poer Beresford (1875 – 1911), the sixth Marquess of Waterford and became the Marchioness of Waterford (1897 – 1911), Lord and Lady Waterford were present at the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in Westminster Abbey (1902). This marriage produced several children including John Hubert de La Poer Beresford (1901 – 1934), who succeeded his father as the seventh Marquess of Waterford and left issue, and two daughters.
As the Dowager Marchioness of Waterford, Beatrix remarried secondly (1918) to Lord Osborne de Vere Beauclerk (1874 – 1964). She was appointed GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) by King George V in recognition of her volunteer work organizing war hospitals and ambulance brigades for the troops during WW I. Her second marriage remained childless and when Beauclerk succeeded his elder brother as the twelfth Duke of St Albans Lady Beatrix became the Duchess of St Albans (1934 – 1953). The Duchess of St Albans died (Aug 5, 1953) aged seventy-five, at Newton Anner, near Clonmel in Tipperary, Ireland.

St Albans, Catherine Ponsonby, Duchess of – (1742 – 1789)
British Hanoverian peeress and courtier
The daughter of the Earl of Bessborough, as a married woman the duchess attended the court of George III and Queen Charlotte. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the antiquarian Horace Walpole.

St Albans, Diana de Vere, Duchess of – (1674 – 1742)
British heiress, peeress and courtier
Lady Diana de Vere was the second daughter of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth Earl of Oxford and his second wife Diana Kirke, the daughter of the Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles II (1660 – 1685). Her elder sister Charlotte died an infant and her two younger sisters Mary and Henrietta both died unmarried, leaving Diana her father’s sole heiress. She became the wife (1694) of Sir Charles Beauclerk (1670 – 1726), first Duke of St Albans, who was the natural son of Charles II and the actress Nell Gwyn. The marriage was celebrated with the following verse which portrayed the end of the House of Oxford,

The Line of Vere, so long renowned in Arms, Concludes with luster in St Alban’s charm,
Her conquering eyes have made her race complete. They rose in valour and in beauty set.

The Duchess of St Albans was a celebrated beauty and frequented the courts of William III and Mary II, and Queen Anne (1702 – 1714). With the accession of the Hanoverian George I (1714) the duchess was soon afterwards appointed (1715) as First Lady of the Bedchamber and Lady of the Stole to Caroline, Princess of Wales, the king’s daughter-in-law. The duchess stood sponsor to Prince George William (1717) the son of the Prince and Princess of Wales, together with King George and Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of Newcastle. The duchess and Newcastle ahd been chosen by the king, despite the fact that Duke Ernest of York and Queen Sophia Dorothea of Prussia, had already been chosen as sponsors by the parents of the infant prince. As a result of the dispute in the royal family the Duchess of St Albans resigned her office (Dec, 1717).
The Duke of St Albans died (May 10, 1726) at Bath in Somerset, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Diana survived him as the Dowager Duchess of St Albans (1726 – 1742) and was present at the coronation of George II and Queen Caroline at Westminster (1728). When her youngest son Aubrey died in a sea battle (1940) the duchess caused a monument to be erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey. The duchess died (Jan 15, 1742) aged sixty-seven, and was interred in St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, where her tomb remains. The Duchess of St Albans appears as a character in the historical novels Queen in Waiting (1967) and Caroline the Queen (1968) by Jean Plaidy. Her children were,

St Albans, Harriet, Duchess of     see    Mellon, Harriet

St Albans, Sybil Mary Grey, Duchess of – (1848 – 1871)
British Victorian beauty and peeress
Sybil Grey became the first wife of Aubrey de Vere (1840 – 1898), the tenth Duke of St Albans. The duchess was a friend to Princess Louise, the daughter of Queen Victoria, having been raised much at the royal court. The Duchess of St Albans died (Sept 7, 1871) from the effects of childbirth, aged only twenty-two. The sculptor Edgar Boehm produced a memorial to her.

St Andre, Elizabeth Capel, Lady – (c1698 – 1759)
British aristocrat
Lady Elizabeth Capel was the daughter of Algernon Capel, the second Earl of Essex and his wife Lady Mary Bentinck, sister to the Earl of Portland. She was the aunt of the fourth Earl of Essex. Lady Elizabeth was married firstly to Samuel Molineux (died 1727) and secondly to Nathaniel St Andre. She was the owner of the White House in Kew Gardens, London, which she leased to Frederick Louis, the Prince of Wales from 1731. With the prince’s death (1751) the lease was taken over by the Dowager Princess Augusta of Wales and her eldest son George (III). Lady St Andre died (March 21, 1759), whereupon the lease of White House was renewed by the royal family from Lord Essex.

St Aubyn, Hilaria Lily – (1894 – 1983)
British civic leader
The Hon. (Honourable) Hilaria St Aubyn was born (Nov 11, 1894), the younger daughter of John Townshend St Aubyn (1857 – 1940), the first Baron St Levan (1908 – 1940) and his first wife Lady Edith Hilaria Edgecumbe, the daughter of William Henry Edgecumbe, the fourthEarl of Mount Edgecumbe. She remained unmarried. Miss St Aubyn died (Jan 29, 1983) aged eighty-eight.

Saint-Brieuc, Anna Edianez de    see    Fleuriot, Zenaide

Saint-Bris, Marquise de    see   Lambert, Marquise de

St Chamans, Louise Francoise Charlotte de Malezieu, Marquise de – (1718 – 1792)
French peeress
Louise Francoise de Malezieu became the wife of the Marquis de St Chamans, and attended the courts of Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour, and later that of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles prior to the Revolution. Madame de St Chamans was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.

St Denis, Ruth – (1877 – 1968)
American dancer and choreographer
Born Ruth Dennis (Jan 20, 1877) in Newark, New Jersey, she was the daughter of a farmer. She worked in vaudeville from childhood and was especially known for her performances of exotic eastern dances such as Cobra (1906). Ruth Dennis was married (1914) to fellow dancer Ted Shawn (1891 – 1972), and the couple jointly founded the Denishawn Dance Company (1915 – 1931) which was disbanded after their eventual seperation. St Dennis organized the choreography of Babylonian dances for D.W. Griffith’s famous silent film Intolerance (1916). She published her autobiography An Unfinished Life (1939), and her last dance composition was entitled Freedom (1955). Ruth St Denis died (July 21, 1968) aged ninety-one, in Hollywood, California.

St Clair-Erskine, Lady Angela – (1876 – 1950)
British canteen organizer and memoirist
Lady Angela Selina Bianca St Clair-Erskine was the youngest daughter of Robert Francis St Clair-Erskine (1833 – 1890), the fourth Earl of Rosslyn (1866 – 1890) and his wife Blanche Adeliza Fitzroy, the widow of Charles Maynard. Angela was the full sister of the famous salon hostess Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland and of James Francis St Clair-Erskine (1869 – 1939), the fifth Earl of Rosslyn, and they were half-siblings to Daisy Maynard, Lady Brooke and Countess of Warwick, the mistress of Edward VII and of Dame Blanche Gordon-Lennox.
Lady Angela was married firstly to James Stewart Forbes (1872 – 1957) to whom she bore two children, Marigold Forbes, the wife of Viscount Thurso, and Flavia Forbes, whose third husband was Sir Alexander Henry Seton. Her marriage with Forbes ended in divorce, as did her second with Feridah Taylor. After this Lady Angela resumed her maiden-name of St Clair-Erskine. During WW I Angela worked as a volunteer organizer of canteens for the troops. She was the author of The Broken Commandment (1910) and published the volumes of memoirs entitled Memories and Base Details (1921), and Fore and Aft (1932).

Saint-Elme, Ida – (1775 – 1845)
Dutch-French adventuress and memoirist
Born Elzelina Tolstoy van Aylde-Jonghe, she came to live in Paris during the Revolutionary period, where she became a minor actress and courtesan adopting the name of ‘Ida Saint-Elme.’ She was known to many high born persons attached to the court of the Emperor Napoleon I. She published her personal reminiscences in Paris as Memoires d’une contemporaine; ou, Souvenirs d’une femme sur les principaux personages de la Republique, du Consolat, de l’Empire (1827 – 1828). They later translated into English and published in London as Memoirs of a Contemporary, being Reminiscences of Ida Saint-Elme, Adventuress … (1902).

Sainte-Aldegonde, Marie Charlotte Felicite Amelie Du Hamel de St Remy, Comtesse de – (1752 – 1777)
French courtier and society figure
Marie Charlotte Du Hamel became the wife (1770) of Philippe Louis Maximilien Ernest Marie, Comte de Sainte-Aldegonde-Noircarmes. Madame de Sainte-Aldegonde was a friend of the statesman the Duc de Choiseul, Prime Minister of Louis XV, who was perhaps amorously intrigued by her, and she was also a close friend of his sister the Duchesse de Gramont. She was entertained by both Choiseul and his sister at the ducal estate of Chanteloup. She attended the court of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles, but died young. The comtesse was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole and the famous salonniere Madame Du Deffand left a character sketch of her.

Sainte-Aulaire, Louise Charlotte Victorine de Grimoard de Beauvoir, Comtesse de – (1791 – 1874)
French peeress and memoirist
Louise Charlotte de Grimoard de Beauvoir was the daughter of the Comte de Roure-Brison, and became the wife of the Comte de Beaupoil de Saint Aulaire. She attended the Bourbon courts of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and then the Orleans court of Louis Philippe. She survived the fall of the Second Empire of Napoleon III and left memoirs entitled Souvenirs (1875) which were published posthumously in Perigueux.

Sainte-Croix, Rose de – (fl. c1670 – 1700)
French mystic, pietist and visionary
Born Catherine d’Almerac in Gascony, she was educated and unnattractive, but nevertheless eloquent. Almerac was believed to have the gift of divine prophecy, and went into trance-like states, claiming to have visions. Taking the name of ‘Sister’ Rose de Sainte-Croix, she lived frugally and ascetically, and allowed interviews only in private. Also credited with healing powers, Rose was eventually championed by some highly placed persons, such as Louis de Ligny, Comte du Charmel, and the theologian Jacques Joseph Dugut, who remained clearly impressed with her knowledge, wisdom, and divine gifts.
The elderly Rose later came to Paris where she aligned herself with the Jansenists against the ‘Quietism’ of Madame Guyon. Though the abbe de La Trappe, Jean Armand Le Bouthillier de Rance, seemed sympathetic to her cause, he consistently refused to receive or meet Rose, much to the disappointment of du Charmel and Duguet. She remained quietly resident in Paris amongst her supporters, but she was eventually examined by Cardinal de Noailles, who caused her to be banished from Paris. Rose retired to Annecy, where she lived to a great age.

Sainte-Maure, Avoye de – (fl. c1200 – c1225)
French mediaeval heiress
Avoye de sainte-Maure was the daughter of Guillaume de Sainte-Maure and was the wife of Guillaume de Loudun, seigneur de Pressigny (died after 1209). With the death of her cousin, Hugh II, seigneur de Sainte-Maure (c1225) Avoye inherited the seigneurie which she passed to her own two sons, Guillaume II de Loudun, seigneur de Pressigny, who died childless (1229) and Joubert de Loudun, who left issue. With the death of Avoye’s descendant, Guillaume IV de Craon, vicomte de Chateaudun (c1382) Sainte-Maure was incorporated into the duchy of Montbazon.

Sainte-Maure, Victoire Francoise Sauvage, Comtesse de – (fl. 1775 – 1789)
French society figure
A prominent courtier of Louis XVI (1774 – 1793) and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles prior to the Revolution, Victoire Francoise de Sauvage was married (1771) to Louis Marie Cecile, Comte de Sainte-Maure and was officially presented to Louis XV and his court. She also attended the salon of Madame Du Deffand in Paris, and figured in the correspondence of the British traveller and antiquarian Horace Walpole. The fate of the comtesse and her husband during the Revolution remains unknown.

Saint-Floris, Marie Josephe de Hornes, Marquise de – (1704 – 1738)
Flemish-French courtier
Princesse Marie Josephe de Hornes was born (Jan 14, 1704) the daughter of Prince Philip Emanuel de Hornes, Governor of Gueldres, and his wife Marie Anne Antoinette de Ligne. She was married (1729) to Philippe Alexandre Marie Joseph Antoine de Ghistelles, Marquis de Saint-Floris and de Sainte-Croix. She was appointed by the Emperor Charles VI as a Lady of the Order of the Star Cross (sternkreuzendame).
Madame de Saint-Floris died (July 11, 1738) aged thirty-four. She had borne her husband six children including Philippe Alexandre Emanuel Francois Joseph de Ghistelles (1732 – 1760), the Prince de Ghistelles and Marquis de Saint-Floris. Of her five daughters Marie Therese Charlotte Claude de Ghistelles de Saint-Floris became a canoness at the Abbey of Andenne, and her sister Jeanne Baptiste Louise de Ghistelles de Saint-Floris became a canoness at Mons.

St Georges, Jeanne de Harlay, Marquise de – (c1590 – 1643)
French courtier
Jeanne de Harlay was the daughter of the Marquise de Montglat, the governess to King Louis XIII (1610 – 1643). She was raised at court and married to the Marquis de St Georges. Madame de St Georges retained her close ties with the royal family and was herself appointed to be governess to La Grande Madamoiselle (1627 – 1693), the first cousin of Louis XIV. Madame de St Georges died (Feb 24, 1643).

Saint-Germain, Catherine Eleonore de – (c1745 – 1769)
French courtier
Catherine Bernard became one of the younger and unimportant mistresses of Louis XV of France (1715 – 1774). Her daughter by the king was Louise Francoise de Saint-Germain, Comtesse de Montalivet (1767 – 1850). She became the wife of Starot de Saint-Germain (died 1794) who gave his surname to his royal stepdaughter. Catherine died young.

St Helier, Susan Mary Elizabeth Stewart-Mackenzie, Lady – (1845 – 1931)
British courtier and memoirist
A favoured courtier to Edward VII and Queen Alexandra and to George V and Queen Mary, Susan Stewart-Mackenzie was the eldest daughter of Keith William Stewart-Mackenzie, of Seaforth (1818 – 1881), and his first wife Hannah Charlotte, the eldest daughter of James Joseph Hope-Vere (1785 – 1843), of Craigie Hall and Blackwood. Susan was married firstly (1871) to Colonel John Constable Stanley (1837 – 1878), a younger son of Lord Sheffield, to whom she bore two daughters. She remarried (1881) to Sir Francis Henry Jeune (died 1905), the first and last Baron St Helier. This marriage remained childless.
During WW I she organized warm clothing, comfits, and other provisions for the troops abroad was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1920). Her service to the royal family was publicly recognized with her appointment as DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1925) as Dame Susan Jeune. She published her memoirs My Memories of Fifty Years. Lady Susan survived her second husband over twenty-five years as the Dowager Baroness St Helier (1905 – 1931). Lady St Helier died (Jan 25, 1931) aged eighty-four, in London. Her children were,

St Hilaire, Marie de – (c1340 – after 1399)
English Plantagenet courtier and royal mistress
Marie served at court, together with her sister Joan de St Hilaire, as maid-of-honours (demoiselles) to Queen Philippa of Hainault, the wife of King Edward III (1327 – 1377). It was during this time that Marie became the first mistress, according to the chronicler Jean Froissart, of the queen’s third son John of Gaunt (1340 – 1399), Duke of Lancaster. This liaison produced a daughter Blanche Plantagenet (born c1359), recognized by her royal father, later the wife of Sir Thomas de Morieux.
The affair appears to have ended after the birth of the child and the duke granted Marie an annual pension for her maintenance. Marie remained in service to Queen Philippa until that lady’s death (1369). She was still recieivng a pension from her former lover three decades later (1399) as reward for her services to his late mother. Marie disappears from the record after this date.

St John, Adela Rogers – (1894 – 1988)
American writer, film historian, screenwriter and journalist
Adela Rogers was born (May 20, 1894) in Los Angeles, California, she was sister to the writer Bogart Rogers, and was cousin to actor Humphrey Bogart. Critically observant and sharp-tongued, Adela St John wrote scripts for several films including A Free Soul (1931) and What Price Hollywood (1931). She wrote episodes for various popular television programs such as Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1955) and General Electric Theater (1953).
Adela St John appeared on screen as herself in the television movies Gable: The King Remembered (1975) and Hollywood: A Celebration of the American Silent Film (1980). Many of her short stories were published in serial form in magazines and periodicals. Her published works included Single Standard (1925) and Final Verdict (1962), as well as her autobiography Love, Laughter, and Tears (1978). She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1970). Several of her novels were made into films including The Skyrocket (1926), The Single Standard (1929), A Free Soul filmed as The Girl Who Had Everything (1953) and Final Verdict (1991). Adela St John died (Aug 10, 1988) aged ninety-four, in Arroyo Grande, California.

St Julien, Marie Anne de Laage, Comtesse de – (c1711 – 1789)
French peeress and courtier
Marie Anne de Laage became the wife of the Comte de St Julien and attended the courts of Louis XV and Queen Marie Leszscynska, and later that of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinbette at Versailles. She died at the outbreak of the Revolution and was spared the ensuing horrors. Madame de St Julien was mentioned in the letters of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.

Saint-Laurent, Julie de    see   Montgenet, Therese Bernhardine

St Leger, Anne – (1476 – 1526)
English Yorkist princess
Anne St Leger was the only daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas St Leger of Ulcomb in Kent, and his wife Anne Plantagenet, Princess of York, the divorced wife of Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter and sister to the Yorkist kings Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485). Queen Elizabeth Woodville tried to arrange for a marriage (1482) between Anne St Leger and her grandson Lord Thomas Grey (later second Marquess of Dorset, whose father was the widower of her elder half-sister Anne Holland. The queen was determined to keep the Exeter inheritance of both sisters within her son’s family. The king agreed to the arrangement but his death (April, 1483) put an end to this plan.
Anne was then married (c1490) to Sir George Manners (c1472 – 1513), the twelfth Baron De Ros of Halmlake (1508 – 1513) and became the Baroness De Ros, and attended the court of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness De Ros (1513 – 1526) and died (April 26, 1526) aged fifty, and was buried with her husband in St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, where a monumental inscription remains. Lady Anne bore her husband twelve children and eight survived,

St Leger, Elizabeth    see   Aldworth, Elizabeth

St Levan, Clementina Gwendolen Catharine Nicholson, Lady – (1896 – 1995)
British peeress, chatelaine and writer
The Hon. (Honourable) Clementina Nicholson was born (July 3, 1896), the daughter of Sir Arthur Nicholson (1849 – 1928), the first Baron Carnock and his wife Mary Katherine Rowan Hamilton, the daughter of Archibald Rowan Hamilton of Killyleagh Castle, County Downe in Ireland. Her elder brother was the noted writer Sir Harold Nicholson. Clementina worked in a day nursery prior to WWI when she then volunteered to work in a hospital kitchen for officers.
Clementina was married (1916) to Major Hon. Francis Cecil St Aubyn (1895 – 1978) who served with the Grenadier Guards during WW I. Mrs St Aubyn bore her husband three sons and two daughters before he succeeded his uncle as the third Baron St Levan (1940) and she became the Baroness St Levan (1940 – 1978) and chatelaine of the famous St Aubyn family estate of St Michael’s Mount at Marazion in Cornwall.
Retaining her interest in the care of small children, Lady St Levan was a member of the Committee for the National Society of Day Nurseries and published the works Parent’s Problems and Nursery Life. Lady St Levan later converted to Roman Catholicism (1934) and published the devotional work Towards a Pattern. During WW II she performed volunteer work for the Red Cross in Kent and in Cornwall where she was appointed as the county director. She was later appointed at president of the Cornwall Branch of the BRC (British Red Cross) and remained a patron of that organization. She was a Justice of the Peace and was one of the trustees of the Cheshire Homes Foundation. Her children were,

Saint-Levan, Edith Hilaria Edgcumbe, Lady – (1862 – 1931)
British peeress (1908 – 1931)
Lady Edith Edgecumbe was the youngest daughter of William Henry Edgcumbe (1832 – 1917), the fourth Earl of Mount Edgcumbe (1861 – 1917), and his first wife Lady Katherine Elizabeth Hamilton, the daughter of James Hamilton, first Duke of Abercorn. Lady Edith was educated privately by a governess, and was raised at the family estates of Mount Edgcumbe, Devonport, and Cothele, in Calstock, Tavistock, in Devon. Her family had ties with the royal court, as her grandmother Caroline Augusta, Dowager Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, widow of the third Earl, was lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria. Lady Edith Edgcumbe was married (1892), as his first wife,  to John Townshend St Aubyn (1857 – 1940) who succeeded his father as second Baron St Levan (1908) whereupon Lady Edith became the Baroness St Levan. Lady St Levan died (April 3, 1931). She left two daughters,

St Levan, Susan Kennedy, Lady – (1933 – 2003)
British peeress and chatelaine
Susan Kennedy was the daughter of Major-General Sir John Noble Kennedy, GCMG (Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George), KCVO (Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order), who served under King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II as the Governor of Rhodesia in Africa (Zimbabwe) (1946 – 1954) and his wife Isabella Joicey-Cecil who was a descendant of William Alleyne Cecil (1825 – 1895), the third Marquess of Exeter.
Susan served as lady-in-waiting to Lady Abel Smith when her husband Sir Henry served as the Governor General of Queensland in Australia. She was married when aged in her late thirties (1970) to John Francis Arthur St Aubyn (born 1919). Eight years later her husband succeeded his father as the fourth Baron St Levan and Mrs St Aubyn became the Baroness St Levan (1978 – 2003). Lady St Levan was chatelaine of the famous St Aubyn family estate of St Michael’s Mount at Marazion in Cornwall. Her marriage remained childless. Lady St Levan died (Feb 21, 2003) aged sixty-nine, at St Michael’s Mount.

St Liz, Matilda de (Maud) – (c1093 – 1140)
English mediaeval noblewoman
Lady Matilda was the daughter of Simon de St Liz, Earl of Northampton and his wife Matilda of Huntingdon, the daughter of the Anglo-Saxon earl Waltheof. With her father’s death her mother remarried to the Scottish king David I (1124 – 1153). Matilda was married firstly to Robert FitzRichard (died 1136), of Little Dunmow in Essex, the steward of King Henry I (1100 – 1135). She remarried secondly to Saher de Quincy and became the grandmother of Saher de Quincy (1155 – 1219), Earl of Winchester.

Saint-Luc, Victoire de – (1761 – 1794)
French memoirist
Victoire de saint-Luc was the daughter of a minor Breton nobleman. Victoire never married and was a member of a religious community that did not take full vows, perhaps a canoness. With her parents, she was imprisoned in the local prison at Carhaix, in Brittany, and all three were guillotined (July, 1794). During this time Victoire had kept journal of their life in prison (Oct, 1793 until Feb, 1794) entitled Victoire de Saint-Luc, dame de la Retraite, Par Mme de Silguy, sa soeur ; journal de sa detention en 1793, published in Paris (1905).

Saint-Marcoux, Micheline Coulombe – (1938 – 1985) 
French-Canadian composer, pianist, and music teacher
Saint-marcoux was born (Aug 9, 1938) at Notre Dame-de-la-Dore in Quebec. She studied the piano with Claude Champagne, and Gilles Tremblay in Montreal (1956 – 1958), and then with Francois Brossard. Micheline received first prize for her orchestral composition Modulaire (1967) from the Conservatoire de Musique du Quebec.
Saint-Marcoux was one of the six founding members of the Groupe International de Musique Electro-Acoustique in Paris, and she performed with this group of young composers in Canada, Europe and South America (1969 – 1973). Her works included the orchestral pieces Heteromorphie (1970) and Luminence (1978). Micheline Saint-Marcoux died (Feb 2, 1985) aged forty-six, in Montreal.

St Maur, Lady    see   Somerset, Jane Georgiana Sheridan, Duchess of

St Maur, Alice de – (1409 – c1431)
English mediaeval heiress
Alice de Saint Maur was the daughter of Sir Richard St Maur (later Seymour), Lord St Maur and Lovel, and his wife Mary Peyvre (later Broughton), the daughter of Thomas Peyvre of Toddington and his wife Margaret Loring, the daughter of Sir Nele Loring. She was married (1424) to William le Zouche, the fifth Baron Zouche of Haryngworth as his first wife, and bore him several children. Alice de St Maur probably died from the results of childbirth. Her eldest son William (1431 – 1468) was summoned to parliament (1467) as Lord St Maur (jure matrix) in Alice’s right. Her daughter Margaret St Maur became the wife of Sir Thomas Tresham.

Saint-Montmorin-Herem, Comtesse de    see     Montmorin, Comtesse de

Sainton-Dolby, Charlotte Helen – (1821 – 1885)
British contralto vocalist, teacher, and composer
Charlotte Dolby was born (May 17, 1821) in London. She studied at the Royal Academy of Music, and made her stage debut in 1842. Felix Mendelssohn dedicated his Six Songs op. 57 to Charlotte. Charlotte was married (1860) to the French violinist, Prosper Sainton (1813 – 1890) and was best known for the choral piece, The Legend of St Dorothea (1876). Sainton-Dolby published the Tutor for English Singers (1872). Charlotte Sainton-Dolby died (Feb 18, 1885) aged sixty-three, in London.

St Onge, Guylaine – (1965 – 2005)
Canadian film and television actress
St Onge was born at Saint Eustache in Quebec. Her best known film was Angel Eyes, whilst on television she appeared in the popular series Lonesome Dove and Nikita. She appeared in the character of Joda in the science fiction film Earth: Final Conflict. Guylaine St Onge died of cervical cancer (March 3, 2005) aged only thirty-nine.

St Paul, Maria – (1868 – 1901)
English Catholic peeress
Maria St Paul was born (Jan 19, 1868) the only child of Sir Horace St Paul, baronet, a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. With her father’s death Maria became a Countess of the Empire and was permitted by Queen Victoria to use her title in England. The countess was married (1893) to George Grey Butler, and resided with her husband at Ewart Park at Wooler in Northumberland. Maria St Paul died childless (April 26, 1901) aged thirty-three and her title became extinct.

St Pierre, Margeurite Therese Colbert, Duchesse de – (1682 – 1769)
French peeress and literary figure
Margeurite Colbert was married firstly (1701) to Louis de Clermont d’ Amboise, Marquis de Reynel, and secondly (1704) to Francois Marie Spinola, Duc de St Pierre. She attended the court of Louis XIV and the Regency court of Philippe II d’ Orleans, and was a patron of Francois Arouet Voltaire. The Duchesse de St Pierre was a prominent figure at the court of Louis XV at Versailles and was mentioned in the letters of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.

St Pol, Eustacia de Champagne, Countess of    see   Champagne, Eustacia de

St Pol, Marie de – (1304 – 1377)
French-Anglo founder and academic benefactress
Marie de Chatillon-St Pol was the daughter of Guy V de Chatillon, Comte de St Pol, and his wife Marie of Brittany. She became the last wife (1321) of Aymer de Valance, Earl of Pembroke. They remained childless, and after her husband’s early death (1324) she refused all offers of marriage. Though on excellent terms with Edward III and his large family, the countess lived mainly away from the court, and she refounded and re-endowed Denny Abbey in Cambridgeshire, but is best remembered for her foundation of Pembroke College in Cambridge, whose charter dates from 1348. She reserved for herself the right to reject unsuitable or troublesome students, and made especial provision for French scholars. By the time of her death, her keen business sense had left her a wealthy woman.

Saint-Priest, Wilhelmine Constance von Ludolff, Comtesse de – (1752 – 1809)
French courtier and émigré
German born Wilhelmine von Ludolff was the daughter of the Neapolitan ambassador. She became the wife of Francois Emanuel Guignard (1735 – 1821), Comte de Saint-Priest, the noted diplomat and statesman. Madame de Saint Priest was a prominent figure at the court of Louis XVI (774 – 1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles. She travelled abroad to foreign embassies and visited various European courts. The comtesse and her husband emigrated and survived the Revolution. Her portrait and correspondence survive. Madame de Saint-Priest was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole and in the Memoires of the Marquise de La Tour du Pin. She was the mother of the noted statesman Emanuel Louis Marie Guignard (1789 – 1881), the Vicomte de Saint-Priest.

St Quentin, Alice de – (c1120 – c1170)
English religious patron
Alice de St Quentin was the daughter of Herbert de St Quentin, and his wife Agnes de Arches, and married Eustace de Merc, whom she married soon after the death of her first husband (c1150), whose identity remains unknown. Alice founded the convent of Nun Appleton, in Yorkshire by 1154, possibly with the financial assistance of her second husband, who was certainly a benefactor of her foundation until his own death. Until her own death, Alice remained the main benefactor of Nun Appleton.
A surviving charter reveals that Eustace had intended to establish a daughter house of Nun Appleton, at Coddenham in Suffolk, the grant being made through the concession of Alice herself, as the site of the church stood on her dowry lands. For some reason, now unknown, this plan did not eventuate, and Alice’s husband, probably after her death, granted Coddenham to the Augustinian canons at Royston. Alice made the convent a final grant of lands at the time of her death, in preperation for her own internment at Nun Appleton.

Saint-Remy, Francoise Le Provost de La Courtelaye, Marquise de – (c1615 – 1686)
French aristocrat
Francoise Le Provost was the daughter of Jean Le Provost, Seigneur de La Courtelaye and his wife Elisabeth Martin de Mauroy. She was married firstly to Pierre Bernard de Rezay, a counsellor of the Paris Parlement, and then remarried (1640) to Laurent de La Baume Le Blanc (1611 – 1654), Seigneur de La Vallierre and Baron de la Maisonfort, to whom she bore three children including. She married three times and was the mother of Louise de La Vallierre (1644 – 1710) the mistress of Louis XIV, and of Jean Francois de La Baume le Blanc, Marquis de La Vallierre (1647 – 1676), who left descendants. She then remarried a third time (1655) to Jacques de Courtavel, Marquis de Saint-Remy.
Madame de Saint-Remy formed part of the royal household of the Orleans family at Blois (1660), her daughter being raised and educated in the household of the Duc d’Orleans second wife Margeurite of Lorraine. Madame de Saint-Remy then became a courtier of Louis XIV at Versailles. When her daughter louise ‘s relationship with the king finally ended and she was about to retire from the world into a convent (1674) she solicited a promise from the king of a pension of two thousand crowns for Madame de Saint-Remy, and this and other requests were formally granted by Louis (April 5, 1675). Madame de Saint-Remy died (April 10, 1686) aged about sixty-five.

Saint-Simon, Catherine de Gramont, Duchesse de    see    Ruffec, Duchesse de

Saint-Simon, Charlotte de L’Aubespine, Duchesse de – (1646 – 1725)
French Bourbon courtier
Charlotte de L’Aubespine was the daughter of Francois de L’Aubespine (c1599 – 1670), Marquis de Hauterive, and his wife Eleonore de Volvire de Ruffec (c1604 – 1690), the daughter of Philippe II de Volvire de Chateauneuf, Marquis de Ruffec. Charlotte became the second wife (1670) of Claude de Rouvroy (1607 – 1693), Duc de Saint-Simon, forty years her senior. She became the mother of Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de Saint-Simon, famous for his Memoires of the court of Louis XIV and the Prince Regent, Philippe II d’Orleans. The Duchesse de Saint-Simon died (Oct 7, 1725) aged seventy-nine.

Sais, Marin – (1890 – 1971)
American silent and sound film actress
Marin Sais was born (Aug 2, 1890) in San Rafael, California and was of Spanish descent. Marin made her silent film debut with Vitagraph Studios in New York, where she appeared with noted actresses Florence Turner and Julia Swayne Gordon in an adaptation of William Shakespeare’s famous play Twelfth Night (1910). She then appeared in short comic films with Ruth Roland and Edward Coxen, and then appeared in the western film The Ranger’s Stratagem (1911), a film genre in which she remained a favourite with movie audiences.
Sais also appeared in the popular silent The Girl Detective series (1915) and was married (1920) to the western actor Jack Hoxie. Sais appeared alongside British actor Boris Karloff in The Hellion (1924) directed by Bruce Mitchell. She later appeared as Mrs Harper in the cult classic Reefer Madness (1936) and in the films Western Lightning Raiders (1945) and The Great Jesse James Raid (1953). She played the role of the Duchess in the popular serials entitled Red Ryder (1949) which starred Jim Bannon. Marin Sais died (Dec 31, 1971) aged eighty-one, in Woodland Hills, California.

Sais, Tatjana – (1910 – 1981)
German actress
Born Elise Neumann (Jan 28, 1910) in Frankfurt-am-Main, Sais became the third wife (1970 – 1981) of the British journalist and published Hugh Carleton Green (1910 – 1987). Tatjana Sais died (Feb 26, 1981) aged seventy-one, in Berlin.

Sakula – (fl. c500 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Sakula was born into a Brahmin family in Savatthi. She had been married and borne several children, but ultimately left that life in order to become a lay disciple at the new Buddhist monastery established at Jeta Grove in Savatthi and had been present at the dedication ceremony. Sakula later took formal vows as a nun and her psychic gifts were noted by Gautama Buddha himself. Some of her own verses are preserved in the Therigatha.

Salaberga – (c605 – 670)
Merovingian nun and saint
Salaberga was the daughter of Gonduin, Duke of Swabia and Alsace and his wife Saretrude. Her brother Bodo Leduinus was Bishop of Toul. Salaberga was married firstly to the nobleman Richran whose death (c620) left her a childless widow. She was married secondly to Bason who was the father of her four children, Teutberga, abbess of Bonmoutier, near Luneville, austrude who became a nun and was revered as a saint, eustasius who died young, and Baldwin (c640 – c679) who was murdered. With the death of Bason Salaberga founded the Abbey of St Marie at Laon, under the guidance of Waldebert, abbot of Luxeuil. She was appointed as first abbess of that house, being later succeeded in office by her daughter Asstrude. She was venerated as a saint (Sept 22).

Salaberry, Zilka – (1917 – 2005)
Brazilian stage and television actress
Salaberry was born (May 31, 1917) in Rio de Janeiro. She achieved national notoriety after appearing naked in the play Na Capa do Mundo. Zilka Salaberry died (March 10, 2005) aged eighty-four, in Rio de Janeiro.

Salampsio – (34 BC – after 4 AD)
Herodian princess of Judaea
Salampsio was the daughter of Herod I the Great, and his second wife, Mariamne I, daughter of King Hyrcanus II. Her father betrothed Salampsio to her uncle, Prince Pheroras, providing her with the enormous dowry of three hundred talents. Pheroras then scandalized the royal family by revealing his infatuation for a slave girl, and Herod broke off the betrothal, and married Salampsio instead, to her first cousin Prince Pharsael. Her aunt, Princess Salome, had wished Salampsio as a bride for one of her own sons, but Herod had executed their father Costabarus, and he feared his son would treat Salampsio badly because of this.
Her marriage with Pharsael provided her with a reduced dowry, one hundred talents, still an immense sum, and Salampsio survived the reign of her half-brother Archelaus, which ended soon after the death of their father Herod (4 AD). Her sons remained unimportant to Jewish history, but her daughter Kypros became the wife of Herod Agrippa I, and was the mother of Herod Agrippa II, Berenice of Chalcis, mistress to the Emperor Titus (79 – 81 AD), and Drusilla of Emesa, the wife of Antonius Felix.

Salandy, Giselle (Jizelle) – (1987 – 2009)
Trinidadian boxer
Salandy was born (Jan 25, 1987) in Siparia in southern Trinidad. From an early age she had trained as a boxer under Fitzroy Richards, and she received further traing from the professional boxer Kim Quashie. She made her first successful boxing debut at the age of thirteen (though she claimed to be eighteen) (2000) when she defeated Nimba Wahtuse, though she was particularly remembered for her defeat of the power boxer Johanna Pena-Alvarez (2000).
Salandy won the WIBA Ibero-American Super Lightweight Title when she defeated Paola Rojas in Curacao (2002). It was not until 2004 that Salandy was finally given her professional boxing license in Trinidad when she reached eighteen. She defeated Elizabeth Mooney to win the WBA and WBC Light Middleweight World Title (2006) and became the female World Light Middleweight champion when she defeated the Dominican Yahaira Hernandez in Port-au-Spain (2008). Giselle Salandy died (Jan 4, 2009) aged twenty-one, as the result of a car accident.

Salaptha – (c407 – c470 AD)
Graeco-Egyptian Christian saint
Called Irene by the Greeks, Salaptha was born in Gaza. At an early age she was converted by Bishop Porphyry after she had saved him and a group of other Christians from violence at the hands of an angry mob. When peace was restored to the city, Salaptha and her aunt were baptized publicly by Porphyry. She refused to marry, and after the death of her grandmother she was veiled as a nun, and resided in the household of the deaconess Manaris. Salaptha was listed as a saint (Feb 26) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Salavarrieta, Pola – (c1795 – 1817)
Colombian seamstress and revolutionary heroine
Born Policarpa Salavarrieta to a prominent Creole family in Guadas, New Granada, she later removed with her family to the town of Aguadas (1802), which colony declared itself independence from Spain (1813). Aguadas was recaptured by the Spanish (1816) and Salavarrieta became an active member of the resistance (1816). Trained as a seamstress, she worked in the houses of royalist families in Bogota, and passed on information she gleaned to the rebels. She was eventually detected, captured, and was shot in the public square (Nov 14, 1817), being one of fifty women who were executed by the Spanish during this period, and remained a heroine of the popular resistance being known as ‘La Pola.’

Sale, Virginia – (1899 – 1992)
American film, radio and television actress
Sale was born in Urbana, Illinois, and attended the University of Illinois and then the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York.  She appeared for several years in the popular radio serial, Those We Love. Her three hundred film credits included Moby Dick (1930) with John Barrymore, and Trail Street with Randolph Scott. She also appeared in the movie Slither (1970) but was best known for her appearances in popular television programs such as Petticoat Junction and Greenacres. She herself wrote and starred in the telelvision comedy The Wrens’ Nest (1949). Virginia Sale died (Aug 23, 1992) aged ninety-three, in Woodland Hills, California.

Sale-Baker, Lucy Elizabeth Sarah Drummond – (1841 – 1892) 
British author
Lucy Davies was the daughter of Francis Henry Davies, registrar of the Court of Chancery. She was married firstly (1858) to Lieutenant-Colonel James John Villiers, and secondly (1865) to John Sale-Baker. Lucy wrote occasional magazine articles, and from about 1872 she concentrated on writing for children. During a fourteen year period (1874 – 1888) she published more than forty volumes in this genre. She edited Little Wide-Awake, a children’s magazine (1874 – 1892), and wrote the verses for Birthday Book Children the work of Kate Greenaway.

Saliha – (c1676 – 1739)
Ottoman Valide Sultan
Saliha became the favourite wife of the Sultan Mustafa II (1664 – 1703). When she bore him a son the future Sultan Mahmud I (1696 – 1754) she received the rank of Haseki (princess favourite). With the accession of her son (1730) Saliha received the rank of Valide Sultan (queen mother). Sultana Saliha died (Sept 21, 1739).

Saliha Osmanoglu – (1715 – 1778)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Saliha was born (March 21, 1715), the daughter of Sultan Ahmed III (1673 – 1736) and his seventh wife Princess Mihrisah. Her twin brother Selim Osman died in infancy (1718). She was married four times for state policy, firstly (1728) to Sari Mustafa Pasha (died 1731), secondly (1736) to Gulec Sarhos Ali Pasha (died 1744), thirdly (1758) to the Grand Vizier Ragih Mehmed Pasha (1699 – 1763), and fourthly (1764) to Kapudan Pasha Tursu Mehmed Pasha (died c1770). Princess Saliha died (Oct 11, 1778).

Salimbeni, Giovanna – (fl. c1790 – 1797) 
Italian vocalist
Her first recorded performance was as Zelmira in, Armida at the Pantheon Theatre (Feb, 1791). Other vocal roles included Lisetta in, La bella pescatrice, Alciloe in Idalide, and Fausta in Quinto Fabio. At the Haymarket Theatre in 1792 she sang the roles of Guerina in La Iocanda and Doralba in La discordia conjugale. During the (1796 – 1797) season she was attached to the King’s Theatre, performing the roles of Giulietto in L’Amor fra le vendemmie, Costanza in Il consiglio imprudente, Clizia in L’Albero di Diana, and Sandrina in Le gelosie villaine. Details of her later career are unknown.

Salina, Princess di    see   Lampedusa, Princess di

Salinas, Maria de – (c1483 – 1546)
Spanish-Anglo courtier
Maria de Salinas was the daughter of Don Martin de Salinas, an important Castilian grandee, and his wife Josepha Gonzalez de Salas. She served at the court as maid-of-honour to queen Isabella, and was appointed by the queen to serve in the household of her youngest daughter Catharine of Aragon, and accompanied her to England for her marriage with her first husband, Prince Arthur of Wales, the eldest son of Henry VII (1501). Maria then remained with her mistress at Durham House, or at the court when the Princess and her household came under the eye of the King’s mother, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. During this time Maria’s family arranged for her to marry a Flemish lord, but due to King Ferdinand’s dismissal of Catharine’s plea that Maria be provided with a suitable dowry, this match founded. Maria urged the queen to forget her period of lonely widowhood, and after her marriage with Henry VIII (1509), she counselled the queen to devote her interests to her new country.

Maria was naturalized as an Englishwoman (1516) and was then married to a peer, Lord Willoughby de Eresby, to whom she bore two sons who died in infancy, and an only daughter and heiress, Catherine Willoughby (1519 – 1580), later Duchess of Suffolk, and then wife of Richard Bertie. The Willoughby’s were prominent figures at the Tudor court, and Henry VIII caused one of his ships to be named the Mary Willoughby in her honour. She attended Queen Catharine in France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). With the death of her husband (1527) their daughter passed to the warsdship of the king’s friend, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, who then married Catherine Willoughby as his fourth and last wife (1533).
With the matter of the royal divorce, Maria de Salinas remained a tower of strength and support to her mistress, who acknowledged her loyalty in her letters. The king forbade her Catharine’s prescence (1531) due to her influence, and her requests to attend her sick friend were ignored or refused. When Catharine lay dying at Kimbolton Castle (Jan, 1536) Maria gained access through trickery, and remained with the dying woman until the end. She was appointed as chief mourner at the queen’s funeral by Henry VIII. Maria was later buried in the queen’s tomb at Peterborough Cathedral. She was portrayed by actress Margaret Ford in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) with Keith Michell and Annette Crosbie as Catharine of Aragon.

Salinga – (fl. c530 – c550)
Queen consort of Lombardy
Salinga was the daughter of the king of the Heruli. Salinga became the third wife of King Vaccho of Lombardy, and was the mother of his successor, King Waltari, who died during childhood (c547). Her marriage was recorded in the Origo Gentis Langobardorum and by Paulus Diakonus (Paul the Deacon) in his Historia Langobardorum.

Salisbury, Alice de Montacute, Countess of – (1407 – 1462)
English Plantagenet heiress and peeress
Lady Alice de Montacute was the only child and heir of Thomas de Montacute, fourth Earl of Salisbury, and his first wife Eleanor, the daughter of John de Holland, first Duke of Exeter, and his wife Elizabeth of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt, and the granddaughter of Edward III (1327 – 1377). Lady Alice was present at the coronation banquet of Katherine de Valois, wife of Henry V (1421), and was later married (1425) to Richard Neville (1400 – 1460), a younger son of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmorland and his second wife Joan Beaufort, herself a granddaughter of Edward III.
Alice’s father was killed before the walls of Orleans (1428) and she entered into the possession of his vast lands and estates, which lay chiefly in the western regions of the New Forest in Hampshire, and Wiltshire, with a castle at Christchurch. Neville claimed the earldom of Salisbury in Alice’s right (1429), and this claim was confirmed by the judges and peers until Henry VI came of age (1442), when the tenure was confirmed for life. Lord and Lady Salisbury were present at the king’s marriage with Margaret of Anjou at Titchfield Abbey (1445).
Due to her husband’s shifting political interests, the countess was later attainted by the county parliament on the charges of imagery and compassing the king’s death at Middleham (1459), seemingly by encouraging her husband and the Duke of York in acts of treason. She was in Dublin with the duke and his wife, Cecily Neville (1460), and after her return to England, she accompanied the Earl of Warwick to Calais. Her husband was beheaded after the battle of Wakefield (Dec 30, 1460), and by his will Countess Alice received the castle of Sherriff Hutton and three neighbouring manors for life. Lord Salisbury also directed burial in the priory of Bisham, near Great Marlowe in Berkshire, amongst his wife’s ancestors, the Earls of Salisbury. Her attainder was reversed by Edward IV (1461). Countess Alice died (before Dec 9, 1462) aged fifty-five, and was interred with her husband at Bisham. She left ten children,

Salisbury, Anne Tufton, Countess of – (1693 – 1757)
British Hanoverian peeress and educational patron
Lady Anne Tufton was born (Aug 9, 1693) the second daughter and coheir of Thomas Tufton (1644 – 1729), sixth Earl of thanet and his wife Lady Catherine Cavendish (1665 – 1712), the daughter of Henry Cavendish, second Duke of Newcastle. She was married (1709) at Lincoln’s Inn Chapel in London to James Cecil (1691 – 1728), the fifth Earl of Salisbury and became the Countess of Salisbury. Both were present at the coronation of George I in Westminster Abbey (1714) and contemporaries noted that Countess Anne dominated her husband and was much admired and respected by their tenants. The countess established a charitable school at Hatfield for the girls on her estates, the administration of which establishment she supervised personally until her death. She provided stringent rules and regulations regarding the upbringing and education of these girls, in order to fit them for a life of domestic service. With her husband’s death Lady Anne survived him for three decades as the Dowager Countess of Salisbury (1728 – 1757).
The ancient feudal barony of Clifford fell into abeyance between Lady Salisbury and her four sisters (1729). This abeyance was later terminated in favour of her younger sister Margaret Tufton (1700 – 1775) the wife of Thomas Coke (1697 – 1759), the first Earl of Leicester. Lady Salisbury’s descendants were also coheirs to the barony of Ogle. Her son-in-law Lord Egmont described her (1737) as, ‘a lady of prudence and worth.’ Her portrait by Charles Gervais (c1715) is preserved at Hatfield House. Lady Salisbury died (March 22, 1757) aged sixty-three and was interred at Hatfield with her husband. Her children were,

Salisbury, Cicely Alice Gore, Marchioness of – (1867 – 1955)
British peeress and courtier
Lady Cicely Gore was the second daughter of Sir Arthur Saunders William Charles Fox Gore (1839 – 1901), fifth Earl of Arran and his wife Edith Jocelyn, the granddaughter of Sir Robert Jocelyn, (1788 – 1870), the third Earl of Roden. She became the wife (1887) of James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil (1861 – 1947), Viscount Cranborne, the son and heir of the third Marquess of Salisbury, and became the Viscountess Cranborne (1887 – 1903). She bore her husband four children and with her husband attended the funeral of Queen Victoria (1901) and the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902) as the Viscount and Viscountess Cranborne.
Lady Cranborne became the Marchioness of Salisbury after her husband succeeded his father as the fourth Marquess of Salisbury (1903 – 1947). Lady Salisbury served at court as an Extra Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra (1907 – 1910). She retired from this position with the king’s death (1910). Lady Cicely worked to organize ambulance and nursing units to be sent to France during WW I (1914 – 1918) and in recognition of this valuable volunteer work she was appointed O.ST.J (Officer of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem). She also served as a Justice of the Peace in the county of Hertfordshire. Cicely survived her husband as the Dowager Marchioness of Salisbury (1947 – 1955) and as a widow she was present at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (1953). Lady Salisbury died (Feb 5, 1955). Her children were,

Salisbury, Ela, Countess of      see    Longsword, Ela

Salisbury, Eleanor de Vitre, Countess of    see   Vitre, Eleanor de

Salisbury, Frances Bennett, Marchioness of – (1670 – 1713)
English Stuart heiress and peeress
Frances Bennett was born (Oct 20, 1670) at Calverston, Buckinghamshire, the youngest daughter and coheiress of Sir Simon Bennett (1622 – 1682) of Beachampton, Buckinghamshire, and Whitley Park, Surrey, and his wife Grace Morewood (c1642 – 1694). Frances Bennett was married (1683) at St Martin’s Outwich, London to Robert Cecil (1666 – 1694), fourth Earl of Salisbury. A proviso in her father’s will had stated that if Frances was married before she was grown up, all of her fortune excepting ten thousand pounds would revert to her married sister. The marriage took place despite this provision, and Lord Salisbury’s efforts to have it overturned proved fruitless.
Lady Salisbury resided at Hatfield House with her governess, where she studied dancing and music, but was somewhat negelcted. At length, Lord Salisbury’s steward sent the girl to stay with her family in London, where she remained until 1688, when she rejoined her husband’s household. The same year Lord Salisbury was imprisoned in the Tower of London, as it was believed that he had Catholic sympathies, and Countess Frances shared his imprisonment. She survived her youthful husband as Dowager Countess of Salisbury for two decades (1694 – 1713). Despite her youth and wealth she never remarried, and later travelled to Rome with her brother-in-law, Charles Cecil (1701). Otherwise she devoted herself to the upbringing of her young son, James Cecil (1691 – 1728), fifth Earl of Salisbury (1694 – 1728). She also bore several daughters, one of whom died of consumption. Lady Salisbury died (July 8, 1713) aged forty-two, at Epsom, Surrey. Her portrait which is preserved at Hatfield is attributed to William Wissing (c1686).

Salisbury, Georgina Charlotte Alderson, Marchioness – (1827 – 1899)
British peeress and philanthropist
Georgina Alderson was the eldest daughter of the famous judge, Sir Edward Hall Alderson (1787 – 1857), a baron of the Court of the Exchequer, and his wife Georgina Drewe, whose family came from Honiton, Devonshire. Her father was cousin to the novelist and poet, Amelia Opie. Georgina became the wife of Robert Gascoyne Cecil (1830 – 1903), Viscount Cranborne, despite her Roman Catholic adherence. The marriage proved to be extremely happy in every way, and they remained a devotedly attached couple. When her husband succeeded his father in the peerage, Georgina became the marchioness of Salisbury (1868 – 1899). Her husband later served as Prime minister under Queen Victoria and Edward VII.
Lady St Helier wrote of Lady Salisbury that she; “ … impresses us all by her remarkable common sense, and the clearness of her judgement on every subject. She was outspoken and uncompromising, but her conclusions were generally correct. She was kindly in her criticisms, but her standard was high, and her judgements keen and always to the point.” Lady Salisbury was greatly interested in politics, and personally visited William Gladstone and successfully perusaded him not to abolish the university seats in parliament. She was concerned with the needs of the poor on the family estate at Hatfield, and caused cottages to be built for needy families, and provided adequate care for the sick and aged. She was awarded the VA (Royal Order of Victoria and Albert) and was appointed CI (Lady of the Imperial Crown of India) by Queen Victoria. A sketch of Lady Salisbury before her marriage was done by George Richmond, who also painted her with her eldest son (c1873 – 1877), this portrait being preserved at Hatfield House. Lady Salisbury died (Nov 20, 1899) aged seventy-two, at Hatfeld House. Her eight children were,

Salisbury, Margaret, Countess of     see    Pole, Margaret

Salis-Marsschilias, Meta – (1855 – 1929)
Swiss feminist and writer
Meta was born into a wealthy family and received an excellent education, but chafed against the restrictions of her position. She left home and travelled abroad, earning her living as a governess. She studied at the University of Zurich where she wrote a thesis concerning Agnes of Poitou, the Holy Roman empress, mother of Emperor Heinrich IV. An independent and free-thinkinh woman, Salis-Marsschilias was a strong supporter of the cause for female suffrage. Her published works included Die Zukunft der Frau (The Future of Women) (1886) and a collection of biographical portraits entitled Auserwahlte Frauen unserer Zeit (Exceptional Women of Our Time), in two volumes (1900) and (1916)

Salle, Marie – (1707 – 1756)
French dancer and ballerina
Marie Salle was born in Paris, the daughter of an acrobatic performer, and appeared in pantomime as a child. She made her public debut in Paris (1718) after which she studied with Francois Prevost prior to her first appearance with the Paris Opera (1727). Salle excelled in such works as Les indes gallantes (1735) and Castor e Pollux (1737) by Jean Philippe Rameau, and herself created the roles in Pygmalion (1733) and Pastor fido (1734) by George Frederic Handel.
Marie Salle made innovating changes to contemporary ballet. Dispensing with the full skirts and masks hithertofore used in ballets and pageants, Salle introduced shorter skirts for the more graceful movement of the dancer. This change generated a more harmonious blending of theme, music, and choreographer, than had been previously applied. Madamoiselle Salle is cited as the first real modern choreographer.

Sallustia – (d. 252 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Sallustia was the wife of a Christian soldier named Cerealis. During the persecutions initiated by the emperor Traianus Decius (249 – 251 AD) Sallustia was cured of illness by Pope Cornelius who had refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods. The soldiers accompanying the pope were converted, as was Sallustia herself, whom Cornelius then baptized. The entire group were then arrested and beheaded, being subsequently venerated as saints. Her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Sept 14).

Salman, Magida    see   Ghoussoub, Mai

Salm-Hoogstraeten, Countess Catharina von   see   Bender, Catharina

Salmon, Lucy Maynard – (1853 – 1927)
American historian, academic, and educator
Salmond was born (July 27, 1853) in Fulton, New York. Lucy trained as an academic. She served as the head of the history department at Vassar College for four decades (1887 – 1927). Her published works included The Newspaper and the Historian (1923) and The Newspaper and Authority (1923). Lucy Salmon died (Feb 14, 1927) aged seventy-three.

Salmon, Dame Nancy    see   Snagge, Dame Nancy Marion

Salm-Salm, Agnes Elisabeth Winnora Leclerq Joy, Princess von – (1840 – 1912)

American-German traveller and diarist
Agnes Joy was born in Swanton, Vermont, America, and married (1862) Prince Felix Konstantin Alexander Johann Nepomuk von Salm-Salm (1828 – 1870). There were no children. The princess acompanied her husband whilst engaged upon his American Civil war service (1862 – 1865). In 1866 she went with him to Mexico, where the prince was appointed aide-de-camp to the emperor Maximilian, and the princess formed a member of the court of the empress Carlotta. Her husband was killed in battle at St-Privat, near Gravelotte (1870) but the princess continued to work throughout the Franco-Prussian was to organize and administer hospital brigades for the army. After this the princess remained resident in Germany. She later remarried to an Englishman Charles Heneage, and left memoirs Ten Years of My Life (1876, 2 vols.). Princess Agnes von Salm-Salm died at Herrenalb, Germany.

Salome of Berg – (1097 – 1144)
German duchess consort of Poland (1113 – 1138)
Countess Salome of Berg was the younger daughter of Count Heinrich I of Berg-Schelkingen and his wife Countess Adelaide von Monchenthal. Her elder sisters were Sophia of Berg, the wife of Otto II, Prince of Olmutz, and Judith of Berg who became a nun at the Abbey of Chotinschau. Salome became the second wife (1113) of Boleslav III (1084 – 1138), Duke of Poland and became his duchess consort. Salome survived Boleslav as the Dowager Duchess of Poland (1138 – 1144). Duchess Salome died (July 27, 1144). One of her sons died in infancy and she left fourteen others,

Salome of Judaea (1) – (c65 BC – 10 AD)
Herodian princess and political figure
Salome was the daughter of Antipater of Idumea and his wife Kypros of Petra, and the favourite sister to Herod the Great. The first of her three husbands was her uncle, Prince Josephus (c98 – 34 BC), and their daughter Mariamne became the first wife of Herod, King of Chalcis (died 48 AD). Known for her imperious nature and court intrigues, she was responsible for the deaths of her elderly husband (34 BC) and then of her sister-in-law, Mariamne I (29 BC) and later of Marianmne’s two sons (6 BC). When she wished to divorce her second husband Costobarus, which was against Jewish law, she then accused him to her brother of comspiracy and Costobarus was thus executed and removed (29 BC). When Syllaeus, the brother of Obodas II, King of Nabatanea arrived at the court of Jerusalem in order to negotiate a marriage with Salome, who was much his senior (20 BC), despite Salome’s own desire for the union, Herod refused his permission, fearing that Syllaeus intended to exploit the marriage for his own dynastic ambitions.
Sometime prior to 7 BC Salome remarried to her third and last husband Alexas. The marriage was arranged by her brother, and the Empress Livia advised Salome to bow to Herod’s wishes in this matter. She and Alexas were present at Herod’s deathbed (4 BC), and it was Salome who made the public pronouncement of his death. By his will Salome inherited a great fortune, and the Emperor Augustus gave her the palace of Askalon. She later travelled to Rome (2 BC) in order to bring about the deposition of her nephew Herod Archelaus. At her death Josephus recordes in his Antiquitates Judaicae that Salome left expensive properties to the empress Livia, including Jamneia and the important date-producing region of Phasaelis in Archelais. By Costobarus Salome left three children, a son Antipater, the father of Kypros, the wife of King Herod Agrippa I, and two daughters inlcuding Berenike, the wife of Aristobulos, the son of Herod I and Mariamne.

Salome of Judaea (2) – (c14 – before 71 AD) 
Herodian princess
Princess Salome was born in Rome, the daughter of Herod Antipas and his second wife, Herodias, the granddaughter of Herod the Great. Salome danced before her stepfather, and, coached by her mother, when he offerred to grant her any wish, she requested the head of John the Baptist, then imprisoned for insulting her mother and the king because of their scandalous relationship.
The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus records in his Antiquitates Judaicae that Salome was married firstly to her uncle, Philip the tetrarch, the son of Herod the Great.
With his death, Salome took as her second husband Aristobulos (c10 – 92 AD), appointed king of Lesser Armenia by the emperor Nero (57 AD), and to whom she bore three sons, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulos. Salome is represented as queen on surviving coinage. The biblical story of Salome’s early life has never ceased to fascinate writers, and she was the subject of paintings by the Italian master Titian, and later of French artist Gustave Moreau, whose paintings of her were exhibited at the Paris Salon (1876). She was immortalized in the famous play Salome (1894), written by Oscar Wilde, which formed the libretto of the opera written by Richard Strauss (1905).

Salome of Poland – (1211 – 1268)
Queen consort of Galicia
Princess Salome was the eldest child of Leszek I, Duke of Cracow, and his wife Grzymislava of Kiev. She was married in infancy (1215) to Koloman, king of Galicia (1208 – 1241), being escorted to the Hungarian court by Vincent Kadlubek, Bishop of Cracow. After her marriage Salome lived more like a nun than a princess, becoming a tertiary of the Franciscan order, and transformed her court into a model of religious piety. A liberal benefactress of the Friars Minor, the queen established a convent for the Poor Clares at Zawichost with the help of her brother, Duke Boleslav the Chaste. With the death of her husband Salome was left a childless widow, and she entered her convent at Zawichost, where she was eventually elected abbess. During her last years Salome resided at the convent of Skala. Queen Salome died aged fifty-seven (Nov 17, 1268). Her cult was approved by Pope Clement X (1673).

Salome Alexandra – (140 – 67 BC)
Queen consort and regent of Judaea
Salome Alexandra was born into the ancient and noble Maccabean family. She was married firstly (c122 BC) to King Aristobulos I, who succeeded to the throne of Judaea (105 BC) but ruled only a year before he died. Their marriage having remained childless, Salome Alexandra then married his successor, her brother-in-law, Alexander Jannaeus (c103 BC), to whom she bore two future kings, John Hyrcanus II (102 – 30 BC) and Aristobulos II (c100 – 49 BC), both of whom left children.
Due the reign of her second husband, the queen exercised considerable power and influence, and was really the true sovereign in the partnership. With Alexander’s death (76 BC), the queen had two of his brothers murdered to safeguard her claim to the throne, and she was proclaiemd sole ruler, despite the fact that her sons were well of age. For nine years Salome Alexandra ruled alone, the only precedent in Jewish history of a female ruler being the diasastrous reign of the Biblical queen Athaliah. Politically she allied herself with the Pharisees, who were the power behind the throne, though she retained a superstitious dread of their zealotry.
Her reign was prosperous despite mounting foreign troubles and disturbances, notably the continued encroachment of the Armenians, who threatened to engulf the Jewish nation. At the time of her death, aged seventy-three, the treasury was full, but the country threatened with invasion from without, and civil war from within, fermented by her own younger son, Aristobulos, who had allied himself with the Sadduceans in opposition to the court party led by the Pharisees.

Salomen, Edith – (1849 – after 1908)
American self-styled mystic, swindler and bigamist
Edith Salomen was born in Kentucky, the daughter of a swindler from whom she learned her future trade. She went to Baltimore in Maryland, where she falsely claimed to be the illegitimate daughter of the Irish dancer Lola Montez and King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Salomen managed to swindle two hundred thousand pounds from a potential rich suitor before she was uncovered as a trickster by his father. She was taken to hospital, where she stabbed an orderly and acted like an insane woman. Her ruse worked and spent one year in an asylum, after which she was released. With the death of her first husband she became involved in the swindle known as ‘hypnotic mysiticism.’
Edith conned and then remarried an elderly general, Diss Debar, which opened the doors of New York society to her. She began holding seances to robb the gullible, but was brought undone when she attempted to defraud the lawyer Luther Marsh of large sums in return for her conjuring up the shades of the Renaissance poet Raphael, the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare, Frederick the Great of Prussia, and the emperor Charlemagne amongst others. Salomen was convicted of fraud and sent to prison. With her release she divorced her husband, assumed the name of Madame Vera P. Ava, and gave public lrctures on sex. She went through various bigamous marriages, and sometimes called herself the Countess von Landsfeldt. Salomen later removed to London, where she was popularly known as ‘the Swami.’ Her illegal activities were eventually exposed by Scotland Yard and she spent seven years in prison (1901 – 1908). With her release she returned to the USA where she promptly disappeared into obscurity.

Salome Saburovna    see   Solomonia Yurievna

Salonika (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Salonika was native of Thessalonika in Greece. She was arrested during the persecutions initiated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods and was executed with many others. Salonika was listed as a saint (June 25) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Salonina, Cornelia – (c220 – 268 AD)
Roman Augusta
Cornelia Salonina was perhaps of Graeco-Roman origins from Bithynia in Asia Minor. She became the wife of the Emperor Gallienus, and was accorded the Imperial title in 260 AD, having borne him several children. She should not be confused with his barbarian concubine, the Alemannian princess Pippa. A patron of the arts, she and Gallienus were members of the coterie that surrounded the Greek philosopher Plotinus (204 – 270 AD). The empress built a temple dedicated to the four seasons. Early writers claimed, with little historical fact, that the empress was a Christian. The empress is thought to have perished with her husband and daughter in Milan, during the revolt of the usurper Aureolus.

Salonina, Matidia     see     Matidia Salonina

Salote Tupou III – (1900 – 1965) 
Queen regnant of Tonga (1918 – 1965)
Princess Salote was born (March 13, 1900) in Nukaloja. Educated in New Zealand, she was a fervent and devoted member of the Methodist Church. In 1917 she was married to Prince Villiami Tungi, to whom she bore three sons, including her successor, King Taufa’a ha Tupou IV (1918 – 2006). Upon her acession to the throne, which she would hold for nearly fifty years, her husband was granted the title of Prince Consort. Salote instituted educational programs that proved successful in the abolition of illiteracy amongst the Tongan general population, and she earned a well deserved reputation as a modern and progressive monarch.
Queen Salote (her name was the Tongan version of the English Charlotte) visited Britain (1953) to attend the coronation ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth II. The queen enjoyed great popularity and affection with the British public by driving in the procession in an open carriage during the pouring rain, shielded only by an umbrella. Shortly before her death (Dec 15, 1965) the queen was awarded the British honour of Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Salornay, Richoara de – (c1015 – after 1081)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Richoara (Riconaire) was the wife of Guichard III (c1010 – 1070), Seigneur de Beaujeu in the Lyonnais region of Burgundy. Genealogical sources usually style Richoara as ‘of Salornay’ which may actually be a reference to property inherited by her or to her dower lands. Richoara herself in a surviving charter (1055) refers to her parents, Roclenus and Testa, which suggests that she came from the family of the lords of Brancion, though she may also have been connected to the counts of Semur. In this charter she granted the church of Vitry to the Abbey of Cluny for their souls. Richoara also witnessed a charter of her husband’s (before 1062) which donated property to the Abbey of St Vincent in Macon, together with their three eldest sons. Dame Richoara survived Guichard and was still living as his widow a decade later (1081) when she appeared with all of her sons in a charter. Her children were,

Salt, Dame Barbara – (1904 – 1975) 
British diplomat and ambassador
Salt was born (Sept 30, 1904) in Oreville, California. She came to England and attended schools in Seaford, Sussex befor travelling to Germany where she finished her education in Munich, Bavaria, and in Cologne (Koln). During WW II Salt acted as vice-consul in Tangier before being appointed as first secretary to the United Nations. Salt was later appointed as ambassador to Israel (1962) but severe illness prevented her taking up this post. Barbara Salt was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1963) in recognition of her valuable service and was later appointed as head of the Special Operations Executive (1967 – 1972) until her retirement. Dame Barbara Salt died (Dec 28, 1975) aged seventy-one, in London.

Salter, June – (1932 – 2001)
Australian theatre and television actress
Salter was born (June 22, 1932) in Bexley, Sydney into a working class family, and was raised at Brighton-le-Sands. She studied elocution under Rowena McLennan and her first stage role was as Queen Elizabeth I in a school play. She then entered radio (1952 – 1956) before receiving a guest appearance on the first ever television transmission by Channel 7 (1956). Acclaimed for imposing and regal style and voice and for both her satirical and comic talents Salter appeared on the popular Mavis Bramston Show during the 1960’s, and played the kindly headmistress in the series The Restless Years. She appeared in various popular shows such as All Saints, The Sullivans and A Country Practice amongst others.
Salter performed on stage at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydneywas married to fellow actor John Meillon (1934 – 1989) with whom she had appeared in the comedy revue Cross Section (1958) and to whom she bore a son. They were later divorced (1971). Salter received the Queen’s Jubilee Medal from Queen Elizabeth II (1977) in recognition of her service to the entertainment industry and was later received the OAM (Order of Australia Medal) (1982). She continued her work in radio and appeared in six hundred episodes of the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) Certain Women series.
June Salter appeared with Ruth Cracknell in Lettice and Lovage and played Madame Arcati in Noel Coward’s play Blithe Spirit. Her performance of the evil Mrs Danvers in the stage version of Daphne Du Maurier’s Rebecca was much admired for both strength and malevolence, and Miss Salter appeared to immense acclaim as Queen Mary, the wife of George V (1910 – 1936) in the play Crown Matrimonial (1985) which dealt with Edward VIII and Mrs Simpson and the Abdication Crisis (1936). Salter also published her autobiography entitled A Pinch of Salt (1995). Always adored and respected by both fellow actors and the general public, June Salter died (Sept 15, 2001) aged sixty-nine, at Mosman in Sydney.

Salter, Mary Elizabeth Turner – (1856 – 1938)
American soprano, teacher, and composer
Mary Elizabeth Turner was born (March 15, 1856) in Peoria, Illinois. She studied singing under William Norton and Erminia Rudersdorff in Boston, Massachusetts. Mary was married (1881) to the organist and composer, Sumner Salter, and bore him five children. Mary Salter produced over two hundred songs, of which the best known were ‘The Cry of Rachel’ (1905), ‘Night in Naishapur’ (1906) and ‘From Old Japan’ (1923). She also produced musical illustrations for the children’s book One Day in Betty’s Life (1913) by J.S. Gates. Mary Salter died (Sept 12, 1938) aged eighty-two, in Orangeburg, New York.

Saltykova, Darya Nikolaievna – (1730 – 1801)
Russian murderess
Darya Nikolaievna Ivanova was born into the minor nobility in Moscow. She was married into the noble Saltykov family and bore two sons before being left a young widow (1756). Saltykova inherited a considerable estate from her late husband and exercised complete control over the peasant population. She became infamous for torturing and murdering large numbers of her helpless serfs, mainly females, who had no right of redress against her persecutions. Complaints made to Imperial authorities either faltered or back-fired on the complainant due to Madame Saltykova’s high connections.
Eventually after relatives of her dead victims laid a petition before the Empress Catherine II, Madame Saltykova was placed under arrest (1762). She was held in custody for six years whilst the case and witnesses were lengthily examined. Finally almost one hundred and forty suspicious deaths were documented with Saltykova named as responsible (1768). She was then publicly displayed chained to a platform in Moscow for one hour in acknowledgement of her great crimes but her noble connections prevented her from being executed. She was then ordered to be imprisoned within a convent where she remained the rest of her life. Popularly known as ‘Saltychikha’ Darya Saltykova died (Dec 9, 1801) aged seventy-one.

Salusbury, Hester Lynch     see     Thrale, Hester Lynch

Salvatori, Grace Ford – (1909 – 1990)
American socialite and philanthropist
The noted patron of the Los Angeles Music Center, California, she was born Grace Ford in Oklahoma and came to Los Angeles, where she briefly worked as an actress prior to her marriage (1937) with the wealthy industrialist Henry Salvatori. Grace and her husband were amongst the close circle of private friends and supporters of President Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy. She financially supported the University of Southern California, the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, and the Hospital of the Good Samaritan. Grace Salvatori died (May 5, 1990) aged eighty, in Los Angeles, California.

Salvia – (d. 303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Salvia was a native of Byzantium in Asia Minor. She was converted to Christianity through the preaching of St Acacius, a former centurion, together with many other women. Salvia and a group of these, which included many men as well, were arrested as Christians during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletin and Maximian Daia. Salvia refused to recant her faith and was martyred there with Acacius and all the others. She was regarded as a saint by the early church and her feast (May 8) is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Salviati, Dorothea – (1907 – 1972)
German princess
Dorothea Salviati was born (Sept 10, 1907) in Bonn, the only daughter of Alexander von Salviati, and his wife Helene Craseman. She and became the morganatic wife (1933) of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1906 – 1940), the grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who renounced his rights to the Imperial throne in order to marry her. Dorothea was granted the title of Princess von Hohenzollern by the emperor and her two daughters, Felicitas (born 1934) and Christa (born 1936), were recognized as Princesses of Prussia. Dorothea survived her husband, who was killed in action at Nivelles during WW II, for over thirty years and never remarried. Princess Dorothea died (May 7, 1972) aged sixty-four, at Bonn-Bad Godesberg.

Salviati, Lucrezia – (1470 – 1550)

Italian papal courtier
The wife of Jacopo Salviati (1461 – 1533), Lucrezia de Medici was the eldest daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino and his wife Claricia Orsini. With the election of her brother Giuliano de Medici to the papl throne as Leo X in 1513, Lucrezia and the Salviati family benefitted greatly, her son Giovanni being created Bishop of Fermo and then cardinal. Famous for her rapacity, with the pope’s death (Dec, 1521), Lucrezia personally ransacked the Vatican Palace and removed many of its precious treasures for the further enrichment of her family. Her daughter Maria Salviati (1499 – 1543) became the wife of the famous Giovanni de Medici delle Bande Nere.

Salvina – (c375 – c420 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Salvina was born in Mauretania, Africa, the daughter of Gildo, the Moorish leader of that region, and granddaughter of Gildo, who was a commander with the Roman army. Salvina was brought to Constantinople after her father’s suicide (398 AD), ans was married to the proconsul Nebridius, nephew of the Empress Flaccilla, the first wife of the Emperor Theodosius I (379 – 395 AD) in order to ensure the loyalty of her family to the emperor. She bore him two children before his early death (399 AD).
Salvina was baptized as a Christian and St Jerome addressed one of his surviving letters to her, in which he urged her to remain a widow. She refused to consider remarriage and became a deaconess, being a strong supporter of St John Chrysostem during his tribulations with the Imperial court and was with him in Constantinople (404 AD).

Sama – (fl. c500 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet, she was born in Kosambi. Sama dedicated herself as a Buddhist nun after the death of her close friend Samavati, and devoted the remainder twenty-five years of her life in pious meditations. Her verses were preserved in the Therigatha.

Samaroff-Stokowski, Olga – (1882 – 1948)
Russian-American pianist
Olga Hickenlooper was born (Aug 8, 1882) at San Antonio in Texas, of German-Russian parentage. As a child (1891) she studied the piano under Constantin von Sternberg (1852 – 1924) in Philadelphia, and later studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Antoine Francois Marmontel (1816 – 1898). She made her debut in New York (1905) as a concert pianist, and this was followed by her London debut (1906). She was married to (1911) to Leopold Stokowski from whom she was later divorced.
Madame Samaroff-Stowkowski later retired due to a wrist injury and was employed as a music critic for the New York Post. Shje was the founder and director of the ‘Laymen’s Music Courses’ and went on extensive lecture tours throughout the USA. She became a member of the faculty of the Juilliard School of Music in New York and of the Philadelphia Conservatorium of Music.

Sambacia – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Sambacia was native of Africa. Sambacia was arrested during the religious persecutions organized by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods and abjure her faith, and was then executed. Sambacia was listed as a saint (April 24) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sambice – (fl. 496 – 498 AD)
Persian queen
Sambice was the daughter of King Kavadhes I, and was married to her father, and bore him a son, Phthasaurus, sometimes called Kaoses. Her son later converted to the Manichean sect and was killed in a revolt (531). These details of her life are recorded in the Chronographia of the Greek historian Theophanes, whilst Procopius of Caesarea in his de belle Persico recorded that Sambice later helped her husband escape from his imprisonment at the court of the Ephthalite Huns (498 AD).

Samdyne – (c680 – 738)
Irish nun and saint
According to the Martyrology of Salisbury, Samdyne was of noble birth and refused to marry in order to embrace the religious life. She was abbess of Clonbrone or Cluainbronach in County Longford. She was possessed of great piety, and gave alms to the poor, being especially remembered for her kindness to prisoners. Samdyne was revered as a saint (Dec 19).

Sammuramat (Semiramis) – (c840 – c775 BC)
Queen of Assyria
Sammuramat was the wife of King Shamshi-Adad V (c865 – 810 BC), and the mother of King Adad-Nirari III (c820 – 772 BC). She accompanied her husband on military campaigns, being the first Assyrian queen recorded as having done so. The queen, who ruled as regent for her son, long after he came of age, had her name included in dedication texts, and had her own monument, complete with honorific titles, in the famous row of royal stelae ar Assur. Eventually her son had her removed from power during a palace coup. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that she was credited with the building of the famous embankments in Babylon.

Samoilova, Konkordiya Nikolaievna – (1876 – 1921)
Russian socialist, journalist, writer, and political activist
Samoilova was born in Siberia, the daughter of a priest. She was educated in Leningrad and was later married to a lawyer (1905). Konkordiya became actively involved in Leninist politics and the revolutionary movement, and served as editor of Pravda (1912) and co-editor of the women’s periodical Rabotnitsa. Konkordiya Samoilova died of cholera.

Samosch, Gertrude    see    Gert, Valeska

Sampeur, Virginie – (1839 – 1919)
Caribbean poet, author, educator, and musician
Marie Angelique Virginie Sampeur was born (March 28, 1839) at Port-au-Prince in Haiti. Her published works included Angele Dufour, Fleur revelatrice and Le Songe d’Estelle. Virginie Sampeur died (June 8, 1919) aged eighty, at Port-au-Prince.

Sampson, Agnes – (c1530 – 1592)
Scottish witch
Agnes Sampson was born in Haddington, East Lothian and trained in the arts of herbal healing, though she appears to have been an actual practising witch rather than a victim of hysterical suspicion. She was arrested for witchcraft, tortured and tried, being personally interrogated by King James VI (I of England). Sampson believed in her powers and boasted of having conjured up the Devil himself and of celebrating the black mass. Found guilty of trying to encompass the deaths of King James and his wife, Anne of Denmark, she was then executed.

Sampson, Deborah – (1760 – 1827)
American soldier and heroine
Deborah Sampson adopted the dress of a male in order to enlist as a soldier in the Revolutionary war against the British. She was wounded in action, and with the discovery of her true sex she was granted an honourable discharge. Sampson was then married to Benjamin Gannett to whom she bore three children. An account of her life was published in The Female Review (1786).

Sampson, Edith Spurlock – (1903 – 1979) 
Black American judge (1962 – 1978)
Edith Spurlock was born in Pittsbugh, Pennsylvania, where she attended secondary school. She then studied at the New York School of Social Work before going on to study at the John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois (1922 – 1925) and the Loyola University Law School after which she was admitted to the bar (1927). She was married firstly to Rufus Sampson from whom she was divorced, and secondly (1933) to Joseph Clayton, a fellow lawyer. She retained her first husband’s name professionally.
Edith Sampson and was the first woman, white or black, to be elected to the bench in the state of Illinois. An appointed judge of the Cook County Circuit Court from 1962, Edith also served as aofficial alternate delegate for the US to the United Nations General Assembly in 1950 and 1952. In later years she conducted major lecture tours throughout the world, and was elected as the first president of the World Town Hall Seminar. She retired in 1978. Edith Spurlock Sampson died (Oct 8, 1979) aged seventy-six, in Chicago, Illinois.

Sampson, Emma Speed – (1868 – 1947)
American children’s writer
Sampson was born (Dec 1, 1868) in Louisville, Kentucky. Emma adopted the pseudonym ‘Nell Speed.’ Her published works included, Billy and the Major (1917) and, Miss Minerva’s Baby (1920), and the popular series featuring the Tucker Twins and the Carter Girls. Emma Speed Sampson died (May 7, 1947) aged seventy-eight.

Samso – (fl. c270 – 279 AD)
Roman Augusta
Samso was the wife of the usurper emperor Proculus, and the mother of his son Herennianus. Originally named Vituriga, she adopted the name of Samso after her husband adopted the Imperial purple in Cologne (279 AD). Samso supported his grab for Imperial power in the city by rallying the citizens to their cause. The rebellion and usurpation was quickly put down by the emperor Probus. Proculus was defeated, but his fate and that of Empress Samso remains unrecorded, though they left descendants who resided in Albinngaunum.

Samson, Anne Adele – (1891 – 2004)
Canadian nun and supercentenarian
Samson was born (Feb 27, 1891) at River Bourgeois on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. She became a Catholic nun and was the oldest documented Canadian (May, 2003 – Nov, 2004). Anne Samson died (Nov 29, 2004) aged one hundred and thirteen years.

Samthana    see    Samdyne

Samuel, Taraja Linda – (1950 – 1992)
American mentor activist
Born Taraja Fraser in Manhattan, she attended Rider College and Montclair State College. She was married and bore two sons. Samuel worked in various educational programs for children through New York University and the Community Service Society before she joined the board of the New York City Board of Education (1983). There she assisted with the establishment of the Board’s Mentoring Program, which matched adult volunteer workers with children in need of role models. Samuel became the director of the Mentoring Program and of the Office of School and Business Linkages, which aimed at gaining assistance from the private and public sector to facilitate between students, educators and administrators. Taraja Samuel died of cancer (Feb 10, 1992) aged forty-one, in Manhattan.

Samuels, Adelaide Florence – (1845 – after 1915)
American writer and children’s author
Samuels was born (Sept 24, 1845) in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Emanuel Samuels, and was sister to the noted ornithologist, Edward Augustus Samuels. She was educated in Milton, Massachusetts and was trained as a schoolteacher. Adelaide was married (1891) to Orville Bassett. Her published works included the popular Daisy Travers; or, The Girls of Hive Hall (1876) and Father Gander’s Melodies from Mother Gooses Grandchildren (1894).

Samuels, Anna    see   Davies, Anna

Samuels, Susan Blagge Caldwell – (1848 – 1931)
American children’s writer
Susan Blagge Caldwell was educated and trained as a schoolteacher. She became the wife (1869) of the ornithologist Edward Augustus Samuels, and was sister-in-law to the children’s writer, Adelaide Samuels. Susan Samuels wrote various books, as well as articles for children’s magazines, but was best known for the popular six volume series Springdale Stories (1870).

Sancerre, Margeurite de – (c1371 – 1429)
French late medieval heiress
Margeurite de Sancerre was the daughter and heir of Jean III, Comte de Sancerre, and was a descendant of Louis VI, king of France (1108 – 1137). Margeurite was married to Beraud II, the Dauphin of the Auvergne (died 1399). At her father’s death (1403) she inherited the county of Sancerre, her uncle Louis having predeceased him. Margeurite in turn passed the county on to her son, Dauphin Beraud III of the Auvergne (c1390 – 1426), who left an only daughter and heiress, Jeanne, Comtesse de Montpensier. At the death of the childless Comtesse Jeanne (1456), the county then passed to Margeurite’s grandson Jean V de Bueil (died 1478), the son of Jean IV de Bueil and of her daughter Margeurite d’ Auvergne.

Sanchez, Celia – (1920 – 1980)
Cuban revolutionary
Born (May 9, 1920) in Manzarillo, Sanchez became the supposed lover of Fidel Castro (1927 – 2008) and was appointed as secretary to the presidency of the Council of Ministers. Celia Sanchez died (Jan 11, 1980) aged fifty-nine.

Sanchez de Thompson, Mariquita – (1786 – 1868)
American cultural figure and writer
Born Maria de Todos los Santos Sanchez (Nov 17, 1786) in Buenos Aires in Argentina, she became the wife (1805) of her cousin Martin Thompson. The Argentine national anthem was sung for the first time in her house in Buenois Aires (1813). Her second husband (1820) was Washington de Mendeville. During the rule of Juan Manuel de Rosas she went into voluntary exile and only returned in 1832. Mariquita Sanchez de Thompson died (Oct 23, 1868) aged eighty-three.

Sanchia of Aragon (1) – (c1048 – 1097)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Sanchia Ramirez was the third daughter of Ramiro I, King of Aragon (1035 – 1063) and his first wife Gisberga of Bigorre (Gelberga), the daughter of Bernard Roger, Count of Courserans and Bigorre. The Cronica de San Juan de la Pena named Sanchia and her elder sister Teresa as the daughters of King Ramiro, and they were the full sisters of King Sancho V of Aragon (1063 – 1094). Sanchia became the the third wife (c1057) of Pons II Guillaume (c995 – 1060), Count of Toulouse, five decades her senior. Her Toulousain subjects called her Matilda.
The marriage remained childless, and with her elderly husband’s death (1060) Countess Sanchia returned to the Spanish court, where she remarried, becoming the third wife of Armengol III el de Barbastro (1031 – 1065), the Count of Urgel. This marriage likewise remained childless and Count Armengol was killed in battle only a few years afterwards. A surviving charter (1072 – 1073) recorded that Sanchia’s stepson, Armengol IV and his wife Lucia confirmed the castle of Pilzano as the property of Sanctiae comitissae filiae Ranimiri Regis, settled on her by her late husband.
Sanchia never remarried and survived another three decades. She made grants to the Abbey of Santa Cruz de la Seros (1065) and (1076), and she received the Abbey of Santa Cecilia de Aibar from her maternal grandmother Sanchia de Aibar, the mother of King Ramiro (1070). She also granted property to the Abbey of San Pedro de Siresa (1095). Infanta Sanchia died (before Aug 16 in 1097) and was buried in the Abbey of Santa Cruz. Her will (dated Oct, 1095) has survived, whilst her monument was transferred nearly five hundred years later to the Benedictine convent at Jaca.

Sanchia of Aragon (2) – (1205 – c1210)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Sanchia Perez was the daughter of Pedro II, King of Aragon (1196 – 1213) and his wife Maria of Montpellier, the daughter of Guillaume VIII, Count of Montpellier, and was full sister to King Jaimes I el Conquistador (1213 – 1276). As a child her father and Raymond VI of Toulouse arranged that Sanchia should be betrothed (Oct, 1206) to Raymond’s son and heir the future Count Raymond VII of Toulouse (1197 – 1249) whose mother Johanna Plantagenet, Queen of Sicily, was the sister of King Richard I of England (1189 – 1199).
This proposed marriage arrangement was later broken (1209) when the younger Raymond was betrothed instead to a daughter of Simon IV de Montfort. Sanchia receives no further mention in the Spanish sources and probably died during early childhood as she had presumably died before 1211 when Count Raymond married her aunt, another Sanchia, the sister of Pedro II in her place.

Sanchia of Aragon (3) – (1186 – c1246)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Sanchia was the third daughter of Pedro II, King of Aragon (1196 – 1213) and his wife Maria of Montpellier, the daughter of Guillaume VIII, Count of Montpellier and his Byzantine wife Eudocia Komnena. The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium named her as Pedro’s third daughter and called her Sanxia. King Pedro arranged for Sanchia to become the first wife (1211) of Raymond of Toulouse, the son and heir of Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse. Her marriage was recorded by the Cronica de San Juan de la Pena and the Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens.
The countess was styled Sancia sororem quondam … Regis Aragoniae when she and her husband confirmed by charter the special privileges enjoyed by the city of Nimes (1218).
When Raymond succeeded his father as Count Raymond VII of Toulouse (1222 – 1249) Sanchia became countess consort (1222 – 1241). She had borne her husband no male heir, only a daughter Jeanne of Toulouse (1220 – 1271) and in a bid to produce a son Count Raymond divorced Sanchia (1241). She was still living when Raymond divorced his second wife Margeurite de Lusignan (1245) and died soon afterwards. As it turned out Raymond’s second marriage produced no male heir and Sanchia’s daughter Jeanne became Raymond’s sole legitimate heir. Her husband was Prince Alphonse of France, the son of King Louis VIII (1223 – 1226) and Blanche of Castile. He succeeded Raymond VII as Count Alfonso III of Toulouse (1249 – 1271) in the right of his wife. They remained childless.

Sanchia of Aragon (4) – (1285 – 1345)
Queen consort of Naples (1309 – 1343)
Sanchia of Aragon, Infanta of Majorca was the daughter of Jaime II of Aragon, King of Majorca and his wife Esclaramonde de Foix. She became the second wife (1305) of Robert of Anjou (1277 – 1343), the marriage being arranged by her father for dynastic and political reasons. Robert then succeeded Charles LL as King of Naples (1309) and Sanchia became the queen consort but their marriage produced no issue. Queen Sanchia was a very pious woman and devoted herself to religious observances, become well respected for her piety, despite the lightheartedness of the Neapolitan court at this time.
Sanchia and Robert were both close friends to St Eleazar de Sabran and his wife Delphine, on whose behalf Sanchia successfully intervened with King Robert concerning matters concerning disputed lands and property. With the death of her husband the Queen Dowager ruled Naples as regent for her step-granddaughter Queen Joanna I (1341 – 1343). Queen Sanchia eventually retired from the court, as had been her great desire, and took the veil as a Franciscan nun at the convent of the Holy Cross in Naples. Queen Sanchia died (July 28, 1345).

Sanchia of Castile    see also   Beatrice of Castile

Sanchia of Castile (1) – (c1005 – 1026)
Spanish ruler
Condesa Sanchia Sanchez was the daughter of Sancho Garcia, Conde of Castile and his wife Urraca Salvadorez, the daughter of Salvador Perez. She became the first wife (1018) of Berengar Ramon I (1005 – 1035), Count of Barcelona (1018 – 1035). With her husband Sanchia jointly confirmed by charter certain tax privileges to the city of Barcelona (1025). Several other of their charters have survived. Sanchia was the mother of Ramon Berengar I (1023 – 1076), who succeeded his father as count of Barcelona (1035 – 1076) and left descendants. Countess Sanchia died (June 26, 1026) and was buried within the Abbey of Santa Maria de Ripoll.

Sanchia of Castile (2) – (1095 – 1159)
Infanta Sanchia was borbn (before Nov 11, 1095) the daughter of Queen Urraca of Castile and her first husband Raymond of Burgundy, Count of Castile, and was the sister of King Alfonso VII of Castile (1104 – 1157). She was educated under the supervision of Bernard de Perigord, Bishop of Zamora and Pierre de Agen, Bishop of Segovia. During the lifetime of her mother Sanchia witnessed many of her official charters and documents, most notably donations to the church of Santiago (Nov, 1115) and a grant issuing minting privileges to the royal monastery of Sahagun (Oct, 1116). A joint grant made by the Infanta with her mother to the Church of San Isidro was confirmed by the Bishops of Astorga and Compostela at Leon (Sept, 1117).
Sanchia made several donations in her own name to the church of Astorga (1120 – 1121), onw of which was witnessed by Archbishop Bernard of Toledo. She also granted lands to the French abbey of Cluny in Burgundy and established the abbey of la Espina near Valldodolid (1147). With the death of Urraca (1126) Sanchia received the Castle of Grajal and its surrounding regions, as her own demesne. Her surviving charters reveal that she had the right to alienate this fief if she chose, without the formal consent of her brother Alfonso VII. Infanta Sanchia remained unmarried and died (Feb 28, 1159) aged sixty-three, in Leon, and was interred within the Abbey of San Isidro there. Some sources place her birth sometime after 1102 due to the decade long gap between her birth and that of her brother King Alfonso. However, as Sanchia remained unmarried and is known to have later acted as political adviser to the king, the fact of her being much his elder does not appear so unlikely.

Sanchia of Castile (3) – (1154 – 1208)
Queen consort of Aragon (1174 – 1196)
Infanta Sanchia of Castile was born (Sept 21, 1154), the daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile and his wife Richesa of Silesia (Riquilda), the daughter of Vladislav II, Duke of Silesia. She was married at Zaragoza (1174) to Alfonso II (1157 – 1196), King of Aragon (1162 – 1196) as his second. The marriage proved to be a congenial one and Queen Sanchia bore her husband nine children, of whom two died in infancy. Despite their apparent amity the queen became involved in a quarrel with King Alfonso, when she entered the countship of Ribagorza and took possession of the fortresses and castles there which belonged to the crown. The details of this disagreement remain sketchy but it is probable that Sanchia was only taking possession of lands that had formed psrt of her dowry.
Queen Sanchia was patroness to the troubadours such as Giraud de Calanson and Peire Raymond. King Alfonso died (April 25, 1196) at Perpignan. Sanchia survived Alfonso as Queen Dowager of Aragon (1196 – 1208) and retired to the Abbey of Nuestra Senora at Sijena, which she had founded, and where Alfonso was interred and there she became a nun. The chronicler Quadrado stated that Queen Sanchia left the Aragonese court, not because of a religious vocation or grief at her husband’s death, but because her son Pedro immediately relegated the queen dowager to the periphery of state affairs. She was later concerned with the marriage of her widowed daughter Constanza to Friedrick II of Sicily (later emperor), the bride being entertained at Sijena prior to her departure abroad (1208). Queen Sanchia died at Sijena soon afterwards (Nov 9, 1208) aged fifty-four. She was interred before the high alatar of the church of Sijena. Though never beatified her memory was always venerated at Sijena. Her children were,

Sanchia of Gascony – (c990 – before 1018)
Duchess consort of Aquitaine
Sanchia was the younger daughter of Guillaume Sancho, Duke of Gascony and his wife the Infanta Urraca Garcia of Navare, the widow of Fernando Gonzalez, Count de Lara, and the daughter of Garcia III Sanchez, King of Navarre, and was the sister of Duke Sancho Guillaume of Gascony. She became the second wife (1011) of Guillaume V (969 – 1030), Duke of Aquitaine (993 – 1030) and her Poitevin subjects alternately called her ‘Brisca’ or ‘Prisca.’ The Chronicle of Ademar de Chabannes recorded the marriage of Briscam the sister of dux Santii with Willelmi Ducis. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxient called her sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiae, nominee Briscam.
Sometime prior to her death Duchess Sanchia and her husband granted estates to the Abbey of St Cyprien in Poitiers, whilst a surviving legal agreement (April, 1012) records her name as Prisca. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxient recorded the death of Sancia conjuge Guillermi ducis. Her elder son Eudes of Poitou (1012 – 1039) inherited Gascony with the death of Duke Sancho Guillaume (1032) but only succeeded in 1036. He became Duke of Aquitaine (1038 – 1039) but was killed in battle at Mauze and left no issue. Sanchia’s younger son Thibaut (Theobald) of Poitou died young (before 1022).

Sanchia of Leon (1) – (1013 – 1067)
Queen consort of Castile (1037 – 1065)
Infanta Sanchia Alfonsez was the wife of Ferdinand I (1016 – 1065), King of Castile. She was the elder daughter of Alfonso V Vermudez, King of Leon and Castile and his first wife Elvira Menendez, the daughter of Menedo Gonzalez, Count of Galicia. With the death of her father Alfonso (1028), and the accession of her brother Vermudo III, Garcia Sanchez began negotiations to marry Sanchia, who was then her brother’s heiress. This marriage would hav secured for Garcia the lands between Cea and the Pisuorga regions, and would have increased his power and prestige in relation to the kingdoms of Leon and Navarre. However, before this marriage could be finalized, Count Garcia was assassinated in the city of Leon (1029). Soon after, King Sancho the Great of Navarre claimed Castile in the right of his wife Munia Elvira, and installed his son Ferdinand as count. Sanchia was then married to Ferdinand (1032), bringing with her the former enormous dowry she would have brought to Garcia. With the death of her brother Vermudo at the battle of Tamaron (Sept 4, 1037), without a male heir, Sanchia and her husband were recognized as king and queen of Leon, and Ferdinand was crowned king in Leon (June 22, 1038).
Queen consort for three decades (1037 – 1067), Sanchia and her husband were both notable patrons of the church, notably the church of St Isidoro at Leon, to which they presented an ivory crucifix (1063) which has survived. Queen Sanchia left five children, Sancho II of Leon and Castile (1035 – 1072) who died childless, Alfonso VI of Castile (1040 – 1109), Garcia Fernandez, King of Galicia (c1042 – 1090) who was imprisoned by his brother Alfonso, and died childless, and two daughters, the infantas Urraca and Elvira who remained unmarried. Sanchia survived Ferdinand as queen dowager for only two years, dying (Dec 13, 1067) aged fifty-four, at Fromista. She was interred in the abbey of San Martino in Fromista. Ferdinand had divided his kingdom unequally between their sons, but it remains an indication of Sanchia’s influence within her family that her sons did not begin to fatally quarrel and fall out with each other till after the queen mother’s death.

Sanchia of Leon (2) – (1191 – before 1243)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Sanchia Alfonsez was born (autumn, 1191), the eldest daughter of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and his wife Teresa of Portugal. The De Rebus Hispaniae of Rodericus Ximenes named Sanciam et Dulciam as the daughters of Aldefonso Regis Legionensi. Sanchia was betrothed (1216) to her cousin Enrique I (1203 – 1217), King of Castile but he died accidentally soon afterwards before the marriage could take place. Sanchia then became a nun (1217) at the Abbey of Villabuena de Carracedo. She was living there when her mother Queen Teresa and her stepmother Queen Berengaria made a formal agreement concerning properties which belonged to their respective surviving children (1241). Sanchia died at Villabuena and was buried there. Her younger sister Dulcia of Leon (1194 – 1248) joined Sanchia’s community as a nun.

Sanchia of Majorca    see    Sanchia of Aragon (4)

Sanchia of Navarre (1) – (c906 – 955)
Queen consort of Leon and Galicia
Infanta Sanchia Sanchez of Navarre was the daughter of Sancho I Garcia, King of Navarre and his second wife Toda Aznarez de Larraun, the daughter of Count Aznar de Larraun. The Codex de Roda recorded Sanchia’s parentage and named all three of her husbands. Sanchia of Navarre became the third wife (923) of Ordono II (c873 – 924), King of Leon and Galicia, but was left a childless widow several months later (Jan, 924). Sanchia was Queen Dowager of Leon for thirty years (924 – 955).
Sanchia then remarried secondly (c927) to Alvar Harramelin, Count de Alava, to whom she bore a son who may have died young. She continued to govern and administer the county of Alava after her second husband’s death (931). The queen then remarried a third time (932) and became the first wife of Fernan Gonzalez, Count of Castile (910 – 970), and bore him several children. Together with her mother-in-law Countess Muniadomna of Castile, and the elder sons of her third marriage, Queen Sanchia granted lands at Vazalamio to the the Abbey of Cardenas (935 – 938). She was named Sancia comitissa in a surviving charter (941) together with her husband, which concerned a legal dispute over land held by Cardenas Abbey. Sanchia and Fernan also granted lands to the Abbey of San Millan de la Cogolla (944). Queen Sanchia died (June 9, 955) and her descendants included the Plantagenet, Tudor and Stuart dynasties of England. The seven children of her third marriage were,

Sanchia of Navarre (2) – (1134 – 1158)
Queen consort of Castile (1157 – 1158)
Infanta Blanca (Blanche) of Navarre, she was the daughter of Garcia VI Ramirez, King of Navarre (1134 – 1150) and his first wife Margaret de L’Aigle, the daughter of the Norman lord Gilbert, Seigneur de L’Aigle and his wife Julienne (Juliana) of Perche. She was betrothed in childhood (1140) to the Infante Sancho, son and heir of Alfonso VII of Castile. They were married (1151) at Logera or Calahorra, and Blanche took the more Spanish name of Sanchia which she retained for the rest of her life. When her husband succeeded his father as King Sancho III of Castile (1157) Sanchia became queen consort. Queen Sanchia died (June 24, 1158) only two months before her husband. She was the mother of Alfonso VIII (1155 – 1214) who succeeded his father as king at the age of three years (Aug, 1158). Alfonso VIII was married to the English princess Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King Henry II (1154 – 1189) and the legendary Eleanor of Aquitaine, and left many children.

Sanchia of Navarre (3) – (1148 – 1176)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Sanchia Garcia was the only daughter of Garcia VI el Restaurador, King of Navarre (1134 – 1150) and his second wife Urraca alfonsez de Castilla, the illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile and his mistress Guntroda Perez. Sanchia was married firstly (1165) to Gaston V, Viscount of Bearn (1150 – 1170). His death left her a childless widow. She remarried secondly (1173) becoming the first wife of Pedro Manrique (died 1202), Count de Lara and Viscount of Narbonne, the lord Chamberlain to King Fernando II of Leon. Infanta Sanchia is believed to have died from the effects of childbirth, and left three children,

Sanchia of Portugal – (1178 – 1229)
Infanta and nun
Sanchia was the second daughter of King Sancho I and his wife Dulcia, daughter of Ramon Berenger IV, Count of Barcelona, regent of Aragon. With the death of her father (1211), she received the lorship of Alenquer, but her brother refused to allow Sanchia and her younger sisters Constanza and Blanca to marry, not wanting to have to provide the expenses of their dowries. The infantas were permitted to reside on their own estates, where they took religious vows, and lived as nuns, Sanchia at Alenquer, near Santarem, in Ribatejo.
The Infanta Sanchia welcomed the Franciscan and Dominican friars into Portugal, and founded the convent of Cellas for women under the Augustinian rule. However, during a visit paid to the convent of Lorvao, run by her elder sister Teresa, Sanchia was so impressed by the life organized by the community there, that she afterwards converted Cellas into a Cistercian abbey, and herself took the veil there (1223). Infanta Sanchia died (March 13, 1229) aged fifty. Her sister had her body secretly smuggled out of the convent choir at Cellas, whilst it lay on a funeral bier, and had it conveyed to Lorvao, where she was interred. Declared venerable, her cult was approved (1705) by Pope Clement XI, and her feast observed (June 17).

Sanchia of Provence – (1225 – 1261)
Queen consort of the Romans
Countess Sanchia was born at Aix in Provence, the third daughter and coheiress of Raymond Berengar V, Count of Provence and his wife Beatrice, the daughter of Tommaso I, Count of Savoy. Her eldest sister Margaret of Provence had married (1234) St Louis IX, king of France (1226 – 1270), whilst her next elder sister Eleanor became the wife of Henry III, king of England (1236). Henry III then arranged for Sanchia to become the second wife (1243) of his widowed younger brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall (1209 – 1272).
Famous for her beauty, the marriage was celebrated with great magnificence at Westminster Abbey by Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, but the union bound Prince Richard to the court of the Savoyards and their unpoopular influences. The princess bore Richard three sons, and was with him at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire when he accepted his election to the Roman throne (1257). Fifty ships were required to transport the new king and queen and their household to Germany. They were crowned together at Aachen Cathedral by Conrad of Cologne (May 17, 1257) and entertained with lavish festivities. Sanchia and Richard later revisited England where they spent Christmas in Cornwall (1259). King Richard returned to Germany (1260) but Queen Sanchia remained behind at Berkhampsted Castle in Buckinghamshire, sufferring from the illness which would soon cause her death. Queen Sanchia died (Nov 9, 1261) aged only thirty-six. She was interred at Hayles Abbey in Gloucestershire. Her sons were,

Sancia of Taranto – (1426 – 1468)
Neapolitan feudal heiress
Sanchia of Taranto was the younger daughter of Bartolomeo Tristano di Chiaramonte (de Clermont), Count di Copertino and his wife Catherine of Taranto, the daughter of Raimundo del Balzo Orsinio, Count di Nola. Her mother was the stepdaughter (1406 – 1414) of King Ladislas of Naples. Sancia was married (1436) to her maternal kinsman Francesco II del Balzo (1410 – 1482) third Duke of Andria, and Grand Constable of the Kingdom of Naples. Francesco del Balzo became Count di Copertino and the lordship of Nardo in Sancia’s right, as part of her marriage settlement.
Duchess Sancia died (March 30, 1468). Her elder son was Pietro del Balzo (c1445 – 1487) who succeeded his father as fourth Duke of Andria and Grand Constable of Naples and Sicily (1482) and was granted the title of Prince di Altamura. He was later strangled but left descendants including Isabella del Balzo, the second wife of Federigo IV, King of Naples. Her younger son was Agilberto del Balzo (c1450 – 1487). He became Duke di Narolo and was also strangled to death, together with his son Gianpaolo, Count d’Ungento.

Sand, George – (1804 – 1876)
French novelist and society figure
Born Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin (July 1, 1804) in Paris, she was the daughter of Maurice Dupin and his wife Sophie Delaborde, a former dressmaker. She was raised at the Chateau de Nohant in Berry, by her paternal grandmother, the illegitimate daughter of the famous Marshal Maurice de Saxe (1696 – 1750) and the actress Marie Rinteau de Verrieres. Her irregular education in the country was supplemented by three years (1817 – 1820) at the convent of the Augustinians in Paris. Though she made a conventional aristocratic marriage (1822) with Casimir, Baron Dudevant (1794 – 1871), to whom she bore two children, she had imbibed strong feminist and socialist views and was strongly independent. With the inevitable breakdown of her marriage, she took her children and went to Paris (1831). There she resided with her lover Jules Sandeau, from whose name she later took her own pseudonym.
Together they wrote the novel Rose et Blanche (Pink and White) (1831). Her own novels included the romantically erotic Indiana(1832), which advocated free love and Lelia (1833), which dealt with her romantic involvement with the noted poet and dramatist Alfred Musset (1810 – 1857). George Sand, famous for her adoption of male attire and smoking cigars in public, which scandalized her contemporaries, was a friend to the novelist Prosper Merimee (1803 – 1870), but was best remembered for her affair (1838 – 1847) with the famous composer Frederic Chopin (1810 – 1849), which unfortunately ended badly in bitterness and quarrels, mainly due to the jealousy of Sand’s children. Sand then retired to Nohant, which she had inherited from her grandmother (1821).
Sand supported the later revolution (1848) and wrote Lettres au people but retreated to Nohant at the time of the June insurrection. Her later works included the novel La Mare au Diable (The Haunted Marsh) (1846), her twenty volume autobiography entitled Histoire de ma vie (The Story of My Life) (1855) and the sentimental love stories entitled Le Marquis de Villemer (1860) and Jean de la Roche (1860). Under the Second Empire of Napoleon III George Sand became a grand dame in the region of Nohant, where she entertained a coterie of artists and writers.  George Sand died (June 8, 1876) aged seventy-one, at Nohant. Her private correspondence was edited and published posthumously (1882). Her son Maurice Dudevant-Sand (1823 – 1889) succeeded his father as the Baron Dudevant, whilst her daughter Solange Dudevant-Sand (1828 – 1899) became the wife of Jean Baptiste Clesinger (1814 – 1883).

Sandel, Cora – (1880 – 1974)
Norwegian writer and painter
Born Sara Fabricius in Oslo, she was raised in Tromso. She trained as an artist and lived in Paris as a professional painter (1906 – 1921). Her first published novel was Rosina (1922) in which she revealed her distaste of middle class bourgeois society. Adopting the pseudonym of ‘Cora Sandel’ she proceeded to publish the famous trilogy Alberte (1926), Alberte og Friheten (Alberte and Freedom) (1936) and Bare Alberte (Just Alberte) (1939), which dealt with a woman’s struggles in contemporary society to achieve selfworth. Sandel also published two collections of short stories entitled Vart vanskelige liv (Our Difficult Life) (1960) and Barnet som elsket veier (The Child Who Loved Roads) (1973).

Sanders, Claudia – (1902 – 1996)
American restaurant manager
Sanders was raising two children and originally worked as a waitress for Colonel Harlan Sanders (1890 – 1980), founder of the Kentucky Fried Chicken fast-food chain, at his first restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky. The couple were later married (1948) and Claudia assisted her husband with the management of the business, and with advertising. Within fifteen years of their marriage the couple had opened six hundred Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets throughout the USA. Claudia and the Colonel sold the business in 1964, which would eventually become KFC (1991), and would have almost ten thousand food outlets world wide. Claudia Sanders died (Dec 31, 1996) aged ninety-four, in Shelbyville, Kentucky.

Sanders, Felicia – (1921 – 1975) 
American vocalist and night club entertainer
Felicia Sanders was born in Mount Vernon, New York, and was educated in California. Intending a career in dance, she accidentally discovered her vocal telant and changed her objectives. Felicia was married to the composer and pianist Irving Joseph, who organized her stage performances. A vivacious and magnetic personality, she appeared at the Bon Soir Club in New York for several decades, and entertained people with popular tunes sung in Yiddish and French. She was best remembered for her recording of the Song From Moulin Rouge, by George Auric.

Sanders, Jane – (1830 – after 1864)
Australian colonial diarist
Jane was the daughter of a Quaker farmer George Sanders. With her family she sailed to Adelaide in South Australia aboard the Delhi (1839), and settled inland at Echunga, where they lived in primitive conditions until a proper house could be built. Jane recalled her brothers leaving to join the goldrush in Victoria (1852) and was living in 1864. Her own account of her life in Australia was edited and published posthumously as The Settlement of George Sanders and his family at Echunga Creek 1839 – 1840 (1955) by the Pioneers’ Association of South Australia.

Sanders, Mary Dolling    see    Bridge, Ann

Sanderson, Joan – (1912 – 1992)
British stage, television and film actress
Joan Sanderson was born (Nov 24, 1912) in Bristol, Avon. She was trained as a stage actress and worked at Stratford upon Avon, appearing in such Shakespearean roles as Queen Margaret in Richard III and Goneril in King Lear. Sanderson appeared in her first film role as the nurse in The Young Wives’ Tale (1951), and this was followed by sporadic film appearances in She Knows, Y’Know (1961) and The Great Muppet Caper (1981). She appeared in various television films, often playing aristocratic ladies such as The Pocket Lancer (1961) in which she played the Countess of Clarencourt, and The Human Element (1970), based upon the work of Somerset Maugham, in which she appeared as Lady Brancaster.
Joan Sanderson was particularly remembered as the head teacher Doris Ewell in the popular television series Please Sir ! (1968), which role she reprised in the film of the same name (1971), and then as the difficult and feisty Alice Richards in an episode of Fawlty Towers (1975), with John Cleese and Prunella Scales. She later teamed up with Scales to appear in the series After Henry (1988) as Eleanor Prescott. Sanderson was also remembered for her role as Mrs Grace Critchley in the television series All Gas and Gaiters (1970 – 1971) as Mrs Waddilove in an episode of Upstairs, Downstairs (1975), and Lady Bartelsham in the episode Roger of the Raj of the Ripping Yarns series (1979). She made her last stage appearance in Anyone for Denis (1981) at the Whitehall Theatre (1981). She kept working until the end her last role being that of Nancy Princeton on the television series Land of Hope and Gloria (1992). Joan Sanderson died (May 24, 1992) aged seventy-nine, in Norfolk.

Sanderson, Julia – (1888 – 1975)
American stage actress
Sanderson was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, the daughter of actor Albert Sanderson, and made her stage debut as a child performer in Philadelphia with the Forepaugh Stock Company.
Julia Sanderson achieved star status in the title role of the musical Winsome Winnie, when she stepped in to replace an ill colleague. She then appeared with the British comedian, G.P. Huntley in The Dairy Maid, where she was noticed by producer Charles Frohman, with whom she worked for the next twelve years. Stage credits included The Arcadians: The Siren, with Donald Brian, Fantana with Douglas Fairbanks, Sr and Jefferson de Angelis, and star billing in Sunshine Girl.
Other notable roles included The Canary, Rambler Rose, Tangerine, opposite Frank Crumit, who became her third husband, No, No Nanette, Moonlight and Queen High. With her retirement from the stage, Sanderson and Crumit joined up on the radio circuit in the early 1930’s, and attained great populalriy as a vocal duo. With his death (1943), she retired to Springfield. Julia Sanderson died (Jan 27, 1975) aged eighty-seven, in Springfield.

Sanderson, Sibyl – (1865 – 1903)
American soprano and actress
Sanderson was born in Sacramento, California, the daughter of a state chief-justice. She was educated in San Francisco and abroad in France, and made her stage debut at The Hague in Holland (1888). Sibyl Sanderson performed opera in Paris, Brussels, New York, Milan, and St Petersburg, and her most famous roles were that in the production Thais, written for her by Massenet, and the title role in Phryne, created especially for her by Camille Saint-Saens. She was married (1897) to the Cuban planter Antonio Terry, who died in 1899. Sibyl Sanderson died (May 16, 1903) aged thirty-seven.

Sandes, Flora – (1876 – 1956) 
British nurse and soldier
Flora Sandes was employed in London as a secretary prior to joining the St John’s Ambulance brigade during WW I. she served in Serbia with a nursing unit and then worked with the Serbian Red Cross before serving in the war against the Bulgarians. She was later decorated for her bravery, and had been seriously wounded in battle (1916). Sandes was appointed as a captain (1926) and resided in France and Belgrade. She was arrested as an alien by the Nazis during WW II, and returned to England after the war.

Sandi, Francisca de – (fl. 1680 – 1686) 
Brazilian heroine
Francisca de Sandi was born into a patrician family in Bahia, and converted her own home into a public hospital during a particlularly virulent outbreak of plague (bixa) where she courageously nursed victims herself. Her caring and heroism was personally acknowledged by a letter from the Emperor Pedro II.

Sandon’s, Flo – (1924 – 2006)
Italian popular vocalist
Born Mammola Sandon (June 29, 1924) in Vicenza in the Veneto region, her stagename of ‘Sandon’s’ was the result of a simple pelling mistake. Flo Sandon’s performed the two hits ‘T’ho voluto ben’ and ‘El negro Zumbon’ from the film Anna (1952) which starred Raf Vallone and Silvana Mangano, and was the winner of the Sanremo Music Festival with the song ‘Viale d’autunno’ (1953). She later won the Festival of Naples with ‘Serenata a Mergellina’ (1960). Flo Sandon’s was married (1955) to the singer Natalino Otto, with whom she performed abroad.
Flo Sandon’s died (Nov 17, 2006) aged eighty-two, in Rome.

Sandosme, Denise – (c1640 – 1681)
French poisoner
Sandosme was implicated in the famous ‘Affair of the Poisons’ (1679 – 1681) which involved various persons at the court of Versailles, including Madame de Montespan, the mistress of Louis XIV, and the notorious poisoner and abortioner, LaVoisin. Madame Sandosme was implicated a a poisoner and potion provider, was guilty, and was publicly hanged in Paris (July 16, 1681).

Sandoz, Mari – (1896 – 1966)
American historian and biographer
Marie Susette Sandoz was born (May 11, 1896) in Sheridan County, Nebraska, the daughter of German-Swiss immigrants. She was basically taught within the household, though she was later able to attend a local school. She trained as a teacher by the age of sixteen (1912) and taught in various Nebraskan county schools. Her marriage to Wray Macumber ended in divorce, and Sandoz later studied English and writing at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln.
Sandoz had written the story Old Jules which dealt with her father’s struggles. It had been rejected several times before she won a five thousand dollar prize for the story from the Atlantic Monthly magazine (1935). Her other published historical works dealt with the Missouri-Rocky Mountain regions and included Crazy Horse (1942), Cheyenne Autumn (1952), The Cattlemen (1958) and The Beaver Men (1964). Her novels included The Tom-Walker (1947) and Miss Morisa: Doctor of the Gold Trail (1955).
Mari Sandoz later taught creative writing at the universities of Colorado and Indiana, as well as at the Writer’s Institute at the University of Wisconsin. She received an award from The Westerners, Chiaco Corral, in recognition of her efforts to preserve the cultural history of the west. She wrote several novels for juvenile readers such as The Horse-catcher (1956) and The Story Catcher (1963) and published The Christmas of Phonograph Records: A Recollection (1966). Mari Sandoz died of cancer (March 10, 1966) aged sixty-nine, in New York.

Sandrock, Adele – (1863 – 1937)
German theatre and film actress
Born Adele Feldern-Forster (Aug 19, 1863) in Rotterdam, Holland, she became an actress in Berlin at the early age of fifteen (1879) and made her first mentionable appeareance in, Mutter and Sohn, which was written by Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer. After working in Meiningen, Saxony Sandrock travelled to Vienna (1889) where she appeared in plays by the Danish playwright Henrik Ibsen, amongst others, and was noted for the role of Margeurite Gautier in The Lady of the Camellias (1898). Her first film role was in the silent film Marianne, ein Weib aus dem Volk (1911). Adele Sandrock died (Aug 30, 1937) aged seventy-four. Her autobiography Mein Leben (1940) was published posthumously.

Sands, Diana – (1934 – 1973)
American film actress
Her movie credits included A Raisin in the Sun (1961), Ensign Pulver (1964), Georgia Georgia (1972) and Willie Dynamite (1973).

Sands, Dorothy – (1893 – 1980)
American stage actress and mimic
Sands attended Radcliffe College, and then studied playwriting at Harvard University. Sands made her stage debut on Broadway in Martin Flavin’s play Children of the Moon (1923) before joing the Neighbourhood Playhouse Players repertory company at the Grand Street Theatre in New York. Dorothy Sands appeared in the annual Grand Street Follies during which she perfected her mimicry and burlesque take offs of the stars of the Broadway stage. Sands impersonated such stars as Beatrice Lillie, Pauline Lord, Mae West and Ina Claire.
During the 1930’s Sands put together her one woman travelling shows Styles in Acting and Our Stage and Stars, and then worked abroad in Europe and South America where she appeared in such productions as The Glass Menagerie and The Miracle Worker under the aegis of the American Repertory Company. She later taught classical acting with the American Theater Wing and received an Antoinette Perry Award (Tony) (1959) in recognition of her valuable contribution as an acting teacher. Her last main role was as Signora Frola in Pirandello’s play Right You Are If You Think You Are (1972) at the Roundabout Theater in New York. Dorothy Sands died (Sept 11, 1980) aged eighty-seven, at Croton-on-Hudson in New York.

Sandstrom, Beatrice Irene – (1910 – 1995)
Swedish-American disaster survivor
Beatrice Sandstrom was born (Aug 9, 1910) in San Francisco, California, to Swedish immigrants. Beatrice, together with her mother and sister, who had been visiting relatives in Sweden, then boarded the Titanic at Southampton in England to return to the USA (1912) as third class passengers. After the initial collision the Sandstrom family and their two female cabin passengers were woken by a steward and told to go on deck. During this trip the Sandstroms were separated from the other mother and child in their party, who both perished.
Beatrice and her mother and sibling were place in Lifeboat 13 and were rescued by the Carpathia and taken to New York. The family then returned to California prior to returning permanently to reside at Motala in Ostergotland in Sweden. Beatrice remained unmarried and returned to the US to be present at the convention held by the Titanic Historical Society to commemorate the 76th anniversary of the disaster (1988). Beatrice Sandstrom died (Sept 3, 1995) aged eighty-five, at Motala.

Sandwich, Elizabeth Wilmot, Countess of – (1674 – 1757)
British salon hostess
Lady Elizabeth Wilmot was the daughter of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, court wit to Charles II, and his wife Elizabeth Malet. She was married (1689) to Edward Montagu, earl of Sandwich (1670 – 1729). Their son Edward Montagu, Lord Hinchingbrooke, was the father of John Montagu, fourth earl of Sandwich. Elizabeth Wilmot was believed to have inherited some of her father’s famouc wit and vivacity, and her grandson resembled her own father in many ways. She dominated her husband throughout his life. Autocratic and eccentric, Lord Chesterfield once remarked that she was possessed of ‘the strongest parts of any woman I ever met.’ Her Jacobite sympathies are made quite clear by her surviving correspondence (1718) with the exiled James III. Widowed in 1729, the countess retired to take up permanent residence in Paris, where she kept a fashionable salon in the rue de Vaugiraud, where she surrounded herself with a brilliant array of courtiers and friends. Two portraits of her by Michael Dahlone survive.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Lowry-Corry, Countess of – (1781 – 1862)
British Hanoverian peeress and society figure
Lady Mary Anne Lowry-Corry was born (April 3, 1781) the daughter of Armar Lowry-Corry (1740 – 1802), the first Earl of Belmore and his second wife Lady Henrietta Hobart the daughter of John Hobart, second Earl of Buckinghamshire, from whom he was later divorced (1793). Her mother remarried to William Kerr (1763 – 1824), the sixth Marquess of Lothian and Mary Anne was raised by her kinswoman Lady Castlereagh. She became the wife (1804) in London of George John Montagu (1773 – 1818), sixth Earl of Sandwich, and was the mother of John William Montagu (1811 – 1884) who succeeded his father as the seventh Earl of Sandwich for sixty-five years (1818 – 1884) and left issue. Her husband retired to the milder climate of Italy as her was suffering from consumption, and died near Rome. Mary
Anne survived her husband for almost forty-five years (1818 – 1862) as the Dowager Countess of Sandwich. During her long widowhood the countess enjoyed the generous jointure left her by Lord Sandwich, and spent much of her time living abroad. For many years she resided in the Rue de St Florentin in Paris, occupying the small house one used by Prince de Talleyrand, and then in a mansion in the Rue de Tivoli. Lady Sandwich died (April 19, 1862) aged eighty-one and was buried at Bronwell. Her bust was produced by the famous Italian sculptor Antonio Canova, and was preserved at Hinchingbrooke, together with three portraits of the countess including one by Sir Thomas Lawrence as ‘Hope.’ Of her daughters Lady Harriet Mary Montagu became the first wife of William Bingham Baring, second Baron Ashburton, whilst Lady Catherine Caroline Montagu (1808 – 1834) became the first wife of Comte Alexandre Florian Colonna-Walewski (1810 – 1868) the natural son of the Emperor Napoleon I.

Sandwina, Katie – (1884 – 1952)
German weightlifter and sportswoman
Sandwina weighed 95 kilograms and worked in Barnum and Bailey’s Circus where she is said to have lifted a 544 kilogram cannon off the tailboard of a wagon.

Sandys, Mary – (1764 – 1836)
British heiress and peeress
Mary Sandys was the only surviving child of Colonel Martin Sandys and his wife Mary, the daughter of William Trumbull, of Hampstead Park in Berkshire, the granddaughter of Lord Montagu Blundell. Mary was married (1786) to Arthur Hill (1753 – 1801), Lord Kilworth, who succeeded (1793) as the second marquess of Downshire, and to whom she bore seven children including Arthur Blundell Hill (1788 – 1845) who succeeded as third marquess of Downshire.
With the death of her uncle, Edwin Sandys (1726 – 1797), Lady Downshire succeeded to his considerable estates and was raised to the peerage by George III as the first Baroness Sandys of Omberely, which title she held for over three decades (1802 – 1836). At Mary’s death (Aug 1, 1836) the Sandys title passed to her second son, Lieutenant-General Lord Arthur Moyses Hill (1792 – 1860), who became second Baron Sandys of Ombersley. He died unmarried when the title passed to his next brother, Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill (1798 – 1863), third Baron Sandys, who left issue.

San Feliz, Marcela Carpio de – (1610 – 1688) 
Spanish nun and poet
Born Marcela de Carpio, she was the illegitimate daughter of the famous dramatist Lope de Vega (1562 – 1635) and the actress Micaela de Lujan. Her surviving verses included the famous poem ‘Amor Mysticus’ (Mystical Love) and the two collections of verse Poesias (Poetry) and Coloquois (Dialogues).

Sanford, Agnes Mary – (1897 – 1982) 
American spiritual healer and author
Agnes was born in China, the daughter of Presbyterian missionaries. She only came to the USA after her marriage (1915) with Edgar Lewis Sanford, settling in Moorestown, New Jersey, where she was appointed Episcopalian minister. Agnes Sanford’s gift for spiritual healing was revealed in her work The Healing Light (1947), and worked to promote the inclusion of Pentecostal faith within the established church framework. She published her autobiography Sealed Orders (1972).

Sanford, Amabilia de – (c1222 – 1274)
English mediaeval nun
Amabilia became a nun at the priory of Littlemore in Oxfordshire and was later appointed as prioress (1266) and died in office. She and Amice de Sandford, her successor as prioress (1274 – 1277), were relatives of the founders of Littlemore, Robert de Sanford and his son Jordan, who established the convent during the reign of Henry II (1156). Both women are recorded in the Rotuli Ricardi Gravesend dioceses Lincolniensis (1925) which was edited by the Canterbury and York Society, and in the Victoria History of the Counties of England (1907).

Sanford, Isabel – (1917 – 2004)
Black American television and film actress
Born Eloise Gwendolyn Sanford (Aug 29, 1917) in New York, she began her career in the theatre before making her film debut as the maid in, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967). She then became famous as Louise ‘Weezie’ Jefferson in the popular CBS comedy programs All in the Family (1971 – 1975) and The Jeffersons (1975 – 1985), as the wife of actor Sherman Hemsley. She became the first African-American actress to win a Lead Actress Emmy for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series (1981). Sanford appeared in such popular television programs as The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and Roseanne, and did voice-acting for The Simpsons. Isabel Sanford died (July 9, 2004) aged eighty-six, in Los Angeles, California.

Sanfre, Condesa de    see   Redinha, Condesa de

Sanger, Margaret Louise Higgins – (1879 – 1966)
American social reformer, editor, and civil rights activist
Margaret Higgins was born (Sept 14, 1879) in Corning, New York, and attended Claverack College. She was trained as a maternity nurse. Her first marriage with William Sanger ended in divorce (1922) and Margaret remarried the same year to Noah Slee. Having witnessed first hand the horrors of poverty, war, and disease, she became a promoter of birth-control, and published the radical feminist magazine, The Woman Rebel (1914), which advocated the use of contraception and provided women with safe and sensible advice. A noted writer and editor, Margaret Sangster sufferred a period of imprisonment after she founded a birth-control clinic, the first of its kind in the USA, in Brooklyn, New York (1916). She founded the American Birth Control League (1921), which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Her written works included Family Limitations (1917), Women and the New Race (1920) and My Fight for Birth Control (1931). She was for a time the mistress of H.G. Wells. Margaret Higgins Sangster died (Sept 6, 1966) aged eighty-six, in Tucson, Arizona.

Sanger, Sophy – (1881 – 1950)
British internationalist and labour law reformer
Sophy Sanger was born (Jan 3, 1881) at Westcott, near Dorking, the daughter of a wealthy businessman. She was educated at Weybridge before attending Newnham College at Cambridge, where she studied mathematics and the social sciences. Sanger then became involved with the work of Mary Reid Macarthur and Margaret Bondfield with the Women’s Trade Union League and studied law at the University College in London. She remained unmarried.
Sanger became a prominent campaigner to legally improve the rights and conditions of the ordinary worker and established a British branch of the International Association for Labour Legislation (1905). She contributed too and edited the review entitled World’s Labour Laws (1909 – 1919) and fought to abolish child labour and the use of harmful chemicals. Her work was somewhat stymied by the eruption of WW I but Sanger persevered and was asked to prepare the draft to the Paris commission on the basis of the International Labour Office (ILO) which was to be established in accordance with Treaty of Versailles. She then served as chief legislator of this organization (1919 – 1924). She returned to Britain and established her legal credentials at Gray’s Inn though she never practiced. Sophy Sanger died (Dec 7, 1950) aged sixty-nine in Cambridge.

San Giuliano, Enrichetta Statella, Marchesa di – (1856 – 1897)
Italian courtier
Enrichetta Statella was related to Caterina Statella, Marchesa di San Giuliano, the daughter of the Prince di Cassaro, who arranged for her to marry (1875) her son Antonio Palermo Castello (1852 – 1914), Marchese di San Giuliano, to whom she bore three children. The marchesa attended the court of King Umberto I (1878 – 1897) and was appointed as lady-in-waiting to his wife Margherita of Savoy.

Sangramavijaya – (c1005 – c1041)
Javanese queen
Her full name was Sangramavijaya Dharmaprasado Hungadevi. She was related to Sangramavijayoltungavarman, king of Srivijaya, who was taken into captivity (c1025). She was married (c1030) to King Airlanga (c1001 – 1049) and until her death her name appeared with his in official charters and edicts, as the first dignitary of his court. The monastery of Puchangan is thought to have possibly been dedicated by the king on the occasion of this lady’s death.

Sangster, Margaret Elizabeth Munson – (1838 – 1912)
American author and journalist
Margaret Munson was born at New Rochelle, New York, the daughter of John Munson and his wife Margaret Chisholm. Educated privately at home, she was married to George Sangster, to whom she bore two children. Mrs Sangster was employed as an editorial writer for Harper’s Bazar (1889 – 1899) and for the Ladies’ Home Journal (1889 – 1903) publication, and was a staff contributor to the Woman’s Home Companion, the Christian Herald, the Christian Intelligencer, the Farm and Fireside and Today’s Magazine.
Her written works included collections of verse such as Poems of the Household, Lyrics of Love, and A Little Book of Homespun Verse and religious studies such as Women of the Bible and The Story Bible, as well as popular novels such as Janet Ward and Eleanor Lee. Sangster also wrote her autobiography entitled From My Youth Up: an Autobiography. Margaret Munson Sangster died (June 3, 1912) aged seventy-four.

Sangwal Mahidol – (1901 – 1995)
Princess Mother of Thailand
Sangwal Mahidol was married to Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, the youngest son of King Chulalongkorn. She became the mother of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and two daughters. Sangwal Mahidol founded The Princess Mother’s Flying Doctors Foundation, which provided helicopter medical service which she used to bring medical and dental assistance to the peoples of the most remote and inaccessible parts of the country. The princess continued to be actively involved with this work and visits to many parts of the country well into her final years. In the north of the country where the land had been decimated by tree-logging for the opium trade, the princess enlisted the help of the military, and encouraged the planting of trees on a grandscale, in order to restore these areas. She even built herself a private residence in this remote and dangerous area. Princess Sangwal Mahidol died (July 18, 1995) aged ninety-four, in Bangkok.

San Juan, Olga – (1927 – 2009)
Puerto-Rican-American dancer and comic actress
Olga was born (March 16, 1927) in Brooklyn, New York, and trained as a dancer. She appeared in films during the 1940’s with such legendary figures as Fred Astaire and Bing Crosby, and acquired the nickname of the ‘Puerto Rican Pepperpot.’ Her film credits included Caribbean Romance (1943), Rainbow Island (1945), Out of This World (1945), Hollywood victory Caravan (1945), Blue Skies (1946), One Touch of Venus (1948) and The Countess of Monte Cristo (1948).
San Juan received the Donaldson Award for her performance in the stage musical Paint Your Wagon (1951). Her marriage (1948) with the character actor Edmond O’Brien (1915 – 1985) produced three children including actors Maria and Brendan O’Brien but ended in divorce. Olga San Juan died (Jan 3, 2009) aged eighty-one, in Burbank, California.

San Jose, Maria de – (1656 – 1719)
Mexican visionary and mystic
Maria was born at Prebla. She became a nun and was forced to write an account of her mystical experiences by her Jesuit confessor. He later confiscated this document from Maria and it has survived.

Sanminiatelli, Anna Lucrezia Corsini, Contessa – (1933 – 2000) 
Italian estate manager
Known as ‘Annalu’ to her family, she was born in Florence, the daughter of Don Tommaso Corsini, Prince di Sismano, and of his wife Elena Avogadro. Her family were descendants of the famous Florentine banker, Filippo Corsini. She was married (1955) to Conte Cosimo Sanminiatelli, nephew of the famous author Bino Samniniatelli, to whom she bore three children.The couple travelled extensively, and then settled at the family’s wine producing estate at Perignano. In 1980 the countess inherited the ancient Corsini family castle at Sismano, in Umbria, Italy. The castle had been neglected and abandoned for some years, and the countess spent the rest of her life restoring the castle and the surrounding estates and village, into a viable family enterprise. The contessa encouraged tourism and the marketing of traditional produce in the region. Contessa Sanminiatelli died in Florence.

Sanseverino, Margherita di – (c1474 – after 1527)
Italian Renaissance noblewoman and courtier
Margherita Pio di Savoia was the third daughter of Marco II Pio di Savoia, Seignore di Soliera and his wife Benedetta del Carretto (1437 – 1489), the eighth daughter of Galeotto I del Carretto (c1400 – 1450), Marchese di Noli and Finale, and of his wife Vannina Adorno, the daughter of Raffaele Adorno, Doge of Venice. Her second sister Emilia Pio became the wife if Antonio Maria di Sanseverino and Margherita was the maternal aunt of Veronica da Gambara.
Margherita became the wife (c1490) of Antonio di Sanseverino. She attended the courts of Elisabetta di Gonzaga at Urbino and of Isabella d’Este at Mantua, to whom she became an intimate friend and was mentioned in Isabella’s surviving letters. Madama di Sanseverino was a patron of the humanist writers which gathered at these courts and the famous Baldassare di Castiglione sent her a copy of his work Cortegiano (1527). She refused to be comforted after the death of her husband Antonio and refused the addresses of the poet Trissino.

Sansoni, Violante – (1441 – 1483)
Italian papal courtier
Sansoni was born in Savona, the only daughter of Paolo Riario and his wife Bianca della Rovere. Her mother was the sister of Pope Sixtus IV (1471 – 1484). Violante was married (1457) to the patrician Antonio Sansoni, who later died at Savona (1485). Violante was the mother of an only child, Raffaele Sansoni della Rovere (1460 – 1521) who was appointed archbishop of Pisa and Cardinal (1477). Violante Sansoni died in Rome.

Santa Clara, Manoela de – (c1770 – c1837) 
Brazilian educator
Manoela de Santa Croce was born in Sorocaba, San Paulo, of a wealthy family. In 1810 the Portugese Prince Regent (Joao VI) gave permission for Manoela and her sister to found a school for girls, known as the ‘Retreat.’ Concentrating mainly with religious education, Manoela refused to allow a more civil education system at her establishment, with the result that, after her death, the institution fell into decay.

Santa Croce, Giuliana Falconieri, Princess di – (c1750 – after 1802)
Italian society figure
Giuliana Falconieri inherited and held the important ducal fiefs of Gemini and Oliveto. Her husband, the Prince di santa Croce, attached himself as a cavalier in society to the Duchess di Fiano, whilst the princess became the titular mistress of the influential French ambassador, the Abbe Francois Joachim Pierre de Bernis. She held her famous and influential salon in his palazzo in Rome, which became the Banca di Roma. The adventurer Casanova in his memoirs states that the abbe imported luxury dress materials for the princess from Lyons, free of papal customs duties.

Santacroce, Mary Nell – (1918 – 1999)
American film and television actress, and drama instructor
Santacroce was born (May 25, 1918) in Atlanta, Georgia. She was best known for her role as the landlady in Wise Blood (1979), directed by John Huston. She later appeared as Mrs Engelthorpe in, Guests of the Emperor (Silent Cries) (1993) with Gena Rowlands. Mary Nell Santacroce died (Feb 17, 1999) aged eighty, in Atlanta.

Santa Maria de Flores, Isabel de    see    Rose of Lima

Santamaria i Ventura de Fabrigues, Joaquina – (1854 – 1930)
Spanish poet and prose writer
Joaquina Santamaria was born in Barcelona in Aragon. Her first work Breus consideracions sobre la dona (Brief thoughts about women), was published under the pseudonym ‘Agna de Valldaura’ when she was only twelve (1866). However, Joaquina is best remembered for her collection of religious traditions and legends from the Catalan region recorded in her Tradicions religioses de Catalunya (Religious traditions of Catalonia) (1877). She contributed articles and poems to the Barcelona magazine Lo Gay Saber, and she produced one collection of poems Ridalta (Tender shoots) (1882) and Fullararca (Fallen leaves) (1879), a mixture of poetic and short prose compositions.

Santangelo, Betty – (1917 – 1998)
American educator, writer and school administrator
Betty was born in Manhattan, New York and attended the Teachers College at Columbia University. She became the wife of Alfred Santangelo, the US State Representative. Betty Santangelo was employed as a high school teacher in Manhattan, and was later appointed as administrator at the College of New Rochelle. She retired in 1985. Mrs Santangelo was the author of a biography of her husband Lucky Corner, the Biography of Congressman Alfred E. Santangelo and the Rise of Italian-Americans in Politics (1998). She was herself an expert on Italian-American affairs, and served as the vice-president and tresurer of the Italian Heritage and Culture Committee in the Bronx. Betty Santangelo died (March 15, 1998) aged eighty, in Manhasset, New York.

Santmyer, Helen Hooven – (1895 – 1986)
American author
Helen Santmyer was born (Nov 25, 1895) in Cincinnati, Ohio and trained to become a teacher. She was later appointed to serve as the Professor of English at the Cedarville College (1936). Her published works included Herbs and Apples (1925) and The Fierce Dispute (1929).

Santo Domingo, Maria de – (c1470 – 1524)
Spanish mysic and writer
Santo Domingo was born at Piedrahita, near Avila and became a Dominican tertiary. Maria produced a volume of prayers, which were dictated to her confessor. This work was edited and published by Mary E. Giles as The Book of Prayer of Sor Maria Santo Domingo (1990).

Santolalla, Irene Silva da – (1901 – 1992) 
Peruvian author, educator and children’s writer
Irene Silva was married to Fausto Santolalla Bernal. Famous for her efforts to raise awareness of the importance of family relationshiops, in 1956 she became the first woman to be elected to the Peruvian senate, and was the author of a law on family education in Peru, which was enacted in 1957. Irene founded the government institutions for the training of teachers, and she lectured in Europe and Latin America on family education and child development. In 1956 she was named Woman of the Americas, and in 1982 the Peruvian government recognized her lifelong work by honouring Irene with its’ highest award, the Order of the Sun. Irene Silva da Santolalla died (July 30, 1992) in Lima.

Santos, Lucia dos – (1907 – 2005)
Portugese nun
Born Lucia Abobora de Jesus dos Santos, she was one of the original three children, which included her two cousins, the siblings Jacinta and Francesco Marto, who witnessed the apparitions of theVirgin Mary in the Cova da Iria outside the Portugese town of Fatima (1917), near Lisbon in Estramdura. Their visions were said to predict coming disasters such as WW II, the re-emergence of the Christian religion in Russia, and the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II (1981). The visions, which began on May 13, took place on the thirteenth day of each month at Fatima for a period of five months, ending in October.
Shortly after these miraculous events Jacinta and her brother died of respiratory diseases. A shrine then developed dedicated to the Virgin of Fatima. Lucia survived and became a Carmelite nun at the convent of St Teresa at Coimbra, north of Lisbon, taking the name of Sister Maria Lucia Rosa of Jesus and of the Immaculate Heart (1948).  Pope John Paul claimed the Virgin of Fatima saved his life when he was shot by a Turkish gunman in St Peter’s Square and spent time with Sister Lucia when he later visited the shrine at Fatima (1991) and (2000). She was the author of Appeals of the Fatima Message (2001). Lucia dos Santos died (Feb 13, 2005) aged ninety-seven, at Lisbon, having been blind and deaf for several years.

Santslava – (fl. c990 – c1000)
Scandinavian princess
Santslava, sometimes referred to as Santoslava, was born in Denmark the second daughter of Sweyn I Forkbeard, King of Denmark (986 – 1014) and his first wife Gunhilda of Poland, the daughter of Mieczyslav I, Duke of Poland. Santslava died in Denmark as a child and was buried there. Her brother Knud II of Denmark later became King of England (1016 – 1035). She was recorded in the Liber Vitae of Winchester Cathedral in England as Santslave soror Cnuti Regis nostri.

Sanysia – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
She was put to death in Thessalonika, probably during the persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian. Sanysia was recorded as a saint in the Roman Martyrology (Dec 30).

Sanz, Rocio – (1933 – 1993)
Costa Rican composer
Sanz was born (Jan 28, 1933) at San Jose and studied at the Conservaterio Nacional de Musica. She then removed to Mexico City (1953) where she studied under the composers Jimenez Mabarak and Blas Glindo Dimas, and taught at the Academia de Danzo Mexicana and the Centro Universitario de Teatro. Sanz composed the score for the film La Sunamita and won and won first prize for her Cantata de la Independencia de Centroamerica (1971), to celebrate the anniversary of Costa Rican independence (1851). She also composed Canciones de la muerte (1993), for soprano voices. Rocio Sanz died (April 14, 1993) aged sixty, in Mexico City.

Sanzara, Rahel – (1894 – 1936)
German novelist
Born Johanna bleschke, she was trained as a dancer, and became a silent film actress (1917). Her career in movies was short but successful. Sanzara also published the cpntroversial novel entitled Das vorlerene Kind (The Lost Child) (1926) which dealt with the rape and murder of an infant girl.

Saphanbalal      see     Sophonisba

Sapieha, Virgilia    see    Petersen, Virgilia

Sapiencia – (fl. c1195 – c1210)
English mediaeval nun
Sapiencia served as the prioress of the Cistercian convent of Sinningthwaite in Yorkshire, which had been founded by Bertram Haget in the reign of Henry II (1155). She is attested by surviving charter evidence as the successor of the first prioress Matilda (c1195). Further charter evidence from the assize rolls from the reigns of King John (1199 – 1216) and Henry III (1216 – 1272) refer to Sapiencia as the predecessor of Prioress Euphemia who first appears in that office in 1218. Sapiencia appears in the list of heads of Sinningthwaite Priory which were recorded in the Victoria History of the Counties of England (1913).

Sapientia – (c1165 – 1222)
Flemish nun
Sapientia joined the Cistercian order and was appointed as prioress of the nunnery of Mount Cornillon, near Liege, which cared particularly for lepers. She raised St Juliana of Cornillon (1193 – 1258) and her sister Agnes. At her death she was succeeded as prioress by Juliana. Sapientia was venerated as a saint (March 31).

Sapinhaud de Boishuguet, Jeanne Ambroise Michel Marie – (fl 1774 – 1794)
French aristocrat and memoirist
Born Jeanne Talou de La Cartrie, she became the wife of a general in the Vendee. During the revolutionary period she was seperated from her husband, who was occupied with the Royalist forces, and spent most of her time in hiding with other aristocratic women in the countryside. She left a two volume account of her experiences which were published posthumously in Paris as Memoires sur la Vendee (1823).

Saporiti, Teresa – (c1763 – 1869)
Italian coloratura soprano
Born Teresa Codecasa, she joined the company of Pasquale Bondini in 1782, and performed in Leipzig and Dresden in Saxony, and in Prague, Bohemia. She appeared in castrati roles and wore male costume. The role of Donna Anna in Mozart’s Don Giovanni (1787), was written for her particular voice range. She appeared in Venice, and at La Scala in Milan, and with the company of Gennaro Astarita in St Petersburg in Russia, performing in comic opera roles. Teresa Saporiti died aged 105 years.

Sappho – (c612 – after 550 BC)
Greek poet
Sappho was born on the island of Lesbos, the daughter of Skamandronymus. Her brother Larichus became involved with the notorious courtesan, Rhodophis. She accompanied her family in their exile (596 BC) from Mytilene to Sicily, but was later able to return to her home city. There she married Kerkylas and had a daughter, Kleis. Sappho formed the centre of a group of women and girls, probably pupils of hers, and she may have served as the priestess of a love cult. Tradition represents her as homosexual (hence the term ‘lesbian’) because of the love and admiration for others of her own sex expressed in some of her poems to girls. Only two of her odes have survived in the full text, including The Hymn to Aphrodite, though many fragments of her work have also been found.  She may have exchanged verses with her contemporary, the poet Pittakus. The four-line sapphic stanza, used by the Latin poets, Horace and Catullus, were so named for her.The story that Sappho committted suicide by throwing herself over the Leucadian rock for love of Phaon stem from a fourth century comic drama, not from historical fact. Sappho was still living in 550 BC, then aged in her early sixties.

Sara – (fl. c350 – c400 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian nun and ascetic
Sara was abbess of the convent of the Scete in Libya, nothern Africa. She lived to be a great age, being possessed by an evil spirit for thirteen years. Details of her life were recorded in the Sylva Anchoretica and was listed as a saint (July 13) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sara of St Gilles – (fl. 1326)
French physician
Sara was the wife of one Abraham, a Jewish physician who practiced in Marseilles. As a widow Sara taught medicine to other women and was later licensed (1326) to train a male apprentice as a doctor.

Sara of the Visigoths – (c725 – after 755)
Gothic princess
Sara was the daughter of Prince Akila of the Visigoths, and was the granddaughter of King Witiza (710 – 711). Her father committed treachery with the Muslims, and his brother Ardabstus caused Sara and her brother to be despoiled of their possessions. Sara and her brothers, Madrubal and Oppa, travelled to Syria where she laid their case before the Muslim lord Hisham. Sara later returned to Spain and her estates were restored to her through the intervention of Aisa, the son of Mozahim, whom Sara then married (c750) as her first husband. She bore him two sons, Ibrahim and Ishak prior to his death (755) when she remarried to a second Muslim lord Omar, the son of Said el-Lakhmi. The ninth century Arab historian Ibn el-Kouthya was her descendant.

Sara of Wurzburg – (fl. 1419)
Jewish-German physician
A native of Wurzburg in Bavaria, she had obviously been trained by a father or brother to be a physician, and was granted a license to practice her trade (1419). In return for this Sara paid an annual tax. Apparently a successful woman, surviving records reveal that she was able to purchase an impressive town house within the city.

Sarabhai, Anusabeyhn – (1885 – 1972)
Indian trade unionist, philanthropist and social reformer
Anusabeyhn Sarabhai was born into a wealthy family in Ahmedabad. Anusabeyhn was orphaned as a child and a later arranged marriage was annulled. She travelled to England where she studied at the London School of Economics, and was influnced by Fabian socialism. With her return to India she devoted herself to social reform, and worked amongst poor mill workers, organizing the first ever labour strike in India (1917). She later worked with Mahatma Gandhi and established several craft associations, which were later combined into the Textile Labour Association (1920).

Saragossa, La – (1786 – 1857)
Spanish heroine
Born Maria Augustin, she was popularly known as Agostina the ‘Maid of Saragossa’ because of her extreme bravery during the Napoleonic wars in her country during the French siege of Saragossa (1808 – 1809). She is descibed by Lord Byron in his famous work Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812).

Sarah – (fl. c1850 BC)
Jewish biblical matriarch
Her name is sometimes spelled Sarai and means ‘princess.’ She was the wife of the patriarch Abraham. Whilst visiting Egypt with her husband she travelled as his sister, as her beauty may have endangered Abraham’s wife. The pharoah is said to have married Sarah, but with the revelation of the truth, he banished both from his kingdom. Sarah long remained childless, and then, when already elderly she conceived and bore Abraham his son Isaac, which fulfilled the divine promise that Sarah would be the ancestor of nations. According to ancient tradition she died at the advanced age of one hundred and twenty-seven and was buried at Kiriath-arba.

Sarah of Cornwall – (c1145 – c1190)
Anglo-Norman heiress
Sarah was the daughter of Reginald de Dunstanville, Earl of Cronwall and his wife Beatrice. Her father was the illegitimate son of Henry I, King of England (1100 – 1135). Her kinsman Henry II (1154 – 1189), who was crowned as duke of Aquitaine by right of his marriage with the heiress Eleanor of Aquitaine, arranged for Sarah to marry one of his French vassals Boson Adhemar V (c1140 – 1199), Vicomte de Limoges in the Limousin region, and she became the Vicomtesse de Limoges. During the local revolt against English taxes (1176 – 1177) Sarah’s kinsman King Richard I took possession of the viscounties of Limoge, Turenne and Ventadour. Sarah predeceased her husband and left seven children,

Sarah of Manchester – (c1210 – 1276)
English nun
Born at Manchester in Lancashire, Sarah never married and became a nun at the ancient royal abbey of Polesworth in Warwickshire, which had been founded by Queen Edith of Northumberland, the elder half-sister of King Athelstan of Wessex (924 – 939). The nuns of this community had formerly resided at a priory at Oldbury which was perhaps a daughter house of Polesworth. Sarah was elected as prioress of Polesworth (1269) and was recorded as such in the Calendar of Patent Rolls (1266 – 1272) and in the Victoria History of the Counties of England. She was possibly also the head of the joint-house of Oldbury and remained in office until her death, being succeeded by Albreda de Camvill.

Sarashina – (c1008 – 1060)
Japanese poet
Sarashina was the daughter of Takasue no Musume, a court official, she was later appointed lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court. She was married and had borne two children, and was cousin to the author Michitsune and left a collection of poems which included As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams and memoirs which have been translated into various languages. Sarashina also left a written account of journeys from Shimosa to Kyoto entitledm Sarashina Nikki.

Sarcka, Elizabeth Man – (1893 – 1992)
American activist
Elizabeth Man was born in New York, the daughter of alrick man, a prominent lawyer. She attended Barnard College and served as the executive secretary of the League of Nations association of Greater New York (1927 – 1928). She became the wife of Wayne Sarcka. Mrs Sarcka and her husband were the founders of the Spring Lake Ranch at Cuttingsville in Vermont (1932) which was established as a halfway house for the mentally ill, and which was run on a communal therapeutic style, which involved both staff and residents. Mrs Sarcka served as the president of the Queens Chapter of the United Nations Association (1975 – 1979) and received the Barnard Medal of Distinction from her old alma mater (1985). Elizabeth Sarcka died (Feb 2, 1992) aged ninety-eight, in East Montpellier in Vermont.

Sargent, Charlotte – (1856 – 1924)
Australian caterer and philanthropist
Charlotte Foster was born (May 28, 1856) in Sydney, New South Wales. She was married to a baker George Sargent (1859 – 1921) with whom she established a bakery in Glebe. Mrs Sargent established and managed a successful confectionary business. They are best remembered for establishing the famous Sargent’s Ltd (1906) a catering company, with almost forty outlest in Sydney and Melbourne. This scope for business quickly established the fame of their ‘Sargent’s Pies’ which became an iconic feature of Australian daily life. Charlotte Sargent died (May 15, 1924) aged sixty-three.

Sarolta of Siebenburgen – (c950 – after 1001)
Hungarian queen mother
Sarolta was the daughter of Gylas, Prince of Siebenburgen in Eastern Hungary, who was baptised as a Christian (c950). Her father was fervent in his new faith and Princess Sarolta gained considerable position in the small kingdom. She was married (973) to Duke Geza of Hungary as his second wife. The German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg referred to her as ‘the White Lady,’ and recorded that though a fervent Christian herself she was a heavy drinker and experienced horsewoman, and that she once killed a man with her bare hands, after he had provoked and angered her. She was widowed in 997 and was living when her son received the Hungarian crown. Her children were,

Sarraute, Nathalie – (1900 – 1999)
Russian-French novelist
Born Nathalia Tcherniak in Ivanovna, she was taken to France as a child by her mother, and was raised there, studying law and the arts at the Sorbonne. She studied and practiced law in Paris, though she later gave up ythis career in order to fully concentrate on her writing. Her first published work was the collections of sketches entitled Tropismes (Tropisms) (1934). She was also known for her collections of essays and her plays such as Le Silence, suivi de Le Mensonge (Silence, and The Lie) (1969) and Isma (Izzuma) (1970), and she was awarded the International Prize for Literature (1964). Known particularly for her leadership of the Noveau Roman movement, her works included The Age of Suspicion (1956), Le Planetarium (The Planetarium) (1959) and Les Fruits d’or (The Golden Fruits (1963). Nathalie Sarraute died (Oct 19, 1999) aged ninety-nine, in Paris.

Sarrazin, Albertine – (1937 – 1967)
French novelist
Sarrazin was born in Algeria, North Africa, and led the life of a petty criminal during the early part of her life. These experiences were used as background for her novels such as L’Astragale (1965), La Cavale (the Runaway) (1969) and La Traversiere (The Crossing) (1966). She also published the journal Biftons de prison (Notes for Prison) (1977).

Sarria, Marquesa de    see   Zuniga, Catalina de

Sarsfield, Mary – (1651 – 1693)
English dynastic matriarch
Born Mary Walter (May 6, 1651) at The Hague in Holland, she was the illegitimate daughter of Lucy Walter, whose name she bore. Mary was not fathered by her mother’s lover King Charles II as claimed by some genealogists, and was therefore the maternal half-sister of James Crofts (1649 – 1685), Duke of Monmouth. She was possibly fathered by Lord Arlington. Mary was married firstly to William Sarsfield (died 1675) of Lucan, Ireland, the brother of General Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan. Her second husband (1676) was William Fanshawe (died 1708), the Master of Requests. Through her first marriage Mary Sarsfield was the grandmother of Anne Vesey, the wife of Sir John Bingham, fifth baronet, through whom she was ancestor of the earls of Lucan.

Sartain, Emily – (1841 – 1927)
American painter, engraver and art teacher
Emily Sartain was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of an artist. She attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art (1864 – 1870) and then travelled in Europe for several years. Sartain later returned to the USA and was employed as the art editor for the Our Continent magazine. She served for over three decades (1886 – 1920) as principal of the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. With her retirement she resided in California.

Sarton, May – (1912 – 1998)
Belgian-American poet, novelist and dramatist
Eleanor May Sarton was born in Wondelgem, Belgium, and immigrated to the USA with her family as a small child (1917). Sarton founded and directed the Associated Actors Theatre (1933 – 1936), but later gave this up in order to pursue her writing career.  Sarton’s first published work was the collection of poems entitled Encounter in April (1937), and this was followed by other poetical collections and several novels such as The Small Room (1961) and Mrs Stevens Hears the Mermaids Singing (1965), which dealt with the theme of lesbianism.

Sarwar, Samia – (1970 – 1998) 
Pakistani honour killing victim
Samia Sarwar was the daughter of Ghulam Sarwar Khan Mohammed, a prominent resident of Peshawar, Pakistan. Samia was married (1987) to her first cousin, who subjected her to ten years of marital abuse and she eventually fled to Lahore to try and arrange a divorce with the assistance of the women’s activist Hina Jilani. Samia was gunned down in Jilani’s office by a family friend Habibum Rahman (April, 1998), whilst her mother and uncle watched the crime. Despite many witnesses, the police refused to make any arrests. Some sixty-four officers were finally suspended for collusion with the accused, and for tampering and suppressing the evidence, but before this could be enacted, the case against Samia’s family was dismissed.

Sass, Marie Constance – (1838 – 1907)
Belgian vocalist
Sass was born (Jan 26, 1838) at Ghent in Flanders. She became a chansonette singer in public cafes before her talent was discovered, after which she was intructed by Madame Delphine Ugalde. Sass made her stage debut at the Theatre Lyrique (1859) and later performed as a soprano at the Paris Opera (1860 – 1871). Her marriage (1864) with the baritone Castelmary (1834 – 1897) who was in reality Comte Armand de Castan ended in divorce (1867). Marie Constance Sass died (Nov 8, 1907) aged sixty-nine, at Auteuil, near Paris.

Sat-Hathor    see    Sithathor

Sat-Hathor-Iunet       see     Sithathoriunet

Sati Beg – (c1280 – c1341)
Ilkhanid queen
Sati Beg was the daighter of Oljetyu, and was sister to the Ilkhanid sultan, Abu Sa’id. Her three husbands were firstly (c1299) the mongol emir Cuban (died 1327), secondly the Ilkhanid sultan Arpa (died 1336), and thirdly to the Mongol prince Sulayman. She was sole ruler of the Ilkhanid Empire (1338 – 1341) and was deposed, and probably murdered.

Saturna – (d. c253 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Saturna perished during an early purge of Christians, probably during the reign of the Emperor Traianus Decius. She was commemorated as a saint, togther wirh Anatolius, and several other martyrs (Jan 7). She is not to be confused with St Saturna of Tarsus, who was martyred in Cilicia, Asia Minor (May 10).

Saturnilla – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
She was put to death in Egypt, probably during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Diocletian. Saturnilla was commemorated along with many other martyrs in the Martyrology of St Jerome (Feb 9).

Saturnina of Arras – (c515 – c540)
Gallo-Roman virgin saint
Saturnilla of Arras was born into a Christian patrician family in Germania. From an early age she decided to take up the religious life, and made a vow of celibacy. In order to escape an arranged marriage, Saturnina fled from home. She was caught near Arras in Artois, concealed amongst some shepherds in the fields by her betrothed husband, who then beheaded her. Her remains were interred within the church of St Remigius, and some of her relics later made their way to Saxony. There are over two dozen early female martyrs listed under this name. Some are fabrications and others are merely duplications, but it remains now almost impossible to sort them out. Saturnina of Arras is believed to have become confused with two other martyrs named Romana and Benedicta.

Sau, Vo Thi – (c1939 – 1954) 
Vietnamese guerilla soldier
Vo Thi Sau joined a guerilla unit at the age of fourteen, inspired to fight against the invading French forces during the Vietnam revolution. She herself killed fourteen French soldiers in hand to hand combat, before being captured. She waas put to death without trial, and bears the distinction of being the youngest woman to be executed in Vietnam.

Sauer, Hedda – (1875 – 1953)
Bohemian writer
Born Hedda Rzach (Sept 24, 1875) in Prague, she was the eldest daughter of Alois Rzach. She was married (1891) to August Sauer (1855 – 1926) the Austrian scholar, editor, and author. Madame Sauer established her own popular literary salon in Prague, and was friendly with Rainer Maria Rilke and Bertha von Suttner, amongst other prominent contemporary figures. Hedda published her own collection of verse entitled Im Fruhling (1892), which work was illustrated by her brother Otto Rzach. She also wrote the novel Goethe und Ulrike (1925). Hedda Sauer died (March 21, 1953) aged seventy-seven, in Prague.

Saulnier, Victoire – (fl. c1770 – 1792) 
French dancer
Victoire Saulnier was probably daughter to the ballet master Vincent Saulnier. She was a member of the Paris Opera prior to her appearance at the King’s Theatre, London (March, 1789) when she performed in Les Jalousies du serail. Admired in the ballet Admete by Noverre, she also performed in his Annette et Lubin. By 1792 she had returned to the Paris Opera.

Saulx, Francoise Brulart, Comtesse de – (c1596 – 1662)
French aristocrat and estate manager
Francoise Brulart was born at Dijon in Burgundy, and was married (1613) to Claude de Tavannes, Comte de Saulx. His early death made her responsible for the patrimony of their children, and Madame de Saulx proved a prudent and competent manager of the familial estates, her talents revealed by her surviving accounts (1632 – 1636). The Comtesse de Saulx died (after Aug 3, 1662) in Burgundy.

Saulx, Marie Casimire Catherine Francoise de Froulay, Comtesse de – (1719 – 1753)
French courtier
Marie casimire de Froulay was the daughter of Rene de Froulay, and sister to Rene de Froulay, Comte de Tesse (died 1742). She was married (1734) to Charles Marie Gaspard, Comte de Saulx (1713 – 1784), later Comte de Tavannes (1761). Madame de Saulx inherited the estate of Aulnay in Normandy and a third of the Tesse family fortune on the death of her childless brother (1742). She and her husband received apartments at the Palace of Versailles (1747) and in the same year the Comte joined the household of the Dauphin Louis (1729 – 1765), son of Louis XV. The comtesse was appointed dame du palais (lady-in-waiting) to Queen Marie Leszscynska (1744 – 1753), whilst her husband was appointed as governor of the Fort de Taureau (1752).
The comtesse died (Aug 15, 1753) of smallpox, aged only thirty-eight, her place in the queen’s household being taken by the Duchesse de Mirepoix. She left three children,

Saulx-Tavannes, Aglae Marie Louise de Choiseul-Gouffier, Duchesse de – (1772 – 1861) 
French aristocrat, émigré, and memoirist
A courtier of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles, she was the daughter of a diplomat. With the excesses of the revoution the duchesse and her family emigrated and spent time living in Belgium, Holland, England, and then at the court of Catharine the Great of Russia in St Petersburg. They eventually returned to France (1806), and during the Napoleon’s rule the duchesse managed to obtain the return of some of the family’s estates in Burgundy. She left personal reminiscences entitled Sur les routes de l’emigration.Memoires de la duchesse de Saulx-Tavannes (1791 – 1806) (1933) which were published posthumously with an introduction written by the Marquis de Valous. The duchesse left four children,

Saunders, Dame Cicely Mary Strode – (1918 – 2005)
British Anglican nun and founder of the hospice movement
Cicely Saunders was born in Barnet, Greater London, the daughter of Philip Saunders, an estate agent, and was educated at Roedean School and St Anne’s College, at Oxford. She was married to the Polish artist Marian Bohusz-Szyszako (born 1901). With the outbreak of WW II decided to become a nurse, and trained at the St Thomas’s Hospital Medical School and the Nightingale School of Nursing, and later founded St Christopher’s Hospice, at Sydenham (1967), for which she was medical director (1967 – 1985) and chairman (1985 – 2005).
Saunders strove to implement the principle that death was a natural and necessary part of human life, and that, allied with careful considered nursing procedures, palliative care, and effective control of pain, the terminally ill could die with dignity. Appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1980), in recognition of her valuable work and she received the BMA gold medal (1987) and was appointed to the Order of Merit (1989).
Cicely Saunders wrote and edited several volumes on the subject including Care of the Dying (1960), The Management of Terminal Disease (1978), Hospice: The Living Ideal (1981), Living with Dying (1983) and Beyond the Horizon (1990). By 1993 there were over one hundred and seventy hospices established throughout Britain, and she established the Cicely Saunders Foundation (2002), an international research and education organization centred on improving care for the dying. Dame Cicely Saunders died of cancer (July 14, 2005) at St Christopher’s, aged eighty-seven.

Saunders, Justine Florence – (1953 – 2007)
Australian aboriginal film and television actress
Saunders was best known for her role in the famous Number 96 series and also appeared in the mini-series Women of the Sun (1981). Justine Saunders died (April 15, 2007).

Saunders, Mabel Shands – (1874 – 1954)
American biographical writer
Mabel Shands was born (April 28, 1874) in Senatobia in Mississippi, and attended Whitworth College. She was married (1895) to Paul Hill Saunders. Mrs Saunders published the collection of biographical sketches entitled Aunt Emmerline and Others of Her Kindly Kind (1944), and also wrote a memoir of her husband. Mrs Saunders died (March 26, 1954) aged seventy-nine, in New Orleans in Louisiana.

Saunders, Margaret Marshall – (1861 – 1947) 
Canadian children’s author, lecturer, diarist, and journalist
Margaret Saunders was a native of Milton, Nova Scotia, and travelled in Scotland and France. She was especially remembered for her animal story Beautiful Joe: the Autobiography of a Dog (1893). Actively involved in the cause of social justice for children, Saunders lectured widely on the subject. Margaret Saunders died in poverty.

Saura of Majorca – (c1282 – 1333)
Spanish royal
Saura was the illegitinate daughter of Jaime II (1243 – 1311), King of Majorca and a mistress, and was officially recognized by the king as his daughter. She was married firstly (1299) to Pedro de Pinos (died c1312), and secondly (1319) to Berenguer de Villarragut (c1280 – c1358), seigneur de Sanmartin y Subanta. By her second husband Saura was the mother of Violanta de Villarragur, Viscondesa d’Omelas who became the second wife (1347) of her cousin, Jaime III (1315 – 1349), King of Majorca.

Saussure Necker, Albertine Adrienne de – (1766 – 1847)
Swiss-French biographer
Albertine de Saussure was the only child of Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740 – 1799), the famous naturalist and philosopher, and his wife Albertine Amelie, the daughter of Jean Jacques Andre Boissier. Albertine was the friend and biographer of Madame de Stael, and had married (1785) de Stael’s first cousin, Jacques Necker, the son of Louis Necker.

Sauve, Charlotte de – (1551 – 1617)
French Valois beauty and courtier
Charlotte de Beaune-Semblencay, Baronne de Sauve was the daughter of Jacques II de Beaune-Semblencay, Vicomte de Tours and his wife Gabrielle de Sade. Her paternal great-grandfather Jacques I de Beaune had been executed at the behest of Louise d’Angouleme, the mother of King Francois I (1515 – 1547) whilst her mother was of the family of Petrarch’s beauty Laure de Sade and of the notorious lecher Alphonse Donatien, Marquis de Sade. Charlotte inherited the fief of Semblencay in the vicomte of Touraine (Indre et Loire) and was sent to court to be educated in the household of the Queen Mother Catherine de Medici, the mother of King Charles IX (1560 – 1574).
Beautiful, intelligent and immoral, Charlotte became a member of the special squadron of beauties kept by the queen mother to entrap various nobles into line with her plans. She proved extremely successful as a sexual adventuress. She was married firstly to Simon de Pizes, and secondly to Francois de La Tremoille, Marquis de Noirmoutiers and became the Marquise de Noirmoutiers, being the mother of his son Louis I de La Tremoille (1586 – 1613) who succeeded his father as Marquis de Noirmoutiers (1608 – 1613) and left issue Louis II de La Tremoille (died 1660) who was created Duc de Noirmoutier.
Charlotte became the mistress of Catherine’s son Francois, Duc d’Alencon and then of her son-in-law Henry of Navarre. Charlotte was also the mistress of Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Guise and was with him the night before his assassination at Blois (Dec 23, 1588). During the reign of Henry IV (1588 – 1617) Madame de Noirmoutiers attended the Bourbon court but though she was received there by the royal family, she never lived down her previous sacandalous reputation. With the death of her husband (Feb, 1608), she became the Dowager Marquise de Noirmoutiers. Madame de Noirmoutiers died (Sept 30, 1617) aged sixty-six. Charlotte appears as a character in the historical novel entitled Evergreen Gallant (1965) by British novelist Jean Plaidy.

Sauve, Jeanne Mathilde – (1922 – 1993)
Canadian politician, journalist and public broadcaster
Born Jeanne Benoit (April 26, 1992) at Prudhomme in Saskatchewan, she attended university in Ottawa before travelling to France to continue her education in Paris. Jeanne was married (1948) to Maurice Sauve, who remained loyally by her side throughout her public career. Madamoiselle Benoit served as the National President of the Jeunesse Etudiante Catholique in Montreal (1942 – 1947) and after her marriage worked for UNESCO in Paris. With her return to Canada she became a journalist and broadcaster with CBC.
After joining politics she served as Member of Parliament for Montreal-Ahuntsic (1972) under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, and was appointed Secretary of State for Science and Technology and then minister for Communications (1975 – 1979). Madame Sauve was later appointed as the first female Speaker of the House of Commons and served as Governor-General of Canada (1984). She strove to do what was best for the country in general but was criticized by some for her formality. Her closure of the vice-regal residence of Rideau Hall, for security reasons, what particularly resented by the Canadian public. Jeanne Sauve died (Jan 26, 1993) aged seventy, in Montreal, Quebec.

Savage, Aileen    see   Pringle, Aileen

Savage, Ann – (1921 – 2008)
American film actress
Born Bernice Maxine Lyon (Feb 19, 1921) in Columbia, South Carolina, she was raised in Los Angeles, California. She trained as an actress under Max Rheinhardt at his workshop on Sunset Boulevard and adopted the professional name of ‘Ann Savage.’ She joined the Columbia Studio and appeared in such films as What a Woman (1943) with Jean Arthur and Rosalind Russell, Footlight Glamour (1943), Two Senoritas from Chicago (1943) with Joan Davis and Jinx Falkenberg, and Klondike Kate (1944) opposite Tom Neal.
Savage teamed up with Neal in several more films such as Two Man Submarine and The Unwritten Code, but was best remembered for her appearance opposite Neal as the predatory female in the cult movie Detour (1945). Her career declined during the 1950’s and she trained as a secretary before finally working as a receptionist in a legal firm. Savage made a popular comeback role in Guy Maddin’s film My Winnipeg (2007) for which performance she was rumoured to receive an Academy Award nomination (though this di not happen). Ann Savage died (Dec 25, 2008) aged eighty-seven.

Savage, Ethel Mary    see    Dell, Ethel M.

Savage, Jane – (fl. c1780 – 1790)
British Hanoverian composer
Jane Savage was the daughter of William Savage, a gentleman-in-ordinary of the Chapel Royal. A noted virtuoso on the keyboard, and composer of keyboard music and songs, she produced the cantatas Strephan and Flavia (c1790) and Six Rondos (c1790).

Savang Vadhana – (1862 – 1955)
Queen consort of Thailand
Sang Vadhana was born (Sept 10, 1862), the daughter of King Rama IV (Mongkut) and Princess Piam. She was married to her half-brother, King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), to whom she bore seven children and was his highest ranking consort. Savang Vadhana was the grandmother to kings Ananda Mahidol (Rama VII) and Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX). As a widow the queen was granted the title of Sri Savarindira (1935). Queen Savang Vadhana died (Dec 17, 1955) aged ninety-three.

Saverstia Angelina     see    Militza Nemanjovica

Savic-Rebac, Anita – (1892 – 1953) 
Serbian poet and scholar
Anita Savic-Rebac became a professor of Classical Philology. Anita was better known for her study of the great Montenegrin poet Njegos, whose work she translated into English. Fluent herself in Greek, Latin, German, and English, Anita published a volume of her own poems (1929) and was admired by Dame Rebecca West and Thomas Mann.

Saville, Helena     see     Faucit, Helena

Savina, Maria – (1854 – 1915)
Russian stage actress
Maria Savina trained and performed at the Aleksandrinski Theatre in St Petersburg. A frail, lady-like performer, Maria specialized in playing youthful heroines who possessed an iron reserve beneath a fragile exterior. A defender of the rights and interests of the Russian theatrical community in general, Maria represented her fellow performers at the Council of the Russian Theatrical Society, and founded a retirement facility for elderly actors.

Savitch, Jessica – (1948 – 1983)
American television reporter and weekend anchorwoman
Savitch was born (Feb 2, 1948) in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. She began her television career as a reporter attached to KHOU-TV in Houston, Texas, after which she moved to network television before anchoring the Nightly News (1977) and with News Digest. She covered the 1980 presidential campaign, and received four Emmy Awards. Her personal life was riddled with tragedy, and she published her autobiography Anchorwoman (1982). Jessica Savitch was tragically killed (Oct 23, 1983) aged only thirty-five, in New Hope, Pennsylvania, when she was drowned in a car accident.

Savoia, Amadea Anna di – (1730 – 1813)
Italian noblewoman
Amadea Anna di Savoia was the illegitimate daughter of Vittorio Amadeo I of Savoy, the reigning prince of Carignano (1709 – 1741) and his French mistress, Jeanne Elisabeth le Lyon. Amadea had an elder full-brother named Vittorio Amadeo (born 1728). Amadea Anna was officially recognized by her royal father, and was styled Madamigella di Villafranca (Madamoiselle de Villafranque). She was later married to Conte Giuseppe Bigeard di Saint-Maurice.

Savoia, Marianna Luigia di – (c1714 – 1769)
Italian noblewoman
Mariann Luigia di Savoia was the illegitimate daughter of Vittorio Amadeo I of Savoy, the reigning Prince of Carignano (1709 – 1741) and his mistress, Felicita Para di Marignan. Marianna had an elder full-brother named Giovannino (born c1712). She never married and became a nun at Pinerolo.

Savorgnan, Maria Late – (fl. c1490 – 1501) 
Italian poet
Maria Savorgnan was born of a Venetian patrician family, and became romantically involved with the poet Pietro Bembo. The two exchanged letters and poetry, which survived, and were published over four hundred years later (1950). Her work forms part of the Petrarchan tradition.

Savvishna, Maria    see   Perekusikhina, Maria

Sawyer, Susan Fontaine – (1864 – 1947)
American author
Susan Fontaine was born (Aug 21, 1864) in Hinds County, Mississippi, the daughter of a clergyman plantation owner. She was educated at home under the direction of a governess prior to being attending St Margaret’s Hall in Jackson. She then studied art in New Orleans in Louisiana, and worked as a teacher prior to her marriage with James Sawyer. She published the work The Priestess of the Hills (1928). Susan Sawyer died (May 15, 1947) aged eighty-two, in Vicksburg.

Saxey, Jocosa    see    Frankland, Jocosa

Say, Eustacia de – (fl. c1130 – after 1154)
Anglo-Norman religious founder and patron
Eustacia de Say was probably sister to Sir William Say (died 1144), who had married Beatrice de Mandeville, the divorced wife of Hugh Talbot. Eustacia was married (before 1130) to Hugh FitzOsbern, and their marriage is recorded in the cartulary of Worcester Cathedral Priory. The couple had a son Osbert fizHugh, who is attested by a surviving charter. About 1155 Eustacia, then perhaps a widow, founded the priory of Westwood, probably as the place of her own retirement from the world.
This lady is sometimes identified with the Eustacia who held the title of comitissa (countess), who was related to Henry II (1154 – 1189), and married firstly to Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, and secondly to Anselm, comte de St Pol. However, this lady was acutally a natural daughter of Eustace of Boulogne, son and joint-king of England with Stephen of Blois, and thus a relative of Henry II. So she remains a completley different figure from the Eustacia who founded Westwood priory.

Say, Margaret de – (c1192 – 1242)
English mediaeval heiress
Margaret de Say was the daughter of Hugh de Say, the keeper of Norton Castle, Radnor, and his wife Mabel, the daughter of Robert Marmion. She was married firstly to Hugh de Ferrieres. With Hugh’s death the custody of Margaret and her estates was then granted by King John (1205) to Thomas of Galloway (later Earl of Atholl), who had originally intended to marry her himself, and had offerred one thousand marks for her lands. However, when Thomas was was disgraced (1210) she was married secondly to Robert de Mortimer (died 1219), of Richard’s Castle. Margaret appointed Richard her attorney against the claims of a relative, Gilbert de Saay, and others, against whom she had to protect her rights to her inheritance. She later remarried thirdly to William de Stuteville (died 1259) who survived her. Margaret was a benefactress of Worcester Priory and Lanthony Abbey and died before the autumn of 1242.

Saye and Sele, Christobella Tyrrell, Viscountess – (1695 – 1789)
British Haoverian peeress and society figure
Christobella Tyrrell was the first daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Tyrrell, second and last baronet, of Castlethorpe in Buckinghamshire, and his wife Dorothy Eyre. She was married firstly to John Knapp, of Cumnor, Berkshire, and secondly to John Pigott (died 1751), of Doddershall, Buckingham. Christobella Pigott took as her third and last husband, Richard Fiennes (1716 – 1781), the sixth and last Viscount Saye and Sele, a peer twenty years her junior. The marriage took place at Hillesden, Buckinghamshire (1753), but remained childless. Christobella survived her husband as the Dowager Viscountess Saye and Sele (1781 – 1789).
Christobella was a prominent social figure, and the Gentleman’s Magazine (1789) left this account of her life, ‘She tasted the good things of this world and enjoyed them long … she dressed, even at the close of life, more like a girl of eighteen than a woman of 90…. She was supposed to be the Viscountess delineated in Hogarth’s print of the Five Orders of Periwigs, Coronets, etc. Her favourite pastime was dancing, and she indulged it almost till the last week of her life.” She left many charitable bequests in her will. Lady Christobella died (July 23, 1789) aged ninety-four, at her mansion in Queen Street, Mayfair, and was buried with her last husband at Grendon Underwood, Buckinghamshire.

Sayer, Ettie – (c1870 – 1923)
British physician and medical author
Ettie Sayer was born in Bacton in Norfolk, the daughter of William Sayer. Educated at Paighton, Devon, and at the University College, London, with further stuies at the Queen Charlotte Hospital, she graduated as a surgeon (1899), and devoted herself to the care of the mentally ill. Ettie was appointed honorary medical officer to the Society for Distressed Gentlefolks and consulting physician to the National Society for the Welfare of the Feeble-minded. She paid official visits to concentration camps in South Africa during the Boer War, and also visited the leper colony on Robben Island. Her written works included Effects of Electric Currents upon Blood-Pressure and the Textbook for Nurses on Medical Electricity and Light. Ettie Sayer died in London.

Sayers, Dorothy Leigh – (1893 – 1957) 
British detective novelist, religious writer, dramatist and poet
Dorothy Sayers was born in Oxford, and attended school in Salsibury, Wiltshire, before going on to study at Somerville College, where she studied modern languages. She was trained as a teacher but later worked as a journalist. Dorothy was married (1926) to Captain Oswald Fleming. Sayers was best remembered for her detective novels such as Whose Body? (1923), Clouds of Witness (1926), and The Nine Tailors (1934), featuring her aristocratic sleuth, Lord Peter Wimsey. Her other popular works included Strong Poison (1930), Gaudy Night (1935) and Busman’s Holiday (1933). Apart from translating Dante’s Inferno (1949) and Purgatorio (1955), Sayers wrote the popular radioplay series The Man to be King (1942).

Sayers, Peig – (1873 – 1958)
Irish Gaelic storyteller and author
Peig Sayers was born in Dunquin in County Kerry, and spent most of her life as a resident of the Great Basket Island. Sayers collected an enormous amount of detail concerning the ancient Gaelic traditions of Ireland, and her extensive knowledge in this field caused her to be treated with respect and awe by scholars, despite her lack of scholarly education. Her memoirs were published posthumously as Machtnamh Sean-Mna (An Old Woman’s Reflections) (1962).

Sayn, Adelaide von (Adelheid) – (c1188 – 1263)
German mediaeval heiress and countess
Countess Adelaide von Sayn was the eldest daughter and heiress of Count Heinrich II von Sayn (died c1204) and his wife Agnes von Saffenberg, the daughter of Count Hermann von Saffenberg (died 1172). She was married firstly (1203) to Count Godfrey of Sponheim (c1170 – 1223) and became the Countess of Sponheim (1203 – 1223). With his death Adelaide became the Dowager Countess of Sponheim (1223 – 1236). She remarried secondly (1236) to Count Eberhard IV of Eberstein (c1185 – 1263) becoming his second wife. This marriage remained without issue.
With the death of her brother Count Heinrich III von Sayn (1247) Adelaide inherited the counties of Sayn, Blankenburg, Lewenberg and Kreuznach, which passed to the descendants of her first marriage. She survived her second husband for eight months as the Dowager Countess of Eberstein and died (Nov 22, 1263) aged about seventy-five. Her six sons from her first marriage included Marquard of Sponheim (c1204 – 1227) who was appointed Abbot of Sponheim as a child (1214), and Johann I (c1205 – 1266), Count of Sponheim and Sayn, Heinrich I (cc1207 – c1259), Count of Sponheim-Blankenburg, and Simon I (c1209 – 1265), Count of Sponheim-Kreuznach, who all left descendants.

Sayyidah     see    Arwa

Scala, Alessandra – (1475 – 1506) 
Italian poet
Alessandra Scala was the youngest daughter of Bartolomeo Scala, chancellor of Florence under the Medici. Highly educated in Greek and Latin, her tutors included Giano Lascari and Angelo Poliziano, who both courted her because of her intelligence and great beauty. Poliziano himself wrote several Greek epigrams in her praise, and Alessandra wrote epigrams of her own in return. Through Poliziano she met the Venetian humourist Cassandra Fedele, with whom Alessandra conducted a lengthy correspondence. Alessandra married the Greek soldier, Michele Marullo Tarcaniota, himself a poet of some note. Her husband died in 1500, drowning whilst attempting the cross the river Cecina, near Volterra, and Alessansra retired to the convent of San Pier Maggiore in Florence, where she remained until her death.

Scalchi, Sofia – (1850 – 1922)
Italian mezzo-soprano possessed of unusual range
Scalchi was born (Nov 29, 1850) in Turin, Piedmont, and studied under the soprano Luigia Boccabadati. Sofia made her stage debut in Un ballo in maschera (1866) in Mantua, and then toured Europe and the USA with considerable success, appearing in Covent Garden in London. She made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera in New York in Gounod’s Faust (1883). Sofia was later married (1875) to the Italian peer, Conte Luigi Lolli, and retired in 1896. Scalchi spent her retirement at her villa in Turin. Sofia Scalchi died (Aug 22, 1922) aged seventy-four, in Rome.

Scaravaglione, Concetta – (1900 – 1975)
American sculptor
Concetta Scaravaglione was best known for the utilisation of wood, terra cotta, copper, bronze, and other materials, which she incorporated into her works. Some of her work is preserved in the Whitney Museum of American Art and in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Concetta Scaravaglione died in the Bronx, New York.

Scarborough, Ethel – (1880 – 1956)
British composer, pianist, and politician
Frances Ethel Scarborough was born (Jan 10, 1880) at Crouch End, London. She studied harmony under Philip Scharwenka in Berlin in Prussia then returned to England for further study at the Royal Academy of Music (1900 – 1903). Scarborough published a considerable amount of work, including piano concertos, a symphony (1909), orchestral and choral pieces, and song cycles. Her best known works were the orchestral fantasy Promise (1923) and the suite Moods (1925). From 1925 onwards she was actively involved with the Labour Party, and was defeated as the candidate for Ebbw Vale in favour of Aneurin Bevan. Ethel Scarborough died (Dec 9, 1956) aged seventy-six, at Graffham, Sussex.

Scariberga – (c495 AD – c550)
Merovingian nun and saint
Scariberga was the daughter of Sigivaldus, dux of the Auvergne, and his wife Lantechilde, sister to Clovis I, king of the Salian Franks (481 AD – 511). Scariberga was married (c510) to Arnulf, Bishop of Tours, but left no children. Arnulf was later murdered by Scariberga’s servants in the church of St Remigius at Rheims (c534). Scariberga then became a nun, perhaps at Chartres, where she died. Scariberga was venerated as a saint (July 18) her feast recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Scatcherd, Felicia Rudolphina – (c1853 – 1927)
British scientific author and psychic researcher
Felicia Scatcherd was born in London, the daughter of Watson Scatcherd and his wife Emily Frances Crofton. She travelled extensively throughout the East, and gave lectures on psychology, the social sciences, and on the situations of the oppressed indigent populations of these varying regions. Felicia became the editor of the Asiatic Review, and was a member of the council oif the East India Association, assiting W.J. Stead with the founding of Julia’s Bureau.
A vice-president of the Stead Bureau and of the Greek Socilaist Party and Greek Labour League, her especial interest was in the area of psychic research, and Felicia was the official delegate to the International Psychic Research Congress, which was held in Paris (1926). She contributed articles to many papers and magazines, concerning the near East, Armenian and Russian issues, and was the author of Human Radioactivity and Sir William Crookes as Psychical Researcher.

Scauniperga (Scanniperga) – (fl. 736 – 758)
Italian princess and ruler of Benevento
Scanniperga was the wife (736) of Duke Gisulf II of Benevento. She was obviously of royal birth, as her marriage was arranged by King Liutprand of Lombardy. It was recorded by Paulus Diakonus (Paul the Deacon) in his Historia Langobardorum, who styled the princess Scaunipergam nobili ortam progenie, and by the Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti. With her husband’s death (751) Duchess Scauniperga ruled the duchy of Benevento as regent for her young son, Duke Liutprand, her only child. Eventually Liutprand became involved in a conspiracy against Desiderius, King of Lombardy, who then caused the duke to be deposed (758), and then bestowed the Beneventan dukedom upon his own son-in-law, Arichis II.

Scepens, Elisabeth – (fl. c1450 – c1490)
Flemish mediaeval bookbinder and illuminator
As a young girl Elisabeth Scepens was trained under Willem Vrelandt, the noted bookbinder of Bruges. With his death (c1476) Elisabeth continued her apprentice under his widow Madame Vrelandt. Elisabeth was a member of the artists’ guild in Bruges (1476 – 1489) and worked on illuminated manuscripts.

Schanzkowska, Franziska – (1896 – 1984)
Polish imposter
Franziska Schanzkowska worked in a munitions factory during WWI before being injured in a work related incident. After attempting suicide she was placed in a sanitorium where she claimed to be firstly Tatiana, and then Anastasia Romanov, daughters of Tsar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, who were massacred with their parents at Ekaterinburg in Siberia (July, 1918). She adopted the name of ‘Anna Anderson’ and for the rest of her life she tried to prove this identity, in order to claim a supposed Imperial fortune secreted in European banks. Her case was opposed by a real Romanov relative, Duchess Barbara of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and was tested in the German court intermittently between 1933 and 1970.
It was during this time that her real identity was uncovered, her Slavic accent and apparent inability to speak the Russian language strongly prejudicing her case, and the courts judged that neither case could be proved. Schanzkowska relatives were traced who identified ‘Anna’ as Franziska, but she refused to acknowledge them. As ‘Anna Anderson’ she lived as a recluse in Germany, and became increasingly eccentric. However, after a visit to the USA she was married to a retired academic, John Manahan (1969), who supported her claims, and died there (Feb 12, 1984). A Russian report confirmed that the real Anastasia had been killed with her family (1994), and DNA evidence used from a surviving medical sample, proved her relationship with the Schanzkowska family beyond a doubt.

Schardt, Susannah Katherina – (1872 – 1934)
Australian hospital founder, organizer and activist for the blind
Schardt was born blind at Queanbeyan, near Canberra, the daughter of German immigrants. She was sent to Sydney as achild to be educated at the Blind School there. Her family later moved to Sydney and she became at visitor at Camperdown Hospital. She established small hospices in cottages for incurable patients at her home in Riley Street, and another in Cleveland Street in Redfern, which became known as The Commonwealth Home for Destitute Invalids.
Schardt received assistance from the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Harry Rawson, and Sir George Reid, and the New South Wales Homes for Incurables was established at Weemala at Ryde (1907). This later evolved into the Royal Ryde Homes (1954) and finally developed into the Royal Ryde Rehabilitation Hospital. Schardt travelled all around the state, giving lectures and raising an enormous amount of funds for her project. Susannah Schardt died aged sixty-two in Sydney.

Scharlieb, Dame Mary Ann Dacomb – (1845 – 1930) 
British physician and gynaecological surgeon
Mary Scharlieb accompanied her barrister husband to India (1866). There she trained as a physician at the Medical School in Madras, and returned to England to finish her studies at the Royal Free Hospital in London. Scharlieb devoted her talents to abdominal complaints, and despite her unusualness of female physicians, she insisted that their sphere be contained to women and children.
With her retirement, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson assisted in obtaining for Scharlieb the post of Chief Surgeon at the New Hospital. She founded the Victoria Hospital for Caste and Gosha Women, and gave lectures at the Madras Medical College. During WW I Scharlieb formed the Women’s Medical Service in India, and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V in recognition of her valuable work amongst poor Indian women. She published her Reminiscences (1924).

Scharrer, Berta Vogel – (1906 – 1995) 
German-American endocrinologist
Born Berta Vogel in Munich, Bavaria, where she received her education, she was married (1934) to fellow student Ernst Scharrer (died 1965), who trained as a physician, whilst Berta trained as a schoolteacher. Berta accompanied her husband to the USA where he took up an appointment at the Western Reserve University (1940). Though unable by law to hold an official appointment because they were married, Berta collaborated closely with her husband’s research in neurosecretion in the endocrine system, which made important biological breakthroughs. With her husband’s death she was appointed as professor of anatomy at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine in New York. Berta Scharrer was later elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1978).

Schaumburg, Gertrude Falkenstein, Countess von   see   Falkenstein, Gertrude

Schauroth, Delphine Adolphine von – (1814 – 1887)
Bavarian pianist and composer
Delphine von Schauroth was born in Magdeburg and studied under Friedrich Kaltenbrunner. Felix Mendelssohn was much taken with her, and inscribed a dedication to Delphine in the margins of his manuscript of Venetianische Gondellied (1830). Her own works included Piano Sonata in A minor (1835) and Caprice (1836).

Schenken, Bee – (1916 – 1993) 
American bridge player
Born Beatrice Krevitz, as a married woman Bee Schenken won in national women’s team bridge championships in 1958, 1960, 1961, 1964, 1968 and 1969, and also won a national mixed pairs title (1957). Bee played successfully with her husband Howard Schenken (died 1979), with whom she won eight open-air victories in the international tournament at Deauville, in France. Mrs Schenken was also prominent in various philanthropic causes and supported the Red Cross and the United Jewish Appeal. Bee Schenken died (Oct 5, 1993) aged seventy-seven, in Manhattan, New York.

Schiaparelli, Elsa – (1890 – 1973)
Italian-French fashion designer and coutouriere
Elsa Schiaparelli was born in Rome, the daughter of an academic linguist. She studied philosophy and worked in the USA as a film scriptwriter and as a translator. With her abandonment by her husband, Elsa took her young daughter and resided in Paris. There she experimented with clothing design, achieving great success with a black sweater with a white bow, which was popular in the USA, and the orders for which enabled her to establish herself as a fashion designer (1929). Establishing her own famous salon in the Place Vendome, she was noted for her bold use of colour, particularly ‘shocking pink,’ and her outlandish, but sylish hats. She later established a salon in New York (1949), and was was married to the Belgian peer, Comte de Wendt de Kerlor. She published her memoirs Shocking Life (1954).

Schiff, Dorothy – (1903 – 1989)
American newspaper publisher
Schiff was born (March 11, 1903) in New York. She was the president and owner of the New York Post for over thirty years (1942 – 1976) which she sold to Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Dorothy Schiff died (Aug 30, 1989) aged eighty-six, in New York.

Schindler, Alma     see    Mahler, Alma

Schiria – (fl. c500 – c550)
Irish virgin saint
Schiria was the daughter of Prince Eugene, the great-grandson of Fergus, brother to King Nial ‘Negelliach. Her sister Corcaria Keann also became a nun. Regarded a saint, the church of Killskire (Killkire) in Meath was named in her honour.

Schirmacher, Kate – (1859 – 1930)
German feminist and suffrage campaigner
She was the author of The Modern Rights Movement (1905).

Schittenheim, Eva Gisela    see   Helm, Brigitte

Schjelderup, Mon – (1870 – 1934)
Norwegian pianist and composer
Maria Gustava Schjelderup was born (June 16, 1870) at Halden. She studied under Agather Backer-Grondahl and Gustav Lange in Christiania, where she later worked as a teacher at the conservatory (1899 – 1906). She composed songs, orchestral pieces, and chamber suites. She composed the prelude to Henrik Ibsen’s The Wild Duck (1894), 4 Bagatelles (1903) and Serenade, op. 55 (1906), both for the piano. Mon Schjelderup died (Nov 21, 1934) aged sixty-four, in Oslo.

Schlaff, Marjorie    see   Riordan, Marjorie

Schleswig-Holstein, Countess von    see    Munk, Kristina

Schliemann, Sophia – (1852 – 1930)
German literary figure
Sophia Engastromenus was born in Greece. She became the youthful wife of Heinrich Schliemann (1822 – 1890), who discovered the city of Troy, and was three decades her senior. Her husband is said to have discovered the treasure of the family of King Priam, which were rather inaccurately described as belonging to the famous Helen of Troy. There remains a photograph of Sophia wearing some of these fabulous items of jewellery, but what finally became of them has never been discovered. Sophia and her husband were the subjects of the biographical novel entitled The Greek Treasure (1975) by Irving Stone.

Schlotheim, Caroline von – (1766 – 1847)
German courtier
Caroline von Schlotheim was born (July 6, 1766). Caroline became the longtime mistress of Wilhelm I (1743 – 1821), elector of Hesse-Kassel. Despite their long association Caroline posed no threat to the legal position of the Electress Wilhelmine, who was the daughter of Fredrik V, King of Denmark. Caroline bore Wilhelm ten children who were later legitimated (1800) and granted the titles of counts and countesses von Hessenheim. She was created Countess von Schlotheim (1811) and survived her royal lover for almost three decades (1821 – 1847). Madame von Schlotheim died (Jan 7, 1847) aged eighty.

Schlozer, Dorothea von    see   Rodde, Dorothea von

Schmidt, Augusta – (1833 – 1902)
German feminist and educator
Augusta Schmidt was appointed principal of the Women’s Teacher Training College in Leipzig, Saxony, where her pupils included the socialist leader Clara Zetkin. Schmidt was elected as leader of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein (General German Women’s Association) (1888), and served as president of the Bund Deutscher Frauenverein (Federation of German Women’s Associations) (1894 – 1899). Schmidt disliked radical feminism and was a firm believer in the sanctity of married life and the family.

Schmidtlein, Guadalupe    see    Amor, Pita

Schneeweiss, Amalie    see   Joachim, Amalie

Schneider, Ekaterina Adolfovna – (1856 – 1918)
German-Russian courtier
Ekaterina was the daughter of Adolf Schneider and was trained in languages. She remained unmarried and worked as a governess. She was originally engaged to teach Russian to the daughters of Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. With the marriage of Alexandra of Hesse to Nicholas II of Russia (1894) where she was engaged as reader (lectrice) and teacher to the Imperial children. Madamoiselle Schneider shared the captivity of the Imperial family from 1917 but was later murdered by soldiers soon after the Imperial family’s arrival at Ekaterinburg.

Schneider, Elly Annie – (1914 – 2004)
German-American midget actress
Born in Stolpen in Germany, Schneider was best known for her appearances in the classic film Freaks (1932) and for her role as one of the Munchkin villagers in The Wizard of Oz (1939) with Judy Garland. Schneider died (Sept 6, 2004).

Schneider, Hortense Catherine – (1833 – 1920)
French dancer, soprano, and stage actress
Schneider was born (April 30, 1833) in Bordeaux. She created the title roles in Jacques Offenbach’s operettas La belle Helene (1864) and La Grande Duchesse de Gerolstein (1867), and played the lead role of Boulotte in Barbe-bleue (1866). Hortense was a friend to the Prince of Wales, the son of Queen Victoria, and she was portrayed in the television series Edward VII (1975) by Polish actress Rula Lenska. Hortense Schneider retired in 1880, and survived her years of fame by many decades. Hortense Schneider died (May 5, 1920) aged eighty-seven.

Schneider, Romy – (1938 – 1982)
Austrian film actress
Rose-Marie Schneider was the daughter of actor Wolf Albach-Retty, and his wife, the popular vocalist Magda Schneider. She made her film debut in White Lilies (1952) which also starred her mother. Schneider appeared in over sixty films, and received international acclaim after appearing in Luchino Visconti’s film Boccaccio ’70 (1961). She was best known for her roles in the movies L’Mmportant c’Est Aimer (1976) and Une Histoire Simple (1979), for which she won Cesar Awards. 
Schneider appeared with Otto Preminger in The Cardinal. Schneider worked in the USA and made several comic films there including Good Neighbor Sam (1964), with Jack Lemon and What’s New Pussycat (1965), with Peter Sellers and Woody Allen. Romy Schneider died (May 29, 1982) aged forty-three, in Paris. Her death was probably suicide, caused by severe depression at the death of her young son (1981).

Schneiderman, Rose – (1882 – 1972)
American trade unionist, social reformer and labour leader
Rachel Schneiderman was born (April 6, 1882) in Poland, the daughter of a tailor, and immigrated to the USA as a child (1892). With the early death of her father and her mother’s inability to cope, Rose went to work in factories during her early teenage years. As a member of the American labour organization Rose was appointed to a union executive board (1904) but later worked through the Women’s Trade Union League, and was an organizer and popular speaker with the NAWA (National American Women’s Association) (1913).
During the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rose became the only woman to serve in the National Recovery Administration (1933 – 1935) and was appointed seceretary of the New York State Department of Labour (1937 – 1943). She published memoirs entitled All for one (1967). Rose Schneiderman died (Aug 10, 1972) aged eighty-eight, in New York.

Schnitzer, Germaine – (1887 – 1982)
French pianist and composer
Schnitzer was born (May 28, 1887) in Paris, and graduated from the Paris Conservatoire (1901) and studied piano with Raoul Pugno and Emil Sauer. From 1904 she toured with conductors such as Georges Enesco and Wilhelm Furtwangler. Germaine was married (1913) to Dr Leo Buerger, and settled in America, where she gave concerts of Robert Schumann’s music, performing whilst dressed as his wife Clara. Her playing was highly acclaimed but in 1931 she became partly paralyzed and was forced to retire, though she was awarded considerable damages. In 1944 she was fined after being involved in dubious financial dealings with the Bank of Brussels. Germaine Schnitzer died (Sept 18, 1982) aged ninety-five, in Manhattan, New York.

Schnorr von Karolsfeld, Malvina – (c1837 – 1904)
German operatic soprano
Born Malvina Garrigues, she became the wife of the noted tenor, Louis Schnorr von Karolsfeld (1836 – 1865). She performed in Tristan with her husband at Munich in Bavaria (1865), and crested the operatic role of Isolde. Malvina Schnorr von Karolsfeld died at Karlsruhe, Baden.

Schoen, Barbara Taylor – (1932 – 1993)
American novelist
Schoen was born in Manhattan, New York and attended bryn Mawr College and Boston University. She worked as a technician in the Department of Biophysics at the Harvard Medical School.
Schoen wrote articles for magazines, and published two novels A Place and a Time (1967) and A Spark of Joy (1969). She became a teacher (1970) at the Cooperative College in Mount Vernon, where she became an assistant professor of language arts (1973) and later an associate professor (1978). She became the founder (1984) and director of the writing program at the State University of New York at Purchase. Barbara Taylor Schoen died (Sept 2, 1993) aged sixty-nine, at Purchase, New York.

Schofield, Sylvia Anne – (1916 – 2006)
British intelligence operative, novelist, and traveller
Born Sylvia Terry-Smith (May 28, 1916) in London, she attended Wimbledon Technical College and then began working as a journalist for a women’s magazine. With the beginning of WW II Sylvia joined the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office, where she prepared news reports and wrote pamphlets for the morale of the troops. She later served as a field correspondent in Algiers.
After the war she travelled to India where she wrote film scripts and travelled into Rajasthan and Baluchistan. She trained as an archaeologist and visited the Bugti tribal region of Baluchistan where she met Henry Schofield, whom she married as her second husband (1956). Sylvia resided in Iran with her husband (1965 – 1979) until the Revolution forced them to return to Britain. She wrote mystery novels using the pseudonym ‘Max Mundy,’ and published an account of her time among the Bugti entitled The Tigers of Baluchistan (1967). Sylvia Schofield died (March 2, 2006) aged eighty-nine.

Scholastica (1) – (c365 – 391 AD)  
Gallo-Roman Christian
Scholastica was the wife of senator Injurieux, from Clermont-Ferrand, in Gaul. Their marriage (390 AD) was recorded by Gregory of Tours in his Historia Francorum, but last only a year. Deeply religious, the couple had remained chaste during their married life and the union was not consummated. Injurieux pronounced her public eulogy, returning her to God ‘as intact as when he had received her.’ The senator died himself a few months afterwards, and they were interred together in the same mausoleum. According to the popular legend, his tomb was found empty the next day, his corpse being located in his wife’s tomb, they were found embracing each other in death.

Scholastica (2) – (c480 AD – 543)
Italian nun and saint
Scholastica was born in Nursia, traditionally the twin sister of St Benedict, abbot of Monte Cassino. Most of the details known of her life were recorded in the Dialogues of St Gregory the Great. Scholastica established a convent at Plombariola, not far from her brother, though they visited each other only once a year, lest their affection for each other distract them from their religious work. She predeceased Benedict and was revered as a saint (Feb 10). St Scholastica was the patron of nuns and convulsive children, and was invoked against storms and rain. Her statue survives at the monastery of Montecassino, and at the Benedictine abbey of Melk in Austria.

Scholastica (3) – (c1210 – 1269)
English nun
Scholastica became a nun at the Benedictine convent of St Helens at Bishopsgate in London, which had been founded (1212 – c1214) by William, the son of William the Goldsmith in the reign of King John. According to the lists preserved in the Victoria History of the Counties of England (1909), Scholastica was elected as prioress after the death of Matilda (c1255) and is recorded in that office in (1256) and (1265). Prioress Scholastica died in office and was succeeded by Felicia de Basinges.

Scholastica of Saxony – (1395 – 1463)
German duchess consort of Silesia-Sagan
Princess Scholastica of Saxony was the only child of Rudolf III of Saxe-Wittenberg, Elector of Saxony and his first wife Anna of Thuringia, the daughter of Balthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia. She was married (c1408) to Johann I (1385 – 1439), Duke of Silesia-Sagan in Poland, and became his duchess consort (c1408 – 1439). Scolastica survived her husband for over two decades as the Dowager Duchess of Sagan (1439 – 1463). Duchess Scholastica died (May 12, 1463) and left ten children,

Scholl, Sophie – (1922 – 1943)
German political figure and anti-Nazi figure
Sophie trained as a medical student in Munich, Bavaria, and became horrified by the activities of the Nazis. Together with her brother, an academic and three other students, Sophie published The White Rose pamphlet which called for the sabotage and overthrow of Adolf Hitler and his supporters. All were arrested and executed in Munich.

Scholtz-Klink, Gertrud – (1902 – 1999)
German Nazi leader
Born Gertrud Treusch (Feb 9, 1902), she was married (1920) to a postal worker, to whom she bore six children before his early death. She remarried twice after that. Gertrud had always been interested in politics and had followed the German worker’s party, the National Socialists, before she ultimately joined the Nazi Party and became leader of their women’s organization in Baden prior to 1929.
With the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, she was appointed (1933) as leader of the women of the new Reich, and her oratorical skills were put to good use by the Nazi propaganda machine, urging healthy German women to produce sons for the war effort, and work for the war effort. During the later years of the war, Scholtz-Klink made visits to various concentration camps. With the fall of Hitler she fled into hiding, and was not arrested until 1948. A French court sentenced her to a mere eighteen months in prison, and she was then released. Scholtz-Klink survived her Nazi activities for more than five decades but remained unrepentant. Gertrud Scholtz-Klink died (March 24, 1999) aged ninety-seven.

Schomberg-Halluin, Duchesse de    see   Hautefort, Marie de

Schonbrunn-Cassel, Mrs    see   Cassel, Wilhelmina

Schonemann, Dame Aud – (1922 – 2006)
Norwegian stage and television actress, and comedienne
Schonemann was born (Nov 13, 1922). She appeared in over four dozen films, but was best known for the role of Valborg Jensen in the popular Olsenbanden films. Her work in the industry was recognized when she was created as Knight (Dame) of the Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav (1993) by King Carl XVI Gustaf. Dame Aud Schonemann died (Oct 30, 2006) aged eighty-three.

Schonetta of Nassau – (1370 – 1436)
Flemish duchess consort of Brunswick
Countess Schonetta of Nassau was the fourth daughter of Johann I, Count of Nassau-Saarsbrucken and his second wife Countess Johanna of Saarsbrucken, the daughter of Johann II, Count of Nassau-Saarsbrucken. She was married firstly (1384) to Count Heinrich X of Homburg and became his consort. She survived Heinrich as the Dowager Countess of Homburg. Schonetta was then solicited as a dynastic bride for Otto IV (1381 – 1453), Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, she being a decade his senior.
The marriage duly took place (1414) the new duchess consort (1414 – 1436) being almost forty-five years of age, and as any hope of children from this projected royal alliance must have been minimal, the political considerations must have been a priority. The marriage remained childless and Duchess Schonetta died (April 25, 1436) aged about sixty-six. She was interred within Hildesheim Cathedral. A sepulchral stone in the wall of the Chapel of The Three Kings in the Cathedral bore the following inscription to her memory,

Anno Domini MCCCCXXXVI die Sancti Mariae Evangelistae obit
SCHONETTA de Nassauewe Ducissa Brunsvicensis, cujus
Anima recquisat in pace.

Schoop, Trudi – (1904 – 1999)
Swiss-American dancer therapist
Trudi Schoop was born in Zurich, the daughter of a newspaper editor. A comic performer, she was often referred to as a female Charlie Chaplin because of her innate ability to combine pathos and gaiety into her character. Her performances highlighted a central character who sufferred comic misadventures, being noted especially in the role of the male character in Fridolin on the Road (1935), and the ungainly but likeable servant girl in Blonde Marie (1937). During the 1930’s she made several tours of the United States, accompanied by the impressario Sol Hurok. During World War II Trudi remained in Switzerland as a cabaret performer, but later went to America, where she began a new career in Los Angeles, California as a therapist, pioneering the use of dance movement as a successful treatment for schizophrenia.

Schoultz, Solveig von – (1907 – 1996)
Finnish poet and writer
Solveig von Schoultz was born (Aug 5, 1907), the daughter of a clergyman and the painter Hannah Frosterous-Segerstrale. She was raised strictly by her father but retreated into a world of literary pursuits. Her two collections of published verse entitled Min time (My Hour) (1940) and Eko av ett rop (The Echo of a Call) (1945) were influenced by the style of Karin Boye. Two other collections of poetry included Natet (The Net) (1956) and Sank ditt ljus (Dim Your Light) (1963).
Schoultz also published the anthology of short stories entitled Somliga mornar (Some Mornings) (1976) and a biography of her mother entitled Portratt av Hanna (Portrait of Hanna) (1978). Her prose works included Ingenting Ovanligt (Nothing Unusual) (1947). Solveig von Schoultz died (Dec 3, 1996) aged eighty-nine.

Schrader, Catharina Geertruida – (1656 – 1745) 
German-Dutch midwife
Catharina Schrader was born in Bentheim, the daughter of a court tailor. She was married (1683) to a surgeon, Ernst Cramer, to whom she bore six children. With her husband’s early death (1692) Catharina worked as a midwife in Hallum, Friesland, in order to support her family. She later established herself in practice at Dokkum, and remarried (1713) to Thomas Hight, a silversmith who became mayor of the town. With the death of her second husband (1721) she returned to her practice and published her Notebook which dealt with her reliance on traditional skills, and her dislike of using instruments.

Schragmuller, Elsbeth – (fl. 1913 – 1918)
German spy
Prior to WW I Schragmuller had studied philosophy at the University of Freiburg. With the outbreak of the war Elsbeth desired to do something to help the German cause and persuaded Colonel Walther Nicolai, the General Staff Officer of the Nachrichtendienst (Secret Service), to appoint her as the head of spy school set up in Antwerp in Holland. Nicolai admired educated female espionage agents and regarded them as more than a match for their male counterparts.
Dr Schragmuller’s regime consisted of all pupils being known only by numbers, enforced incarceration in their quarters, and forcing them to wear masks all the time which earned her the nickname ‘Tiger Eyes.’ Though highly regarded by Nicolai, two of Elsbeth Schragmuller’s students were sent to England as spies and were both caught and shot. Her fater after the war remains unknown.

Schreiber, Adele – (c1874 – 1957)
Austrian feminist, journalist, writer and politician
Adele Schreiber was born in Vienna, the daughter of a physician. After her marriage she worked as a newspaper journalist and became a correspondent with the Frankfurter Zeitung in Berlin, Prussia. Schreiber founded two organizations, the International Woman Suffrage Alliance and the German Association for Rights of Mothers and Children, both in 1910. With the end of WW I she became involved in politics, becoming a member of the first Reichstag of the Weimar Republic, and served as president of the Red Cross. With the rise of Hitler and the Nazi regime she went into exile to England, before finally retiring to Switzerland, where she served as vice-president of the International Alliance of Women.

Schreiber, Lady Charlotte    see    Guest, Charlotte Elizabeth Bertie, Lady

Schreiner, Olive Emilie Albertina – (1855 – 1920)
South African writer and feminist
Schreiner was born at the Cape of Good Hope in Basutoland, the daughter of a German Methodist missionary and a British mother. Her education was erratic and relied mainly on her own literary interests. Olive began her working career as a governess to a Boer family (1870) and later resided in England (1881 – 1889). Her works included much social criticism, and some where published under the pseudonym ‘Ralph Iron.’ Her works included the extremely popular The Story of an African Farm (1883), Stories, Dreams, and Allegories (1892), Thoughts on South Africa (1892) and Woman and Labour (1911). Olive Schreiner died (Dec, 1920) aged sixty-five, her correspondence being edited and published by her husband.

Schroder, Marie Luise – (1854 – 1933)
German courtier
Schroder was born (Nov 28, 1854) and became the morganatic wife (1876) in London, England, of Count Eric of Lippe-Wiessenfeld (1853 – 1928), to whom she bore an only daughter Sophie, who died unmarried. Marie Louise was created Baroness von Saalburg (1877) by the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Four decades later she was created Countess von Lippe-Saalburg (1916) by the Prince of Lippe. Her only child Countess Sophia Charlotte Wilhelmine von Lippe-Saalburg (1877 – 1956) remained unmarried. Marie Luise Schroder died (April 23, 1933) aged seventy-eight, in Berlin, Prussia.

Schroeder, Irene – (1909 – 1931)
American bandit and murderess
Irene Schroeder was a housewife and Sunday school teacher who abandoned her husband, and eloped with a salesman, Walter Glenn Dague (1929), taking her young son with her. The couple robbed stores and banks to survive, and lived in a stolen car. Surprised in Butler, Pennsylvania, Schroeder shot and killed a highway patrolman, but they were captured in a police road block in Arizona. Her own son who had witnessed the event became the state’s chief witness. Irene and Dague were both tried and found guilty, being sentenced to electrocution at Roackview Penitentiary. Dubbed ‘Iron Irene’ by the media because of her unflustered manner, she and Dague died separately, on the same day (Feb 23, 1931).

Schroter, Corona Elisabeth Wilhelmine – (1751 – 1802)
German vocalist, actress, and composer
Schroter was born (Jan 14, 1751) in Guben, the daughter of musician Johann Friedrich Schroter. She studied under Johann Adam Hiller (1728 – 1804) in Leipzig, Saxony, where she appeared in concert, and then travelled abroad, performing in Germany, the Netherlands, and England, to great public acclaim. Schroter created the title role in Goethe’s Die Fischerin (1782) and composed the music for it. After her retirement from the court theatre in the 1780’s, Schroter taught singing and acting, and was a friend of the poet Freidrich von Schiller. Several of her letters survive and she published two collections of lieder music (1786) and (1794). Corona Schroter died (Aug 23, 1802) aged forty-nine, at Ilmenau.

Schulenberg, Ehrengarda Melusina von der – (1667 – 1743)
German-Anglo courtier and royal mistress
Countess Ehrengarda Melusina von der Schulenburg was born (Dec 25, 1667) at Emden, Saxony, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Count von der Schulenburg, an official in the household of the elector of Brandenburg. Countess Ehrengarda attended the Hanoverian court and was appointed as maid-of-honour to the electress Sophia of Hanover (1690), and quickly became the mistress of her son, the future George I of England (1660 – 1727), bearing him several illegitimate daughters that he never acknowledged, though he treated them with great affection. They were the Countess Delitz, the Countess of Walsingham, and the Countess von Lippe. Prince George’s mother mentioned Ehrengarda in her letters to her niece, the Duchesse d’Orleans as ‘the Schulembemburgin.’
Ehrengarda accompanied the king to England in 1714, and she obtained considerable political influence, due to her friendship with Sir Robert Walpole and Lord Stanhope, and politicians found her a useful intermediary with the king. She was involved in speculation over the South Sea Bubble (1720) and sold the monopoly to make copper coins in Ireland, but her reputation for rapacity seems undeserved. Because of this untrue perception the countess was unpopular with the British people, who sneeringly referred to her as ‘the Maypole,’ because of her thin figure. She was created duchess of Kendal in the Irish peerage and the Emperor Charles VI granted her the title of Princess of Eberstein. The persistant tradition that George I married her in morganatic style after the death of his wife Sophia Dorothea (1726) remains unproven though not unlikely. Before her death she caused some comment because of her habit of daily feeding a black raven, which she believed was the spirit of the king visiting her after death. Ehrengarda Melusina von der Schulenberg died (May 10, 1743) aged seventy-five, at Kendal House, Isleworth, Sussex, the home of her daughter, the Countess of Walsingham.

Schulman, La Donne Heaton – (1936 – 1992)
American geneticist and scientific researcher
Schulman was born in Jacksonville, Florida. She attended Wheaton College before spending a year abroad as a Fulbright scholar at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. Schulman became an assistant professor (1968) and then full professor (1978) of developemental biology and cancer, at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and conducted important research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, concerned with transfer tRNA (molecules that synthesize proteins) in the DNA code. La Donne Schulman died (Aug 12, 1992) aged fifty-six, in Manhattan, New York.

Schumann, Clara Josephine – (1819 – 1896)
German concert pianist and composer
Clara Wieck was born (Sept 13, 1819) in Leipzig, Saxony, the daughter of the noted pianist and teacher, Friedrich Wieck (1785 – 1873). She was a highly trained musician and performer as a child and travelled and performed wideley, as well as composing many piano works and songs, including four Polonaises (1830). Despite her father’s fierce opposition Clara was married (1840) to the composer Robert Alexander Schumann (1810 – 1856), who wrote many works for her, and to whom she bore eight children before his ulitmate mental breakdown (1854).
Clara herself continued to perform after her husband’s death, appearing in Copenhagen in Denmark (1842), Russia, and in England over two dozen times. Clara Schumann was particularly admired for her brilliant interpretations of the works of Brahms and Chopin, besides those compositions of her husband. From 1878 she was employed as a piano instructor at the Frankfurt-am-Main Conservatory. Clara Schumann died (May 20, 1896) aged seventy-six, in Frankfurt.

Schumann, Elisabeth – (1889 – 1952) 
German-American soprano
Elisabeth Schumann was born in Merseburg, and first appeared with the Vienna State Opera under the aegis of Richard Strauss (1919). She made her London debut in 1924, and became particularly known for her performance of the operas of Mozart. She later worked with composer Hugo Wolf and was known for her interpretative lieder work. Schumann later became a US citizen (1938).

Schumann-Heink, Ernestine – (1861 – 1936) 
Czech-American contralto and mezzo-soprano
Ernestine Schumann-Heink was born at Lieben, near Prague, Bohemia. She was taught singing in Graz, Austria and made her operatic debut in Dresden, Saxony (1878). She was married three times. Ernestine was employed by the Hamburg Opera (1882 – 1897), where she performed Wagnerian roles under the direction of Gustav Mahler. She made several performances of the Rings in Bayreuth (1896 – 1914), and from 1899 she became a regular performer at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. She retired in 1932.

Schurmann, Anna Maria van – (1607 – 1678)
Dutch poet, linguist and writer
Anna Maria van Schurmann was born into a patrician family in Antwerp. She resided with her family in Utrecht from 1615 and received an impressive scholarly education, being able to read and converse in sixteen languages, including Hebrew and Ethiopian, and was able to play several musical instruments. Schurmann remained unmarried, being determined to devote herself to learning, and assisted with the establishment of the University of Utrecht.
Anna Maria managed to secretly attend the lectures of the theologian Gijsbert Voetius there, and produced her feminist manifesto Amica dissertatio inter Annam Mariam Schurmanniam et Andr.Rivetum de capacitate ingenii muliebris ad scientas (A Friendly Discourse Between Anna Maria van Schurmann and and A. Rivetus Concerning the Capacity of Women for Scholarly Pursuits (1638). Another of her works, A Learned Maid (1641) was translated into English by Clement Barksdale. She also composed the Latin work Euklerion (Choice of a Better Part) (1684), which was published posthumously, and left verses and letters.

Schuyler, Georgina – (1841 – 1923)  
American lyricist, composer and writer
Georgina Schuyler was born in New York, the daughter of George Lee Schuyler, and his wife Eliza Hamilton. Privately educated, she also attended school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. During the Civil War Georgina was actively involved with the Soldiers’ Aid societies. She composed fourteen songs which were published (1886) and wrote many historical and genalogical studies. In 1911 she was appointed a trustee of the old Schuyler family home in Albany, New York, and was author of The Schuyler Mansion of Albany.

Schuyler, Philippa Duke – (1931 – 1967)
Black American pianist, composer, and author
Schuyler was born (Aug 2, 1931) in New York, and studied the piano from childhood. She made her public debut in New York, performing Saint-Saen’s Concerto in G Minor (1946). Most of her life was spent on concert tours abroad, and she studied under Paul Wittgenstein, Arnetta Jones, and others. Though Schuyler composed mainly piano pieces, her best known works were her orchestral pieces such as Manhattan Nocturne (1943), Rhapsody of Youth (1948) and Nile Fantasy (1965). Schuyler was later employed as a journalist with the New Hampshire newspaper, Manchester Union-Leader. Philippa Duke Schuyler died (May 9, 1967) in Da Nang, Vietnam, aged only thirty-five, being killed whilst assisting with the helicopter evacuation of school children.

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Anna Sophia von Anhalt, Countess von – (1584 – 1652)
German patron of secondary education
Princess Anna Sophia of Anhalt was born (June 3, 1584), and became the wife of Count Karl Gunther von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. The countess was a promoter and patron of education and financially supported the work of Wolgang Ratke in Rudolstadt, where she continued as his patron. The countess was the co-founder of the Society of Virtue (1618) at Rudolstadt Castle. Countess Anna Sophia died (May 10, 1652) aged sixty-eight.

Schwarzenberg, Eleonora Elisabeth Amalia Magdalena von Lobkowicz, Princess von – (1682 – 1741)
Austrian princess and eccentric
Princess Eleonora von Lobkowicz was born (June 20, 1682) at Melnik, the daughter of Prince Ferdinand von Lobkowicz, Duke of Sagan and his wife Maria Anna Wilhelmina of Baden-Baden, the daughter of Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1622 – 1677) and his second wife Countess Magdalena von Oettingen. She was married (1701) to Prince Adam Karl von Schwarzenberg who served as a Marshal at the Imperial court of Emperor Leopold I. Eleonora then bore a daughter Maria Anna von Schwarzenberg (1706 – 1755) who became the first wife (1721) of her mother’s kinsman Margrave Ludwig George Simpert of Baden-Baden (1702 – 1761) and left issue.
Devoted to the pleasures of the hunt the princess enjoyed this pursuit even more than her husband. She arranged for large hunting parties as entertainment for the Imperial court at the family Castle of Krumlov in Bohemia. Finally, after twenty years of marriage Eleonora finally gave birth to a son and heir Prince Joseph I von Schwarzenberg (1722 – 1782). Her portrait in hunting costume with her son was painted (c1727) by Maximilian Hannel. Princess Eleonora’s husband was accidentally shot and killed by the Emperor Karl VI during a hunting trip (1732) and Eleonora became the Dowager Princess von Schwarzenberg (1732 – 1741).
Because of the manner of her husband’s death the Emperor granted Eleonora a large pension of five thousand gulden (the equivalent of 200,000 modern dollars) annually. As a widow she became increasingly eccentric in her behaviour. She suffered from an unspecified illness which gradually grew more severe and suffered from agonizing attacks of colic. Princess von Schwarzenberg spent much of her income on various medicines and quackery in an attempt to find some relief from the constant pain. Shortly before her death she removed from Krumlov Castle and travelled to Vienna in order to consult further physicians. Princess Eleonora died (May 5, 1741) aged fifty-eight, at the Palais Schwarzenberg in Vienna. An autopsy conducted by the Imperial physician Franz von Gerstorff within hours of death revealed that she had suffered from cancer. She was buried at Krumlov in Bohemia, and her will has survived.
The princess featured in the Austrian made documentary The Vampire Princess (2007) which attempted to connect her with the origins of the vampire legends later made famous by Bram Stoker. She also formed the subject of the SBS (Special Broadcasting Service) documentary ‘Behind the Dracula Legend’ which featured in Australia in the Lost Worlds series (2009).

Schwartz, Marie Esperance Brandt von – (1818 – 1899)
German aristocrat, Italian nationalist supporter and author, travel writer and romantic novelist
Marie Esperance Brandt was born into a noble family and made a suitable aristocratic marriage with the Baron von Schwartz. The Baroness was a firm supporter of the Italian nationalist leader and statesman, Francesco Garibaldi and raised his daughter Anita (1859 – 1875) until her death from meningitis. Madame von Schwartz later sailed to La Maddalena in order to obtain permission to translate Garibaldi’s memoirs in German, and they were subsequently published in Hamburg (1861). She sometimes used the pen-name ‘Elpis Melena’ which was a literal translation into Greek of Esperance (Hope) and Schwartze (Black). She later published Garibaldi: Recollections of His Public and Private Life (1887).

Schwarzkopf, Dame Elisabeth – (1915 – 2006)
Austrian-Anglo lyric soprano
Olga Maria Elisabeth Frederike Schwarzkopf was born (Dec 9, 1915) at Jarrocin, Poland. She later studied in Berlin, Prussia (1938 – 1942) under Lula Mysz-Gmeiner before joining the Vienna State Opera. She made her stage debut in England (1947) and created the role of Anne Trulove in Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress (1951). Elisabeth was married (1953) to the English record producer Walter Legge (1906 – 1979), who greatly encouraged her career and was himself the founder of the Philharmonia Orchestra.
One of the most admired operatic performers of her era, and a specialist in the works of Mozart, Schwarzkopf appeared in several films, and was particularly notable as the countess in, Figaro and the Feldmarschallin in Rosenkavalier.  After her husband’s death she retired to Zurich in Switzerland. Her contribution to the field of music was publicly recognised when she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1992). Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf died aged ninety.

Schwimmer, Rosika – (1877 – 1948)
Hungarian feminist and pacifist
Rosika Schwimmer was born in Budapest and was originally employed as a journalist. She became active within the growing women’s suffrage movement and became the president of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, and then served as the Hungarian minister to Switzerland (1918 – 1919). Fearing the continued rise of anti-semitism fanned by the Nazi regime Rosa immigrated to the USA, but was refused citizenship because of her espousal of pacifism. Prior to the outbreak of WW II Schwimmer was fiercely critical and outspoken against the grwoing threat of Fascism.

Scivara (Scivare) – (c811 – c850)
Anglo-Saxon queen
Scivara was probably the daughter of Egbert, King of Wessex (802 – 839) and his wife, the Frankish princess Redburga (Raedburh), a relative of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne. Scivara was married (c827) to King Alkmund of East Anglia (c800 – 855), whom she appears to have predeceased. At some time she resided in Germany with her husband as their elder son was born in Nuremburg. The manuscript entitled Ex libello de vita S. Edmundi Regis Estanglorum which was reproduced in the Collectanea of the antiquarian John Leland (c1506 – 1552), referred to S. Alcmundus rex Saxoniae et Siuara as the parents of three sons, and they also left a daughter. Her children were,

Sclater, Dame Edith Harriett – (1856 – 1927)
British war worker and hospital organizer
Edith Barttelot-Barttelot was born (March 24, 1856), the second daughter of Sir Walter Barttelot-Barttelot (1826 – 1893), first baronet, and his first wife Harriet, the daughter of Reverend Sir Christopher Musgrave, ninth baronet, of Edenhall, Cumberland. Edith was married (1884) to General Sir Henry Sclater (1855 – 1923). Her work for the war effort was recognized when she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1918) in recognition of her vaulable voluntary work. Dame Edith survived her husband as Dowager Lady Sclater (1923 – 1927). Dame Edith Sclater died (March 29, 1927) aged seventy-one.

Scliar, Esther – (1926 – 1978)
Brazilian pianist, composer, and teacher
Scliar was born (Sept 28, 1926) in Porto Alegre. She studied in Rio de Janeiro under Claudio Santoro and Edino Krieger, and then in Italy with Hermann Scherchen. Esther Scliar founded the chorus of the the Associacao Juvenal Musical (1952) and then toured Europe with that company. She later taught musical analysis at the Pro-Arte music school in Rio da Janeiro (1962 – 1975). She composed the score for the film A Derrota, and wrote two books on theory Fraseologia musical (1982) and Elementos de teoria musical (1985) both which were posthumously published. Her other works incuded the chamber piece Imbricata (1976). Esther Scliar died (March, 1978) aged fifty-one, in Rio de Janeiro.

Scota (Scoth) – (fl. c450 AD)
Irish virgin saint
Scota was the daughter of Cobhthach, and was a descendant of Connor, King of Ireland. She became a nun in the monastery near Mullingar, which place her nephew, St Senan, visited to pray in preperation for his approaching death. The church venerated her as a saint (July 16).

Scott, Agnes Neill    see   Muir, Willa

Scott, Lady Alicia Ann     see    Spottiswoode, Alicia Ann

Scott, Blanche Molineux    see   Molineux, Blanche

Scott, Blanche Stuart – (1886 – 1970)
American aviatrix
Blanche Scott was the first woman to drive across the United States in an automobile (1910). She learned to fly an aeroplane under the supervision of the aviation pioneer Thomas Baldwin, and made the first solo flight by a woman (1911). The United States Post Office issued a stamp in her honour (1980).

Scott, Caroline Lucy Douglas, Lady – (1784 – 1857)
British novelist and writer
The Hon. (Honourable) Caroline Douglas was born (Feb 16, 1784), the second daughter of Archibald, first Baron Douglas (1748 – 1827) and his wife Frances, the sister of Henry Scott, third Duke of Buccleuch. Caroline was related to the more famous author, Lady Charlotte Bury. Caroline was married (1810) to Admiral Sir George Scott (died 1841) whom she survived. Lady Scott’s published works included the novels A Marriage in High Life (1828), Trevelyan (1837) and The Old Grey Church (1856), all of which were published anonymously. Several serious works were published under her own name including Expositions of the Types and Antitypes of the Old and New Testament (1856) and Acrostics, Historical, Geographical, and Biographical (1863), which was published posthumously. Lady Scott died (April 19, 1857) aged seventy-three, at Petersham, Surrey.

Scott, Charlotte Angas – (1858 – 1931)
British mathematician
Scott was born in Lincoln and attended Girton College, Cambridge, and the University of London, where she finally obtained her degree. She went to the USA where she became a professor at Bryn Mawr College, and published over two dozen papers concerning algebraic geometry. She was elected as vice-president of the American Mathematical Society (1906). Charlotte Angas Scott died in Cambridge, England.

Scott, Debralee – (1953 – 2005)
American film and television actress
Scott was born (April 2, 1953) at Elizabeth in New Jersey. She was best known for her appearances in Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman (1975) and Earthquake (1975) which starred Charlton Heston and Ava Gardner. Debralee Scott died (April 5, 2005) aged fifty-two, at Amelia Island in Florida.

Scott, Mrs Dutton    see    Molineux, Blanche

Scott, Elizabeth Whitworth – (1898 – 1972) 
British architect
Elizabeth Scott was the daughter of a physician, and the granddaughter of the noted architect, Sir Gilbert Scott. She attended school in Bournemouth and was later employed at Cheltenham in London. Apart from additions to Newnham College at Cambridge, Scott designed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-on-Avon (1928), which was built in conjunction with Maurice Chesterton.

Scott, Harriet Anne Shank, Lady – (1819 – 1894)
British novelist and author
Harriet Shank was born in Bombay, India, the daughter of Henry Shank, of Castlerig and Gleniston, Fifeshire, Scotland. She was married (1844) to Sir James Sibbald David Scott (1814 – 1885), the third baronet. Lady Scott’s popular books included eight novels such as The MP’s Wife and the Lady Geraldine (1838), The Henpecked Husband (1847), The Pride of Life (1854) and The Dream of Life (1862). She later published the work Cottager’s Comforts, and Other Recipes in Knitting and Crochet.By Grandmother (1887). Lady Scott died (April 8, 1894) aged seventy-four, in Queen’s Gate, London.

Scott, Kathleen    see   Kennet, Kathleen Bruce, Lady

Scott, M. Audrey – (1904 – Jan 28, 1990)
British educator and college administrator
Audrey Scott was born (Oct 22, 1904) the daughter of a solicitor, and was the sister of Sir Hilary Scott. She attended Queen Margaret’s School at Scarborough and went on to study at Newnham College at Cambridge where she trained as a teacher. Her first teaching position was at the Benenden School in Kent (1926 – 1929). Scott spent a decade at the Edgbaston School College (1931 – 1940) before serving as headmistress of a secondary school at Yeovil (1944 – 1947).
Miss Scott served on the executive committee of the Association of Headmistresses (1956 – 1962) and was also the chairman of the Foreign and Commonwealth Education Committee (1960 – 1962). She was the author of The First Hundred Years 1881 – 1981: a History of the Perse School for Girls (1981). M. Audrey Scott remained unmarried and died (Jan 28, 1990) aged eighty-five.

Scott, Margaret – (1841 – 1917)
British author and historian
Margaret Colquhoun became the wife of Colonel Courtenay Scott. Mrs Scott wrote such works as Every Inch a Soldier, Invasion of India from Central Asia and Primus in Indus. Margaret Scott died (Sept 14, 1917) aged seventy-six.

Scott, Margaret Cochrane – (1825 – 1919)
Australian miniaturist and painter
Margaret Little was born at Liverpool in Lancashire. She immigrated to Australia with her family (1853) and was married there to David Wylie Scott. Mrs Scott did not begin her artistic career until aged over sixty. She produced mainly miniatures and watercolour paintings of South Australian flora.

Scott, Lady Margaret Rachel – (1874 – 1938) 
British golfer
Lady Margaret Scott was born in Wiltshire, the daughter of John Scott, first earl of Eldon, and his wife Henrietta Minna Turnour. As a girl, Lady Margaret learned to play golf on a course laid out in the grounds of her home, Stowell Park, in Wiltshire. Her brothers Osmund, Denys, and Michael Scott were all well acquitted golfers. Women had participated in golf tournaments since the sixteenth century, but in 1893 the Ladies Golf Union was formed, and Lady Margaret was the British Ladies’ Champion for the first three years (1893 – 1895). In 1895 she retired from competitive golf. Although she was supple and her backswing was in good form, ladies’ courses were separate, and the Victorian standards were not in any way comparable with the present. Her title did help to make the game respectable for other women. Lady Margaret was married (1897) to the Hon.(Honourable) Frederick Hamilton-Russell (1867 – 1941).

Scott, Margaretta – (1912 – 2005)
British stage and film actress
Scott was born in London (Feb 13, 1912) and was educated by Catholic nuns in Cavendish Square, London. She was the wife of the composer John Lacey Woolridge, and was mother to actress Susan Woolridge. Margaretta Scott began her career on the stage, appearing as Lady Jasper in A Murder Has Been Arranged (1930) by Emlyn Williams. She played Ophelia to Sir John Gielgud’s, Hamlet, and was famous for her distinctive aristocratic prescence on both stage and screen. She played Lady Blenkiron in the popular television series The Duchess of Duke Street. Scott also played the devious French queen mother Catherine de Medici, in the television series Elizabeth R (1971), with Glenda Jackson. Her last public appearance was at the Chichester Festival Theatre in a performance of Hobson’s Choice (1995). Margaretta Scott died aged ninety-three.

Scott, Mary Monica – (1852 – 1920)
Scottish author and biographer
Mary Scott was born (Oct 2, 1852), the daughter of J.R. Hope-Scott, and his wife Charlotte Harriet Jane Lockhart, the granddaughter of Sir Walter Scott. She was married (1874) to the Hon. (Honourable) Joseph Constable-Maxwell, a younger son of Lord Herries of Terregles, to whom she bore four children. Apart from several books concerning Scottish history such as The Tragedy of Fotheringhay (1895), Abbotsford and its Treasures (1893) and, The Making of Abbotsford, and Incidents in Scottish History (1897).
Mary Scott was an extensive biographer, and the list of her subjects was extensive. Her biographies included Henry Schomberg Kerr, Sailor and Jesuit (1901), Joan of Arc (1905), Madame Elisabeth de France (1908), Madame de La Rochejacquelain (1911) and St Francis de Sales and his Friends (1913). Mary Monica Scott died (March 15, 1920) aged sixty-seven, at Abbotsford, Melrose, in Roxburghshire.

Scott, Rose – (1847 – 1922) 
Australian feminist and social reformer
Rose Scott was born at Glendon, near Singleton in New South Wales, and was educated at home by governesses. She never married and with the death of her father she moved to Sydney (1879). Scott founded the Women’s Literary Society (1889), which evolved into the Women’s Suffrage League, which she served as secretary. She worked tirelessly for the introduction of the Women’s Suffrage Act in NSW (1902). In the area of social reform she was instrumental in the age of consent for girls to be raised to sixteen, and worked for the introduction of special courts to try juvenile offenders. A patron of Australian art and literature, Rose Scott was later appointed as president of the Peace Society (1907).

Scott, Sarah – (1723 – 1795)
British educator and novelist
Born Sarah Robinson in Kent, she was the younger sister to the noted salon hostess Elizabeth Montagu (1720 – 1800). She was educated at home by a governess and travelled widely throughout England. Her marriage proved brief and childless, and Scott then resided at Bath in Somerset (1754 – 1765), where she worked as a teacher of poor children. Sarah Scott published six novels, the most popular of which was the A Description of Milennium Hall (1762) which dealt with an idealistic Utopian community which was organized by women.

Scott, Sheila Christine – (1927 – 1988)
British aviatrix
Born Sheila Hopkins at Worcester, after basic schooling she joined the Royal Naval Section of the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment). With the end of WW II she worked variously as a model and repertory actress, when she adopted the name of ‘Sheila Scott’ until gaining her pilot’s license (1959). Sheila received important sponsorship and flew the longest solo flight (33 days) in a single engined aircraft (1966). Scott made a further world record when she made a solo flight from equator to equator via the North Pole (1971). Her published works included On Top of the World (1973) and Bare Feet in the Sky (1974).

Scott-James, Anne Eleanor – (1913 – 2009)
British journalist and author
Anne Scott-James was born (April 5, 1913) in London, the daughter of a literary critic. She left Somerville College at Oxford in order to become a secretary with Vogue magazine (1934) where she worked as a columnist and ultimately became the beauty editor. She became the Women’s Editor at Picture Post (1941 – 1945) and was then British editor of Harper’s Bazaar (1945 – 1951) and the Woman’s Editor for the Sunday Express (1953 – 1957).
Scott-James published the novel In the Mink (1952) but left journalism in 1968 in order to pursue her career as a gardening writer. Her best works in this field included Down to Earth (1971), Sissinghusrt – The Making of a Garden (1974) and The Pleasure Garden: An Illustrated History of British Gardening (1977) which she co-wrote with her third husband Sir Osbert Lancaster. She survived Sir Osbert as the Dowager Lady Lancaster (1986 – 2009). Lady Lancaster died (May 13, 2009) aged ninety-six.

Scott-Maxwell, Florida Pier – (1883 – 1979)
American-Scottish actress, author, psychologist, suffragist and dramatist
Florida Scott-Maxwell published her memoirs The Measure of My Days (1972), whilst her private journal was used by author Harry Berman to produce To Flame With a Wild Life: Florida Scott-Maxwell’s Experience of Old Age (1986). This work was concerned with dealing with of old age in a useful and successful manner by the individual.

Scribonia Caesaris – (c73 BC – after 16 AD)
Roman Imperial progenatrix
Scribonia Caesaris was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and his second wife Sentia. She was half-sister to Lucius Scribonius Libo, consul (34 BC). She was married firstly to Cornelius Publius Lentulus Marcellinus, consul (56 BC), and secondly to Publius Cornelius Scipio, consul suffect (35 BC), bearing children by both marriages, her second ending in divorce.
Scribonia was married thirdly (40 BC) to Octavian, the nephew and heir of dictator Julius Caesar, a political move to conciliate her powerful nephew, Sextus Pompeius, despite the fact that she was Octavian’s senior by about a decade. The couple became the parents of Julia Maior, the future emperor’s only child and heiress, and she was divorced soon afterwards (39 BC). When Octavian assumed the Imperial title (27 BC) as Augustus, Scribonia adopted the second name of Caesaris in order to stress her own connection with the Imperial house.
When Julia was banished by her father to the island of Pandateria for her liscentious and politically dangerous activities (2 BC), Augustus allowed Scribonia to share her daughter’s exile. She later accompanied Julia to the less stringent captivity in Rhegium, and was with her when she died (14 AD). She was last recorded as living when she advised her guilty great-nephew to commit suicide after the failure of his planned revolt against the emperor Tiberius (16 AD).

Scribonia Libo – (c5 – 47 AD)
Roman political victim
Scribonia Libo was the sister or daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo, consul (16 AD), and was married (c20 AD) to Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi (c6 BC – 47 AD), consul 27 AD. The couple had five children who received descent from the great Republican general, Pompey the Great (106 – 48 BC) through her. Their eldest son, Pompeius Magnus, had married Antonia, the eldest daughter of the Emperor Claudius I. He was put to death (47 AD), after being found in bed with a slave.
Scribonia and her husband were put to death soon afterwards, by order of Claudius, as dangerous persons, though the truth was that their exalted family connections were thought to be too close to the Imperial house. Her fourth son, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus (38 – 69 AD) was later put to death by order of the Emperor Galba, whilst her daughter, Licinia Magna, became the wife of Lucius Calpurnius Piso, consul (57 AD).

Scrope, Elizabeth – (c1437 – 1487)
English Plantagenet courtier
Elizabeth Greystoke was the daughter of Ralph, Lord Greystoke and his wife Elizabeth Fitzhugh, the daughter of William, Lord Fitzhugh. She was married firstly (1453) to Thomas le Scrope, fifth Baron Scrope of Masham (1428 – 1475) to whom she bore seven children. Lady Scrope made a gift with lord Scrope of a black marble font to the Church of South in Kilvington, York. She was married secondly becoming the first wife of Sir Gilbert Talbot (c1453 – 1517) of Grafton in Worcester, a younger son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury. She bore her second husband two sons, Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton (c1477 – 1542) who was married and left issue, and Sir Humphrey Talbot who died in Palestine.  
Elizabeth Scrope served at the court of Edward IV as chief lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth Woodville, whom she attended at her coronation (1465). She shared these duties with the queen’s sister Anne Woodville, Lady Bourchier and received an annuity of forty pounds a year for her loyal service. Lady Scrope was present at the birth of Edward V in the Tower of London (1470) due to the personal intercession of Henry VI who referred to her as ‘our right trusty and well-beloved Lady Scrope.’ Lady Scrope later attended her mistress as queen mother at the wedding of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (1486) and appears to have remained in service to the queen mother until her death the following years. She appears as a character in the historical novels The Woodville Wench (1972) by Maureen Peters and The King’s Grey Mare (1974) by Rosemary Hawley Jarman. The children of her first marriage were,

Scrope, Philadelphia Carey, Lady – (1567 – 1627)
English Tudor and Stuart courtier
Philadelphia Carey was the daughter of Henry Carey, first Baron Hunsdon, and his wife Anne, the daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan. Her father was the first cousin of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603). Philadelphia was married (c1583) to Thomas le Scrope (1567 – 1609), tenth Baron Scrope of Bolton, and was the mother of Emanuel le Scrope (1584 – 1630), eleventh Baron Scrope and first Earl of Sunderland. Lady Scrope served at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth, and was particularly noted for her defence of the unpopular royal favourite Lord Essex. She later served at the court of James I as lady-in-waiting (1603 – 1609) to his queen, Anne of Denmark. Lady Scrope died (Feb 3, 1627) aged fifty-nine, and was buried with her husband at Langar in Nottinghamshire. One of her letters survives.

Scudder, Ida Sophia – (1870 – 1960) 
American missionary and physician
Ida Scudder was born in Ranipet, Madras, India, where she pioneered female nursing and medical education after qualifying as a physician (1900). Scudder opened a dispensary in her home at Vellore before finally organizing her own hospital (1902). There she established training courses for nurses and female doctors. This school later developed into the Vellore Christian Medical College (1942).

Scudery, Madeleine de – (1607 – 1701)
French novelist
Madeleine de Scudery was born in Le Havre, the sister of Georges Scudery, Her parents died during her early childhood and she later travelled to Paris where she resided in the household of her brother (1639 – 1654). Her brother introduced Madeleine to the society of the Precieuses at the salon of the Marquise de Rambouillet and later established a popular salon of her own. Her first published work was the romance Ibrahim ou l’illustre Bassa (Ibrahim; or, The Illustrious Bassa) (1641) but she was best remembered for her ten volume work Artamene, ou le Grand Cyrus (Artamenes or the Great Cyrus) (1649 – 1659), which she co-wrote with her brother. Madamoiselle Scudery also published the highly aritificial series of dialogues entitled Clelie (Clelia) (1654 – 1660) and the novel Mathilde d’Anguilon (1667).

Seabury, Inez – (1907 – 1973)
American film actress
Seabury was born (June 26, 1907) in Oregon. She appeared in several silent films such as Thundergate (1923), When a Girl Loves (1924), and The Calgary Stampede (1925), before making the transition to sound movies. Her credits included Dynamite (1929), The Drifter (1932), Cleopatra (1934), Sign of the Cross (1932), Union Pacific (1939), North West Mounted Police (1940), Reap the Wild Wind (1942) and Samson and Delilah (1949). Inez Seabury died (April 11, 1973) aged sixty-five, at Sherman Oaks, California.

Seacole, Mary Jane – (1805 – 1881) 
Jamaican nurse, adventuress and heroine of the Crimean War
Born Mary Grant in Kingston, Jamaica, she was the daughter of a Scottish soldier and a mulatto woman. With her mother’s death Mary took over the running of the family boarding house business. Her marriage (1836) with Edward Seacole was cut short by his early death. Being an experienced nurse who had worked during various epidemics of cholera and yellow fever, she offered her services to help in the Crimea. Racial prejudice was the main cause of her offer’s rejection, but ‘Mother Seacole’ as she became popularly known, endeared herself to the troops by her unofficial contributions of food and comforts for the troops. She became an extremely popular public figure, and her work was later official recognized by the Prince of Wales (Edward VII). Mary Jane Seacole published her autobiography The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (1857).

Seaman, Augusta Huiell – (1879 – 1950)
American children’s author and novelist
Seaman was born (April 3, 1879) in New York, and began her career as a writer by submitting stories to various magazines and periodicals such as Youth’s Companion and American Girl. Her published works included historical novels, but she was best known for her suspense novels for children such as The Boarded Up House (1915), The Edge of Raven Pool (1924), The Charlemonte Crest (1930) and The Vanishing Octant Mystery (1944). Augusta Seaman died (June 4, 1950) aged eighty-one, at Seaside Park in New Jersey.

Seaman, Elizabeth Cochrane     see    Bly, Nelly

Sears, Clara Endicott (Carolyn) – (1863 – 1960)
American preservationist and philosophical author
Clara Sears wrote The Power Within (1911), and worked tirelessly to preserve the colonial Shaker village in Harvard, New England. She caused the village to be restored and opened to the public (1916). Sears later established the American Indian Art Museum (1928).

Sears, Eleanora Randolph – (1881 – 1968) 
American athlete and sportswoman
Eleanora Sears was born in Boston, Massachusetts into a wealthy society family, and became the first woman to play polo (1912). She later assisted with the establishment of the US Women’s Squash Racquets Association (1928).

Seaxburh    see   Sexburga

Sebastia (Sabbatia) – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Sebastia was arrested during the persecutions organized by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to abjure her faith and was executed with a large number of other Christians. Sebastia is recorded as a saint (July 4) in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum.

Sebastiana – (c35 – c87 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Sebastiana was a native of Herakleia in Thrace. Originally converted to Christianity by St Paul during her youth (c55 – c60 AD), over twenty years later Sebastiana perished during a persecution instigated by the emperor Domitian. Arrested and imprisoned, she refused to abjure her faith, despite being fearfully tortured. She was spared the wild animals in the arena, and was beheaded because she was a Roman citizen. Sebastiana was listed in Roman Martyrology (Sept 16).

Sebekoneferure    see    Sobkneferu

Seberg, Jean – (1938 – 1979)
American actress
Seberg was born (Nov 13, 1938). She appeared in the films Saint Joan (1957) and Bonjour Tristesse (1958) produced by Otto Preminger. She made her name internationally after appearing in the French film Breathless (1961). Her other credits included The Mouse That Roared (1959) with Peter Sellers, Lilith (1964), Road to Corinth (1968), Pendulum (1969) and The Wild Duck (1977). Her second husband was the novel Romain Gary. Seberg was portrayed by actress Mary Beth Hurt in the documentary From the Journals of Jean Seberg (1995) which was directed by Mark Rappaport. Jean Seberg committed suicide (Aug 31, 1979) in Paris.

Sebright, Georgina Muir Mackenzie, Lady – (1833 – 1874)
British traveller and author
Georgina Muir Mackenzie was the daughter of a Scottish baronet. Georgina travelled extensively in Eastern Europe with her friend Adelina Irby. They transversed Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzcegovina and co-authored two written accounts of their travels entitled Across the Carpathians (1862) and Travels in the Slavonic Provinces of Turkey in Europe (1867). Georgina Mackenzie now found her health failing, and trenuous travel being no longer an option, she was married (1871) to Sir Charles Sebright, the British consul-general in the Ionian islands of Greece. Lady Sebright accompanied her husband to Korfu to reside, and died there.

Secada, Moraima – (1930 – 1984)
Cuban vocalist
Secada was born (Sept 10, 1930) at Villa Clara. Trained as a musician and singer she became a specialist of the filin (feeling) genre, and was a member of the ‘Las Anacaonas’ the first female orchestra of America, which toured internationally with great success. Moraima Secada died (Dec 30, 1984) aged fifty-four, in Havana.

Seccifrida – (fl. 535 – 542)
Gothic-Romano litigant
Seccifrida and her husband Waduulfus brought a lawsuit against one Leo for payment of five solidi outstanding on the purchase of an estate. This settlement was recorded at Ravenna and was witnessed by Bassus, Hilarus, Giberit and two others. This document was published in the I papiri diplomatici raccolti ed illustrati of Gaetano Marini (1805).

Sechelles, Agnes de – (c1340 – after 1390)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Agnes was the daughter of Mathieu de Sechelles. She was married firstly to Jean I Tyrel, Seigneur de Poix and de Mareuil, and then remarried (1362) to Hugh de Chatillon, Seigneur de Dampierre, de Sompuis and de Rollaincourt, a French commander against the English. Hugh was captured in battle and taken to England as a prisoner. Agnes resided at the castle of Mareuil during her husband’s imprisonment and became the keeper of an English knight Simon de Burleigh (1371). However he escaped from her custody and fled back to England. Her husband was later ransomed and was living in France (1382). Hugh had died by 1390 when Dame Agnes was living as his widow. Agnes and Hugh had two sons of whom the elder Jacques I de Chatillon (c1365 – 1415) succeeded to the seigneuries of Dampierre, Sompuis and Rollaincourt and was killed at the battle of Agincourt.

Secord, Laura Ingersoll – (1775 – 1868) 
Canadian war heroine
Laura Ingersoll was born in Massachusetts, and immigrated to Ontario in Canada with her parents as a child. She was married to James Secord, a sergeant with the militia in the war against the British (1812). When invading American troops were billeted in her home in Queenstown, Secord overheard plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dam. She travelled secretly for twenty miles through enemy lines in order to warn James Fitzgibbon, the militia commander of the details.

Secunda – (c239 – 257 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Secunda was the daughter of senator Asterius and sister of Rufina. She was betrothed to a toung patrician, Verinus, who also came from a Christian family. During the persecutions of the emperor Valerian, Verinus and Armentarius, who was betrothed to her sister, renounced their faith. The sisters refused and were caught whilst trying to escape to Etruria, being brought before the praetorian prefect, Junius Donatus. He ordered both women to be beheaded and a pagan lady named Plautilla buried their remains along the Via Aurelia, outside Rome. The church of Sante Rufina e Secunda was later erected there by order of Pope Julius I. The church honoured them together as virgin martyrs (July 10). They appear in the Roman Martyrology and were joint patrons of the towns of Porto and Selva Candida.

Secusa (Sacusa) – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Secusa was a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, Asia Minor. She was arrested during the religious persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Secusa refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods and was put to death. Secusa was recorded as a saint (May 10) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sedgwick, Anne Douglas – (1873 – 1935) 
American novelist
Her married name was de Selincourt. She was best known for her character studies especially Tante (1911), Adrienne Toner and The Little French Girl. Her personal correspondence for the period (1898 – 1935) was published in Anne Douglas Sedgwick: A Portrait in Letters (1936) edited by Basil de Selincourt.

Sedgwick, Catharine Maria – (1789 – 1867) 
American novelist and poet
Catherine Sedgwick was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. She was best known for her satirical fictional work A New England Tale (1822), which quickly became a best seller. Raised as a Unitarian herself, her own research into Puritanism led to the publication of, Hope Leslie (1827). Sedgwick argued the right of each woman to remain unmarried if she so wished it in Married or Single (1857). Her private letters, written during travels in Europe (1839 – 1840) were published in Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home (1841).

Sedgwick, Edie – (1943 – 1971)
American actress
Edith Sedgwick was the daughter of Francis Sedgwick, the noted Californian sculptor, and was a descendant of Reverend Endicott Peabody, founder of the Groton School. Edie was raised on a farm in Santa Inez, California, and attended the Katherine Branson School in San Francisco, and St Timothy’s, near Baltimore, Maryland. Sedgwick arrived in New York seeking work as a model and actress (1964) and met the pop artist, Andy Warhol at a party.
With her hair tinted silver to match his, Sedgwick was Warhol’s companion for the next year, and received considerable media coverage because of her liasion. She appeared in several of his films such as Restaurant, Kitchen (1965), Beauty II (1965), Vinyl (1965), Poor Little Rich Girl (1965), Bitch (1965) and Ciao Manhattan, directed by Warhol’s associate Charles Wein. Edie Sedgwick died (Nov 16, 1971) aged twenty-eight, from a drug overdose at Santa Barbara, California.

Sedley, Catharine – (1657 – 1717)
English Stuart courtier
Catharine Sedley was born (Dec 21, 1657) the daughter of Sir Charles Sedley of Southfleet, Kent, the favourite of King Charles II and his wife Catharine Savage. Her mother became insane and was sent to reside within a convent in Ghent (1670). Though possessed of little beauty Catharine Sedley was well equipped with intelligence and a biting wit. She attended the court as young woman and became the mistress (1677) of the king’s brother James Stuart, Duke of York. Catharine bore him several children including Lady Catharine Darnley who married the Duke of Buckinghamshire, but their liaison was the cause of much ill-feeling between the Duke and his second wife Mary Beatrice of Modena. Puzzled as to why James had been attracted to her Catharine said, ‘It cannot be for my beauty, for he must see that I have none: and it cannot be for my wit, for he has not enough to know that I have any.’
After he succeeded to the throne as James II, he created her Countess of Dorchester and Baroness Darlington for life (1686) with an annual Irish pension worth five thousand pounds. The king provided her with a town house in London where she entertained lavishly, but her father supported William and Mary. After James fled to France and William and Mary were installed as monarchs, Catharine’s illegitimate half-brother Charles Sedley was knighted at their coronation. Sir Charles Sedley remarked ‘Well, I am, in point of civility with King James, for he has made my daughter a countess, so I have helped to make his daughter a Queen.’
Eventually Lady Dorchester fell foul of Queen Mary II, and was politely but firmly ostracized from the new court. This resulted in the countess publicly humiliating Queen Mary at the theatre, and led to her involvement in a vague assassination plot, but nothing could be proved. Catharine then travelled to France to the exiled royal family into exile at St Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. Eventually however Queen Mary Beatrice, who was offended by her prescence there, managed to cause her to be removed from her household and Catharine returned to England. There she was married (1696) to Sir David Colyear (c1665 – 1730), the first Earl of Portmore and bore him two sons, David Colyear (1698 – 1729), Viscount Milsington, and Charles Colyear (1700 – 1775), the second Earl of Portmore, the famous patron of the turf.
Lady Dorchester attended the coronation of King George I (1714) at Westminster Abbey, where she was joined by two former royal mistresses, Louise de Keroualle, the mistress of Charles II, and Elizabeth Villiers, Lady Orkney, the mistress of William III. Catharine caused some offence to the other two ladies, now elderly like herself, when she referred to them all collectively as ‘old whores.’ Catharine Sedley died (Oct 26, 1717) aged fifty-nine, at Bath in Somerset. She was interred at Weybridge in Surrey. The Dorchester title was not inherited by her sons and became extinct.

Seear, Beatrice Nancy – (1913 – 1997)
British politician, economist and writer
Seear was born (Aug 7, 1913). She entered politics and became the leader of the Liberal peers (1984 – 1988). A dedicated social reformer, she was later elevated to the position of Deputy Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords (1988 – 1997). She was created a Life Peer (1971) as Baroness Seear, by Queen Elizabeth II. Lady Seear died (April 23, 1997) aged eighty-three.

Seedo, Maria    see   Fletcher, Maria

Seefried, Irmgard Maria Theresia – (1919 – 1988)
Austrian soprano and concert performer
Irmgard Seefried was born in Kongetried in Germany. She studied singing in Augsburg, Bavaria, and made her stage debut at Aachen, in the role of the priestess in Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Aida (1940). Seefried was attached to the Vienna State Opera from 1943, and was especially admired for her perofrmances of the works of Mozart and Richard Strauss, notably Fioridiligi in Cosi fan tutte and Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro. Her husband was the noted violinist Wolfgang Schneiderhan. Irmgard Seefried died (Nov 24, 1998) aged sixty-nine.

Seeger, Ruth Crawford     see    Crawford-Seeger, Ruth

Sefton, Anne    see   Fish, Anne Harriet

Seghers, Anna – (1900 – 1983) 
Jewish-German novelist and humanitarian
Born Anna Reiling in Mainz (Nov 19, 1900), she was the daughter of an antique dealer. She was raised in the principles of communism and socialism. Her first published work was Aufstand der Fischer von St Barbara (The Revolt of the Fisherman) (1928), which dealt with the hope and sense of fulfillment which a successful revolution gave to the formerly downtrodden.
With the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis Seghers fled to France (1933) and travelled on to France and then to Mexico, where she settled for some years. She published the anti-Nazi novel Das siebte Kreuz (The Seventh Cross) (1942) which was made into a film with Spencer Tracy (1944). Seghers later returned to reside in East Berlin (1947) and was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize. Her other published work included The Dead Stay Young and the collection entitled Benito’s Blue and Nine Other Stories. Anna Seghers died (June 1, 1983) aged eighty-two in East Berlin.

Segrave, Elizabeth de – (1338 – 1376)
English mediaeval heiress and peeress
Elizabeth de Segrave was born (Oct 25, 1338), the elder daughter of John, fourth Lord Segrave and his wife Margaret of Brotherton, later Duchess of Norfolk. Through her mother Elizabeth de Segrave was a great-granddaughter to King Edward I (1272 – 1307). Her stepfather was Sir Walter, Lord Manney. Her younger sister Anne de Segrave (died c1377) became a nun and became abbess of Barking, whilst Elizabeth succeeded their father as fifth Baroness Segrave (1353 – 1376).
Elizabeth was married as a child to John, tenth Baron Mowbray (1340 – 1368), of Axholme, Lincolnshire, to whom she bore several children. She brought the manors of Segrave, Siteby and Mount Jorrel in Leicestershire, and also inherited the castle and manor of Caludan and other valuable lordships in Warwickshire. Elizabeth was the mother of Sir John Mowbray (1362 – 1382), created first Earl of Nottingham (1377), who died unmarried, and Sir Thomas Mowbray (1366 – 1399) who succeeded his elder brother as second Earl of nottingham (1382) and was then created first Duke of Norfolk by King Richard II (1397), through whom Elizabeth was the ancestress of Anne Boleyn and Catharine Howard, the second and fifth wives of King Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) and of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603). Her daughter Eleanor Mowbray became the first wife of John de Welles (1352 – 1421), fifth Baron Welles and left issue.

Segret, Francoise – (1891 – 1968)
French crime figure
Francoise Segret was the near victim of the famous murderer Henri Landru, the infamous ‘Bluebeard.’ She survived these horrific events over five decades, and attained a sort of celebrity for the remainder of her life due to this association. Segret committed suicide in old age in the grounds of the Chateau Flers.

Segretia (Segnetia) – (d. 664)
Irish nun and saint
Segretia was the sister of Gerald who was also venerated as a saint. She became a nun and ruled her house as abbess. Segretia and about one hundred of the sisters of her community perished during the pestilence which ravaged Ireland and England. Segretia was venerated as a saint (Dec 18).

Segur, Philippa Angelique de Froissy, Comtesse de – (1702 – 1785)
French Bourbon royal and courtier
Philippa de Froissy was the illegitimate daughter of Philippe II d’Orleans, the Regent of France (1715 – 1723). Her mother was the actress Charlotte Desmares. Philippa was married in Paris (1718) to Comte Henri Francois de Segur (1698 – 1751) and was the mother of Philippe Henri, Marquis de Segur (1724 – 1801) who served as a Marshal of France. Madame de Segur belonged to the inner circle of the court of Louis XIV at Versailles. Her husband died at Metz in Lorraine (June 18, 1751) and Philippa survived him over three decades as Dowager Comtesse de Segur (1751 – 1785). The Comtesse died (Oct 15, 1785) aged eighty-three, and was interred within the Abbey of St Eustache in Paris.

Segur, Sophie Feodorovna Rostopchina, Comtesse de – (1799 – 1874) 
Russian-French children’s writer
Countess Sophia Rostopchina was born (July 19, 1799) in Russia, the daughter of Count Feodor Vassilievitch Rostopchin (1763 – 1826), the famous statesman and Minister of Foreign Affairs. When the family left Russia for exile (1814) they resided in Warsaw, Poland, Italy, and finally in France. Sophie and her parents converted to Roman Catholicism in Paris, and she was then married (1819) to a former French émigré, Comte Eugene de Segur. The comtesse resided at the family estate, the Chateau des Nouettes, near L’Aigle, Orne, where she raised her eight children.
Later illness caused the comtesse to be an invalid for some years, and she devoted her time to writing tales for children, her first published work being Nouveaux Contes de fees (New Fairytales) (c1856). This was followed by the popular Les malheurs de Sophie (The Misfortunes of Sophie) (1859). Her work was particularly admired for her sensitive treatment of the lives of working class people depicted in her works, and her attention to historical detail. Other works included Le Mauvais Genie and Les Caprices de Gizelle. The Comtesse de Segur died (Jan 31, 1874) aged seventy-four.

Seibert, Florence – (1897 – 1991)
American physician and inventor
Florence Seibert was born (Oct 6, 1897) in Easton, Pennsylvania, and sufferred from polio during early childhood. She graduated from Goucher College, in Maryland, and worked as a chemist during World War I, after which she earned her doctorate from Yale University. Seibert’s research into bacteria led her to devise a simpler and more effective process that eliminated germs from medical injection procedures. The grant of a Guggenheim Fellowship permitted Seibert to continue her research at Uppsala University, in Sweden, where she devised a method for isolating tuberculosis protein molecules, and then developed a skin reaction test for tuberculosis infection. The test was adopted by the USA (1941) and the World Health Organization (1952). Seibert was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York (1990). Florence Seibert died (Aug 23, 1991) aged ninety-three, at St Petersburg, Florida.

Seifert, Elizabeth – (1897 – 1983)
American novelist
Born Eliabeth Seifert Gasparotti (June 19, 1897) in Washington, Montana, she originally intended to study medicine at Washington University, but dropped out when she received no encouragement. Her first novel published as Elizabeth Seifert, Young Doctor Galahad (1938), which dealt with the professional and personal problems of doctors in general, won the first novel prize for Redbook magazine. Eighty other novels followed in quick succession including Love Calls a Doctor, Surgeon on Call, The Doctor’s Confession and Four Doctors, Four Wives, all written under her maiden name. Elizabeth Seifert died (June 18, 1983) aged eighty-five, in Moberly, Montana.

Sei Shonagon – (966 – c1007)
Japanese diarist
Sei Shonagon was the author of the famous Makura-no-soshi (Pillowbook), she was the daughter of the poet Kiyohara no Motosuke, and was a lady in attendance at the Imperial court upon the empress Sadako. Sei Shonagon was a contemporary of the Lady Muraski. Her diary covers the years (991 – 1000), but not in strict chronological sequence. She provides notes under such headings as ‘disagreeable things,’ ‘amusing things,’and ‘things that make me happy’ and in recording them she displays considerable wit and talent for acute observations, giving a vivid picture of her own times, at least at the court level. Sei Shonagon and Muraski appear to have known each other, and in her own diary Lady Muraski makes some caustic remarks concerning her.

Sekerpare – (c1617 – 1648)
Ottoman sultana
Of Armenian origins, she was purchased as a slave for the Ottoman household, and became the wife of Sultan Ibrahim the Mad (Veli) (1615 – 1648). Sekerpare was remarried again after Ibrahim’s death to Kara Musa Pasha, but died horribly in Egypt soon afterwards, said to have been poisoned by unknowingly ingesting crushed glass.

Selena    see   Quintanilla, Selena

Selina – (fl. c630)
Gallo-Roman noblewoman
Selina was the daughter of the patrician Salvius and his wife Herchenfreda. She was the sister to Rusticus (c588 – 630) and Desiderius (c595 – 650) who both became priests and served successively as Bishop of Cahors. Selina was mentioned in the Vita Desiderii episcopi Cadurcensis.

Selincourt, Agnes de – (1872 – 1917)
British educator and missionary
Agnes de Selincourt was born at Streatham, the daughter of Charles Alexander de Selincourt, and his wife Theodora Bruce Bendall. Educated at Girton College, Cambridge, and at Somerville College, Oxford, she graduated (1894) with a degree in medieval and modern languages. From 1896 – 1909 Agnes travelled to India and became closely involved with missionary work there. From 1901 – 1909 she served as principal of the Lady Muir Memorial Training College, in Allahabad, and from 1910 – 1912 she was the voluntary secretary of the Student Christian Movement. Returning to London, she was appointed principal of Westfield College at London University (1913). Agnes de Selincourt died (Aug 31, 1917) in London.

Selincourt, Anne de     see    Sedgwick, Anne Douglas

Sellia Epyre – (fl. c20 – c50 AD)
Roman tradeswoman
Sellia Epyre is attested by a surviving inscription set up by her husband, Quintus Futius Olympicus. She worked as an auri vestrix (tailor), and maintained a tailoring business along the Via Sacra in Rome. Sellia specialized as a worker of gold cloth or thread, and was probably of freed status, having been trained in her profession by her former owner.

Sellick, Phyllis – (1911 – 2007)
British pianist and music teacher
Sellick was born (June 16, 1911). She became in international concert performer, together with her husband, Cyril Smith, they both being appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1971) in recognition of their valuable contribution to music. Sellick composed Walton’s Sinfonia Concertante (1945). Phyllis Sellick died (May 26, 2007) aged ninety-five.

Sellon, Priscilla Lydia – (1821 – 1876) 
British Anglican activist and founder
Priscilla Sellon was born at Hampstead in London, the daughter of a naval commander and was educated at home by a governess. Attracted to the High Church movement, Sellon worked amongst the poor in Devonport and Plymouth, where she established an orphanage and printing school for women. She was the founder of Anglican sisterhoods, which began the modern Anglican monasticism movement, and convents were established in London, Bristol, and Berkshire. During the Crimean War the sisters provided nurses for the front, but Sellon attracted unfavourable comment, most notably in the memoir Experiences of a Sister of Mercy, published by an ex-sister, because her cause was deemed too ‘Popish.’ Sellon later visited Honolulu and was the author of A Few Words to some women of the Church of England (1850).

Selvo, Teodora Anna – (1058 – 1083)
Dogaressa of Venice (1075 – 1083)
Born Princess Theodora Dukaina Komnena, in Constantinople, Asia Minor, she was Imperial Byzantine princess, the daughter of the Emperor Constantine X Dukas, and his second wife Eudocia Makrembolitissa. Her marriage with Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice (1071 – 1085) took place in Constantinople (1075), and Teodora was crowned with the Imperial diadem by her brother emperor Michael X Dukas. She brought a large Greek retinue to Venice, as befitting her Imperial birth, but rendered herself extremely unpopular with the Venetians because of her autocratic manner and haughty bearing. Teodora’s extravagances included the introduction to Venetian society of forks, fingerbowls, napkins, and sconce candles. She died a degenerative illness, which was considered by the Venetians as a divine judgement against her luxurious lifestyle.

Semane Mmakgosi – (c1881 – 1937)
Arican queen consort (1899 – 1923)
Semane Mmakgosi became the fourth wife (1899) of Rhama III Boiyanko (c1835 – 1923), chief of the Bamangwato tribe. Queen Semane became the mother of Prince Tshekedi Khama (1905 – 1959) who served as Regent of the Bamangwato kingsom (1926 – 1949). Queen Semane died (Sept 11, 1937) at Mafeking.

Sembrich, Marcella – (1858 – 1935)
Polish coloratura soprano
She was born Praxede Marcelline Kochanska (Feb 15, 1858) at Wisniewszyk in Galicia. She studied the piano at the Lemberg Conservatory under Wilhelm Stengel, and singing under Victor Rokitansky and Lamperti at Milan in Lombardy. She made her stage debut at Athens in Greece (1877) and went on to study German opera in Berlin. Adopting the professional name of ‘Marcella Sembrich’ she performed with the Dresden court theatre in Saxony for appearing in opera in London (1880).
Sembrich then toured Europe and the USA (1883 – 1884) where she sang with great success, and later performed for over a decade (1898 – 1909) with the Metropolitan Opera in New York, which was the scene for her greatest successes. After her retirement from the stage Sembrich worked as a singing instructor at the Juilliard School of Music in New York and with the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. Marcella Sembrich died (Jan 11, 1935) aged seventy-four.

Semenova, Ekaterina – (1780 – 1849) 
Russian actress
Ekaterina Semenova studied at the St Petersburg Theatre School, and made her stage debut in 1807. She studied under the dramatist Sharkovsky and the poet Gnedich, and rose to become one of the leading actresses in works by such playwrights as Racine, Schiller, and William Shakespeare. A famous beauty she attracted international attention with her captivating performance in the title role of, Phadre (1823). After her marriage (1826) with a Russian peer Prince Ivan Gagarin, Ekaterina appeared only in private theatricals.

Semiramis    see    Sammuramat

Semnoresse de Poitiers – (c1197 – 1223)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Semnoresse de Poitiers was the eldest daughter of Aymar II de Poitiers (c1185 – 1250), Comte de Valentinois in Provence and his wife Philippa de Fay, Dame de Clerieu, the daughter of Guillaume Jourdain, Seigneur de Fay and de Mezenc and his wife Metelline de Clerieux. Semnoresse became the second wife (1215 – 1216) of Andrew of Burgundy (1184 – 1237), Comte de Gap and d’Embrun (later Dauphin of Vienne as Guigues VI, 1228). There were no children and Comte Andrew appears to have repudiated her (prior to Nov, 1219) when he took a third wife. With her eventual death Andrew was finally forced to return her dowry to her father the Comte de Valentinois.

Sempill, Ann Moira – (1920 – 1995)
Scottish peeress
The Hon. (Honourable) Ann Sempill was born (March 19, 1920), the eldest daughter of Sir William Francis Sempill (1893 – 1965), the nineteenth Baron Sempill and his first wife Eileen Marion Lavery, the daughter of Sir John Lavery. During WW II she served as a petty officer with the WRNS (Women’s Royal Naval Service) and was married firstly (1941) to Captain Eric Holt to whom she bore a daughter, Frances Marion Holt (born 1942), later the wife of David Ian Russell. This marriage ended in divorce (1948).
Ann Holt then remarried 91948) to Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Whitemore Chant who later assumed the surname of Chant-Sempill (1966), as did his stepdaughter Frances Holt. She bore her second husband two sons. Mrs Chant succeeded her father and became the twentieth holder of the ancient Scottish barony of Sempill as Baroness Sempill (1965 – 1995), though the baronetcy of Forbes of Craigievar passed to her uncle Sir Ewan Forbes of Brux, eleventh baronet. Lady Sempill died (July 6, 1995) aged seventy-five and was succeeded in the peerage by her elder son James Whitemore Sempill, Master of Sempill (born 1949) who became the twenty-first Baron Sempill.

Sempronia Atratina     see     Atratina, Sempronia

Sempronia Graccha (1) – (c170 – after 101 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Sempronia Graccha was the only surviving daughter of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus the elder, consul (177 BC) and his wife, the famous Cornelia, the daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africaus. She was sister to Tiberius and Gaius Bracchus. Beautiful during her youth, she was married to her cousin Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (c185 – 129 BC), but illness stole her looks and the marriage remained childless.
The historian Appian believed that her husband’s death was caused by the intriguing of Sempronia with her mother. She survived her husband many years. When Saturninus, the tribune of the plebs, later arranged for a freedman to pretend that he was the son of Tiberius Gracchus (101 BC) Sempronia appeared in public and denounced the imposter. The author of the de viris illustribus (possibly Aurelius Victor) recorded that ‘… and neither entreaties nor threats could bring her to recognize this shameful claim.’

Sempronia Graccha (2) – (c123 – 63 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Sempronia Graccha was the daughter of Gaius Gracchus and his wife Licinia Crassa. She became the wife of Marcus Flavius Flaccus Bambalio, and their daughter Fulvia became the wife of the triumvir Mark Antony.

Sempronia Tuditana Maior – (c106 – after 44 BC)
Roman Republican figure
Sempronia Tuditana Maior was the elder daughter of Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus. She was married to Decimus Junius Brutus, consul 77 BC, as his second wife, and was a beautiful, elegant, and cultured salon hostess, being well educated in Greek and Latin, as well as with music and dancing. Gossip connected her with the dictator, Julius Caesar, and she was rather obscurely connected with the conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina (63 BC), at which time the historian Sallust left a description of her, praising both her wit and vivacity, as well as her charm and wantonness. She was living at the time of Caesar’s assassination, her son Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus being one of the assassins. Her sister was the mother of Fulvia, the wife of Mark Antony.

Sempronia Tuditana Minor – (c104 – 52 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Sempronia Tuditana Minor was the younger daughter of Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus and sister to Sempronia Tuditana Maior. She was the paternal granddaughter of the tribune Gaius Sempronius Gracchus and his wife Licinia Crassa, the daughter of Publius Licinius Crassus, consul (131 BC). Sempronia became the wife of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus Bambalio of Tusculum, the son of her grandfather’s great supporter, Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, consul (125 BC), and was the mother of Fulvia (c85 – 40 BC), the wife of the triumvir Marcus Antonius. Sempronia was the heiress of the vast Gracchi estates, which eventually passed to her daughter.

Senebhenas – (fl. c1700 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Senebhenas was probably the wife of King Khendjer of the XIIIth Dynasty (1781 – 1650 BC). She bore the title of ‘King’s Wife’ and is attested by an inscription from a fragment of a canopic jar from Khendjer’s pyramid complex, and from several scarabs.

Senecy, Marquise de    see   Randan, Marie Catherine, Duchesse de

Seneghun, Queen of     see    Yoko

Senegunde of Marcillac – (c945 – c991)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Senegunde was the daughter of Remi, Seigneur of Marcillac and his wife Odulgarda. She became the wife (c960) of Caledon III (c920 – 967), Vicomte d’Aulnay (Charente Maritime) and bore him two children Aldegarde d’Aunay (965 – 1020), married firstly to Herbert I (died 988), Vicomte of Thouars and secondly to Arnaud Manzer (died 991), Count of Angouleme, and Caledon IV (c966 – after 1000) who succeeded his father as Vicomte d’Aulnay and abdicated in favour of his son Caledon V. Senegunde long survived her husband as the Dowager Vicomtesse d’Aulnay and never remarried. She died shortly before 992.

Senena of Gwynedd – (1200 – 1241)
Welsh princess
Senena was born into a noble Welsh family with royal connections, and became the first wife of her kinsman Prince Gruffyd ap Llewellyn (1196 – 1244), the eldest son of Prince Llewellyn II ap Iorwerth (1194 – 1240) by his first wife (or mistress) Tangwystl ferch Llywarch, the daughter of Llywarch Goch of Rhos, Lord of Lleyn. The rights to the throne of Senena’s husband and children were displaced on behalf of Prince Llewellyn’s issue by his Norman wife Joan Plantagenet, the natural daughter of King John (1199 – 1216), the rights to the succession in Wales being granted to Joan’s children as part of her marriage contract. Senena bore her husband four children and remained loyal to him throughout his troubled history with his royal father. She appears as a character in the historical novel Here Be Dragons (1986) by Sharon Penman. Senena’s children were,

Senesh, Hannah – (1921 – 1944) 
Jewish-Hungarian war heroine and diarist
Hannah Senesh was born in Budapest, and attended a private school. With the outbreak of WW II she immigrated to Palestine, where she trained in an agricultural school before joining the Sdot-Yam kibbutz in Caesarea. Senesh volunteered to be parachuted into Yugoslavia in order to warn the Jews there of the impending danger from the Nazi regime, and worked with the British to arrange the rescue of as many Jewish refugees as they could. Senesh was later captured near the Hungarian border by the Nazis, who tortured her before finally executing her. Her personal diary and poems were published posthumously as Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary (1972).

Senff, Nida – (1920 – 1995)
Dutch athlete and swimming champion
Born Dina Willemina Jacoba Senff (April 3, 1920) in Rotterdam, Nida won the one hundred metre backstroke at the Berlin Olympics (1936). She was later inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame (1983). Nida Senff died (June 27, 1995) aged seventy-seven, at Amstelveen.

Senfria of Rouen (Seinfrida) – (fl. c970 – c1000)
Norman dynastic matriarch
Senfria was the sister of Herfastus, the forester of Arques and of Gunnora, the mistress and then second duchess of Richard I the Fearless (933 – 996), Duke of Normandy (942 – 996). Herfastus was granted lands in the Cotetin region and the family was prominent enough to make grants to the Abbey of St Pere. Senfria was the eldest of the sisters, and her others included Duvelina, the wife of Tourulf, Seigneur de Pont Audemer, and Wevia, the wife of Osbern de Bolbec. Ancient genealogies which claimed that Senfria and her siblings were connected to the Danish royal family are completely spurious and based on no recorded evidence.
Apparently a lady of considerable attractions, Senfria became the wife of the unnamed forester of St Vaast d’Equiqueville, and was originally the focus of Duke Richard’s amorous interest. The Norman chronicler Robert of Torigny recorded that Senfria was a religious woman and provided her next sister Gunnora as his mistress instead (c970). Senfria and her unnamed husband were the parents of a daughter named Joscelina, who became their sole heiress. She was married to Hugh de Montgomery and their vast estates appear to have benefitted from the inheritance left to Joscelina by her parents. Senfria’s descendants included her grandson Roger de Montgomery, the husband of Mabel Talvas.
It has been speculated that Senfria may have been the mother of a second daughter, unnamed but called the niece of Duchess Gunnora, who became the wife of Vicomte Richard of Rouen. Their son Lambert de St Saens was married to an illegitimate daughter of Robert II, Duke of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror.

Sengupta, Nellie – (1886 – 1973)
Anglo-Indian politician
Born at Nellie Gray Cambridge in England, she became the wife (1909) of the Indian Congress leader Jatindra Mohan Sengupta, a friend of the family. Nellie returned to England with Sengupta and joined wholeheartedly in the national movement for independence. She was arrested after addressing a pulic meeting in Delhi (1931) and spent several months in prison. She presided over the Calcutta session of the Congress (1933) as all other leaders were then imprisoned and was forcibly placed in a police van. Her husband died whilst in detention (1933).
Nellie Sengupta was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assemby for two terms (1940) and (1946). After the partition of India and Pakistan she was elected to the East Pakistan Legislature (1954). Nellie Sengupta died in Calcutta.

Senior, Jeannie – (1828 – 1877) 
British philanthropist and civil servant
Born Jane Elizabeth Hughes, she was the daughter of a rural squire. She was the younger sister of novelist Thomas Hughes (1822 – 1896), the author of Tom Brown’s School Days (1857). She was married (1848) to the political economist, Nassau John Senior. Jeannie Senior studied the poor law system, and established the boarding-out system, by which poor children were placed in foster care situations. At the recommendation of her friend Octavia Hill, Senior was appointed as the first female inspector in the Civil Service (1873). Her personal research condemned the existing system of pauper education, and together with Hill and Lord Shaftesbury she co-founded the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants (1875).

Seniye of Egypt – (1870 – 1934)
Seniye was born (Feb 8, 1870), the daughter of Mansur Henghen Pasha (1837 – 1913) and his wife Princess Tevhide, the daughter of Ismail Pasha (1830 – 1895), Khedive of Egypt. She was married to her kinsman Prince Muhammad Daoud Pasha of Egypt (1873 – 1921) to whom she bore four sons including Lord (Nabil) Suleyman Daoud (1901 – 1967), who was appointed as the official Egyptian delegate to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in Britain (1953). Princess Seniye was later divorced by her husband. She died (Oct 15, 1934) aged sixty-four, in Alexandria.

Senorina – (924 – 982)
Portugese nun and saint
Senorina was the daughter of Atulfo de Sousa, Conde de Belfajal and lord of Vieira and Basto, and was related to St Rodesind (March 1). She was raised by her aunt Godina who was a nun and later joined the Benedictine Order. She succeeded Godina as abbess of the convent of Sao Jao do Vieira at Basto in Entre Minho y Douro. Her father later built Senorina a new convent at Basto. Renowned for her piety and religious sanctity, Senorina was venerated as a saint and her feast (April 22) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sens, Benoite de – (d. c273 AD)
Hispano-Roman Christian martyr
Benedicta was born in Hispania and either born or raised as Christians. She accompanied her brothers Sanctian and Augustine to reside at Sens in France where she was known as Benoite. There they were arrested during the persecution initiated by the Emperor Aurelian (270 – 275 AD) after they refused to make the obligatory sacrifice to the pagan gods. The emperor himself is said to have personally remonstrated with Benoite and her brothers but to no avail, and they were condemened to death. As they were Roman citizens they were beheaded by the sword. Benoite and her two brothers were both venerated as martyrs their feast being recorded (June 29) in the Roman Martyrology and in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sentia – (fl. c80 – c70 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Sentia was related to Sentius Saturninus, who returned to Rome after the peace of Misenum (39 BC). Sentia became the second wife of Lucius Scribonius Libo and and was stepmother to Lucius Scribonius Libo (c90 – c21 BC), consul (34 BC). She was the mother of Scribonia Caesaris, the wife of Octavian (Augustus) and mother of his daughter Julia Maior, the wife of the Emperor Tiberius, and was attested by a surviving inscription as Sentia Libonis mater Scriboniae Caesaris.

Sentz, Caroline – (1768 – 1812)
German courtier
Caroline Sentz became the morganatic wife of Prince Friedrich of Hesse-Darmstadt (1759 – 1808). She was granted the title of Madame von Friedrich, whilst their son Friedrich August (1800 – 1879) was created a baron and left descendants.

Septimia Odaenathiana – (fl. c260 – c280 AD)
Syrian noblewoman
L. Septimia Pataviniana Balbilla Tyria Nepotilla Odaenathiana was probably a connection of the Palmyrene royal house, and was a descendant of King Septimius Odaenathus. She was perhaps also related ti Tyrius septimius Azizus the public curator at Falerii (260 – 268 AD) during the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. She was attested by a surviving inscription which styled her clarissima puella.

Septimia Octavilla     see     Octavilla, Septimia

Serao, Mathilde – (1856 – 1927)
Italian novelist and journalist
Serao was born at Patras and was trained as a schoolteacher. Serao spent most of her life resident in Naples, where she wrote articles for various newspapers and wrote several romantic novels such as Cuore Infermo (1881), Fantasia (1882) and Riccardo Joanna (1887). She was also the author of The Ballet Dancer, and on Guard Sentinel (1901) and In the Country of Jesus (1905). Her works were immensely popular and were translated into several languages. Mathilde Serao died (July 25, 1927) in Naples.

Serapia – (c100 – 125 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian virgin saint
Serapia was born a slave in Antioch, Syria. Raised as a Christian she became a nun in Rome with her companion Savina. Serapia perished during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD), being condemned by governor Beryllus of Umbria. She sufferred various brutal tortures befire she was finally beheaded. Considered to be one of the patrons of Rome, Serapia was recorded as a saint (Aug 29) in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum.

Serena – (c365 – 408 AD)
Roman Imperial princess
Serena was the daughter of Honorius, and niece to the Emperor Theodosius I the Great (379 – 395 AD), who formally adopted her (c384 AD). She appears to have chosen to marry Stilicho the Vandal, a leading military commander, and the poet Claudian mentioned the marriage in his Laudatio Serenae. The couple had a son Eucherius, and two daughters. With the emperor’s death, Stilicho assumed control of the government for his young sons, the emperors Arcadius and Honorius.
Several years later her daughter Maria became the wife (398 AD) of Honorius. With her death he married her sister thermantia, but both marriages remained childless. Serena later earned the implacable hatred of the pagan aristocracy in Rome because of her wanton profanation of the sacred shrine of the Magna Mater.  With Stilicho’s fall from power and susequent execution (Aug, 408 AD), Serena, who was believed to be in secret communication with the Visigothic leader, Alaric, was ordered to be strangled by the senate. Her son was also murdered in Rome, but her younger daugher survived.

Serf, Monique     see    Barbara (2)

Sergeant, Adeline – (1851 – 1904) 
British novelist, educator, and journalist
Emily Frances Adeline Sergeant was born (July 4, 1851) at Ashbourne in Derbyshire, the daughter of a Methodist missionary. She was educated at Clapham and attended Queen’s College, London. Sergeant worked on the staff of the Dundee Advertiser, and travelled abroad in Italy. She devoted her career to writing and published several work such as Story of a Penitent Soul (1892) and A Great Lady (1901) using the pseudonym ‘Adeline.’ Her other works included The Lady Charlotte (1898), The Common Lot (1899) and The Treasure of Captain Scarlett (1901). Adeline Sergeant died (Dec 5, 1904) aged fifty-three, at Bournemouth.

Sergia – (fl. c600)
Byzantine courtier
Sergia was a patrician matron who attended the court of the Emperor Maurice and his wife Constantina. The Miracula Artemii in the Varia Graeca Sacra recorded that Sergia had a sick son who was cured by the intervention of the martyr Artemius.

Sergia Catilina – (fl. c100 – c83 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Sergia Catilina was the sister of the famous conspirator, Lucius Sergius Catilina, and the wife of Quintus Caecilius. Her marriage was not a contented one and the historian Sallust recorded that Catilina arranged for the murder of Caecilius at his sister’s request. It is possible that Sergia’s husband was illegally killed during the proscriptions of Sulla, but there remain no factual grounds for the accusation, and Sergia’s brother was never prosecuted for such a crime.

Sergia Paulla    see   Paulla, Sergia

Sergia Plautilla – (fl. c30 – c40 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Sergia Plautilla was the daughter of consul Octavius Laenas, and his wife Sergia, the daughter of Lucius Sergius Plautius. She became the wife of the consul Marcus Coeccius Nerva, and was mother of Marcus Coeccius Nerva (30 – 98 AD), who was elected to succeed Domitian as emperor (96 – 98 AD). Her brother, also named Octavius Laenas had married Rubellia Bassa, sister to Rubellius Plautus, who had married her own sister Sergia in a double dynastic alliance. Both of the Rubellii were great-grandchildren to the emperor Tiberius (14 – 37 AD). Through her marriage Sergia Plautilla was the distant connection between the former Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – 68 AD) and her Imperial son.

Serignac, Jeanne Margeurite   see    Steinheil, Margeurite Jeanne

Serina, Yolande da – (fl. c1520 – 1528)
Italian artist’s model
Yolanda de Serina accompanied the painter Palma Vecchio (Jacopo Palma) to Venice, and his studio was in her home. There her statuesque blonde beauty attracted the attention of Titian (Vecellio Tiziano) and Giovanni Cariani. Both painters used Yolanda as their model, notably for the Virgin Mary in Titian’s The Assumption (1518), for the Frari Church in Venice. Her portrait, painted either by Palma Vecchio or Paris Bordenone, is preserved in the Prado Museum, in Madrid.
Yolanda is also believed to have been the model for St Barbara on the altarpiece commissioned from the painter Moretto of Brescia (Alessandro Bonvicino), by the Benedictine monks of Santa Giustina in Padua. Yolanda refused the suit of the Renaissance author Pietro Aretino, but retired to peaceful obscurity after Palma Vecchio’s death (1528). Though she received no mention in his will, there were rumours that she may have been his daughter.

Serle, Dora Beatrice – (1875 – 1968)
Australian painter
Dora Hake was born in Melbourne, Victoria, and was sister to painter Elsie Barlow. She studied drawing under Jane Sutherland and had further instruction at the National Gallery School under Fred McCubbin and Bernard Hall. Dora also travelled to Germany and studied at Heidelberg, and then under Elizabeth Forbes in England. She later returned to Australia and established a school for artist students at Geelong. Hake was married (1910) to Percival Serle.
Dora Searle was one of the founding members of the Independent Group and was for many decades a member of the Victorian Artists’ Society. She served as the president of the Melbourne Society of Women Painters and Sculptors. Dora Serle produced mainly water colour and flower paintings and her work was exhibited with the Independent Group and the Victorian Artists’ Society. Examples of her work were preserved at the National Gallery of Victoria.

Sermoneta, Harriet Georgiana Ellis, Duchess di – (1831 – 1906)
Anglo-Italian biographer
The Hon. (Honourable) Harriet Ellis was born (Sept 3, 1831) the eldest daughter of Charles Augustus Ellis (1799 – 1868), sixth Baron Howard de Walden, second Baron Seaford, and his wife, Lady Lucy Joan Cavendish-Bentinck, the daughter of William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (1768 – 1854), fourth Duke of Portland.
Harriet published several novels and biographical works, and when aged over forty (1875), she became the third wife in Florence, of the Roman peer, Michaelangelo Caetani (1820 – 1882), thirteenth Duca di Sermoneta. She survived her husband over two decades as Dowager Duchess di Sermoneta (1882 – 1906). Her own marriage was childless and Harriet became the stepmother of Leone Caetani, Prince di Teano (1869 – 1935), who succeeded his father as fourteenth Duca di Sermoneta (1882 – 1935). The Duchess di Sermoneta died (April 15, 1906) aged seventy-four.

Sermoneta, Vittoria di Colonna, Duchess di – (1880 – 1954)
Italian courtier and memoirist
Princess Vittoria di Colonna was born (Nov 29, 1880) in London, the younger daughter of Marcantonio di Colonna, Prince di Paliano (1820 – 1894) and his wife Teresa Caracciolo, Duchessa di San Teodoro and di Parete (1855 – 1935). Vittoria became a popular and prominent member of the court of the Prince and Princess of Wales in London, she was married (1901) to Leone Caetani, Prince di Teano (1869 – 1935), who later succeeded as Duca di Sermoneta. She survived him as Dowager Duchess (1935 – 1954). The duchess was the author of a volume of personal reminiscences entitled Things Past. The Duchess di Sermoneta died (Nov 17, 1954) aged seventy-four, in London.

Sernigi, Raffaella de’ – (1473 – 1557)
Italian dramatist
Rafaella de’ Sernigi was a nun at the Augustinian convent of Santa Maria della Disciplina, south of Florence. Raffaella became prioress of that house in 1522 and served in that position for thirty-five years until her death (Dec 13, 1557). Raffaella was the author of a mystery play entitled Rappresentazione di Moise quando Idio gli dette le leggie in sulmonte Sinai (The Play of Moses When God Gave Him the Law on Mount Sinai). This work was published in Florence shortly before Raffaella’s death, through the sponsorship of Giuseppe di Pietro da Treviso.

Serolde, Serote     see   Sicildis

Serres, Olivia Wilmot – (1772 – 1834)
British painter and royal claimant
Olivia Wilmot was born in Warwick, the daughter if a housepainter. She was married to the painter, Anthony Serres to whom she bore two children. Olivia herself was trained as an artist, several of her works being exhibited at the Royal Academy (1794 – 1808). She was later appointed landscape painter (1806) to the Prince of Wales (George IV). Despite her definite artistic talent, Olivia Serres is better remembered for her outlandish claim to being a niece of George III.
Serres claimed (1817) to be an illegitimate daughter of Prince Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, the king’s younger brother, but went further and claimed the royal style of ‘Princess Olive of Cumberland,’ claiming that the duke had actually been married to Olive Wilmot, and she claimed to be their legtimate daughter (1821). Olive Wilmot was in fact, completely fictitious. Olivia Serres then produced a will in which she claimed the late king left her the sum of 15,000 pounds. Arrested for debt and imprisoned, her claims were disproved (1823) and she remained in the King’s Bench Prison till her death. Her elder daughter, Lavinia Ryves, continued with her mother’s claims, with no result.

Ser Sebastiano, Griseide di – (fl. 1510 – 1514)
Italian religious and artistic patron
Griseide di Ser Sebastiano commissioned a funerary altarpiece to the memory of her late husband in the church of San Francesco in Montefalco, attributed to Tiberio d’Assisi, and then paid for frescoes to decorate the Franciscan chapel of San Fortunato in Montefalco, which she commissioned from Tiberio d’Assisi.

Sert, Misia    see   Godebska, Misia

Servilia Caepia Maior – (104 – after 42 BC)
Roman political figure
Servilia Caepia Maior was the elder daughter of Quintus Servilius Caepio, consul 106 BC, and his wife Livia Drusa, and was the granddaughter of Servilius Caepio. She was the stepsister of Cato Uticensis and was married firstly (c88 BC) to Marcus Junius Brutus, tribune of the plebs (83 BC), by whom she was the mother of the famous assassin and Republican leader, Marcus Junius Brutus (85 – 42 BC) and three daughters. The allegation that Caesar fathered her son Brutus is chronologically unsound.
Her first husband was killed at Mutina by Pompey (77 BC), and Servilia remarried (c76 BC) to Decimus Junius Silanus, consul 62 BC. She wielded considerable political influence and was the mistress of Julius Caesar. However, she failed to prevent her brother and son from joining in support of Pompey (49 BC), whom she hated as the murderer of her first husband, Marcus Junius Brutus.  Servilia survived her son’s death at the battle of Philippi.

Servilia Caepia Minor – (c102 – after 46 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Servilua Caepia Minor was the younger daughter of Quintus Servilius Caepio, consul (106 BC) and his wife Livia Drusa. She was the younger sister of the more famous Servilia Caepia Maior, the mistress of Julius Caesar. Servilia Minor became the wife (c80 BC) of the famous general, Lucius Licinius Lucullus (110 – 56 BC), consul (74 BC), and was the mother of Marcus Licinius Lucullus (c78 – 42 BC). She was a prominent figure in Roman society and became involved in many adulterous affairs.
Lucullus tolerated her conduct for some time, out of his respect for her brother-in-law, Cato Uticensis, but eventually her ordered her from his house and divorced her (c70 BC). With Lucullus’s death Servilia and her son joined the household of her brother Cato, whom she accompanied on his travels. The historian Plutarch implies that this appropriate conduct did much to restore her reputation. Servilia survived her brother’s death (46 BC).

Servilia Isaurica – (c56 – 30 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Servilia Isaurica was the daughter of Publius Servilius Isauricus, consul (48 BC) and his wife Junia, the daughter of Decimus Junius Silanus, consul (63 BC). She was married (43 BC) to Octavian, the nephew of Julius Caesar, as his first wife, but was divorced soon afterwards. She later committed suicide after her family was involved in vague conspiracy against Octavian.

Seshemetka – (fl. c3050 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Seshemetka was the wife of King Den of the First Dynasty. She is attested as one of the four wives of the king on her surviving stelae, which was discovered in a grave in the funerary complex of Den at Ummel-Qaab.

Sesheshet – (fl. c2280 – c2270 BC)
Egyptian queen mother
The identity of Queen Seshseshet’s husband remains unknown though she was the mother of King Teti, the first ruler of the VIth Dynasty (2282 – 2117 BC). Surviving inscriptions on a fragment of a pillar from the mortuary temple of her grandson Pepi I, named her as ‘King’s Mother.’ Her husband may not have been of royal antecedents and thus Teti may have gained the throne by force. Sesheshet was presumably a widow and was then accorded the rank of queen mother by her son.
Inscriptions from the tomb of the royal vizier Mehu at Saqqara refer to estates belonging to Queen Sesheshet. Her tomb was discovered at Saqqara (2008). It had been robbed during antiquity but some valuable artifacts were recovered. Inscriptions indentified Sesheshet as the mother of Teti.

Sesheshet Idut – (fl. c2290 BC)
Egyptian princess
A member of the Vth Dynasty (2392 – 2282 BC), she took over a tomb near the pyramid of King Unas, the last ruler of the dynasty, at Saqqara, which suggests that she may have been his daughter. Surviving inscriptions give her the title of ‘King’s Daughter of his Body,’ whilst she is pictured standing on her boat in surviving reliefs.

Sessa, Claudia – (c1570 – before 1619)
Italian composer
Sessa became a nun at the Lateran Canoness house of Santa Maria Annunciata in Milan, Lombardy. Her vocal abilities were praised by Puteanus in his Modulata Pallas (1599). She was the composer of two sacred pieces Vattene pur, lasciva orechia humana and Occhi io vissi di voi. Claudia Sessa was living in 1613 but had died in Milan prior to 1619.

Sessions, Almira – (1888 – 1974)
American stage and film actress
Almira Sessions specialized in portraying eccentric or rather helpless matronly female characters and appeared in such films as Little Nellie Kelly (1941), The Fountainhead (1949), The Boston Strangler (1967) when she appeared as one of the elderly victims of Albert De Salvo, Rosemary’s Baby (1969) in which she played a member of the witches’ coven, and Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (1972).

Seton, Alice Ida Hodge, Lady – (1899 – 1995)
British WRAF officer
Alice hodge was born in Port Elizabeth in South Africa and was married (1923) to Captain Sir John Hastings Seton (died 1956), tenth baronet, and was the mother of Sir Robert James Seton (born 1926), the eleventh baronet. They were later divorced (1950). During WW II Lady Seton joined the WAAF (Women’s Auxiliary Air Force) as an assistant section officer (1939) and then served as Group Officer with the WRAF (Women’s Royal Air Force) and this volunteer service was recognized when she was appointed CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1949). Lady Seton died (July 28, 1995).

Seton, Anya – (1904 – 1990)
British historical novelist
Anya Seton was born in New York, USA to British parents, her mother being Grace Gallatin Seton the noted feminist and explorer. She was educated privately in England under the supervision of a governess. Her published works included the popular historical romantic novels such as My Theodosia (1941) which dealt with the life of Theodosia Burr Alston, Katherine (1954) which was a romantic biography of Katherine Swynford, the mistress and then third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and stepmother of King Henry IV, The Winthrop Woman (1958) which was set in colonial America, Devil Water (1962) which dealt with the fortunes of the family of the Scottish earls of Derwentwater, and Avalon (1966) which dealt with the life of the French saint Romieux de Provence who was known as St Rumon in England. Seton also published several works for juveniles including The Mistletoe and Sword (1956) and Washington Irving (1960).

Seton, Christian de – (c1350 – after 1403)
Scottish letter writer
Christian de Seton was the daughter of Alan de Seton (formerly Wintoun) by his wife Margaret Seton, the daughter of Sir Alexander Seton of Seton. she became the wife (c1362) of George Dunbar (c1336 – c1416), the ninth Earl of March and Dunbar, and was the mother of Sir George Dunbar (c1370 – c1455) who succeeded his father as the tenth Earl of March and Dunbar and left descendants, and of Lady Elizabeth Dunbar who was betrothed to the Duke of Rothesay, the eldest son of King Robert III.
When Rothesay broke of his engagement with Elizabeth, lord March broke his allegiance to the Stewarts and joined the forces of Henry IV of England (1400). Lord and Lady Dunbar were forced to flee to England and live in exile. The countess was living (March 7, 1403) when she wrote a surviving letter in French to Henry IV, requesting financial assistance to sustain them during their enforced exile.

Seton, Cynthia Propper – (1926 – 1982) 
American novelist and essayist
Seton was born (Oct 11, 1926) in New York, and studied the works of George Eliot and Marcel Proust. She was educated at Smith College. She contributed to The Berkshire Eagle newspaper of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Seton taught at the Indiana Writers Conference, and was the author of works such as The Sea Change of Angela Lewes (1971), A Fine Romance (1976) which was nominated for the National Book Award (1976), and A Private Life (1982). Cynthia Seton died (Oct 23, 1982) aged fifty-six, at Northampton, Massachusetts.

Seton, Elizabeth Ann Bayley – (1774 – 1821) 
American nun and saint
Born Elizabeth Ann Bayley in New York, into an upper class family Episcopalian family, she was married to William Magee Seton, to whom she bore several children. Elizabeth Seton founded the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children (1797), the first official charitable organization to be established in New York City. Widowed in 1803, Seton then converted to Roman Catholicism and founded the Sisters of Charity of St Joseph (1809), over which she ruled as first superior. Elizabeth Ann Seton was beatified by Pope John XXIII (1963) and was later canonized (1975), becoming the first American to be so honoured (Jan 4). She was later conducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1980).

Seton, Mary – (1542 – after 1615)
Scottish courtier
Mary Seton was the daughter of George, sixth Baron Seton, and his wife Marie Pieris, a Frenchwoman (later the wife of Pierre de Clovis, seigneur de Bryante), who came to Scotland in the train of Mary of Guise, the second wife of King James V, and mother of Queen Mary Stuart. Mary was appointed as one of the young queen’s ‘Maries’, and then accompanied her mistress to the court of Henry II of France (1548), where her own education was completed. With the death of Francois II (1560) she accompanied Mary Stuart back to Scotland.
Though attractive, Seton was also very pious, and she never married unlike the other ‘Maries’ after the accidental drowning death of her intended husband, Andrew Beaton (1577). Seton remained at court in attendance upon the queen and was present at the birth of James VI (I of England) (1566), having witnessed the terrible murder of the queen’s secretary David Rizzio just prior to the birth. Seton was later permitted to accompany Mary Stuart into captivity at Lochleven Castle, and then accompanied her on her escape to England. There she shared part of her mistress’s long captivity (1568 – 1583). Eventually her health declined and Seton was permitted to retire to France (1583), where she retired to the Abbey of St Pierre, at Rheims, near Paris. She remained there until her death, living in great poverty.

Setsuko, Matsudaira – (1909 – 1995)
Japanese princess and memoirist
Matsudaira Setsuko was the wife of Prince Chichibu (1902 – 1953), brother of the emperor Showa (Hirohito), she was born at Walton-on-Thames, London, England, the daughter of Matsudaira Tsuneo, ambassador to America and Imperial minister, and his wife Nabeshima Nubuko. Her marriage with Chichibu was arranged by the Empress Sadako, and took place in 1928, but remained childless. After her husband’s death, Setsuko devoted herself to worthwhile cultural and public health causes. She became president of the Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, honorary president of the Britain-Japan Society, and of the Sweden-Japan Society.
The princess was also involved with the work of the Japanese Red Cross Society, and became honorary vice-president of that association, making several visits to Britain and Sweden. Queen Elizabeth II awarded Princess Setsuko the GBE (1962), and the GCMG (1978), because of her valuable work on behalf of the Red Cross. The Swedes likewise honoured her with the Order of Seraphim. After her death of heart failure, Setsuko’s memoirs The Silver Drum: An Imperial Memoir, released in Japan in 1991, were published in English.

Seung-yeon, Woo – (1983 – 2009)
South Korean model and actress
Woo was born (May 24, 1983). She studied French language and literature and became a fashion model. She appeared in television commercials before gaining small roles in the films Herb (2007) and Private Eye (2008). She killed herself (April 25, 2009) aged twenty-five, at Jamsil in Seoul, having suffered from depression.

Seva – (fl. c550)
Breton nun
Seva became a nun at Langoal in Brittany and was revered as a saint (July 26).

Severa of Aquitaine – (c595 – c660)
Carolingian nun
Severa was the daughter of Grimaud of Austrasia (c553 – 600), Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Itta of Gascony, the daughter of Severus, Duke of Gascony. Through her father she was a descendant of the Merovingian king Clovis I (481 AD – 511) and his second wife St Clotilda of Burgundy. Severa was the sister of St Modoaldus (c580 – c640) Bishop of Treves (622) and of Iduberga, later the first Abbess of Nivelles the wife of Pepin I of Landen. Her brother Modaldus founded the Abbey of St Symphorian on the Moselle River and Severa ruled that house as the first abbess. Severa was venerated as a saint (July 20).

Severa of Treves – (c700 – c750)
Merovingian nun and saint
Severa became the Abbess of the Benedictine convent of Oehren at Treves which had been founded by Irmina, the wife of Count Hugobert. She was venerated as a saint (July 20).

Severa, Appia – (fl. c70 – c100 AD)
Roman Imperial progenatrix
Appia Severa was the daughter of Sextus Appius Severus, who held the rank of quaestor during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian (69 – 79 AD). Severa became the wife of Lucius Ceionius Commodus, consul (78 AD) and was the mother of Lucius Ceionius Commodus, consul (106 AD). She was thus the grandmother of Lucius Aelius Caesar (died 136 AD) and was the great-grandmother of the Emperor Lucius Verus (130 – 169 AD), the son-in-law and co-ruler of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD).

Severa, Claudia – (fl. c100 AD)
Roman letter writer
Claudia Severa was the wife of Aelius Brocchus, an auxiliary officer stationed along Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain. Two of her letters survive. They were both addressed to her friend Sulpicia Lepidina, the wife of Flavius Cerealis, prefect of the Ninth Cohort of Batavians at Vindolanda in northern Britain. Both letters were written by a scribe, but Severa added some elaborate words of greeting to her friend at the end, in her own hand. The first letter was to invite Lepidina to visit Severa on the occasion of her birthday, whilst in the second she reveals her own forthcoming visit to her friend. This is the earliest surviving example of Latin female handwriting.

Severa, Flavia Maxima – (c375 – before 430 AD)
Roman Imperial princess
Flavia Maxima Severa was the daughter of Magnus Maximus, Roman Emperor in Britain (383 – 388 AD) and his wife Helen, the daughter of Octavius, dux of the Gewissi in Britain. A surviving letter from Bishop Ambrose of Milan reveals that after the defeat and death of Maximus at Aquileia in Italy (388 AD), the empress and her daughters were thrown upon the mercy of the Emperor Theodosius I (379 – 395 AD), who provided for their maintenance and their education as befitted their rank. Severa was given in marriage (c400 AD) to King Vortigern of Britain (c386 – c461 AD) as a ward of the Emperor Arcadius. The marriage was a dynastic arrangement designed to bind the British tribes in loyalty to Rome. Though Queen Severa must have been about a decade Vortigern’s senior, an Imperial bride was an undreamed of catch for a British client ruler.
An inscribed pillar, originally a cross, at the Abbey of Valle Crucis, near Langollen in Wales, portrays the descent of the royal family of Powys, traced in descent from the son of Vortigern and Severa called Pascentus (Pascent). Powys covered east central Wales and Shropshire and the passage in Geoffrey of Monmouth, which appear authentic, implied that Severa’s mother the Empress Helen had certain hereditary rights in this region, which she passed on to Vortigern as her son-in-law. Queen Severa died (prior to 430 AD) when Vortigern remarried to Reinwin (Rowena). Severa’s children included Vortimer (c400 – 457 AD) who was proclaimed king in his father’s lifetime and was supposedly murdered at the behest of his stepmother, Prince Catigern (c402 – 455 AD) and Prince Britu (c407 – 495 AD) who became a monk and took the name of Faustus, being appointed Abbot of Levins and Bishop of Riez.

Severina, Septimia – (d. after 379 AD)
Roman Christian patrician
Severina is attested by a surviving sarcophagus inscription from Tolentinum (Picenum) which bears Christian emblems and styles her clarissima femina. She was the wife and widow of Flavius Julius Catervius (c323 – 379 AD), who held Imperial office and died aged fifty-six. The inscription also records that Severina was the mother of a son Bossus who died aged eighteen. Spurious legend calls Severina and Catervius saints and commemorated them together (Dec 11).

Severina, Ulpia – (c230 – 276 AD)
Roman Augusta (270 – 275 AD)
Ulpia Severina was the daughter of the wealthy nobleman Ulpius Crinitus and was sister to the future emperor Severus II (died 307 AD). She was married (c248 AD) to the Emperor Aurelianus (214 – 275 AD), to whom she bore an only daughter who survived her parents. With Aurelianus’ accession to the imperial throne she was accorded the title of Augusta (270 AD).
After her husband’s assassination the empress controlled the government and administration in Rome (April – Sept, 275 AD) in the name of the late emperor, until Tacitus was elected emperor by the Senate. Towards the end of his reign Aurelian had permitted coins to be minted in Severina’s name. This continued during her presidence over the interregnal government. A billon denarius minted in Rome (275 AD) portrayed a bust of the empress on the obverse with the legend, SEVERINA AVG. A gold aureus from the same year shows the same inscription on the obverse with a bust of Severina behind a crescent. Other coins bear the legend CONCORDIA AVGA.

Severine – (1855 – 1929) 
French journalist and social reformer
Born Caroline Guebhardt (April 27, 1855) in Paris, she was married firstly to a man named Remy (1871) from whom she was quickly divorced, and then became involved in a romantic liasion with the socialist author, Jules Valles. Adopting the literary name of ‘Severine’ she wrote for Valles’ newspaper Le cri du peuple, and with his death (1885) she took over as proprietor. Severine contributed articles to other prominent publications such as Le Reveil, Gil Blas, La Matin and the feminist newspaper La Fronde. Her written works included Pages rouges (1893), Notes d’une Frondeuse (1894) and Vers la lumiere impressions vecues (1900). Severine died in Paris (April 23, 1929) aged seventy-three.

Sevigne, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de – (1626 – 1696)  
French letter writer
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal was born in the Place Royale, in Paris (Feb 5, 1626) and was educated at the Abbey de Livry in Brittany, by her uncle Christopher, the Abbe de Coulanges. She was raised with the Coulanges family and educated with Madame de La Fayette, studying Latin, Italian and Spanish literature under Menage and Chapelain. Marie was married (1644) to Henri, Marquis de Sevigne (1623 – 1651), who was killed in a duel, leaving her a widow with two small children, Francoise Margeurite, later the Comtesse de Grignan, and Charles, Marquis de Sevigne (1648 – 1713).
Madame de Sevigne attended the court of Louis XIV, and her letters reveal intimate details of court life and her presidence over her own salon in Paris, which was frequented by such figures court and literary figures as Corneille, Racine, La Rochefoucald, Bourdaloe, Fouquet, Malebranche and Colbert, amongst others. She is more famous however, for her lengthy correspondence with her beloved daughter, Madame de Grignan, especially after her marriage and subsequent removal to her husband’s home in Provence (1669), which lasted over twenty-five years. There are over sixteen hundred surviving letters, a third of which are addressed to Madame de Sevigne from her large circle of friends. Some of her letters were addressed to her cousin and admirer, Roger de Rabutin, Comte de Bussy. Madame de Sevigne died (April 17, 1696) at the Chateau de Grignan, of smallpox after nursing her daughter through a serious illness. Her letters mirror, with classical perfection, the grace, charm, wit, and intelligent good sense of a woman of the world fortunate enough to live throughout the greatest period of French society and literature.

Sevkefza – (1820 – 1889)
Ottoman Valide Sultan (queen mother) (1876)
Sevkefza was born (Dec 12, 1820) at Poti in the Caucasus. She was sent to be a member of the sultan’s harem, and was married (1839) to Sultan Abdulmecid I (1823 – 1861). Sevkefza became the mother of Sultan Murad V (1840 – 1902). With her husband’s death she and her son lived in virtual seclusion from the court. Murad was elected sultan in 1876, and Sevkefza was proclaimed Valide Sultan. However, her son was deposed after only a reign of two months, and Queen Sevkefza was forced into retirement. Queen Sevkefza died (Sept 20, 1889) aged sixty-eight, at Ortakeuy.

Sewall, May Wright – (c1856 – 1920)
American women’s suffrage leader and activist
May Sewall was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. She was the founder and president of the International Council of Women. May Sewall died (July 22, 1920) in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Seward, Anna – (1747 – 1809)
British poet
Popularly known as the ‘Swan of Litchfield’ Anna Seward was born at Eyam in Derbyshire, the daughter of a canon who wrote poetry. Anna never married and resided with her father at Litchfield for over thirty years (1757 – 1790). With her father’s death she continued to live in the bishop’s palace. Seward was best known for her romantic poetry, and her elegies on Captain Cook (1780) and the theatrical entrepeneur David Garrick, brought her the favourable attention of Dr Samuel Johnson and the British public. She bequeathed all her peotry to Sir Walter Scott at her death, and he caused them to be published as Poetical Works (1810).

Sewell, Anna – (1820 – 1878)
British novelist
Anna Sewell was born (March 30, 1820) at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, the daughter of Quakers, but was raised in London. Sufferring from ill-health, due to bone disease for most of her life, Sewell remained unmarried, and depended upon horses for the amount of travelling that she was able to manage in a pony-cart. This reliance was the inspiration for her world famous children’s classic Black Beauty, The Autobiography of a Horse (1877) in which Sewell made the point for the humane treatment of animals. Her novel also highlighted the evils of alcoholism and poverty, and their deleterious effects in ordinary society. Anna Sewell died (April 25, 1878) aged fifty-eight.

Sewell, Edna    see    Deane, Edna

Sewell, Elizabeth Missing – (1815 – 1906) 
British author and educator
Sewell was born (Feb 19, 1815) at Newport on the Isle of Wight, the daughter of a solicitor. She ran a school at Aschliff, near Bonchurch, and wrote novels, as well as stories and historical works for children, and devotional exercises. Elizabeth Sewell died (Aug 17, 1906) aged ninety-one.

Sewell, Sarah Ann – (fl. c1860 – c1880)
British Victorian feminist writer
Sarah Sewell was the author of Woman and the Times We Live In (1869).

Sexburga of East-Anglia (Seaxburh) – (c624 – 699) 
Anglo-Saxon queen, abbess and saint
Princess Sexburga was the daughter of Anna, King of East Anglia, and his second wife Hereswyth of Deira, the sister of abbess Hilda of Whitby. She was married (c639) to Earkonbert, king of Kent, to whom she bore several children. With her husband’s death in a plague epidemic (664), Queen Sexburga ruled briefly as regent (664 – c668) for her eldest son Egbert I (died 673) until he came of age.
The queen then withdrew from the court and was veiled as a nun (668) by Archbishop Theodore. She then retired to a convent of Minster, on the Isle of Sheppey in Ely, Kent. The queen mother was present at the grand ceremont at Ely which witnessed the entry of her granddaughter Werburga of Mercia, to the sisterhood (674). Sexburga later succeeded her sister Aelfthryth as abbess of Ely (679) and remained there as abbess till her death. Queen Sexburga died (July 6, 699) aged about seventy-five, at Ely. She was interred in the Cathedral church of Ely and was revered as a saint (Feb 6). Her monastery at Minster-in-Sheppey was later destroyed by the Danes but was rebuilt (1130) and consecrated in honour of the Virgin Mary and St Sexburga. It continued to be occupied by Benedictine nuns until the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547).

Sexburga of Wessex (Seaxburh) – (c625 – 674)
Anglo-Saxon queen regnant
Possibly the daughter of Sexred, King of Essex (616 – 626), she became the second wife of King Cenwalh of Wessex (645) after his repudiated his first wife, the daughter of Penda, king of Mercia (636 – 654). In revenge for this Penda caused Cenwalh to be turned out of his kingdom and Queen Sexburga accompanied him into exile at the court of King Anna of East Anglia prior to his regaining his kingdom.
Cenwalh died childless (672) and bequeathed the kingdom to his widow, an action that was perhaps in tribute to her strength of character. The English chronicler recorded that Sexburga’s reign was the sole instance of a queen-regnant during the history of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. However, the people came to resent the rule of woman and she was displaced from the throne not long after her husband’s death. Matthew of Westminster stated that she ruled barely two years, whilst William of Malmesbury recorded that she died in 674, having ruled jointly with one King Egwin, who reigned alone for a years after her before being succeeded by Aescwine (675), a cousin of her late husband, and then Centwine (676).

Sextilia (1) – (c300 – 273 BC)
Roman priestess
Sextilia was of the patrician Sextilii gens and was placed as a vestal priestess (virgo vestalis) as a child. Livy recorded in his Epitome that Sextilia was later condemned to death after accusations of incest were brought against her. She was buried alive in the traditional manner.

Sextilia (2) – (c5 BC – 69 AD)
Roman Augusta
Sextilia became the wife (c12 AD) of Lucius Vitellius, who held the consulship three times, the last time in 47 AD, during the reign of Claudius I. She was the mother of two sons, the elder of whom was the usurper emperor Vitellius (15 – 69 AD). Widowed in 51 AD, Sextilia was a woman of noted modesty and great personal piety. With her son’s accession to the Imperial throne, she and her daughter-in-law, Galeria Fundana, were accorded the Imperial title. However, both disliked their elevation to the purple, and though installed within the Imperial palace, the two women continued to live simply and modestly without luxury. Sextilia’s death narrowly preceeded her son’s downfall and subsequent murder, and was accorded Imperial honours.

Sexto, Duchesse de    see    Morny, Duchesse de

Sexton, Anne Gray Harvey – (1928 – 1974)
American poet
Anne Harvey was born in Newton, Massachusetts, and trained as a teacher. She was married (1948) to Alfred Sexton, to whom she bore two daughters. Sexton taught at Harvard University from 1961, and was a poetry scholar at the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study. Of her poetic works, All My Pretty Ones (1963), received a nomination for the National Book Award, whilst, Live or Die (1966), was awarded the Pulitzer Prize (1967). Sexton received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1969), and in the same year became a teacher at Boston University, where she was eventually made a full professor (1972).
Sufferring from severe depression for most of her life, which became worse after the births of her children, this continually distressed mental state was reflected in her later works such as The Awful Rowing Towards God (1974) and 45 Mercy Street (1976) which were published posthumously. She was also the author of a collection of fairy-tales entitled Transformations (1971). Anne Sexton committed suicide (Oct 4, 1974) aged forty-five, at her home in Weston, Massachusetts.

Seyler, Athene – (1889 – 1990)
British stage and film actress
Especially noted for comic talent, Seyler was born (May 31, 1889) and made her stage debut in 1908 during the height of the Edwardian era. Apart from her impressive and extrememly lengthy stage career Athene Seyler appeared in several silent films such as The Freedom (1922). With the advent of sound she made many memorable film appearances such as in Quiet Wedding (1940), Dear Octopus (1943), Nicholas Nickleby (1947) and The Pickwick Papers (1953), adaptations of the famous novels by Charles Dickens. She also appeared as the English missionary in China, Jeannie Lawson in the famous film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958) which starred Ingrid Bergman. Athene Seyler died (Sept 21, 1990) aged one hundred and one.

Seymour, Alice    see    St Maur, Alice de

Seymour, Anne    see also   Stanhope, Anne   or    Warwick, Anne Seymour, Countess of

Seymour, Anne – (1909 – 1998)
American film actress
Born Anne Ekert she became known for her character performances in such movies as All the King’s Men (1949), Man of Fire (1957), The Subterraneans (1960), Mirage (1966) and Never Never Land (1981). Anne Seymour also worked in television and appeared in the series Empire (1962).

Seymour, Elizabeth – (c1513 – 1563)
English Tudor noblewoman and courtier
Elizabeth Seymour was born at Wolf Hall, Savernake, Wiltshire, the second daughter of Sir John Seymour and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlestead, Suffolk, a descendant of Edward III. Elizabeth was married firstly (1532) to Sir Anthony Ughtred (died 1534). Shortly after her elder sister Jane became the third wife of Henry VIII (May, 1536), Lady Elizabeth was remarried to Gregory Cromwell (c1514 – 1551), the son of the Lord Chancellor, Thomas Cromwell.
With the death of her sister Queen Jane (1537) Thomas Cromwell is said to have regretted her marriage with his son, having considered Elizabeth as a possible fourth wife for the king. With her father-in-law’s downfall and execution (1540) Elizabeth and her husband were treated rather well, and Gregory was later created first Baron Cromwell, which title was inherited by their son Henry Cromwell (1537 – 1592) who left descendants. At the coronation of her nephew, Edward VI, Lady Elizabeth was granted the manor of Liddington in Rutland. After Cromwell’s death (1551) Elizabeth remarried a third and last time (1554), to John Paulet (1510 – 1576), Earl of Wiltshire, as his second wife. After Elizabeth’s death Paulet succeeded his father as second Marquess of Winchester (1572 – 1576). Lady Elizabeth died (before June 9 in 1563) when certain estates which she had been granted for life, were regranted by Queen Elizabeth I to her favourite Robert Dudley. She was buried at Basing, where an undated inscription to her memory remained on the wall of the church vault.

Seymour, Jane     see    Jane Seymour

Seymour, Lady Jane – (1541 – 1561)
English Tudor courtier
Lady Jane Seymour was the third daughter of Sir Edward Seymour (1500 – 1552), first Duke of Somerset, and his second wife Anne Stanhope. She was niece to Queen Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII and was first cousin to Edward VI (1547 – 1553). Whilst Jane was a child, her father, then the Lord Protector was accused of plotting with his wife to marry Lady Jane to the young King Edward. This plan fell flat however, due to the opposition of the Duke’s enemies, and of the Privy Council, and also because of the disinclination of the young king, who preferred his paternal cousin, Lady Jane Grey.
With the accession of Queen Mary (1553) Lady Jane and her widowed mother were welcomed at her court, and Jane was installed as lady-in-waiting serving Mary until her death, when she remained as one of the household of Queen Elizabeth, whom Lady Jane attended at her coronation (1559). Lady Jane Seymour was the sole witness to the secret wedding of Elizabeth’s cousin, Lady Catherine Grey, to her own brother, Edward Seymour (1537 – 1621), Earl of Hertford. Because of Lady Catherine’s claim to the throne, the wedding was conducted without royal permission. Jane herself died before the secret was uncovered, and so escaped royal retribution.
Lady Jane Seymour died (March 23, 1561) aged nineteen. She was interred with great state and ceremonial beside the Duchess of Suffolk (Frances Brandon) in Westminster Abbey, London (March 26). Her monument there was erected at the wish and expense of her brother Edward. With her sisters, Lady Margaret Seymour and Anne, Countess of Warwick, Lady Jane earned some literary repute by composing an ode on the death of Margeurite de Valois, Queen of Navarre (1549). Some of these verses were published as Annae, Margaritae, Janae, Sororum, virginum, Leriodum, anglorumin maton Margaritae Valesiae Novarrorum Reginae Hecadistichon (1550) which was published in Paris. A French translation appeared several years afterwards (1557).

Seymour, Katherine de Fillol, Lady   see   Fillol, Katherine de

Seymour, Margaret Wentworth, Lady – (1484 – 1550)
English Tudor matriarch and courtier
Margaret Wentworth was the elder daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlestead, Suffolk, and his first wife Anne Say, the daughter of Sir John Say, of Sawbridgeworth, Little Berkhampstead and Broxbourne, Hertford. Known as Margery, she was descended from both Edward III (1327 – 1377) and Queen Philippa of Hainault, and from the famous hero, Henry Percy, known as ‘Hotspur,’ the hero of the battle of Shrewsbury (1403).
As a young woman she had been a famous beauty at the court of Henry VII (1485 – 1509) and Elizabeth of York, and the poet, John Skelton, penned verses, ‘To Mistress Margery Wentworth’ in praise of her admirable personal qualities. Margery was married (1498) to Sir John Seymour (1476 – 1536), of Wolf Hall, Savernake, Wiltshire, to whom she bore ten children, of whom her daughter Jane Seymour became the third wife of Henry VIII, and the mother of Edward VI. She lost three children in one year to the sweating sickness (1520) and her husband later conducted an incestuous affair with their daughter-in-law, Katherine de Fillol, under Lady Margaret’s own roof. Her private reactions to this scandal remain unknown, though she remained a dutiful wife and mother. Lady Margaret survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Seymour (1536 – 1550). With the death of her daughter-in-law, Queen Catharine in childbirth (1458), Lady Seymour came to Chelsea to take care of her infant granddaughter, Mary Seymour.
Lady Margaret died (Oct, 1550) aged sixty-six. Her death coincided with the fall of her son, the Lord Protector, engineered by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. Lady Seymour as the grandmother of the King, had been entitled to a state funeral, and a suitable period of mourning would have been introduced in the court. However, due to the tensions between her son Somerset and the Privy Council, these ceremonies and the official recognition of her position within the royal family, were denied her. Lady Margaret was portrayed by actress Dorothy Black in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Six Wives of Henry VIII with Keith Michell and Anne Stallybrass as her daughter Jane. Her children were,

Seymour, Minnie    see    Damer, Mary Georgiana Emma

Seyna – (fl. c1130 – c1136)
English nun and religious patron
Seyna and her sister Lescelina had become nuns at the hospital of St Mary and St John in Norwich, Norfolk, having previously been in that institution for some years prior to 1130. The sisters co-founded the convent of Carrow, outside the city of Norwich (1136), and then removed to that establishment. A surviving extract from the now non-existent Cartulary of Carrow referred to the sisters as sorores moniales de hospite Sante Marie et Sancte Johannie in Norwich.

Seyrig, Delphine – (1932 – 1990)
French stage and film actress
Seyrig was born in Beirut, Lebanon, the daughter of an archaeologist. She made her debut on the Paris stage (1952) before travelling to the USA (1956), where she studied drama at the Actors Studio. Delphine Seyrig made her American debut in the film Pull My Daisy (1958), and then returned to France where she achieved critical international acclaim for her professional performance in Last Year at Marienbad (1961) by Alain Resnais.
An actress of expressive grace and enigmatic screen personality, her other film credits included La Musica (1966), La Rouge aux Levres (Daughters of Darkness) (1971), The Day of the Jackal (1973), A Doll’s House (1973), Chere Inconnu (I Sent a Letter to My Love) (1980), Fresh Orlando (1981), Le Grain de Sable, Dorian Grey im Spiegel der Bouevardprese (Dorian Grey in the Mirror of the Popular Press) (1983) and Seven Women, Seven Sins (1987). Seyrig starred in films produced by feminist directors such as Margeurite Duras’ India Song (1975) and Chantal Akerman’s Jeanne Dielman (1975). She herself directed the film Soi belle et tais-toi (1977). Delphine Seyrig died of lung disease.

Seyyed Khatun – (c970 – 1029)
Buwayhid sultana of Ray in Isfahan, and of Hamadan in Persia (Iran)
With the death of her husband Fakhr o-dowleh the Diylamid (993) Seyyed ruled as regent for her son Majd o-Dowleh (989 – 1029). An able ruler she defended the kindom against the attempts of Mahmud Ghazni and Ghaboos Ziyarid to gain control of the kingdom. After Seyyed’s death however, the kingdom finally collapsed and Ghazni came to power.

Sezefreda, Luiza Antonia – (1833 – 1847)
Brazilian child actress
Luiza Sezefreda was born in Rio de Janeiro, the daughter of actress Estella Sezefreda, and stepdaughter of Joao Caetano. She made her debut as a child performer in 1841, and in 1845 performed the role of Maria in Frei Luiz de Souza of Garret, which she portrayed with a natural eloquence surprising in a small child. She also appeared in La Grace de Dieu. Luiza Antonia Sezefreda died (May 4, 1847) of a pulmonary infection.

Sezepanowska, Bogna – (c988 – c1050)
Polish nun and saint
Bogna’s husband came from one of the most ancient families in Poland, and she was the mother of St Stanislas Sezepanowski (1030 – 1079), Bishop of Sezepanowski, near Krakow. Her son was born when the countess had been married and childless for three decades. Stanslaas was murdered by King Boleslav II and was venerated as a martyr whilst Bogna herself was venerated as one of the patron saints of Poland (May 7) and her feast was recorded by the Acta Sanctorum. She was buried at Sezepanov where her son was later interred near her. Details of the Christian virtues expressed by Bogna and her equally pious husband are to be found in their sons Vita.

Sforza, Battista – (1446 – 1472)  
Italian duchess and ruler
Battista Sforza was the daughter of Alessandro Sforza, Count of Pesaro, and his first wife Bianca Maria Visconti, and became the second wife of Federico da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino (1422 – 1482). Mother of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino (1462 – 1508). Educated with her cousin Ippolita, later duchess of Calabria, at Milan, she was a young lady of admirable accomplishments. Pope Pius II himself praised the widsom with which she ruled Urbino as regent during her husband’s abscences. Battista died (July 6, 1472) at Gubbio, at the age of twenty-six, and was buried in the church of San Bernardino at Urbino. Her grieving husband commissioned Piero della Francesca to paint the altar-piece in the Zoccolanti convent, and the Madonna portrayed in this piece, was given the features of the late duchess.

Sforza, Bianca Francesca – (1448 – 1516)
Italian nun
Bianca Sforza was born at Lodi, the illegitimate daughter of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450 – 1466) and an unknown mistress. She was the elder half-sister to Caterina Sforza. Acknowledged by her father she was placed with the church and took vows as anun. Bianca was later appointed as abbess of Santa Monica in Cremona, a position she held for over forty-five years (1469 – 1516). Bianca Francesca Sforza died at Cremona.

Sforza, Caterina – (1463 – 1509)
Italian ruler
Caterina Sforza was born in Milan, Lombardy, the illegitimate daughter of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450 – 1466) and his mistress, the Contessa Lucrezia Landriani. She was the younger half-sister of Bianca Francesca and Polissena Sforza and was raised by her grandmother Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti. Caterina received an excellent education and was married firstly (1473) to Girolamo Riario della Rovere (1443 – 1488), Conte del Bosco and lord of Imola and Forli. She was described by a wedding guest at this time as being possessed ‘of a fine figure, having a face to be admired rather than loved, her features of beautiful outline, the face hard and even stern, but full of vigour and intelligence.’ Their sons took the surname of Riario della Rovere Sforza, as grandnephews of Pope Sixtus IV (1471 – 1484).
Tall, blonde, ruthless and possessed of a violent temperament, Caterina was famous for her spirited defense of the castel Sant’Angelo (1484) which she conducted against a minor assault during her husband’s absence. Known also for her pride and cruelty, Caterina was feared by her soldiers and mounted the castle battlements wearing a steel corselet over her satin dress. When Riario was murdered (1488) in the palace of Forli by agents of the Orsi family she took vicious revenge upon his killers. When the citizens of Forli defied her and threatened to kill her children, she is reputed to have raised her skirts and bluntly replied ‘Look, I have the mould to make more.’
Caterina was married secondly (1489) to Giacomo Feo (1468 – 1495), a stableman five years her junior who was murdered by those jealous of his advancement, and thirdly (1497) to Giovanni Poplano de Medici (1467 – 1498) becoming the moher of the famous Giovanni delle Bande Nere de Medici (1498 – 1526) the last of the condottieri. Caterina ruled Forli and Imola in the name of her young sons and conducted a spirited siege of Forli (1499 – 1500), before being captured and famously raped by Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI whom she had unsuccessfully tried to have assassinated. She was taken to Rome and initially lodged in the Belvedere Palace but proved recalcitrant and unco-operative. She was soon removed to the dungeon of the Castel Sant’Angelo until at length, in order to regain her freedom, she agreed to renounce her rights to Imola and Forli in return for a papal pension (1501) and Louis XII of France also interceded on her behalf. With her appearance much altered from her sufferings in prison, Caterina then left Rome and retired to Florence where she resided at the Villa Medici at Fiesole. During this time wrote a book of beauty aids. Countess Caterina died (May 28, 1509) aged forty-six, in Florence and was interred within the chapel of the Murate convent. Her sons were,

Sforza, Drusiana – (1437 – after 1465)
Italian nobleman
Drusiana Sforza was the illegitimate daughter of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan and his mistress Colombina d’Acquapendente. Her father caused her to be legitimated by the Pope and then arranged for her marriage with the nobleman Jacopo Piccino. Drusiana survived Jacopo’s murder (1465).

Sforza, Ippolita     see     Ippolita Sforza

Sforza, Polissena (Polyxena) – (1426 – 1449)
Italian noblewoman
Polissena Sforza was born at Fermo, the illegitimate daughter of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450 – 1466) and an unknown mistress. She was the elder half-sister to Bianca Francesca and Caterina Sforza. Her father caused her to be married (1443) for dynastic reasons to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (1417 – 1468), the Lord of Rimini. The union proved a failure as Sigismondo was besotted with his mistress Isotta degli Atti and despised Polissena. He treated her with great cruelty and callousness and eventually caused her to be strangled (June, 1449) at Rimini, aged only twenty-two.

Sgorbati, Leonella – (1940 – 2006)
Italian Catholic nun
Sgorbati was born (Dec 9, 1940) in Gazzola, near Piacenza, and became a nun with the Consolata Missionary Sisters in San Fre, Cuneo (1972). She worked as a nurse in Kenya, Africa, but was murdered (Sept 17, 2006) shortly after Pope Benedict XVI made controversial comments regarding the Islamic religion. Leonella Sgorbati was killed by a gunman in Mogadishu, aged sixty-five.

Shabanova, Anna Nikitichina – (1848 – 1932)
Russian physician and feminist
Anna Shabanova was born into a wealthy upper class family and received an excellent education. She established the Ivanovna workshop in Moscow (1866) which trained women to work as dressmakers, and became the first female students to attend the Women’s Medical Academy in Helsinki, Finland. Together with Nadezhda Filosova she became a leader of the Mutual Philanthropic Society and was an ardent campaigner for female suffrage, though she decried the means employed by militants. She campaigned against the legalization of prostitution and during WW I she organized voluntary agencies to assist with the war effort. With the end of the war she practised as a paediatrician.

Shacklock, Constance – (1913 – 1999)
British mezzo soprano
Shacklock was born at Sherwood Forest, near Nottingham and trained at the Royal Academy of Music in London. She made her debut at Covent Garden in Henry Purcell’s The Fairy Queen (1946). She first performed the role of Brangaene in Richard Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde at Covent Garden (1948) a role in which she was much admired. Shacklock appeared as Amneris in Verdi’s Aida, as Queen Elizabeth I in Benjamin Britten’s Gloriana and Queen Herodias in Richard Strauss’s Salome.
Shacklock appeared in concert and performed the Angel’s music in Elgar’s Dream of Gerontius and sang at the Proms summer music festival. She performed the role of the mother superior in the London production of The Sound of Music from 1961, and then became a professor of the Royal Academy of Music (1968 – 1984). She was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II 91971) in recognition of her services to music and was later elected president of the Association of Teachers of Singing (1995). Constance Shacklock died (June 29, 1999) aged eighty-six.

Shafiq, Dori’a – (1910 – 1975)
Egyptian feminist
Shafiq was born into a wealthy family and received an excellent and varied education, uncommon for a girl of her rank. She went to France to study at the Sorbonne and became a leading campaigner for the rights of women in Egypt, founding the Bint-el-Nil (Daughters of the Nile). She led a large group of women to invade the Egyptian parliament demanding their rights (1951), and these rights were formally granted by the government several years afterwards (1956). During her later career Shafiq opposed the regime of President Nasser and was forced to live in retirement in Cairo. Dori’a Shafiq died aged sixty-five, after an accident.

Shahn, Bernarda Bryson – (1903 – 2004)
American painter and artist
Bernarda Bryson was born (March 9, 1903). She became the wife of the noted children’s illustrator Ben Shahn and exhibited her own paintings and lithographs throughout a long and impressive career. Bernard Shahn died (Dec 13, 2004) aged one hundred and one, in Monmouth County in New Jersey.

Shajar al-Durr – (c1210 – 1257)
Arab queen of Egypt
Shajar al-Durr was originally purchased as a Turkoman slave by Salih Ayyub, the Caliph of Baghdad, who later married her and installed her as queen. She ruled Baghdada as regent during her husband’s abscences on military campaigns, and when he was killed in battle against the French at El-Mansourah (1249), Shajar led an army which successfully defeated the French and captured King Louis IX. Shajar handed over power to her son, Turan Shah, but the army insisted that she continued to rule as sultan. She remarried to Aibak, a noted soldier, but eventually caused him to be murdered. His death nearly provoked civil war, with some of the Mameluke’s crying for vengeance against her, whilst others supported her as the symbol of legitimacy.
Finally, she was killed, being beaten to death by her servants (May 2, 1257) on the orders of Aibak’s previous wife, whom she had caused to be banished. Her body was originally deposited on a dung heap, but her son caused a tomb to be erected, which remains in existence today. She was briefly succeeded by Aibak’s son, Sultan Nur ad-Diz Ali (1257 – 1259) who was later deposed.

Shakespeare, Jennifer – (1950 – 1992)
American architect
Shakespeare was the daughter of George Shakespeare, of Underhill, Vermont. She graduated from Bennington College (1973) and received a master’s degree in architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977). Jennifer acted as a consultant to the television production of This Old House, which dealt with the renovation of prominent historical buildings. She also worked for the architectural firm RTKL Associates, which designed the new Baltimore Waterfront. Jennifer Shakespeare died of cancer (Sept 13, 1992) in Boston, Massachusetts.

Shakhovskaia, Yevgenia Mikhailovna (Eugenia) – (1889 – 1918)
Russian princess, courtier, aviatrix, and revolutionary figure
Princess Yevgenia Shakhovskaia was a cousin of Tsar Nicholas II (1894 – 1917). Having been introduced to flying during a visit to Johannisthal, near Berlin in Germany (1910) the princess then enrolled there in order to learn to fly a Model B biplane (1911). She applied to join the Italian air service but her application was denied on account of her sex. She was involved in a bad accident in which the famous Russian aviator Wessewolod Abramowitsch was killed, but eventually returned to flying.
Shakhovskaia gained permission from Nicholas II to join the Russian air service during WW I and was assigned to the Northwestern Front. She was involved in artillery spotting and general reconnaissance but was nevertheless the first female aviator to be involved in aerial warfare activities. Later charged with treason she appealed to the Tsar for leniency and was confinded to a convent. With the outbreak of the Russian Revolution (1917) she joined the Bolsheviks but suffered from a major drug problem and was eventually shot and killed in rather mysterious circumstances.

Shakhovskaia, Zinaida Alexievna – (1906 – 2001)
Russian poet, historian, and editor
Princess Zinaida Shakhovskaia was born (Aug 30, 1906) in Moscow, the daughter of Prince Alexei Shakhovsky. With the outbreak of the Revolution Zinaida accompanied her family abroad to Paris, where they settled (1920). She was married to a diplomat and during WW II the princess became involved with the activities of the French Resistance. Zinaida became involved in the literary salons of Paris, and apart from several published magazine articles, she also published two volumes of French poetry (1934 – 1935). She also wrote literary criticism in French such as The Wound of Exile (1959) concerning Vladimir Nabokov (1899 – 1977) which were published under the pseudonym ‘Jacques Croise.’
Princess Shakhovskaia was a friend to the poet Marina Tsvetayeva and was editor of the Russkaya Mysl (Russian Thought) newspaper in Paris. She became the editor of the émigré weekly paper Russian Thought (1968 – 1978), and wrote literary criticisms of several authors including Nabokov, with whom she corresponded. She was the author of V poiskakh Nabokova (In Search of Nabokov (1979) which utilized this correspondence. With several others she then established the literary journal Russian Almanac (1981). Zinaida Alexievna Shahovskaia died (June 11, 2001) aged ninety-four, at St Genevieve de Bois, Paris.

Shambaugh, Jessie Field – (1881 – 1971)
American educator
Born Celestia Josephine Field in Shenandoah, Iowa, she was the daughter of rural educators. She graduated from Shenandoah High School (1899) and then attended the Western Normal College, and later taught at the Goldenrod School in Page County, Iowa. She was married (1917) to a farmer, Ira William Shambaugh. At Goldenrod she founded the first Boys Corn Club and Girls Home Club, and was later appointed as principal of the Jefferson School in Helena, Montana (1905 – 1906) before being elected as superintendent of schools in Page County (1906). Her main aim was to make school education more viable to farming communities, and her handbook Farm Arithmetic (1909), was widely used in schools throughout Iowa.
To encourage the participation of students in farm life, Shambaugh built upon the idea of her clubs for boys and girls, and designed a three-leaf clover pin, which represented the technological, agricultural, and domestic sciences. This insignia was first distributed as a school prize (1910), to which was added the letter H on each leaf, which represented ‘Head, Hands, Heart, and Health,’ becoming popularly known as 4-H, which evolved over the decades to a national organization which was sponsored by the Department of Agriculture. She was the author of the autobiographical The Corn Lady: The Story of a Country Teacher’s Life (1911) and of Community Civics (1916), a textbook for rural students. Jessie Shambaugh died (Jan 15, 1971) aged eighty-nine, in Clarinda, Iowa.

Shams Pahlavi – (1917 – 1996)
Imperial princess of Iran
Born Shahdokht Shams ul-Mulk Pahlavi (Oct 18, 1917) in Tehran, she was the elder sister of Shah Muhammed Reza Shah Pahlavi and Princess Ashraf. Princess Shams served as the president of the Rad Lion and Sun Society, but was deprived of her imperial rank and titles after her second marriage. She then lived abroad (1945 – 1947) and converted to Roman Catholicism. Princess Shams Pahlavi died (Feb 29, 1996) aged seventy-eight, in Santa Barbara, California.

Shand Kydd, Frances Ruth – (1936 – 2004)
British society figure
Born Frances Roche (Jan 20, 1936) and was married firstly to John Spencer, Lord Althorp (later Earl Spencer) as his first wife. The marriage was unhappy due to alcolohism and domestic violence. Lady Althorp divorced her husband amidst much scandal, and remarried to Peter Shand Kydd. She was the mother of Diana, Princess of Wales (1961 – 1997) and grandmother to princes William and Harry. Frances Shand Kydd died (June 3, 2004) aged sixty-eight.

Shangguan Wan’er – (664 – 710)
Chinese poet, writer and politician of the Tang Dynasty
Shangguan Wan’er was the daughter of Shangguan Tingzhi and his wife Zheng, the sister of Zheng Xiuyan, an important Imperial official. She was the granddaughter of Shangguan Yi, chancellor to the Emperor Gaozong. Her father and grandfather were later killed at the behest of Empress Wu Zetian, and she and her mother became slaves in the Imperial palace. Shangguan Wan’er later served as personal secretary to the empress (677), after she had come across and read some of the young girl’s verse. Known for her elegant style of writing, she drafted imperial edicts for the empress. Possessed of great beauty, she became concubine to the Emperor Zhongzong and became a person of considerable power at the court. Shannguan Wan’er was later beheaded during a palace coup (July 21, 710). The emperor Ruizong later rehabilitated her memory (711) and she received the posthumous title of Wenhui (civil and benevolent). The emperor Xuanzong later caused her written works to be printed in a twenty volume collection.

Shannon, Lady Elizabeth    see   Killigrew, Elizabeth

Shapiro, Harriet   see   Cabot, Susan

Shaplen, June Herman – (1924 – 1982)
American editor and writer
Shaplen graduated from the University of Rochester (1946) and began a career as a journalist for The Democrat & Chronicle in Rochester. An editor of the Scholastic Review and a researcher for Life magazine, she later became a senior editor at the Macmillan Publishing Company. June married the author Robert Shaplen, and was editor and writer for the Far Eastern Economic Review in Hong Kong. June Shaplen died (Oct 19, 1982) aged fifty-eight, in Rochester, New York.

Shapurdukhtag – (fl. c280 – c290 AD)
Sassanid queen
Shapurdukhtag was the daughter of Shapur, King of Mesene, and a daughter of King Sapor I. She was married (c.285 AD) to her cousin, king Vahram II, who ruled 276 – 293 AD, as his second wife. Shapurdukhtag was Vahram’s chief queen, which is revealed on surviving silver drachma coins which give her the title ‘queen of queens.’ A relief from Naqsh-i Rustamis believed to represent the royal couple together, whilst a surviving Sassanid goblet depicts the couple with their son in medallion portraits.

Sharaff, Irene – (1910 – 1993)
American costume designer
Sharaff was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and trained at the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts and the Arts Student League. After further study at the prestigious Grande Chaumiere in Paris, she began her career with the Civic Repertory Theatre Company (1929). Sharaff later became involved with designs for movies, and produced many famous Hollywood musicals. Nominated for a total of sixteen Academy Awards, alone or jointly, she succeeded in winning five Oscar Awards for An American in Paris (1951), The King and I (1956) with Yul Brynner and Deborah Kerr, West Side Story (1961), Cleopatra (1963) with Elizabeth Taylor and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf  ? (1966).
Other films in which Sharaff was involved included Meet Me in St Louis (1944) with Judy Garland, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (1947) with Danny Kaye, Call Me Madam (1953) with Ethel Merman, A Star is Born (1953), Brigadoon (1954), Porgy and Bess (1959), The Taming of the Shrew (1967), Funny Girl (1968) and Hello Dolly! (1969) with Barbra Streisand, The Other Side of Midnight (1977) and Mommie Dearest (1981) with Faye Dunaway.

Sh’arawi, Huda – (1882 – 1947)
Egyptian feminist and women’s rights campaigner
Born into a wealthy household in Minia, she was fluent in Turkish, French and Arabic, Huda Sh’arawi established a school for girls (1910) which provided a more general education for them than was then available. She was elected as the Egyptian representative at International Conference of Women held in Rome (1923), and founded the feminist periodical Egyptian Woman, which was published in French and Arabic. Sh’arawi was a co-founder of the All Arab Federation of Women (1944).

Sharfstein, Erika     see    Markus, Rixi

Sharp, Evelyn – (1919 – 1944)
American aviatrix
Sharp studied flying technique in her teens, and gained her license at the age of eighteen (1937). Evelyn became the first woman to become an airmail pilot, as well as being the first female to fly from the west to the east coast of America. During World War II she joined the Women’s Auxiliary Ferry Squadron, which was formed to bring American built planes safely into England for defense against the Germans. Evelyn Sharp was killed in a plane accident in Pennsylvania.

Sharp, Jane – (fl. 1671) 
English midwife and author, almost nothing is recorded of her personal life. Jane Sharp was the author of the first published text on midwifery The Midwives Book or the whole Art of Midwifry Discovered (1671) which revealed the fact that she had been established in practice as a midwife for three decades. Many of her recommendations such as healthy diet and exercise relied on common sense, and she was a believer in the usefulness of some traditional herbal remedies.

Shavronska, Catherine – (b. c1722)
Russian noblewoman
Ekaterina Shavronska was the paternal niece of the Empress Catherine I (1725 – 1727), the wife and successor of Peter I the Great. Her elder sister Anna Shavronska was the wife of Count Mikhail Vorontzov (1714 – 1767) the Imperial Grand Chancellor, and was the maternal aunt of Countess Anna Mikhailovna Stroganova. Catherine became the wife of Baron Nicholas de Korff (1710 – 1766). Her son the Baron de Korff was killed at the battle of Bender, and his widow, a Swedish noblewoman, became involved with Count Axel Fersen and became involved with the ill-fated escape of the Louis XVI of France and his family to Varennes (1792).

Shaw, Agnes Maude   see   Royden, Maude

Shaw, Anna Howard – (1847 – 1919) 
Anglo-American suffragist leader
Shaw was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, and immigrated to the USA with her family as a small child (1851). She attended Albion College and Boston University (1876 – 1878) and was trained as a physician (1886). Anna became the first appointed female Methodist minister (1880), after the Episcopal Church had rejected her application on the grounds of her sex, and devoted herself to the cause of gaining emancipation and votes for women. Shaw later served as president of the National American Suffrage Association for over a decade (1904 – 1915), and left an autobiography The Story of a Pioneer (1915). Anna Shaw died (July 2, 1919) aged seventy-two.

Shaw, Doris    see   Procter, Dod

Shaw, Hester – (1586 – 1660)
English midwife
Baptised Hester Essex (April 1, 1586) in London, she became the wife of John Shaw, a church warden of All-Hallows-by-the-Tower, who had died prior to 1643. Hester Shaw had been practising her trade as a mid-wife since 1613, and later joined with other midwives to petition King Charles I (1634) that the use of the instruments known as forceps be made available to women midwives as well as male practitioners, who had attempted to keep the new innovation a secret for the benefit of their own branch of the trade. Her house in Tower Street was later destroyed in a freak explosion, which claimed the lives of nearly seventy people, including four members of her immediate family (1650), and destroyed much of her property. She was the author of the pamphlets A Plain Relation of my Sufferings, and, Mrs Shaw’s Innocency Restored. Hester Shaw was buried (June 18, 1660) in Allhallows, London, aged seventy-four.

Shaw, Mary – (1854 – 1929)
American stage actress, feminist and dramatist
Shaw appeared in the title role of Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabbler and Mrs Warren’s Profession by George Bernard Shaw. She was an active figure within the female suffrage movement and was a member of the Professional Women’s League. Shaw wrote two plays entitled The Woman of it; or, Our Friends the Anti-suffragists (1914) and The Parrot Cage (1914).

Shawford, Ann – (fl. c1740 – 1760) 
British dancer
Ann Shawford was the daughter of Josceline Shawford (died 1763) the actor and dancer. She first appeared at the Drury Lane theatre in 1748 with her brother when she performed a Peasant Dance. Thereafter, Ann continued at Drury Lane, performing dance roles in Comus, Acis and Galatea, The Genii and Harlequin Ranger. She also performed entr’acte dances in Venetian Gardeners and, The Savoyard Travellers. She was mentioned in her father’s will (Feb 7, 1760) but nother details are recorded of her career.

Shay, Mildred – (1911 – 2005)
American film actress
Shay was born (Sept 26, 1911) in Syracuse, New York, and made over two dozen low budget films in Hollywood during the 1930’s, though she continued to appear in films sporadically over the next seven decades. Mildred Shay never achieved real stardom, but was popularly referred to as the ‘Pocket Venus’ because she was barely five feet in height.
Her film credits included The Age of Consent (1932), Forever Amber (1947), I Killed the Count (1948), Hidden Agenda (1990) and Parting Shots (1999). During her later career she appeared in television programs such as The Other ‘Arf (1980), Inspector Morse (1987) and Perfect Soundrels (1992). Her later film credits included The Great Gatsby (1974), Little Shop of Horrors (1986), and Parting Shots (1999), her last movie role. Mildred Shay died (Oct 15, 2006) aged ninety-two, in Glendale, California.

Shcherbinina, Anastasia Mikhailovna – (1760 – 1831)
Russian educator
Princess Anastasia Dashkova was the only daughter of Prince Mikhail Dashkov, and his wife Catherine Romanovna Vorontzova. Her mother, Princess Dashkova, was the famous friend of the Empress Catharine the Great, and left Memoires in which Anastasia recives considerable mention. Her mother arranged her marriage with Brigadier Shcherbinin, but the union was a failure and the couple later seperated. There were no children. Anastasia’s relationship with her mother, never harmonious, escalated so that after Anastasia made a scene at the funeral of her brother Paul Dashkov (1807), she was disinherited. A woman of considerable intellect, Madame Shcherbinina lived apart from her family, who neglected her, and supported herself by taking private pupils to teach. Despite the estrangement from her relatives, she oversaw the education of her nephew, the future statesman, Mikhail Shcherbinin.

Shearer, Norma – (1900 – 1983)
American film actress
Born Charlotte (Lotta) Miles, she made her movie debut in silent films such as The Flapper (1920), Channing of the Northwest (1922), Lucretia Lombard (1923), Broadway After Dark (1924) and He Who Gets Slapped (1924). Her brother Douglas Shearer (1899 – 1971) worked for many years as a sound engineer for MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer). After establishing herself as a leading later of the 1930, her most famous credits included The Trial of Mary Duggan and The Last of Mrs Cheyney (both 1929), Their Own Desire (1921) and A Free Soul (1931) for which she was nominated for an Academy Award, as she was for The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934), Romeo and Juliet (1936) and Marie Antoinette (1938) opposite Robert Morley as Louis XVI, and Tyrone Power as Count Fersen.
Norma Shearer received an Academy Award for her role in The Divorce (1930) and appeared as Mary Haines in The Women (1939) which featured a star studded all female cast. Her last film was Her Cardboard Lover (1942). Norma was married to the noted director, Irving Thalberg (1899 – 1936), who directed her career with great success. She was later involved in a liasion with director Victor Fleming (1883 – 1949) and was famous for her dislike of her fellow film actress Joan Crawford. During her last years she suffered from severe mental depression.

Shearing, Joseph     see     Bowen, Marjorie

Sheba, Queen of       see     Bilqis

Sheehy-Skeffington, Hannah – (1877 – 1946)
Irish patriot and feminist
Hannah Sheehy was born in Kenturk, County Cork and attended the National University of Ireland. She trained as a teacher and was one of the founding members of the Irish Women Graduates’ Association (1901). Hannah was married to the pacifist Francis Skeffington, who was shot during the Easter Rising (1916). Sheehy-Skeffington co-founded the militant Irish Women’s Franchise League (1908) with Margaret Cousins, and later sufferred a period of imprisonment after being involved in riots after women had been excluded from the Home Rule Bill (1912).

Sheely, Viola – (1958 – 1999)
American dancer, actress and vocalist
Sheely was born in Belle Glade, Florida. She studied dance in New York with choreographer Dianne McIntyre, and was a founding member of the Urban Bush Women dance company, with whom she performed (1984 – 1993). Her performance in the En Garde Arts theater production, Vanquished by Voodoo, won her a Bessie Award (1992). Her most memorable role was that of the visionary Hannah in Praise House (1990), by Jawole Willa Jo Zollar. Viola Sheely died in New York of a heart attack.

Sheepshanks, Mary – (1872 – 1958)
British feminist, pacifist, and educator
Mary Sheepshanks was the eldest daughter of the Bishop of Norwich. She was educated in Liverpool and then attended Newnham College, Cambridge. Mary was a social worker in Southwark and Stepney in London, and served for over fifteen years (1897 – 1913) as the vice-principal of the experimental Morley Evening College for Working Men and Women. Sheepshanks espoused the non-violetn approach to the female suffrage campaign, and toured throughout Europe lecturing to women on the subject. After WW I she served as the first secretary of the Fight the Famine Committee, which later evolved into the Save the Children Fund. She then served as international secretary for the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom in Geneva, Switzerland.

Shelby, Gertrude Singleton – (1881 – 1936)
American author
Gertrude Singleton was born in Mommence, Illinois, and was married firstly, John L. Mathews, and secondly to Edmund P. Shelby. Mrs Shelby produced the novels Treasure (1917) and Deporte (1927). Her work Galusha A. Grow (1917) she co-authored with James T. Du Bois, and with two other works Black Genesis and Po. Buckra, she collaborated with Samuel G. Stoney, were both published in 1930. Gertrude Singleton Shelby died (Nov 1, 1936) aged fifty-five.

Shelby, Juliet    see   Minter, Mary Miles

Sheldon, Lady Catherine    see   Phipps, Catherine Annesley, Lady

Sheldon, May French – (1848 – 1936) 
New Zealand traveller, social reformer, feminist, and author
Sheldon was born into a wealthy family, which connections to Boston, Massachusetts in the USA. She travelled wideley and was educated in Italy. She was married to Eli Lemon Sheldon, a businessman. May Sheldon published a translation of Gustave Flaubert’s Salammbo (1886), and then published her own novel Herbert Severence (1889). She travelled without her husband into Africa, where the Swahili’s nicknamed her Bebe Bwana (‘Lady Boss’), and published an account of her experiences in Sultan to Sultan. She was amongst the first women to be elected as members of the Royal Geographical Society. Sheldon worked during WW I to raise money for the Belgian Red Cross and was appointed a Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Couronne by King Albert I of the Belgians. May French Sheldon died in London.

Shelley, Elizabeth – (c1470 – 1547)
English nun
Elizabeth Shelley was the last abbess of the convent of St Mary, at Winchester, popularly known as Nunnaminster. This house had been founded by Queen Eahlswith, the wife of Alfred the Great, who had retired there as a widow. The convent was originally patronised by the crown, and the abbess corresponded with Catharine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, and exchanged letters with prominent ladies of the court such as Honor, Lady Lisle, wife of the king’s cousin Arthur Plantagenet.
With the dissolution of the community at Nunnaminster with the Reformation (1539), the former abbess, who now received a pension from the crown, continued to reside privately with five of her former nuns un a quasi-religious community until her death. These details of Elizabeth’s post-Reformation life are recorded in her will, which is preserved in the Hampshire Record Office.

Shelley, Frances Winckley, Lady – (1787 – 1873)
British diarist
Frances Winckley was the only daughter and heiress of Thomas Winckley of Brockholes in Lancaster, and his wife Jacintha Dalrymple, the widow of Thomas Hesketh of Rufford. She became the wife (1807) of Sir John Shelley (1772 – 1852), sixth baronet, to whom she bore six children. Frances survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Shelley (1852 – 1873). Lady Shelley died (Feb 24, 1873) aged eighty-five. her personal journal written which dealt with her early life and her subsequent travels abroad after her marriage were edited by Richard Edgecumbe as published posthumously in London in two volumes as The Diary of Frances, Lady Shelley 1787 – 1817 (1912 – 1913). Her children were,

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin – (1797 – 1851)
British novelist, poet, and travel writer
Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin was born in London, the daughter of author and philosopher William Godwin and his wife, the feminist author Mary Wollstonecraft. Her mother died days after her birth, and her father later remarried (1801). Her relationship with her stepmother was extremely difficult, and in 1814 Mary eloped with the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, whom she later married as his second wife (1816) after the suicide of his first wife Harriet Westbrook. They lived abroad throughout their married life.
Mary’s first, most impressive, and best remembered work was the novel Frankenstein: or The modern Prometheus (1818) famously inspired by a dream, and written whilst touring in the Alps with Shelley and Lord Byron, following Byron’s suggestion that they should each write a ghost story. Seriously depressed after the successive deaths of three of their children, with the final blow of Shelley’s death by drowning at Lerici during a sailing expedition (July, 1822), Mary returned from Italy to England with their surviving son (1823). In financial straits and determined that her husband’s poetic talents should not go unremembered, Mary edited a volume of Shelley’s, Posthumous Poems, but Shelley’s father granted her an allowance on the condition that the publication of this work was suppressed, and Mary complied.
Mary produced five more novels Mathilda (1819), Valperga (1823), The Last Man (1826) which was set in the 21st century, and was concerned with a tragic pestilence that would destroy humanity, Lodore (1835) which told the tragic story of her husband’s withdrawal from the affections of his first wife Harriet, and lastly Falkner (1837) a defence of her late husband. None of these however were accorded the acclaim given to Frankenstein. The most admired of her surviving verses was The Choice and with her husband Mary produced her Journal of a Six Week’s Tour, which described a trip to Switzerland (1814). Mary began to write a biography of Shelley after the death of his father (1840), but this manuscript remained unfinished at her death. Her travel memoirs Rambles in Germany and Italy (1844) were records of her last travels taken in 1840 – 1843. Mary Shelley also wrote two mythological dramas Midas and Proserpine both of which were edited and published over seventy years after her death (1922). Mary Shelley died in London, and was interred at Bournemouth.

Shelly, Adrienne – (1966 – 2006)
American actress, film director and screenwriter
Shelly was born (June 16, 1966) in Queens, New York. Her film credits included The Unbelievable Truth (1989) and Trust (1990). Adrienne Shelly was murdered (Nov 1, 2006) aged forty, in New York, by an angry neighbour.

Shelton, Anne Boleyn, Lady – (c1484 – 1555)
English Tudor courtier
Anne Boleyn was the second, but eldest surviving daughter of Sir William Boleyn, of Blickling Hall, Norfolk, and his wife Lady Margaret Butler, the daughter of Sir Piers Butler, Earl of Ormonde. Sources which place her birth in 1475, confuse this Anne with her elder sister and namesake Anne Boleyn (born 1475), who died in infancy the following year. Her elder brother Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire was father to Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I.
Anne was married (c1498) to Sir John Shelton (c1477 – 1539), to whom she bore many children. Lady Shelton was appointed by Henry VIII to serve as mistress over the household of his daughters Princess Mary, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, and the Princess Elizabeth. Though she was urged by Queen Anne and her coterie to treat the recalcitrant Mary with great severity, Lady Shelton treated her instead with measured kindness, and was careful never to overassert her authority. She and her husband had their portraits painted by the great Flemish master Hans Holbein. During the reign of Mary (1553 – 1558), Lady Anne and her family gave refuge to Princess Elizabeth in the tower of Shelton Church, and the family’s loyalty to her was never forgotten. Her children were,

Shelton, Mary (Madge) – (c1512 – 1560)
English Tudor courtier
Mary Shelton was the second daughter of Sir John Shelton and his wife Anne Boleyn, the daughter of Sir William Boleyn of Blickling Hall in Norfolk. Mary and her five sisters were the first cousins of Queen Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII. Mary accompanied Anne to Calais when she met the French king with Henry (1532) and then served at court as maid-of-honour to Queen Anne (1533 – 1536). She was courted by Sir Henry Norris but no marriage took place. During the queen’s pregnancy (1535) Mary became King Henry’s mistress, the affair lasting for about six months. She was later rumoured by the Imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys, who had described her as ‘first cousin to the concubine’ as a possible fourth wife (1538) of King Henry but this never eventuated. Her portrait by Hans Holbein has survived.
A favoured lady of the court, possessed of many attractions, Mary Shelton was a close friend to the king’s daughter-in-law Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond, and of his niece Lady Margaret Douglas, the daughter of Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland. Poems written by Mary and her circle of literary friends survive in the famous Devonshire MS. Her coterie included the poet Thomas Clere to whom Mary had been romantically attached. He died (1545) before they could be married.
Mary Shelton was finally married (1546) to Sir Anthony Heveningham of Ketteringham to whom she bore five children. Lady Heveningham was left a widow (1557) and then remarried (1558) to Philip Appleyard. Mary Shelton appears in the historical novels The Other Boleyn Girl (2002) and The Boleyn Inheritance (2007) by Philippa Gregory, and in Murder Most Royal (1949) by Jean Plaidy.

Shemer, Naomi – (1930 – 2004)
Israeli lyricist and composer
Popularly known as ‘the First Lady of Israeli Song,’ Shemer was born (July 13, 1930) at Kvutsat Kinneret, near the Sea of Galilee. She studied music at the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem and worked as a schoolteacher. Shemer was best known for the nationalist song ‘Yerushalayim Shel Zahar’ (Jerusalem of Gold) (1967) and ‘The Sting and the Honey.’ She was awarded the Israel Prize (1983) for her contribution to Jewish culture. Naomi Shemer died (June 26, 2004) aged seventy-three.

Sheppard, Kate – (1848 – 1943)
New Zealand feminist and suffrage campaigner
Born Catherine Malcolm in Liverpool, Lancashire, she was educated at Nairn in Scotland. She immigrated to New Zealand as a young woman and was married (1871) to Walter Sheppard of Christchurch. Kate Sheppard joined the WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) and was an active campaigner for the cause of women’s suffrage and the general improvement of the conditions of women and children. After the vote was granted to women (1893) she was appointed president of the National Council of Women. She wrote and published several pamphlets such as Sixteen Reasons for Supporting Women’s Franchise (1891) and Women’s Suffrage in New Zealand (1907).

Shepperd, Eli    see   Young, Martha Strudwick

Sheppey, Elizabeth Bayning, Countess of – (c1623 – 1686)
English Stuart peeress (1680 – 1686)
Elizabeth Bayning was the daughter, and eventual heiress, of Paul Bayning, the first Viscount Bayning. Elizabeth was married firstly to Francis Lennard (1619 – 1662), fourteenth Baron Dacre of Gillisland, to whom she bore six children. The couple experienced some marital problems and Lord Dacre later retired to live in France because of this (1655). With Lord Dacre’s death, Elizabeth remarried to David Walter of Godstow in Oxfordshire, Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance and Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles II (1660 – 1685). With her husband’s death (1679) the king created Elizabeth Countess of Sheppey for life, in recognition of her late husband’s loyal service. This peerage became extinct at her death. Her children included,

Shepsetipet – (fl. c2700 BC)
Egyptian princess
Shepsetipet was the daughter of an unidentified king of the IInd Dynasty. She died aged about sixty, having borne the title of ‘King’s Daughter.’ Her tomb was discovered at Saqqara, and her mummy revealed that the princess had been afflicted with a painful jaw deformity.

Shergil, Amrita – (1913 – 1941)
Indian painter
Shergil was born (Jan 13, 1913) in Budapest, Hungary, the daughter of a Sikh father and a Hungarian mother. She later returned to India (1921) and studied painting and drawing in Florence, Italy, where she was expelled for drawing female nudes. Shergil then studied under Lucian Simon and Pierre Vaillant in Paris. She was elected an Associate of the Grand Salon for her painting Conversation (1934), but was best known work was Elephants Bathing in Green Pool, and various nudes. Amrita Shergil died young (Dec 5, 1941) aged only twenty-eight.

Sheridan, Caroline Henrietta – (1779 – 1851)
British novelist
Caroline Callendar became the wife of Thomas Sheridan, the son and heir of the dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan and his wife the soprano Elizabeth Linley. Her daughters included Helen Selina Sheridan, Lady Giffard and Jane Georgiana Sheridan, the Duchess of Somerset.

Sheridan, Clare Consuelo – (1885 – 1970) 
Irish sculptor, traveller, and author
Clare was born in London and was cousin to Sir Winston Churchill. Edcuated at home and then abroad in Paris and Germany, she was married (1910) to William Sheridan, a stockbroker.
Clare Sheridan turned to professional sculpting after the death of her husband (1915). She visited Russia in 1920, where she made busts of several political figures such as Lenin and Trotsky, and then travelled to the USA where she published the account entitled Russian Diaries (1921). She worked as a journalist with the New York World, and visited Mexico, Constantinople, and Algeria, and interviewed Kemal Ataturk. Clare Sheridan published her memoirs To the Four Winds (1957).

Sheridan, Elizabeth   see   Linley, Elizabeth

Sheridan, Frances – (1724 – 1766)
British novelist and dramatist
Born Frances Chamberlane in Ireland, she was the daughter of a clergyman. She was married (1747) to Thomas Sheridan, the manager of the Theatre Royal in Dublin, and became the mother of the playwright, Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Frances then visited London where she attended the literary salons, and became friendly with Elizabeth Montagu and Sarah Fielding. Her novels included Sidney Biddulph (1761) and Nourjahad (1766), as well as several plays including The Discovery and The Dupe, both performed in 1763 with limited success. Frances Sheridan died at Blois, France.

Sheridan, Helen Selina – (1807 – 1867)
British writer, dramatist and lyricist
Helen Sheridan was the eldest daughter of Thomas Sheridan and his wife Caroline Henrietta Callander. She accompanied her parents to the Cape of Good Hope (1816) but with her father’s death (1817) Helen and her mother returned to England, stopping off at the Island of St Helena during the trip in order to visit the imprisoned French Emperor Napoleon. Hleen spent the remainder of her childhood in apartments at Hampton Court Palace which the Prince Regent permitted Mrs Sheridan to use.
Helen became the wife (1825) at St George’s in Hanover Square, London, of Commander Price Blackwood (1794 – 1841), the son of Lord Dufferin. They spent two years living in Rome and then returned to England where they lived in a cottage at Thames Ditton. Whilst visiting her sisters in fashionable London society Helen was introduced to such literary figures as Sydney Smith, Henry Taylor and Benjamin Disraeli. Her husband succeeded as the fourth Baron Dufferin (1839 – 1841) and Mrs Blackwood became the Baroness Dufferin.
Lord Dufferin died soon afterwards from an overdose of morphia, and Lady Helen devoted herself to the care of their son Frederick Blackwood (1826 – 1902), later the first Marquess of Dufferin, with whom she went on an extended tour of the Nile River in Egypt. This led to the eventual publication of Lispings from Low Latitudes or Extracts from the Journal of the Hon. Impulsia Gushington (1863). She also wrote the play called Finesse: or Busy Day in Messina which was performed at The Haymarket Theatre (1863) and proved highly successful, though she did not acknowledge her authorship. Helen was also the author of several popular songs such as The Charming Woman (1835) and The Irish Emmigrant (1845).
Lady Dufferin had previously refused the offer of marriage made her by George Hay (1822 – 1862), Earl of Giffard, the son of the eighth Marquess of Tweeddale, as he was fifteen years her junior. However, when Giffard lay dying he again pressd his suit and Helen consented. They were married (Oct 1862) and Helen was the Countess of Giffard for two months before he died (Dec 22, 1862) after which she became the Dowager Countess of Giffard (1862 – 1867). Lady Giffard died (June 13, 1867) aged sixty, at Dufferin Lodge at Highgate.

Sherman, Ellen Burns – (1867 – 1956)
American poet and author
Sherman was born in Montgomery Center, Vermont, and published the collection of verse Poems (1936). Her other written works included Taper Lights (1907), Words to the Wise – and Others (1907) and Balm for Men’s Souls (1953). Ellen Burns Sherman died (Jan 15, 1956) aged eighty-eight.

Sherman, Esther   see   Devi, Ragini

Sherman, Mary Launce – (c1623 – 1710)
American colonist
Mary Lance was born at St Clement’s, Cornwall, England, the daughter of John Launce and his wife Isabel Darcy (later Simpson). She became the second wife of Reverend John Sherman (1613 – 1685) whom she survived twenty-five years. Many prominent colonial families claim descent from her.

Sherwood, Mary Martha – (1775 – 1851) 
British children’s writer
Mary was born at Stanford in Worsestershire, the daughter of a royal chaplain. She was married (1803) to her cousin Captain Henry Sherwood whom she then accompanied to India, where she established a school for the children of the military and organized an institution for the care of orphans. Mary Sherwood’s earliest published work was an adaptation of The Pilgrim’s Progress (c1810) and she continued her writing career after she and her husband returned to Worcester (1816).
Mrs Sherwood was best remembered for her moral tales and stories written for the instruction of young children such as Little Henry and his Bearer (1815) and the popular History of the Fairchild Family (1818). The private diaries of herself and her husband were edited and published in London as The Life and Times of Mrs Sherwood (1775 – 1851), from the diaries of Captain and Mrs Sherwood (1910).

Sherwood-Hall, Rosetta     see    Hall, Rosetta Sherwood

Shibtu – (fl. c1800 – c1770 BC)
Assyrian queen and letter writer
Shibtu was the daughter of Yarim-Lim, king of Yamhad (Aleppo) and his wife Gashera. She became the wife of Zimri-Lim, king of Mari, who had spent several years in exile at her father’s court. Her father provided Zimri-Lim with military assistance which made it possible for him to wrest control of his kingdom from the Assyrians. Shibtu and Zimri-Lim had a large family of daughters, but their only son died. The correspondence between the royal couple was preserved on clay tablets which were uncovered at Mari, the queen signing herself ‘Shibtu your servant’ or ‘Lady of the Land.’ Queen Shibtu maintained contact with her family in Aleppo, one letter recording her request that her father show favour to one of her courtiers. She received gifts from her mother, Queen Gashera, but relations with her brother King Hammurapi became strained. Her known children were,

Shikishi – (c1150 – 1201)
Japanese princess
Shikishi was the daughter of Emperor Go-Shirakawa and remained unmarried. She was a talented painter and poet, and a few of her verses have survived. Shikishi later took vows as a Buddhist priestess. She is sometimes called Nyoho.

Shinnick, Sabina – (1897- 2000) 
Australian nun and educator
Born Monica Mary Shinnick at Tocumwal, on the Murray River, New South Wales, and attended school at Yarrawong. Her further education took place with the Good Samaritan Sisters of St Brigid, in North Fitzroy and at Santa Maria College, South Yarra, in Melbourne, Victoria. She served her novitiate (1912 – 1917) with the Good Samaritan Sisters at Randwick in Sydney, taking the name of Sabina.
Appointed the first principal of Stella Maris College at Manly, North Sydney, with the outbreak of World War II she returned to Victoria. She was re-appointed to Stella Maris fifteen years later (1955 – 1962). From that time until her retirement (1974) she taught at schools at Korumbarra, Northcote, and Belgrave in Victoria. Sister Sabina entered the historical records of the Samaritan Order when she became the first member of the order to cheive eight decades as a nun (1997). Sabina Shinnick died aged one hundred and two, in Melbourne.

Shin Sawbu – (c1410 – 1472)
Burmese queen and ruler (1453 – 1472)
Shin Sawbu was the daughter of King Razadarit I (died 1423). With the death of her cousin Mawsaw (1453) after a brief reign, Shin Sawbu ruled Burma as queen regnant for two decades. She was succeeded on the throne by her son-in-law, Dammazedi (died 1492) and her grandson Binnya Ran II (died 1526).

Shipley, Ruth Bielaski – (1885 – 1966) 
American civil servant
Ruth Shipley was the head of the State Department’s Passport Division for nearly thirty years (1928 – 1955). During the  Communist scares of the  1950’s, critics accused her of denying passports on an arbitrary basis, however, her supporters claimed that she was merely continuing the battle against Communist subversion.

Shippen, Peggy – (1760 – 1804)
American revolutionary figure and diarist
Margaret Shippen was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Edward Shippen, a prominent judge. She became the second wife (1779) of the notorious traitor, General Benedict Arnold, to whom she bore four sons. Peggy may have influenced the traitorous correspondence between her husband and Major John Andre, the aide-de-camp to General Henry Clinton, and may herself have sent information to the British. After Arnold fled she visited her parents in Philadelphia to allay suspicion, and then joined him in New York, and travelled with him to England. With her husband’s death Peggy sold his estates to pay his debts and later returned to England permanently (1786). Peggy Shippen died (Aug 24, 1804).

Shipton, Ursula – (c1487 – 1561) 
English prophet and reputed witch
Ursula Southill was born near Dropping Well, Knaresborough, Yorkshire, the natural daughter of Agatha Southill, herself regarded a witch. Ursula was supposedly nicknamed ‘the Devil’s child’ in her youth because of her extreme ugliness, and later married Tobias Shipton, a York shipbuilder. Mother Shipton’s most famous prophecies concerned Cardinal Wolsey, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Lord Percy, heir to the earldom of Northumberland, and other prominent political figures from the court of Henry VIII.
In modern times a forgery produced by Charles Hindley, which stated that Mother Shipton had foretold the end of the world in 1881. The rumour of this prophecy caused great alarm in rural areas with people deserting houses and churches to spend the night praying in the fields and awaiting the end. Ursula Shipton died at Clifton, Yorkshire.

Shirin of Khuzistan – (c570 – after 628)
Queen consort of Persia
Shirin was the wife of King Khosru II (Chrosroes) (c565 – 628), and was a Christian of Aramaic origins, being a native of Khuzistan. Theophylektus Simocatta records in his Historiae that Shirin was proclaimed queen in 592, and she is believed to be identical with the Queen Caesarea, wife of the Persian king Anaulfus, recorded by Fredegarius in his Chronica as having been baptized by John, patriarch of Constantinople during the reign of the emperor Maurice. Queen Shirin is also mentioned in the Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius, the Historia Ecclesiastica of Nikephorus Callistus, the Chronographia of Theophanes, and the History of Heraclius produced by Sebeos.
Still living in 627, she survived the murder of her husband (Feb, 628), perhaps at the instigation of her stepson Kavades II. She was said to have been so grief-stricken at Khosru’s death that she devoted all her wealth to the fire temple of Anahita for the sake of his soul. Her own son Merdasan was executed by Kavades at the same time, and Shirin also left two daughters, Buran and Azarmidukht, who both ruled Persia briefly as queen regnants before they were deposed and put to death. The famous love affair of Shirin and Chrosroes is celebrated in the traditional Persian love song The Loves of Khosru and Shireen.

Shirley, Anne – (1918 – 1993)
American film actress
Dawn Paris was started in films by her mother and originally acted under ther name of Dawn O’Day in such films as So Big (1932) but with her success in the title role in Anne of Green Gables (1934) O’Day assumed the professional name of ‘Anne Shirley.’ She also appeared in the sequel Anne of Windy Poplars (1940) but his proved less successful at the box office. Shirley was nominated for an Academy Award for best supporting actress in Stella Dallas (1937) which had Barbara Stanwyck as her mother.
Shirley’s other film credits included Vigil in the Night (1941), West Point Widow (1941) and All That Money Can Buy (1941). She retired from the screen after her last film Farewell My Lovely (1944). Miss Shirley was married firstly (1937 – 1943) to actor John Payne (1912 – 1989), secondly (1945 – 1949) to the prouducer and writer Adrian Scott (1912 – 1973), and thirdly to the screenwriter Charles Lederer (1906 – 1976). Her first two marriages ended in divorce. Anne Shirley died (July 4, 1993) aged seventy-five, in Los Angeles in California.

Shirley, Lady Frances – (1702 – 1778)
British Hanoverian aristocrat
Lady Frances was the daughter of Robert Shirley (1650 – 1717), first Earl Ferrers and his second wife Zelina Finch. She was described as ‘a great beauty’ and became the mistress (1733) of Philip Dormer Stanhope (1694 – 1773), fourth Earl of Chesterfield. She lived with him openly as he and his wife the Countess of Walsingham, the illegitimate daughter of King George I resided apart. He addressed much of his sportive verse to Frances. His friend Alexander Pope addressed poems to her and Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams commemorated her relationship with Chesterfield in his poem Isabella.

Shirreff, Emily Anne Eliza – (1814 – 1897)
British educator, author and pioneer of education for women and pre-school age children
Emily Shirreff was the elder sister of educator and writer Maria Georgina Grey (1816 – 1906) with whom she established the National Union for Promoting the Higher Education of Women (1871) and served for almost three decades (1870 – 1897) as the principal of Girton College in Cambridge. With her sister she co-authored Thoughts on Self-Culture, Addressed to Women (1850), and the novels Passion and Principle (1853) and Love Sacrifice (1868). She herself wrote and published Intellectual Education and Its Influence on the Character and Happiness of Women (1858), as well as several essays concerning the kindergarten system organized and advocated by Friedrich Froebel. Shirreff served for over two decades (1875 – 1897) as president of the Froebel Society.

Shoken (Haruko) – (1850 – 1914)
Japanese empress consort (1869 – 1912)
Haruko Taidako was born (May 28, 1850) the daughter of Ichiyo Taidako. She married the Emperor Meiji (1869) and was granted the Imperial title. Empress Shoken was the first Imperial consort to play the public role generally associated with the wife of a ruling monarch. During the first Sino-Japanese War (1894 – 1895) she assisted with the founding and organization of the Japanese Red Cross society, of which she remained a lifetime patron. The empress held the Order of the Crown and the Order of the Sacred Treasure. Empress Shoken died (April 19, 1914) aged sixty-three. The Emperor Taisho granted her the posthumous name of Shoken, and she was interred near Meiji at Momoyama.

Shore, Jane – (c1450 – 1527) 
English Plantagenet courtier
The famous mistress of Edward IV, Jane was born in London and was married young to William Shore, a goldsmith. Plump, blonde, witty, and good-natured she attracted the attention of King Edward, and became his mistress, whereupon her husband deserted her. Jane remained the king’s mistress, and a prominent, if rather shadowy, figure at his court until the king’s death (1483). Despite his affection for her, Jane’s position never endangered that of the queen, Elizabeth Woodville, and after Edward’s death, she became the mistress of the queen’s eldest son, Thomas Grey, marquess of Dorset.
With the usurpation of Richard III, she was viewed as a dangerous person, and was accused of sorcery and imprisoned. The bishop of London caused her to walk in penitence through the city, carrying a lighted taper, and dressed only in her petticoat. Jane Shore died many decades later in poverty, her body being flung on a dung heap. Tradition which presents Jane as one of the elderly women who bore away the remains of Queen Anne Boleyn for burial after her execution (1536) is nothing but romantic fiction, as written in such romantic novels as Anne, The Rose of Hever (1971) by Maureen Peters. She appears as a character in the historical novels The Woodville Wench (1972) by Maureen Peters and The King’s Grey Mare (1974) by Rosemary Hawley Jarman.

Shorter, Dora – (c1869 – 1918)
Irish writer and poet
Shorter was born in Dublin. She wrote Collected Poems (1909) and Magde Lindsey, and Other Poems (1913). Dora Shorter died (Jan 6, 1918).

Shotoku-Koken – (718 – 770)
Japanese empress regnant (748 – 758) and (764 – 770)
Princess Shotoku was born the daughter of the emperor Shomu and his wife Komyo, the daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. In 748 her father, after ruling for twenty-four years, abdicated from the imperial throne and entered a Buddhist monastery, naming Shotoku as his successor. She assumed the Imperial dignity with the name of Koken. Successive edicts in 757 dealt with ‘bad and mutinous men, who had incited and led a band of rebels who had planned to murder an Imperial minister, drive out the heir apparent and strike down the empress herself. However, the instrigue was thwarted and the ringleaders punished. Koken ruled until 758, when she abdicated in favour of the Emperor Junnin, the grandson of Temmu, but continued to exercise political powr in the background, behind the throne. During this period of retirement Koken was advised by a monk named Dokyo who, if we may eke out the official records with popular legends, had seduced his Imperial mistress with her physical charms.
Koken reassumed the throne in 764 by proclaiming that hereafter the young emperor would deal only with ceremonial matters while she herself would attend to the important affairs of state. However, after the revolt of the Oshikatsu, the supporters of Junnin, Koken dropped any pretence of friendliness and sent troops to arrest the emperor and deprive him of his rank, and banished him to the island of Awagi, where he was later strangled. Koken now reassumed the name of Shotoku. Though during her retirement she had shaved her head and worn the robes of a nun, she continued to carry on the government. In 769 Shotoku appointed her lover Dokyo as a minister and installed him in the Imperial palace. Dokyo derived to become emperor and made up a tale that a medium in a trance had forseen good luck for Japan if Dokyo ascended the Imperial throne. However, the empress became gravely ill and died in 770, whereupon Dokyo was banished.

Shrewsbury, Agnes de Ponthieu, Countess of   see   Ponthieu, Agnes de

Shrewsbury, Adelaide Palleotti, Duchess of – (c1669 – 1726)
Italian-Anglo Stuart and Hanoverian courtier
Adelaide Palleotti was born in Bologna, the daughter of the Marchese Palleotti, and the granddaughter of Sir Robert Dudley (1573 – 1649), Duke of Northumberland and his second wife Elizabeth Southwell, a former maid-of-honour to Queen Elizabeth I.  Adelaide was married firstly to her kinsman, the Marchese Andrea Palloetti, and secondly (1705) to the British diplomat, Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury (1660 – 1718). The Duc de Saint-Simon described her in his Memoires after she and her husband were presented to Louis XIV at Versailles “ She was a tall, stout creature, who grew mannish in her old age. Once handsome and still aspiring to be thought so, she wore a low decolletage, and arranged her hair behind her ears, in ringlets, and covered herself with rouge and patches, and other such aids to beauty.”
Duchess Adelaide was a favourite of King George I (1714 – 1727) and served at court as lady-in-waiting to Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales, much to the anger of other prominent ladies. She pleaded unsuccessfully with the king for the lives of two dozen prisoners sentenced to death for involvement in the 1715 uprising. She was denouced as ‘Coquetilla’ by Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu in her work Roxane. Adelaide survived her husband as Dowager Duchess of Shrewsbury (1718 – 1726). The duchess of Shrewsbury died (June 29, 1726) and was buried at Attrighton.

Shrewsbury, Anna Maria Brudenell, Countess of – (1642 – 1702)
English Stuart courtier, beauty, and scandal figure
Lady Anna Maria Brudenell was born (March 24, 1642) in Paris, the daughter of Robert Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan, and his wife Anne, the daughter of Thomas, first Viscount Savage.
Prior to her marriage (1659) when she became the second wife of Francis Talbot (1623 – 1668), the eleventh Earl of Shrewsbury Anna Maria had gained a certain notoriety as a fascinating temptress. After she bore him two sons, her middle aged husband left her to her own amusements, taking several lovers, including her brother-in-law, Richard Talbot, who treated her scornfully. Talbit eventually ordered the countess to depart his house, and gave his new mistress, all the compromising letters that Anna Maria had written him, tied with a lock of her own hair.
Lady Shrewsbury’s notorious behaviour continued, and she was successively the mistress of Colonel Thomas Howard, of the Earl of Carlisle, Henry Jermyn, and Thomas Killigrew. Jermyn was wounded in a duel with Howard and was forced to flee to France.
After this the countess then began a liasion with George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, which resulted in Killigrew eventually being murdered outside St James’s Palace, for insults made to the duke. Lady Shrewsbury travelled to France with Buckingham, and there they were received by Louis XIV at Versailles. They entered into a political pact with King Louis, for which services the countess was paid ten thousand livres. It was these two who persuaded Charles II to sell Dunkirk and the other English possessions to France.
Wishing to marry the duke, Lady Shrewsbury manipulated her husband into challenging the duke to a duel in order to preserve her honour. This duel resulted in Lord Shrewsbury’s death (March 16, 1668), the countess being present disguised as a page boy. Lady Shrewsbury was then installed in the Duke of Buckingham’s house, the duchess being sent to her father’s house. King Charles granted the duke a divorce though he did not have the power to do so. When Anna Maria was delivered of Buckingham’s son, her husband’s relatives, the Talbots, took them both to court and proved that the divorce granted by the king was illegal. Lady Shrewsbury was later remarried (1677), this time legally, to George Rodney Bridges (c1658 – 1713), a man young enough to be her son. She later involved her son Shrewsbury in a conspiracy against William III (1688), but he managed to escape execution. The Countess of Shrewsbury died (April 20, 1702) aged sixty, and was buried in the Church of St Giles-in-the-Fields, London. Her two Talbot sons were,

Shrewsbury, Elizabeth Butler, Countess of – (1429 – 1473)
English Plantagenet peeress
Lady Elizabeth Butler was the daughter of James Butler (1392 – 1452), fourth Earl of Ormonde, and his first wife Joan de Beauchamp (1400 – 1430), the daughter of William de Beauchamp, first Baron Abergavenny. Lady Elizabeth became the wife of Lord John Talbot (1413 – 1460), eldest son of the first Earl of Shrewsbury, and was probably the Madame de Talbot la yeune, who was at Rouen in Normandy for the reception of Margaret of Anjou, the wife of Henry VI (March, 1445). Her husband succeeded as second Earl of Shrewsbury (1453) and Elizabteh became Countess of Shrewsbury (1453 – 1460).
Lord Shrewsbury was killed at the battle of Northampton (July 10, 1460) and was buried at Worksop Priory. His will was proved by the countess at York (Nov 27, 1461). Elizabeth survived her husband as Dowager Countess of Shrewsbury (1460 – 1473) and never remarried. She appears to have taken some sort of religious vow before Bishop John of the Isles, though she was later declared free to marry whomever she would (1463).  The countess received the castle, manor, and lordship of Sheffield in York as her dower, together with a residence in London. Lady Shrewsbury later petitioned the Pope to declare that she was not bound by pretended espousals to become the wife of Walter Blount, and was free to contract marriage if she chose. Pope Pius II directed the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield to hear both sides of the case and decide the canonical truth of the case (1463). No marriage ensued. The Countess of Shrewsbury died (Sept 8, 1473) aged forty-four, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London. Thomas Milton recorded her tomb inscription,

   Heere lyeth Elizabeth, Countesse of Shrewesbury, which was Daughter, sister, wife, Grandmother and kinswoman of the Earle’s of Arundell, Wynton, Ormonde and  Shrewesburie      

Her seven children were,

Shrewsbury, Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of   see    Hardwick, Bess

Shrewsbury, Mary Cavendish, Countess of – (1556 – 1632)
English aristocrat and political intriguer
Mary Cavendish was the daughter of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess Hardwick, later the wife of George Talbot, sixth Earl of Shrewsbury. Mary was married (1568) to her stepbrother Gilbert Talbot (1552 – 1616), who succeeded his father as seventh Earl of Shrewsbury (1590). The countess was later refused a position at court as lady-in-waiting to Anne of Denmark, wife of James I because of her Roman Catholicism. She later intrigued to convey her niece Arbella Stuart secretly out of England, but the plain failed and Lady Shrewsbury spent several years imprisoned in the Tower of London (1612 – 1615) after being tried in the Star Chamber, when she refused to answer any charges. She survived her husband as Dowager Countess of Shrewsbury (1616 – 1632) and refused to take the Oath of Allegiance (1618), her manor of Worksop being seized by the crown. The Countess of Shrewsbury died aged seventy-six, and was buried (April 24, 1632) at Sheffield, Yorkshire. She left five children,

Shrifte, Evelyn – (1900 – 1999)
American publisher
Shrifte was born in New York and graduated from Barnard College (1921). She was employed by the Musical Quarterly, and opened and ran a bookshop on Manhattan before she joined the editorial staff at Vanguard Press, in Madison Avenue. Evelyn served as president of Vanguard for over thirty-five years (1952 – 1988), publishing works by such well-known and successful artists as Joyce Carol Oates whose novel Them (1969), won the National Book Award (1970), Dr Seuss, James T. Farrell, Marshal McLuhan, and Saul Bellow, whose first two works Dangling Man (1944) and The Victim (1947), were both published by Vanguard. Evelyn retired when Vanguardwas sold to Random House (1988). Evelyn Shrifte died in Manhattan.

Shruti – (1976 – 2001)
Princess of Nepal
Princess Shruti was born (Oct 15, 1976) the youngest daughter of King Birendra and his wife Queen Aishwarya. She was educated by Roman Catholic nuns, and then attended the Mayo Girls College in Ajmer, India. An artist of some natural talent, Princess Shruti was married to Gorakh Shamsher Rana to whom she bore two children. The princess was fatally wounded when her brother, the Crown Prince Dipendra, massacred their parents and other members of the royal family in the royal palace in Kathmandu. Princess Shruti died in hospital (June 1, 2001) aged twenty-four.

Shuard, Amy – (1924 – 1975)
British lyric soprano
Amy Shuard was born in London and studied at the Trinity College of Music, and also received instruction from Dame Eva Turner. She was later engaged by the Sadler’s Wells Opera (1942 – 1955), where she made her first appearance as Margeurite in Gounod’s Faust, and then joined the company at Covent Garden, where she enjoyed a brilliant singing career. Shuard became the first British singer to perform the complete Brunnhilde cycle at Covent Garden (1964), and was much admired in the roles of Turandot, Aida, and Lady Macbeth. Amy Shuard performed in Milan, San Francisco, and Buenos Aires, as well as with the Vienna State Opera. Her last stage performance was at Covent Garden in Janacek’s opera Jenufa (1974).

Shub, Esther – (1894 – 1959)
Russian film editor and compilation specialist
Esther Shub was born in the Ukraine. She was a pioneer of the Russian film industry and worked as editor of over two hundred foreign and Russian films (1922 – 1927). Esther compiled the films The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty (1927) and The Great Road (1927). Shub edited The Russia of Nicholas II and Leo Tolstoy (1928) and produced the film Twenty Years of Soviet Cinema (1940).

Shub-ad     see    Pu-Abi

Shurr, Gertrude – (1903 – 1992)
Latvian-American dancer and teacher
Gertrude Shurr was born in Riga, Latvia, and was brought to the USA as a child. She studied dance under Ruth St Denis at the Denishawn School and under Doris Humphrey. She was best known for her pioneering work in dance with the Humphrey-Weidman Concert Company (1927 – 1929) and the Martha Graham Company (1930 – 1938), when she performed in Primitive Mysteries. She later established a dance studio in New York where her pupils included Robert Joffrey and Gerald Arpino who later founded the Joffrey Ballet.
Shurr became a teacher at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York where one of her students was Liza Minnelli. She was the assistant choreographer for several Broadway musicals such as Sadie Thompson (1944) and Top Banana (1951). She retired in 1971 but remained a dance adviser for the Arizona Commission on the Arts. She was also the director of the Opportunity Theater and Dance Workshop at the University of Utah. Gertrude shurr died (Jan 2, 1992) aged eighty-eight, in Tuczon, Arizona.

Shushanik (Susanna) – (c430 – 474 AD)
Queen of Iberia
Shushanik was the daughter of Vardan, Mamikonid prince of Armenia, and granddaughter of Prince Hamazasp I. She was married to Varazdat, King of Iberia, who governed the marchlands between Armenia and Georgia, with his captial at Tsurtav. Her father and husband both abjured the Christian faith to win the favour of their Persian overlords, but Shushanik denounced his apostasy. Her husband was a man of dissolute morals.
When the queen attempted to leave her husband, and take their children with her, her had her treatd with great cruelty and indignity. She was kept fettered in prison for six years, and died after several years of torture and ill-treatment, though not before Varazdat cruelly had Shushanik’s mother physically assaulted in the street, when she too had protested her beliefs. Shushanik was interred with due honours in the church of Metekh at Tiflis. The Greek Orthodox Church recognized her as a saint (Oct 17).

Shutta, Ethel – (1895 – 1976)
American vaudeville performer and vocalist
Ethel was the daughter of vaudeville performer Charles Schutta. She performed with her family from childhood as the Pee Wee Minstrels and The Three Shuttas. She appeared on Broadway in The Passing Showof 1922 and the Ziegfeld Follies. She appeared in the play Whoopie with Eddie Cantor (1928), a role she reprised in the film. She was married to the bandleader George Olsen and performed in radio on the Jack Benny Canada Dry Show (1932).
Shutta appeared in the Broadway musical Jennie (1963) and with Mary Martin in Follies (1971 – 1972) at the Winter Garden Theater. Her last performance was in the public television health series Feeling Good 91974). Ethel Shutta died (Feb 5, 1976) aged seventy-nine, in New York.

Shuvalova, Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova, Countess – (1743 – 1817)
Russian courtier and diplomatic figure
Ekaterina Saltykova was the sister of Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (1736 – 1805), the Governor of Moscow. She became the wife of Count Andrei Shuvalov (1744 – 1789) with whom she visited England, Florence and Paris. Madame Du Deffand’s opinion of the countess has survived, and whilst she was in England Countess Shuvalova visited Horace Walpole at his estate of Strawberry Hill at Twickenham. Horace Mann thought her an attractive woman. Ekaterina survived her husband for over three decades as the Dowager Countess Shuvalova (1789 – 1817).

Shwayder, Reva Clamage – (1902 – 1993)
American painter
Shwayder was born in Chicago, Illinois, and was married firstly to Benjamin Shwayder, the president of the Samsonite Corporation, and secondly (1986) to Louis Gothelf, the painter. Originally fully involved with the running of her fist husband’s company, in 1950 she began a career in painting, working with acrylics and water colours in an abstract style. Many of her works were purchased by private collectors and large corporate clients such as Ford and Chrysler, as well as the Pennsylvania Academy of Arts and the Detroit Institute of Art. Her life was the subject of the documentary film Young at Heart (1988), which won an Academy Award, and which was produced in conjunction with director Pamela Conn and Reva’s stepdaughter. She retired in 1991. Reva Clamage Shwayder died at Franklin, Michigan.

Sibley, Jean – (1941 – 1993)
American fashion designer
Sibley was born in Gypsy, Pennsylvania. She studied art in Philadelphia before traveling to Europe where she continued her education at the Sorbonne in Paris. She established her own design studio in Manhattan before going into business with fellow designer Dory Coffee in Sibley Coffee Ltd (1966 – 1977). They produced popular dresses in jersey fabric which were sold through retail outlests like Saks Fifth Avenue and Nieman Marcus. Celebrity clientele included Jacqueline Onassis and the actress Candice Bergen. Sibley then worked for an antique importer in Manhattan. Jean Sibley died (Oct 14, 1993) aged fifty-two, in Manhasset.

Sibosado, Glynis Emily – (1949 – 2001)
Australian Aboriginal activist
Sibosado was born (Nov 20, 1949) at Broome in Western Australia. She became a prominent reformer for the Aboriginal people and served as the northern zone commissioner for ATSIC (Australian and Torres Strait Islander Commission) (1993 – 1996). Glynis Sibosado died (April 19, 2001) aged fifty-one, in Broome.

Sibylla    see also   Sybilla

Sibylla de Fortia – (c1350 – 1406)
Queen consort of Aragon (1377 – 1387)
Sibylla de Fortia was the daughter of Bernat de Fortia, a minor nobleman and was married firstly to Artal de Foces. Possessed of great beauty and personal attractions Sibylla probably served in the household of Leonor of Sicily, the third wife of Pedro IV el Ceremonioso (1319 – 1387), King of Aragon. It is not certain whether Sibylla’s relationship with Pedro began before the death of Queen Leonor (1374), but with her death Sibylla was publicly acknowledged at court as the king’s mistress.
Pedro married Sibylla as his fourth wife (Oct, 1377) but the wedding appears to have been a private affair. She was first syled queen by her husband in a document dated (Nov 2, 1377) and her brother Bernat de Fortia was appointed as King Pedro’s lord chamberlain. There is ample evidence that the royal family held themselves apart from the company of the new queen which caused Pedro much resentment. In retaliation the new queen was the cause of much discord between the king and his eldest son the Duke of Gerona.
Her educational skills appear to have been meagre at a surviving letter of the king asks the prioress of the convent of Sigena to send two nuns to the court ‘to teach her to read and to converse with her.’ Sibylla was crowned queen at Zaragoza (Jan, 1381) amidst spectacular festivities which were much commented upon by the chronicler Zurita. Sibylla took the side of her kinsman Bernardo Almenay de Orriols in his dispute with the Duke of Gerona and the Count de Ampurias (1384), and when soon afterwards the royal family was forced to flee from Perclada in order to evade raiding Gascon forces, it was popularly believed that the real reason for this was the fact that Sibylla dabbled in witchcraft. So unpopular did the new queen become that she was popularly referred too as ‘la Reyna Forciana.’
With King Pedro’s death (1387) she feared retribution from her stepson Juan I, and Sibylla fled the royal palace accompanied by a small number of attendants. The new king ordered that his stepmother be arrested and stand trial on a charge of witchcraft. Sibylla was then apprehended and returned under guard to Barcelona, where she was also accused of removing royal property from the palace. Found guilty, all her fellow conspirators were tortured and condemned to death. Sibylla saved her life by surrendering all her property to the crown. In return she was granted the lives of her brother Bernat and a friend the Count de Pallars, and was granted a small pension. despite this the Queen Dowager was kept in such close and contrained confinement that even the papal legate Cardinal de Luna, having visited her in prison, interceded with the king on her behalf.
Queen Sibylla was then released and committed to the custody of her kinsman Berengar Barutell, in whose house, outside the city of Barcelona, she was permitted to take up residence. From 1400 Sibylla retired to live in the Franciscan convent in Barcelona. Just prior to her death King Martino I granted Sibylla her own apartments within the palace, as befitting a royal widow, much to the chagrin of her stepdaughter-in-law Violante of Bar, the widow of Juan I. Queen Sibylla died (Nov 24, 1406) in Barcelona. Her children were,

Sibylla Mansel – (c1149 – 1216)
Crusader princess of Antioch
Sibylla was the sister-in-law of the lord of Burzey, and the widow of a minor nobleman named Mansel by whom she had a son Robert Mansel (c1170 – after 1219) later the Constable of Antioch. As a widow she attained a reputation for immoral living. Sibylla Mansel became the mistress (c1179) of Bohemond III (1144 – 1201), Prince of Antioch, and according to the chronicler William of Tyre, she lived openly with him while he was married to the Greek princess Theodora Komnena. Bohemond then divorced Theodora and married Sibylla as his third wife (1181). The Patriarch Aimery then excommunicated Bohemond and placed Antioch under interedict before leaving the city.
This marriage was extremely unpopular with the Antiochene nobility, as the princess acted as a spy for the Muslim leader Saladin, providing him with information concerning Frankish troops. King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem sent a deputation to settle the matter, and in return for financial compensation Aimery raised the interedict but not the excommunication, but Sibylla was publicly recognized as princess consort of Antioch. Sibylla bore Bohemond two daughters and a son Guillaume for whom she constantly schemed to have recognized as the heir of Antioch in the place of his elder half-brothers. She later deliberately encouraged a feud between her husband and Leo II of Armenia, the husband of her niece, hoping to thus enlist his aid in her intrigues for her son. Sibylla accompanied her husband and son to Leo’s court at Baghras to discuss terms for a peace (Oct, 1193). Leo promptly took the prince and his entourage prisoner, only permitting his release when Bohemond agreed to hand over the suzerainty of Antioch to Leo. Sibylla is credited with making Bohemond agree to this arrangement in order to facilitate her son’s career, but the plan failed. The Antiochenes quickly drove out the Armenians and supported Sibylla’s stepson Raymond until Bohemond’s release could be affected. Sibylla survived Bohemond as the Dowager Princess of Antioch (1201 – 1216). Her children were,

Sibylla of Acerra    see   Sybilla di Medania

Sibylla of Anjou – (1116 – 1165)
Countess consort of Flanders and Crusader abbess
Sibylla of Anjou was the second daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem and his first wife, Eremburga of Maine. Her elder sister Matilda of Anjou (formerly called Alice) was the wife of William III, Duke of Normandy, the son and heir of Henry I of England, who drowned in the wreck of the White Ship (1120). The marriage was childless and Henry I retained Matilda’s dowry. In revenge for this Sibylla was betrothed to William Clito (1101 – 1128), the son of Robert II, Duke of Normandy. The marriage took place in 1122, Count Fulk providing his daughter with a rich dowry in the county of Maine. However soon afterwards Henry I obtained a papal decree from Pope Calixtus II which annulled the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity (1124), though the seperation was not enforced until 1126 when William was compelled to remarry to Giovanna of Montferrat, the sister-in-law of Louis VI of France.
Sibylla was remarried (1128) to Count Thierry of Alsace (c1088 – 1168) who was then created count of Flanders (1129) as his second wife. She bore him three sons. Sibylla later accompanied Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine on their expedition to Palestine (1147 – 1151). During her stay with the Imperial court in Constantinople one of Sibylla’s servants was executed by order of King Louis, for stealing from the palace. On the return trip to France Sibylla visited Pergamum, Greece, and Antioch. When her husband Thierry took part in a later crusade (1157), Sibylla accompanied him to Palestine, whilst their son Philip was left as regent in Flanders.
When Thierry desired to return to France (1158), Sibylla wished to remain in the Holy Land and the couple seperated by mutual consent for religious reasons. Countess Sibylla then attended the court of her stepmother Queen Melisande, and later became a nun at the Abbey of St Anne in Bethany, where she died. According to William of Tyre, with the death of Queen Melisande (Sept, 1161) Sibylla took over her stepmother’s prominent role as matriarch of the royal family. Her children were,

Sibylla of Armenia – (c1237 – 1290)
Crusader ruler
Sibylla was the daughter of Hethoum I, King of Armenia, and his wife Zabel, the daughter of Leo II, and the sister of Leo III. Sibylla was married (1254) Bohemond VI, Prince of Antioch (1236 – 1275) at the suggestion of Louis IX of France, in order to conciliate the friendship of Armenia, and which enabled Bohemond to assume control of Antioch from the regency of his mother, Lucienne of Segni. The marriage also secured Armenia military assistance from Antioch in the event of incursions by the Turks.With Bohemond’s death (1275), Sibylla assumed control of the regency of Antioch and Tripoli on behalf of her son Bohemond VII, despite the claims of Hugh III of Cyprus. The government was administered in Sibylla’s name by Bartholomew, Bishop of Tortosa, and she peacefully handed over the government to her son when he came of age (1277).
With the subsequent death of Bohemond, without issue (1287), and despite the claims of his sister, her own daughter, Lucia, the wife of Narjot de Toucy, the nobles of Antioch offerred the Princess Dowager the government of Tripoli. However, they refused her choise of Bartholomew of Tortosa as her bailli. Sibylla refused to compromise, and after an angry scene, and a council of the city’s leading merchants, the dynasty was declared deposed, and a commune set up under the direction of Bartholomew Embriaco. Princess Sibylla retired to the court of her brother in Armenia, where she died.

Sibylla of Bage – (1255 – 1294)
French heiress and countess consort of Savoy
Sibylla was the only child and heiress of Guy II, Seigneur of Bage and Bresse and his wife Beatrix of Montferrat, the widow of Guy Andrew, Dauphin of Vienne. Sibylla inherited the seigneurie of Mirabel and became the first wife (1272) of Amadeo V the Great (1249 – 1323), Count of Savoy and was his countess consort (1285 – 1294). Countess Sibylla died (Feb 28, 1294) aged thirty-eight. Her children were,

Sibylla of Barcelona – (c1037 – 1074)
Duchess consort of Burgundy
Sibylla was the daughter of Ramon Berengar I el Cuerva, Count of Barcelona (1018 – 1035) and his third wife Gisela of Lluca. She was married (1056) to Prince Henry of Burgundy (1035 – after 1071), the second son of Duke Robert I (1032 – 1076). It was the French genealogist Abbe Maurice Chaume who suggested Sibylla was a relative of Ramon Berengar, pointing to the use of the name Borell by both her son and grandson Eudes I and Hugh II. Sibylla’s wedding took place in Barcelona, the union having been arranged whilst Henry and her father were engaged upon a crusade against the Muslims in Spain.
With the death of Henry’s elder brother Hugh without issue (1060) he became his father’s heir and was associated with him in the government of Burgundy as junior duke from around 1066.
Though she became a duchess (ducissa) Henry predeceased his father (before 1074), and Sibylla became Dowager Duchess of Burgundy. Duchess Sibylla died (July 6, 1074), or possibly later, and was interred within the Abbey of St Stephen (Etienne) in Besancon. Her children were,

Sibylla of Blois – (c1115 – c1141)
Anglo-Norman noblewman
Sibylla of Blois was the illegitimate daughter of Stephen of Blois, king of England (1135 – 1154) and an unknown mistress. She was married sometime prior to 1140 to Hervey II of Leon (Hervey the Breton) (c1100 – 1168), at which time King Stephen created him earl of Wiltshire. The marriage was deduced from passages in the Gesta Stephani which twice referred to Hervey as the king’s son-in-law. That Hervey apparently severed all connections with Stephen and England after he was driven out (1141), makes it likely that Sibylla was dead, or had died soon afterwards. There is no evidence as to whether she was the mother of his sons, Guiomar IV (died after 1179), Comte de Leon and Bishop Hamon of Leon (died 1171).

Sibylla of Brandenburg – (1467 – 1524)
German heiress and duchess consort of Julich and Berg
Princess sibylla of Brandenburg was born (May 31, 1467), the fourth daughter of Albert Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg (1470 – 1486) and his second wife Princess Anna of Saxony, the daughter of Friedrich II, Elector of Saxony. She became the wife (1481) of Wilhelm III, Duke of Julich and Berg and became his duchess consort. The marriage produced an only child and heiress Princess Maria (1491 – 1543) the heiress of Julich and Berg, who was married to Duke Johann III of Cleves. Duchess Sibylla’s eldest granddaughter Sibylla of Cleves, Electress of Saxony was named in her honour whilst her other granddaughter Anne of Cleves became the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England. Sibylla survived her husband for over a decade as the Dowager Duchess of Julich and Berg (1511 – 1524) and died (July 9, 1524) aged fifty-seven.

Sibylla of Cleves – (1512 – 1554)
German electress consort of Saxony (1532 – 1554)
Princess Sibylla was born (July 17, 1512) at Dusseldorf, the eldest daughter of Johann III, Duke of Cleves, and his wife Maria, the daughter of Wilhelm IV, Duke of Julich and Berg and his wife Sibylla of Brandenburg. Her two younger sisters were Anne of Cleves, briefly the fourth wife of Henry VIII of Cleves, and Amalia of Cleves, who remained unmarried. Attractive and talented, and possessed of a carefree and pleasant disposition, Sybilla was greatly admired by her family, her mother calling her, ‘a true daughter of the Reformation.’ She was married (1527) to Duke Johann Friedrich of Saxony (1503 – 1554) who succeeded his father as Elector Johann Friedrich I (1532) and was the head of the Protestant League. Sibylla’s father, Duke Johann, had been persuaded to agree to this alliance by his councilors, who desired to use the marriage as a stalemate to the ambitious designs of the Emperor Charles V, who controlled most of Europe. The marriage proved to be one of great personal happiness, and no breath of scandal ever attached itself to Sibylla’s name.
When the elector was wounded and captured by the emperor’s forces at the battle of Muhldorf (1547). Though at first condemned to death, the emperor relented, and Johann Friedrich was deprived of his electoral title and imprisoned at Innsbruck. The Electress Sybilla remained with the court and her children in Weimar. She defended the city of Wittenberg against the imperial forces, and only surrendered when the emperor threatened to toss her husband’s severed head over the ramparts. When the elector was finally released from prison (1553) Sibylla travelled as far as Coburg to meet him, and swooned with joy at their reunion. Electress Sibylla died (Feb 21, 1554) aged forty-one, at Weimar, and was interred beside the high altar in the Church of Weimar. Her children were,

Sibylla of Conversano – (c1081 – 1103)
Duchess consort of Normandy (1099 – 1103)
Sibylla was the daughter of Godfrey I (Godefroi), Count of Conversano and Brindisi in Italy, and his wife Sichelgata, who was probably a connection of the princes of Salerno. Her father was the maternal grandson of Tancred of Hauteville, Count of Leece and his second wife Fredesenda (Fressenda). Her younger sister Altrude of Conversano became the third wife of Richard of Hauteville, Count of Mottola and seneschal of Apulia, the nephew of Richard de Hauteville. Sibylla was married (1099) to Duke Robert II of Normandy (c1053 – 1134), the eldest son of William I the Conqueror, king of England.
Her large dowry was used by Robert to redeem the dukedom of Normandy from his brother William II. Sibyilla was the mother of William IV Clito (1101 – 1128), Duke of Normandy, who left no descendants. The duchess died in childbirth (March 31, 1103) at Rouen Castle, after bearing her second son Henry who died in infancy. The Norman chronicler Ordericus Vitalis stated that sibylla’s brother Count Geoffrey II of Conversano had great influence over his royal brother-in-law, and recorded the ridiculous legend that the duchess was poisoned by Agnes Giffard, who mistakenly believed that duke Robert would marry her if his wife were dead. William of Malmesbury stated that her death was caused by the midwife having her breasts bound too tightly after the birth of her son. She was interred either in Rouen Cathedral or in the Abbey of the Holy Trinity at Caen.

Sibylla of Jerusalem – (1160 – 1190)
Crusader queen regnant
Princess Sibylla was the elder daughter of King Amalric I and his first wife Agnes of Courtenay. With the death of her father (1174) Sibylla’s leperous brother Baldwin IV became king, and the regency was taken by Raymond III, Count of Tripoli, whilst the princess was recognized as the lawful heiress to the throne. Princess Sibylla was married (1176) to Guglielmo VII, Marchese of Montferrat (died 1177) by whom she became the mother of King Baldwin V (1177 – 1186).
Guglielmo was assassinated and Sibylla was remarried (1180) to Guy of Lusignan (c1145 – 1194), then a young knight. Henceforward the reign of Baldwin IV was troubled by dissensions of increasing bitterness between the court party consisting of Sibylla and Guy, the queen mother Agnes, Joscelin of Courtenay, Raynald de Chatillon and the baronial party led by Raymond of Tripoli. Guy was appointed as Count of Askalon and Jaffa and served as regent of Jerusalem for several months (1183 – 1184), but her quarreled with Baldwin and forfeited his rights to the regency and to the succession. Sibylla’s son was the proclaimed as heir to the kingdom.
With the death of her son Baldwin (1186), it was only due to the efforts of Raynald de Chatillon that Sibylla and Guy were able to rule the crusader kingdom. Raymond of Tripoli refused to acknowledge their sovereignty until 1187. Queen Sibylla and two of her daughters, Alice and Marie, all died of the plague (July 25, 1190) at the siege of Acre.

Sibylla Calma Marie Alice Bathildis Feodora – (1908 – 1972)
German princess
HH (Her Highness) Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was born (Jan 18, 1908), the elder daughter of Duke Karl Eduard of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and his wife Victoria of Holstein-Glucksburg, and was a descendant of Queen Victoria. She held the additional title of Princess of Great Britain and Ireland until 1917. Princess Sibylla was married (1932) to the Swedish prince Gustav Adolf (1906 – 1947), the Duke of Westerbotten, the son and heir of the Crown Prince Gustav, the son and heir of King Gustav V Adolf (1858 – 1950) and became the Duchess of Westerbotten (1932 – 1947). The couple had five children.
The duke was killed in a flying accident at Copenhagen and Sibylla became the Dowager Duchess of Westerbotten (1947 – 1972). Three years later her son Carl Gustaf succeeded his grandfather Gustav Adolf VI as Crown Prince of Sweden in place of his late father (1950). As a widow the duchess divided her time between the Royal Palace in Stockholm and her coutry estate of Hagaberg, near Borgholm on the Isle of Oland. The Duchess of Westerbotten died (Nov 28, 1972) aged sixty-four, at the Royal Palace. After her death the Crown Prince succeeded his grandfather as King Carl XVI Gustaf (1973). Her children were,

Sibylla Charlotte of Wurttemburg – (1690 – 1735)
German princess
Duchess Sibylla Charlotte of Wurttemburg was born (Nov 14, 1690) at Weiltingen, the elder daughter and coheiress of Duke Friedrich Ferdinand of Wurttemburg-Weiltingen and his wife Duchess Elisabeth of Montbeliard, the daughter of George II, Duke of Wurttemburg-Montbeliard (1662 – 1699). She was married (1709) at Stuttgart to Karl Friedrich (1690 – 1761), Duke of Wurttemburg-Oels and became his duchess consort (1709 – 1735). The marriage remained childless. Duchess Sibylla Charlotte died (Oct 30, 1735) aged forty-four, at Sibyllenort.

Sibylla Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg – (1625 – 1703)
German princess and dynastic heiress
Princess Sibylla Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg was born (July 30, 1625), the second and younger surviving daughter of Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and his first wife Elisabeth Sophia of Holstein-Gottorp, the daughter of Johann Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. She married (1654) her first cousin Franz Erdmann of Saxe-Lauenburg (1629 – 1666). With the death of her father (1656) the ducal title passed to Sibylla Hedwig’s uncle Julius Henry, whilst she and her sister Anna Elisabeth became coheirs of their father’s extensive personal estates.
Sibylla Hedwig’s dynastic marriage kept the ducal estates and properties intact, and when the young duke succeeded his father Julius Heinrich as Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1665 – 1666) both branches of the dynasty became united. Unfortunately for all of this dynastic planning, the duchess and her husband remained childless. The male ducal line became extinct in 1666, but the Dowager Duchess survived into wealthy widowhood for another forty years. Duchess Sibylla Hedwig died (Aug 1, 1703) aged seventy-eight.

Sibylla Margaretha Christa Thyra Hedwig Catherina – (1877 – 1952)
German princess of Hesse-Kassel
Princess Sibylla was born (June 3, 1877) the third daughter of Landgrave Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel and his second wife Princess Anna of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Karl of Prussia, and the granddaughter of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1797 – 1840). Sibylla was married (1898) to a German nobleman Baron Friedrich von Vincke (1867 – 1925) to whom she bore two sons who were both married but died without issue. This marriage later ended in divorce (1923). Princess Sibylla died (Feb 11, 1952) aged seventy-four.

Sibylla Ursula of Brunswick – (1629 – 1671)
German duchess consort of Holstein-Glucksburg
Duchess sibylla Ursula of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel was born (Dec 8, 1629) the eldest daughter of Duke Augustus of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1634 – 1666) and his second wife Princess Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst, the daughter of Rudolf, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. She received and excellent education under the guidance of her stepmother Sophia Elisabeth of Brunswick. She had little interest in marriage and devoted herself to her scholarly pursuits.
The princess wrote a play which dwelt with ideals of courtly love (1649), the devotional work Geistliches Kleeblatt (Spritual Cloverleaf) (1655), and the autobiographical work which spanned two decades of her life entitled Seuffzer (Sighs). Sibylla Ursula translated French plays and novels into German but her best known work was the romantic novel Aramena (1669 – 1673) which was completed by her siblings. When aged over thirty she became the first wife (1663) of Duke Christian of Holstein-Glucksburg and became his duchess consort (1663 – 1671). Their four children all died in infancy. Duchess Sibylla Ursula died (Dec 12, 1671) aged forty-two, from the effects of childbirth.

Sichel, Edith – (1862 – 1914)
German-Anglo writer, author of studies in French social and artistic history, literature and art
Sichel was born (Dec, 1862) in London of German parents. She was educated at home and remained unmarried. Apart from stories and articles published in such journals as The Quarterly Review and The Cornhill Magazine, her published works included The Household of the Lafayettes (1897), Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901) and The Later Years of Catherine de Medici (1908). Edith Sichel died (Aug 13, 1914) in London.

Sichelgata, Sichelgaita    see   Sikelgata

Sichilde    see   Sigihilda

Sicildis – (fl. c750)
Merovingian saint
The daughter of Asquarius and his wife Aneglia, her parents founded the church of Auxy-le-Chateau where she took the veil as a nun. Sicildis arranged for her friend St Silvinus to be interred there. Her feast (June 22) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum and Sicildis was long venerated at Le Mans, where she was portrayed in stained glass dressed as a nun above the altar of her own church. The French also called her Serolde and Serote.

Siddons, Sarah – (1755 – 1831) 
British stage actress and tragedienne
Particularly admired in the role of Lady Macbeth, Siddons was born in Brecon, Wales, the daughter of Roger Kemble, a theatrical manager. She was sister to the leading actor, John Philip Kemble (1757 – 1823) and was married (1773) to an actor, William Siddons. Sarah Siddons made her stage debut at Drury Lane Theatre as Portia under the direction of David Garrick (1775). She toured the provinces and made her fame in London when she appeared in the adaptation of Thomas Southerne’s play Fatal Marriage (1782). Beautiful, talented, and regal in bearing, Siddons remained England’s premier actress until her eventual retirement at Covent Garden Theatre (1812). Sir Thomas Gainsborough painted Siddons as The Tragic Muse.

Siderova, Celia    see   Charisse, Cyd

Sidgwick, Nora – (1845 – 1936)
Scottish educator and women’s suffrage campaigner
Born Eleanor Mildred Balfour in East Lothian, she was sister to the future Prime Minister Arthur James Balfour (1848 – 1930). She was married (1870) to the educator Henry Sidgwick, and served as principal of Newnham College, Cambridge (1892 – 1910).

Siddheswari Devi – (1903 – 1977)
Indian musician
Siddheswari Devi was born in Varanasi, the granddaughter if the Kashi vocalist Maina Devi. She was raised by aunts after the early death of her mother, and was trained in music by Siyaji Maharaj and Ustad Rajab Ali Khan of Dewas. She became the most famous performer of classical Hindustani music, her extensive repertoire included khayals, thumris, chaitis and bhajans, and became a professor of music with Bharatiya Kala Kendra in Delhi. Siddheswari Devi was later appointed as the head of the music department at the Daulatram College in Delhi.

Sidney, Dorothy – (1617 – 1684)
English Stuart beauty and poetic muse
Lady Dorothy Sidney was born at Sion House in London, and was baptized (Oct 15, 1617) at Isleworth, the eldest child of Robert Sidney, third Earl of Leicester and his wife Lady Dorothy Percy, the daughter of Henry Algernon Percy, the ninth Earl of Northumberland. All of her youth was spent immured in the country, mainly at her parents’ estate at Penshurst Castle. The young widowed poet Edmund Waller (1606 – 1687) made Dorothy’s acquaintance at Grommsbridge, near Penshurst, and began to pay court to her. By the verses he addressed to her under the name of ‘Sacharissa’ Waller secured for Dorothy a renown which she would not otherwise have enjoyed.
Waller’s songs entitled ‘On a Girdle’ and ‘Go, Lovely Rose’ were probably not written for Dorothy personally, but there can be no doubt that Waller’s attachment to Lady Dorothy was largely nourished by literary ambitions. Dorothy never encouraged him but Waller continued his suit until 1638, though she retained his friendship for the rest of her life. Among other suitors suggested for her were Lord Russell, Lord Devonshire, Lord Lovelace and Sir William Temple (1628 – 1699). Finally her parents agreed upon Lord Henry Spencer (1620 – 1643) whom she then married (1639). After their marriage Lord and Lady Spencer travelled with Lord and Lady Leicester on an extended visit to Paris. Upon their return to England the young couple established their home at Althorp.
Their life was interrupted by the Civil War and Lord Spencer followed the Royalist cause. She became the Countess of Sunderland when Henry Spencer was created the first Earl of Sunderland (June, 1643) but in the following September he was mortally wounded at the battle of Newbury. Shortly before his death Lord Sunderland provided for his wife, his ‘dearest heart,’ providinh her with a jonture on his property, and settled ten thousand and seven thousand pounds respectively upon their two daughters. Dorothy survived her husband for forty years (1643 – 1684) as the Dowager Countess of Sunderland.
Lady Dorothy and her children resided at Penshurst with her children. With the execution of Charles I (1649) her children were placed under the care of their grandparents Lord and Lady Leicester, and were naturally treated with every kindness and care. Dorothy received several deathbed bequests from the Princess Elizabeth (1650) after which she removed to reside with her children at Althorp until 1662. She provided both protection and financial maintenance to many distressed clergymen in her home there. The countess remarried secondly (1652) ‘out of pity’ to Sir Robert Smythe of Sutton-at-Hone and Bourdes in Kent. Nathaniel Wanley dedicated to her his Vox Dei or the Great Duty of Self Reflections and Man’s Own Ways (1658) and with the Restoration Lady Sunderland received a pension for five years from King Charles II.
Lady Sunderland died (Feb, 1684) aged sixty-six, and was buried (Feb 24) in the Spencer Chapel in Brington Church. Sir Richard Steele later wrote ‘The fine women they show me nowadays are at best but pretty girls to me, who have seen Sacharissa when all the world repeated the poems she inspired.’ the children of her first marriage were, Lady Dorothy Spencer (1640 – 1670) the  first wife of Sir George Savile, second Marquess of Halifax, Sir Robert Spencer (1641 – 1702) who became the second Earl of Sunderland and left descendants, Lady Penelope Spencer (1642 – 1667) who was her mother’s constant companion and remained unmarried, and Henry Spencer (1643 – 1648) who died during childhood. by her second marriage with Smythe the countess produced a son Robert Smythe (1653 – 1695) who was married to Catherine Stafford of Blatherwick in Northamptonshire.

Sidney, Frances – (1530 – 1589)
English Tudor educational promoter
Frances Sidney was born at Penshurst, the daughter of Sir William Sidney, of Penshurst and his wife Anne Pagenham, and received an excellent education. Frances became the second wife of Thomas Radcliffe, earl of Sussex (c1526 – 1583), and served at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Sussex, and dying childless, she left substantial financial endowment to establish (1595) a college at Cambridge University which bears her name. Frances Sidney died (March 9, 1589) aged fifty-eight. Her tomb survives in Westminster Abbey, London.

Sidney, Sylvia – (1910 – 1999)
American stage and film actress
Sidney was born (Aug 8, 1910) in New York. She appeared in such films as City Streets (1931), Fury (1936), You Only Live Once (1937), Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams (1973) for which she received and Academy Award nomination, Beetlejuice (1988) and Mars Attacks! (1996). Sidney also worked in television and appeared in the popular Fantasy Island series (1998 – 1999). Sylvia Sidney died (July 1, 1999) aged eighty-eight, in New York.

Sidney, Mary    see     Pembroke, Mary Sidney, Countess of

Sidonia – (fl. 581 – 585)
Merovingian noblewoman
Sidonia was the wife of Eunius Mummolus, patricius of Burgundy (569 – 581). Fredegarius in his Chronica recorded that Sidonia accompanied her husband on his flight from King Guntram of Burgundy (581). Sidonia was later captured (584) and after her husband’s execution by order of Guntram (585), she revealed to the king the secret location of her husband’s treasure at Avignon in Provence. Sidonia was also mentioned in the Historia Francorum of Gregory of Tours and in the Chronicle of Marius Aventicensis.

Sidonia of Oldenbourg – (1611 – 1650)
German duchess consort of Holstein-Beck
Countess Sidonia of Oldenbourg-Delmenhorst was born (June 10, 1611) the seventh daughter of Antony II, Count of Oldenbourg-Delmenhorst (1577 – 1619) and his wife Duchess Sibylla Elisabeth of Brunswick-Dannenberg, the daughter of Duke Heinrich of Brunswick-Dannenberg (1559 – 1598). Raised in the Lutheran faith Sidonia remained unmarried, and at the age of almost thirty she was appointed to rule over the Protestant abbey of Herford (1640 – 1649).
However, a decade afterwards, at the age of thirty-seven, dynastic considerations forced Sidonia to resign her religious office in order to be married (1649) to Duke Augustus Philipp of Holstein-Beck (1612 – 1675), the widower of her elder sister Clara. The union proved short-lived and the Duchess Sidonia died from the effects of childbirth in the following year. Her daughter Duchess Sophia Louisa of Holstein-Beck (1650 – 1714) was married firstly to Count Friedrich von Lippe-Brake and secondly to Duke August of Holstein-Beck.

Sidonia Catharina of Saxe-Lauenburg – (1548 – 1594)
German duchess consort of Silesia-Teschen
Princess Sidonia Catharina was the third daughter of Franz I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and his wife Sophia of Saxe-Freibuirg, the daughter of Heinrich V, Duke of Saxe-Freiburg. She was married firstly (1567) to Wenzel III Adam (1524 – 1579), the reigning Duke of Silesia-Teschen and became the duchess consort of Silesia-Teschen (1567 – 1579). She survived Wenzel Adam as the Dowager Duchess of Silesia-Teschen (1579 – 1594) and later remarried (1586) to Emerich III Forgach, Count von Trentschin. Duchess Sidonia Catharina died (June, 1594). Apart from two sons who died in infancy the duchess left three children from her first marriage,

Sidonia Elisabeth of Salm – (1623 – 1686)
German princess
Countess Sidonia Elisabeth of Salm-Reifferschmidt was born (Sept 8, 1623) the daughter of Ernst Friedrich, Count von Salm-Reifferschmidt. She was married (1640) to Hartmann II (1613 – 1686), prince and ruler of Liechtenstein and became his princess consort. Sidonia Elisabeth was noteworthy for producing a total of twenty-three children, all separate births. Of these however, a total of fourteen, eleven sons and three daughters, died during infancy.
Her nine surviving children included Prince Maximilian II (1641 – 1709) who succeeded his father (Feb, 1686). She survived her husband for only six months as Dowager Princess of Liechtenstein. Princess Sidonia Elisabeth died (Sept 23, 1686) aged sixty-three. Her daughters included Princess Theresa Maria of Liechtenstein (1643 – 1715) the wife of Michael Johannes II, Count von Althann (1643 – 1722), Princess Sidonia Agnes of Liechtenstein (1645 – 1721) the wife of Count Johann Karl von Palffy (died 1694) and Princess Anna Maria of Liechtenstein (1650 – 1704) the wife of Count Rudolf Wilhelm von Trauttmansdorff (1646 – 1689).

Siebold, Charlotte Heidenreich von – (1788 – 1859)
German physician
Charlotte was the daughter of the female physician Regina Josepha von Siebold. She was adopted in childhood by her stepfather, Damian Siebold, and took his name. She attended the University of Giessen, where she wrote her thesis on the subject of ectopic (phantom) pregnancy. She was later married to a military surgeon and assisted in London at the birth of Queen Victoria (1819).

Siebold, Regina Josepha von – (1771 – 1849) 
German physician
Regina von Siebold was trained in household and estate management at the home of her uncle, a wealthy agricultural magnate. She married a physician and became the mother of physician Charlotte Heidenreich Siebold. With the death of her first husband she remarried to a physicianm Damian Siebold, her daughter adopting the name of her stepfather. Madame Siebold worked as her husband’s assistant, but his mental health declined, and she herself studied obsterics at Wurzburg. She was granted permission to practise by the Archducal Medical College in Darmstadt, Hesse, and performed vaccinations against smallpox. She was granted her doctorate in obstetrics by the University of Giessen (1815), becoming the first German women to receive such recognition.

Siegel, Isabelle – (1942 – 1992) 
American sculptor
Siegel was born in New York, and graduated from Sarah Lawrence College. Apart from further study at Columbia University and the Delehanty Institute, Isabelle studied at the prestigious Escola de Artes Visuals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Her work was exhibited in Peru, Brazil, and the Pace Gallery, in New York. Three one-person exhibitions of her work took place at the Kraushaar Galleries in New York (1984 – 1990). Isabelle Siegel died in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Sieniawska, Elzbieta Lubomirska, Duchess – (1667 – 1728)
Polish political figure
Princess Elzbieta (Elisabeth) Lubomirska was the daughter of Prince Stanislas Lubomirski and his wife Zofia Opalinska. She became the wife (1686) of Duke Adam Hieronim Sieniawski, the Voivode of Belz. With the death of King Jan III Sobieski (1696) the duchess established herself as one of the leading figures of the pro-French party within Poland. Because of her liaison with Prince Francis Rakoczy II (1676 – 1735) the duchess became determined to gain the throne of Hungary for him (1704), though he was eventually forced into exile (1711). Such was her political power and personal clout that she became known as ‘The First Lady of the Republic of Poland.’

Siepmann, Mary Aline Mynors    see   Wesley, Mary

Sifton, Claire – (1896 – 1980)
American children’s education specialist and dramatist
Born Claire Morton in Sao Paulo, Brazil, she was the daughter of missionaries. She received some schooling in Brazil before finishing her education in the USA. Claire studied at the School of journalism at the University of Missouri, and then became the first female lecturer in that field. She was married (1922) to the dramatist and author Paul Sifton. Claire Sifton co-wrote several plays with her husband such as The Belt (1927), and also wrote pamphlets concerning education and nutrition whilst she was connected with the United States Children’s Bureau in Washington. Claire Sifton died (Feb 9, 1980) aged eighty-three, in Oaxaca, Mexico.

Sigbridsdatter, Dyveke    see   Dyveke Sigbridsdatter

Sigea, Luisa – (1522 – 1560)
Spanish scholar
Luisa Sigea de Velasco was born at Tarancon in Toledo, the daughter of a tutor who was employed at the Portugese court and received an excellent linguistic education being proficient in Greek, Latin, Arab and Hebrew. She later attended the court herself and was appointed as a teacher in the household of the Infanta Maria, youngest daughter of King Manuel I.
Luisa published the Latin poem Sintra (1546) and The Duarum Virginum Colloquium de aulica vita (1552) and was popularly referred too in Portugal as ‘the tenth Muse.’ She was later married (1552) to Francisco de Cuevas, a nobleman from Burgos, to whom she bore a daughter the wife of Rodrigo Ronquillo Broceno, and accompanied her husband to the Spanish court. Luisa died (Oct 13, 1560) in childbirth aged thirty-eight, in Spain.

Sigegyth – (fl. c750)
Anglo-Saxon letter writer
Able to read and write Latin, Sigegyth was perhaps a nun in England, perhaps attached to the Abbey of Barking. She received a surviving letter, written in Latin, from the monk Aldhelm.

Sigena of Liege – (c1075 – 1110)
Bavarian noblewoman
Sigena was the daughter of Goswin, Lord of Liege in Brabant. She was married firstly to Wipert I of Groitzsch, Count of Balranegau, and then became the first wife of Count Friedrich I von Pettendorf (died 1119), Count of Lengenfeld in the Bavarian Nordgau. Countess Sigena died (Feb 24, 1110). She bore her second husband two daughters,

Sigihilda (Sichilde) – (c590 – c627)
Merovingian queen consort (c607 – c627)
Sigihilda was the sister of Brunulf of Cambrai, and became the third wife of Clotaire II (569 – 629), King of Neustria. She was the mother of Charibert II (c609 – 632), King of Aquitaine who had his capital at Toulouse. Her marriage was recorded in the Gesta Dagoberti, and according to the historian Fredegar, King Clotaire accused her of having a liasion with Boso of Etampes, the son of Audoelenus, and ordered her supposed lover to be killed by Duke Amebert.
The queen appears to have predeceased her husband. With the death of Charibert (632) the rights of Sigihilda’s son were represented by her brother Brunulf (Brodulf), who had been his tutor. During these political upheavals Brunulf was killed by Dagobert I, the queen’s stepson, who then ceded Aquitaine to his half-brother, only to then murder him and his infant son Chilperic (April 8, 632) at Blaye in the Gironde. Queen Sigihilda’s son and grandson were interred in the basilica of St Romain at Blaye.

Signoret, Simone – (1921 – 1985) 
French character actress and writer
Born Simone Henriette Charlotte Kaminker in Wiesbaden, Germany, she was originally employed as a typist before appearing in the movie Le Prince Charmant (1942) as an extra. Adopting the stage name of ‘Simone Signoret,’ her beauty and sensuality caused her to be much admired in international films such as Casque d’Or (1952) and Les Diaboliques (1954). She received an Academy Award for her appearance in, Room at the Top (1959) and developed into one of the popular of character actresses, known for her roles in films such as Le Chat (1971), Madame Rosa (1977) and I Sent a Letter to My Love (1981). Simone Signoret was married for thirty-five years to fellow actor Yves Montand (1921 – 1991). She published her autobiography entitled Nostalgia Isn’t What It Used To Be (1976).

Sigolena – (c600 – c660)
Merovingian nun and saint
Sigolena was the daughter of a nobleman from Aquitaine, and was the sister of Babo, the governor of Albigeois and of Bishop Sigebald of Cahors. Left c hildless widow Sigolena became a deaconess and her father established the monastery of Troclar on his own lands in Albi and appointed her to rule over it as abbess. Famous for her ascetism which included sleeping on a stone pillow Sigolena was venerated as a saint (July 24) her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sigourney, Lydia Howard – (1791 – 1865) 
American poet, educator, and magazine editor
Born Lydia Huntley in Norwich, Connecticut, she was the first professional poet in American history and became the second wife of wealthy businessman, Charles Sigourney. Lydia Sigourney published her work anonymously so as not to cause embarassment to her husband or his career. She was popularly acclaimed as ‘the American Hemans’ and ‘the female Milton’ and recorded the legends of the Native American Indians in Traits of the Aborigines of America (1822), and Pocahontas and Other Poems (1841). When her husband’s career took a financial downturn, she published works under her own name, including the travel journal Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Lands (1842).

Sigrada – (c602 – after 679)
Merovingian nun
Sigrada was the daughter of Ansaud, Count of Dijon in Burgundy, and was the full sister of Didon, Bishop of Poitiers and the half-sister of Siegfried (died c688), Count of Pontivy. She was married to the Austrasian or Burgundian magnate Bodilon (died c643). She was the mother of Count Guerin (Warin) of Poitiers, who was executed (677) and of St Leger, Bishop of Autun. Sometime prior to 643 Sigrada and her husband separated for religious reasons. He became a monk at the Abbey of Le Mans whilst Sigrada became a nun at the Abbey of St Marie at Soissons. A letter written to Sigrada by her son Leger shortly before his death (679) survives.

Sigrid of Vastergotland – (c957 – before 1013)
Queen consort of Denmark (c1000 – before 1013)
Sigrid was the daughter of Skogul Toste, Jarl (earl) of Vastergotland in Sweden, and was known as Sigrid Skogulsdotter. Sigrid was married firstly (c974) to Erik V Segersall (c950 – 995), King of Sweden. She was later repudiated (c979) and remarried secondly (c1000) to Sweyn I Forkbeard (960 – 1014), king of Denmark, who later usurped the English throne, by which time Queen Sigrid had died.
Possessed of great beauty, and of a proud and defiant spirit, the sagas referred to the queen as Sigrid Storrada (Sigrid the Haughty). By her first husband Sigrid was the mother of Olaf II Eriksson (c976 – 1022), King of Sweden. By her second husband she was the mother of Estrith (Astrid) Sveinssdotter, and was the maternal grandmother of Sweyn II Estrithsson (1019 – 1076), King of Denmark.

Sigrid Sveinsdotter – (c1042 – after 1066)
Princess of Denmark
Sigrid was one of the illegitimate daughters of Svein II Estrithsson, King of Denmark (1047 – 1076), being listed as the king’s daughter by the historian Saxo Grammaticus. The identity of her mother remains unknown. Her father gave Sigrid in a dynastic marriage and she became the second wife (c1057) of the Wendish prince and ruler Gottschalk. The chronicler Adam of Bremen recorded the marriage of filia Regis Danorum with the Wendish prince.
Known as ‘Siritha’ by her husband’s subjects, the princess was the stepmother of her husband’s successor Prince Buthu (died 1072) and bore him a son Prince Heinrich of the Wends (1059 – 1126). He was married to Slavina, the widow of Prince Cruto of Wagria and left issue. Through Heinrich Sigrid was the grandmother of Prince Pribislav Heinrich of the Heveli (c1080 – 1140) who died without issue. When her husband Gottschalk was murdered by the Saxons (1066), Sigrid took her young son and fled back to her father’s court in Denmark for safety.

Sikelgaita of Salerno (Sichelgata, Sichelgaita) – (1040 – 1090)
Duchess consort of Apulia
Sikelgaita was the daughter of Guaimar IV, prince of Salerno, who became the second wife (1058) of Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia. She was the mother of Roger I Borsa, Duke of Apulia (1060 – 1111), of Guy, Duke of Amalfi (c1065 – 1107), and of several daughters. Sikelgaita often accompanied her husband on his military campaigns, though she tried without success to dissuade him from his idea of conquering Byzantium. She fought wearing full armour at the battle of Dyrrachium, and forcefully rallied the deserting troops, thus ensuring a victory for the Normans.
Such was her Amazonian reputation that the Byzantine princess and chronicler Anna Komnena compared her to the Roman goddess Athena. She returned to Italy with Robert (1083) and both defended the rights of the pope, Gregory VII, against the emperor Henry IV. She was present at Robert’s deathbed at Corfu and survived him five years as Dowager Duchess of Apulia (1085 – 1090). Duchess Sikelgaita died (April 16, 1090) aged forty-nine.

Silas of Tigre – (c1815 – c1867)
Ethiopian princess
Princess Silas was the daughter of Dejazmatch Dimtsu, and was the sister of Dejazmatch Sabagadis (died 1831), the last ruler of the kingdom of Tigre, in the Zamana Masafint region. Her baptismal name was Amata Sellassie, and she took the name Silas after her marriage (c1830) to Prince Shum Temben Mirtcha. Her husband was later killed (c1863) but she was imprisoned by the emperor Tewdoros II until her death. She was the mother of Prince Kassa (1837 – 1889) who later became emperor as Yohannes IV (1871 – 1889). Her daughter Dinquinesh became the wife of the Emperor Takla Gyorgis II.

Silkwood, Karen Gay – (1946 – 1974)
American nuclear laboratory technician
Karen Silkwood worked for the Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation, at Crescent, Oklahoma. She discovered that quality control reportsd on fuel rods were being falsified and that a quantity of highly dangerous plutonium had disappeared from the plant. Whilst planning to meet a union official and a reporter associated with the New York Times, her car was run off the road in Oklahoma City and she died in the crash (Nov 13, 1974), aged twenty-eight. Investigations conducted into her death reveald a high level of radiation in her apartment and a federal jury later ordered Kerr-McGee to pay ten and a half million dollars to Silkwood’s estate. The actress Cher received an Academy Award nomination for her portrayal of Karen in the film Silkwood (1983).

Sillanpaa, Miina – (1866 – 1952) 
Finnish feminist and politician
Miina Sillanpaa served as a member of parliament for four decades (1907 – 1947). She became a city councillor in Helsinki and was the editor of the Working Women trade union periodical. She was elected as Finland’s first female government minister, when she was appointed to the department of Social Affairs. Sillanpaa served as the parliamentary Speaker (1936 – 1947).

Sillone, Clemence – (fl. 1423 – after 1450)
French Valois courtier
Formerly a townswoman from Bruges in Flanders, Clemence was appointed as the wet nurse to the infant Louis XI of France who later granted her a generous pension.

Sills, Beverley – (1929 – 2007) 
Jewish-American coloratura soprano
Born Belle Silverman in New York, she was the daughter of Russian Jews. She appeared on radio and on stage as a child, in productions of Gilbert and Sullivan, and made her opera debut with the Philadelphia Civic Opera (1947), adopting the name of ‘Beverley Sills.’ Sills was attached to the Metropolitan Opera in New York from 1955, and attracted international attention after her appearance in the role of Cleopatra in Handels’ Giulio Cesare (1966). She appeared in opera around the world, at La Scala in Milan, Covent Garden in London in the title role of Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor (1970), and in Berlin, as well as Argentina. With her retirement she was appointed as general director of the New York City Opera (1979 – 1988). Sills published two volumes of autobiography Bubbles: a Self-Portrait (1976), and Bubbles: an Encore (1981).

Silva, Elcisa d’Herbil de – (1842 – 1944)
Cuban-Argentinian pianist and composer
Elcisa Silva studied under Louis Moreau Gottschalk. She produced Minuet con Variaciones.

Silva, Josefina – (1898 – 1993)
Portugese film and television actress
Born (Jan 10, 1898) at Lisbon in Estramadura, Silva’s career spanned six decades. She appeared in the silent film Convem Martelar (1920) but was best known for her appearance in Cronica Anedotia Lisboa (1930). She made her last film appearance when aged almost ninety in O Vestido Cor de Fogo (1986). Josefina Silva died (Feb 18, 1993) aged ninety-five.

Silva Meneses, Beatriz da – (1424 – 1490) 
Portugese saint and founder
Beatriz da Silva Meneses was born in Ceuta, the daughter of Don Gomez da Silva, Count of Viana and governor of Campo Mayor and Onguela, and sister to St Amadeo of Portugal (1420 – 1482). Related to the royal dynasty, Beatriz was raised in the household of the Infanta Isabella of Beja, and accompanied that princess to Castile (1449) when she married King Juan II. Her beauty brought her a great deal of attention at the Castilian court, and several duels were fought in her honour. However, after awhile Beatriz’ friendship with Queen Isabella became estranged through jealousy, and the queen caused her to be unjustly imprisoned for several days without food.
Thus, disenchanted with court life, Beatriz left the court and took the veil as a Cistercian nun at the convent of St Dominic of Silos at Toledo, having had a vision of the Virgin Mary during her imprisonment. In 1484 Beatriz founded the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, known as the Conceptionists. Her order resided at the castle of Galliana, which was donated by Queen Isabella I, the daughter of her former friend, and was approved by Pope Innocent VIII in 1489. Cardinal Ximenes had the Conceptionists united to the Clares, whose rule they adopted with certain alterations. Beatriz da Silva Meneses died at Toledo (Sept 1, 1490). She was canonized by Pope Paul VI (1976) and was particularly honoured in Portugal as St Brites. There was a house of her order in Rome (1525) and one at Milan, in Lombardy (1539).

Silverman, Belle    see    Sills, Beverley

Silverthorne, Alice     see     Janze, Comtesse de

Silverthorne, Marilyn – (1929 – 1999)
Anglo-American photographer
Silverthorne was born in London, the daughter of a film executive. She was raised in Scarsdale, New York, and graduated from Wellesley College (1950). Originally employed as a magazine designer, she decided to become a freelance photographer (1955). Whilst in India she became romantically involved with Frank Moraes, editor of The Indian Express, and the couple remained together for twenty years. Working from 1967 with the world famous photo-agency Magnum, Marilyn became particularly fascinated with the Buddhist religion.Marilyn converted to Buddhism, and founded a nunnery, near Kathmandu in Nepal, one of the first Tibetan Buddhist nunneries to be outside the country. She retired there herself taking the name of Ngawang Chodron. Marilyn Silverthorne died of cancer.

Silvestre, Marie Catherine – (1680 – 1743)
French painter
Marie Catherine Silvestre was the daughter of the artist Charles Antoine Herault and his wife Marie Genevieve de Levis. She married the painter Louis Silvestre the younger. Around c1710 she accompanied her husband to the court of Augustus II of Saxony in Dresden, where he was appointed court painter. Marie Catherine also executed portraiture of her own, and ten pastel portraits of the Polish aristocracy housed in the Capodimente Museum are attributed to her. Her son the painter Francois Charles Silvestre was appointed director of the Dresden Academy in 1748.

Silvestre, Marie Maximilienne – (1708 – 1797)
French painter
Silvestre was the daughter of painter Louis Silvestre the younger and his wife Marie Catherine Herault. Marie Maximilienne assisted her father in copying his portraits, and was appointed drawing instructress to the Saxon princess Marie Josephe, the mother of Louis XVI of France.

Silvia – (fl. c540 – c560)
Gallo-Roman patrician
Born into an aristocratic family, Silvia was the sister of Pateria, and became the wife of senator Gordianus (c510 – c573). She was the mother of Pope Gregory I the Great (590 – 604) and of Palatinus who may have served as urban prefect of Rome (590). She was mentioned in the Vitae of Gregory written by Paulus Diakonus (Paul the Deacon) and in the Bibliotheca of Photius.

Sima Maoying – (c393 – 439 AD)
Chinese empress
Sima Maoying was born a princess of the Jin Dynasty (265 – 420 AD), the daughter of emperor Gong of Jin (419 – 420 AD), and his wife Empress Chu Lingyuan. She was married to Liu Yifu, son of the general who deposed her father. She was declared crown princess and brought the throne of Jin to her new husband, who became Emperor Shao (424 AD), who began the Liu Song Dynasty. However, when her husband was removed as emperor, the empress was alike demoted from Imperial rank. She was created princess of Yingyana (424 AD) and Princess Dowager of Nanfeng.

Simanowitz, Ludowike – (1761 – 1827)
German painter
Ludowike Simanowitz was born in Reichenbach. Her talent gained her the patronage of Duke Karl Eugen of Wurttemburg, who sent her to study with Vestier in Paris. Patronised in Paris by the emperor Napoleon and his sister Pauline Borghese, amongst other clients, Ludowike Simanowitz gained a considerable reputation for herself as a portraitist, and was a member of the literary coterie who surrounded Schiller and Goethe. She was also on friendly terms with the composer Franz Schubert, who dedicated many of his poems to her.

Simiane, Diane de – (fl. 1627 – c1640)
French heiress
Diane de Simiane was the daughter of Francois de Simiane, seigneur de la Coste (died after 1615), and his wife Anne, the daughter of Joachim de Simiane, seigneur de Chateauneuf. Diane was of Imperial ancestry, being a descendant of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus (1259 – 1282). Diane was married (1627) to Jean Baptiste de Sade, seigneur de Saumare. Her grandson, Gaspard Francois, marquis de Sade was grandfather to the infamous roue and erotic novelist, Donatien Alphonse Francois, Marquis de Sade (1740 – 1814).

Simiane, Diane Adelaide de Damas d’Antigny, Comtesse de – (1757 – 1835)
French courtier and émigré
Diane Adelaide de Damas d’Antigny was the daughter of Jacques de Damas (1732 – 1811), Marquis d’Antigny and his wife Zephyrine Felcite de Rochechouart, and was the elder sister of Alexandre de Damas (1762 – 1811), the Abbe d’Antigny. Through her father she was the maternal first cousin of the Prince de Talleyrand. She was married firstly to the Marquis de Miremont and secondly to the Comte de Simiane. The comtesse attended the court of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles prior to the Revolution (1789).
A famous beauty who attended all the social and political salons of the era, her name was linked with that of the Marquis de Lafayette. Madame de Simiane emigrated abroad and thus ecaped the ensuing horrors. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole and in the Memoires of Madame de La Tour du Pin.

Simiane, Pauline d’Adhemar de Grignan, Marquise de – (1676 – 1737)
French aristocrat and literary figure
Pauline d’Adhemar de Montreuil was the fourth daughter of Francois Henri d’Adhemar de Monteuil, Comte de Grignan (1632 – 1714) and his third wife Francoise Margeurite de Sevigne, the daughter of the celebrated Marquise de Sevigne. Pauline was married to Louis, Marquis de Simiane (1671 – 1718) to whom she bore several daughters, and whom she survived as Dowager Marquise (1718 – 1737). Some of her letters survive and her portrait was painted by Nicolas Largilliere (1656 – 1746).
Madame de Simiane gave orders in her will that her mother’s correspondence with Madame de Sevigne should be destroyed fearing that certain passages in the letters would cause embarrassing gossip for the family. However, this wish was not executed until five decades later (1784), and only a few notes of Madame de Grignan’s were salvaged for posterity. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.

Simiane, Sancha de – (c1070 – 1100)
French medieval heiress
Sancha de Simiane was the daughter of an unidentified seigneur of Simiane in Provence, which lordship she brought to her husband, Raimbaut, Seigneur d’Agoult (c1055 – 1113) at the time of their marriage. Sancha’s was the mother of two sons who left numerous descendants, Guiraud I d’Agoult (c1095 – c1150), Seigneur d’Apt, Simiane and Gardes, and Bertrand, Seigneur d’Agoult and Sault (c1100 – c1176). Sancha’s descendants included Bertrand III Raimbaut de Simiane, Seigneur de Gardes (died after 1558), famous as a Catholic leader during the wars of religion, and Elizabeth of York, the wife of Henry VII of England, which made Sancha the ancestress of the Tudor and Stuart dynasties of England and their descendants.

Simmonds, Martha – (1624 – 1667) 
English Quaker and writer
Martha Calvert was born in Mere, Somerset, and baptized (Jan 28, 1624), the daughter of George Calvert. She was sister to the radical publisher Gilbert Calvert. Martha was married to the London printer Thomas Simmonds, and was converted to the Quaker faith (1654). Martha Simmonds sufferred various spells of imprisonment for her beliefs, and became a supporter of the Quaker leader James Naylor, who was imprisoned for his belief that he was the son of God.
Martha and other Quakers entered Bristol in a mockery of Christ’s entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday (1656), and the affair caused the parliamentarian authorities some considerable embarassment. She later managed to affect Naylor’s release after she took a position as nurse to the sister of Oliver Cromwell. Martha Simmonds was the author of When the Lord Jesus came to Jerusalem (1655) and A Lamentation for the Lost Sheep of the House of Israel (1655).

Simmons, Adelma Grenier – (1904 – 1997)
American horticulturalist and writer
Adelma Grenier was born in Shelton, Vermont, the daughter of a cabinet maker. She was married three times and kept the name of her second husband George Simmonds. After an initial career as an international buyer for a department store chain, Mrs Simmonds and her family established the Caprilands Farm near the village of North Coventry (1929).
After their vegetable crop was wiped out she concentrated on the growing of herbs which were sold as plants and in dried form. She was the author of over thirty published works concerning herbs and their uses such as Herb Gardening in Five Seasons (1963). She also produced pamphlets such as The Gold Wreath Book and A Merry Christmas Herbal, and was styled ‘the first lady of herbs’ by the International Herb Association. Adelma Simmons died (Dec 3, 1997) aged ninety-three, in Coventry, Connecticut.

Simo – (fl. 674)
Indonesian queen and ruler
Simo ruled the Mataram territory in central Java, and was the first recorded ruler of that dynasty. The next ruler was Sanjaya, King (Raka) of Mataram but his connection with Queen Simo is unknown.

Simon, Esther Annenberg – (1901 – 1992)
American painter and patron of the arts
Esther Annenberg was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the daughter of the publisher Moses Annenberg. She attended the University of Wisconsin, and was married to Leo Simon, a clothing retailer. Esther Simon took up serious painting after the death of her husband (1966), and was produced works in contemporary modern styles. She was a founding board member of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine and served on the board of Carnegie Hall. Esther Annenberg Simon died (Jan 19, 1992) aged ninety, in Manhattan, New York.

Simone, Nina – (1933 – 2003) 
Black American blues and jazz vocalist
Born Eunice Kathleen Wayman (Feb 21, 2003) in Tryon, North Carolina, to poor family, having an aptitude for the piano at a young age, and inspired by the soprano Marian Anderson, she studied at the Juilliard School for Music in New York to become a classical pianist. To earn money, she worked as a singer in Atlantic City. She dropped her real name, Eunice Wayman, and adopted the stage name of Nina Simone.
With a varied career as a pianist, night-club singer, and composer, her first big hit came with her rendition of I Loves You Porgy in the 1950’s. Her best known hit was the popular romantic balled My Baby Just Cares For Me. Simone worked as a piano singer in Atlantic City (1954), and was later known for her strong stand on civil rights for all Black Americans, Nina nevered wavered in her personal commitment to this cause. Long regarded the ‘high-priestess of Soul’ her autobiography was entitled I Put a Spell on You. Nina Simone died (April 21, 2003) aged seventy, at Marseilles, in the south of France.

Simonis Palaeologina – (1294 – after 1336)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Princess Simonis was the daughter of the Emperor Andronikos II and his second wife Yolande of Montferrat. She was married off at the early age of six (1300) to Stephen Milutin, King of Serbia, thirty-five years her senior, who was said to have had his previous wife killed in order to marry an Imperial princess. Stephen refused to wait for Simonis to reach maturity and his sexual relations with her caused the queen to remain childless. Queen Simonis later attempted to leave Stephen and become a nun in Constantinople, but she was forced to return to the Serbian court.
With the king’s death (1321) Queen Simonis returned permanently to reside in Constantinople. Simonis retired to a convent and became a nun, but despite this retirement from the world, her nephew Andronikos III later caused considerable scandal and outrage by attempting to seduce her.

Simplicia – (d. 95 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Simplicia was a native of Terracina. Simplicia was arrested during the persecutions initiated by the Emperor Domitian (81 – 96 AD). She refused to abjure her faith and was executed at Terracina, with thirteen other Christians of both sexes. Simplicia was listed as a saint (Nov 1) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Simpson, Anne Roe    see    Roe, Anne

Simpson, Evelyn Blantyre – (1856 – 1920)
Scottish writer
Simpson was born in Edinburgh (Dec, 1856), the daughter of Sir James Simpson, baronet, the discoverer of chloroform. She published such works as Dogs of Other Days and Robert Louis Stevenson’s School Days (1898), was the biographer of her father in the Famous Scot series. Evelyn Simpson died (Jan 23, 1920) aged sixty-three, Edinburgh.

Simpson, Dame Florence Edith Victoria – (1874 – 1956) 
British military officer
Simpson was born into an army family. She was married firstly to Brigadier-General Burleigh Leach, which union was later dissoved, and remarried secondly (1922) to Edward Percy Simpson.
Florence Simpson began her career in the army as a voluntary cook with the Women’s Legion (1915). She was later appointed as commandant of the Military Cookery Section of the Legion, which dealt with catering for the army.
After her appointment as controller of cooks (1917) she established the WAAC (Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps). She was later appointed chief controller of the WAAC (1918) which dealt with the disposition of almost sixty thousand women serving with various forces, and Queen Mary, the wife of George V, became Commandant-in-Chief of the organization. In recognition of her valuable service she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1919). Her later life was spent living in South Africa. Dame Florence Simpson died in Switzerland.

Simpson, Helen – (1897 – 1940)
Australian-Anglo novelist and genre writer
Helen Simpson went to live in England at the age of sixteen (1913) and thereafter returned home only to visit. Her published works included Boomerang (1932), The Woman and the Beast (1933), a collection of three linked stories, but she was best remembered for the historical romance Under Capricorn (1937) which was later made into a film by Alfred Hitchcock.

Simpson, Wallis Warfield    see   Windsor, Duchess of

Sims, Amanda – (1945 – 2000)
Australian television screenwriter
Amanda Spry was the daughter of Brigadier Sir Charles Spry, the director-general of ASIO (Australian Security Intelligence Organization). Amanda joined Crawford Productions (1969) as a screenwriter, producing episodes for the popular Homicide and Division 4 police series. She was a foundation member of the team that produced the highly popular series The Box. She retired from scriptwriting (1975) and married fellow writer Max Sims. Amanda Sims died of cancer.

Sims, Nancy    see   Fitzgerald, Lady Pamela

Sims, Pamela    see   Fitzgerald, Lady Pamela

Sinclair, Catherine – (c1457 – before 1516)
Scottish noblewoman and princess
Lady Catherine Sinclair was the eldest daughter of William Sinclair (c1400 – 1480), third Earl of Orkney. Catherine became the first wife (c1472) of Prince Alexander Stuart (1454 – 1488), Duke of Albany, brother to King James III. Despite the fact that the duchess bore her husband several sons, the Duke eventually repudiated her, and the marriage was dissoved by the decree of John Otterburn, the official of Lothian (1478) on the grounds of propinquity. This decree was later ratified by Act of Parliament (1516), when both the duke and duchess were both dead, and Catherine’s children were declared illegitimate. Her children were,

Sinclair, Madge – (1938 – 1995)
Jamaican-American stage, film and television actress
Madge Sinclair was born in Kingston and was trained as aschoolteacher. With her arrival in New York (1968) she became completely involved in acting. Sinclair played the role of Queen Klytaemnestra in the stage production of The Wedding of Iphigenia in New York (1971) and made her film debut opposite Jon Voight in Conrack (1974).
Madge Sinclair appeared as Bell in the mini series Roots (1977) and won an Emmy Award for her performances in the series Gabriel’s Fire (1990 – 1992) with James Earl Jones. She played the queen, mother to Eddie Murphy in the film Coming to America (1988) and was the voice of the Lion Queen in the animated film The Lion King (1994). She was the recipient of two Image Awards from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and received the Order of Jamaica from her home country. Madge Sinclair died (Dec 20, 1995) aged fifty-seven, in Los Angeles.

Sinclair, May St Clair – (1863 – 1946)
British novelist and feminist
Mary Amelia St Clair Sinclair was born (Aug 24, 1863) at Rock Ferry in Cheshire, the daughter of a shipowner. She received her early education at home under the supervision of a governess and then attended Cheltenham Ladies’ College (1881 – 1882). She published two dozen novels and popularized the ‘stream of consciousness’ style advocated by Virginia Woolf. Her works included Audrey Craven (1897), The Divine Fire (1904), Mary Olivier (1919) and The Life and Death of Harriett Frean (1922).
Sinclair remained unmarried and resided with her mother until that lady’s death (1901). She published the volume of literary criticism entitled The Three Brontes (1912) and became a founding member of the London Medico-Psychological Clinic (1913) established by Jessie Margaret Murray. She later suffered from Parkinson’s disease. May Sinclair died (Nov 14, 1946) aged eighty-three, at Bierton, near Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire.

Sin Far    see   Eaton, Edith Maude

Sinha, Indumati – (1899 – 1967)
Indian revolutionary
Sinha was born (July 21, 1899) at Chittagong, and was sister to the prominent revolutionary figures Nandlal Sinha and Anantalal Sinha. Indumati became involved in the nationalist movement and participated in the Chittagong armoury raids (1930) but was denied permission to become a soldier because of her sex. She was pprehended with explosives and was arrested at Comilla. She then suffered several years of detention and home confinement (1931 – 1937). Indumati Sinha never married and died (May 4, 1967) aged sixty-seven, in Calcutta.

Sinnidia – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Sinnidia was a native of Tomis in Scythia. Sinnidia was arrested during the persecutions initiated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Refusing to sacrifice to the pagan gods, she was put to death. Sinnidia was listed as a saint (April 3) in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sipila, Helvi Linnaea Alexandra – (1915 – 2009)
Finnish lawyer and politician
Helvi was born in Helsinki and studied law at the university there. She was married (1939) to Saul Sipila and had four children. Helvi Sipila was appointed as an acting judge with the rural courts (1941 – 1942) and was then appointed as a secretary with the Ministry of Supply before establishing her own legal practice (1943) becoming only the second Finnish woman to do so. She was later a member of the Council of Human Rights in Strasbourg (1969) and was appointed as the chairman of the Finnish refugee council (1965 – 1972). She was a member of the Finnish delegation to the UN General Assembly (1966 – 1971) where she chaired the UN Commission on the Stature of Women. Her last appointment was as the assistant Secretary-General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs (1973 – 1982). Sipila was a member of the Liberal People’s Party and became the first woman to run for the presidency of Finalnd. Helvi Sipila died (May 15, 2009) aged ninety-four.

Sipprell, Clara – (1885 – 1975)
American photographer
Sipprell was born in Tilsonburg, Ontario. Known for her portraiture before she began working in New York, Clara made two photopgraphic trips to Yugoslvia in 1924 – 1925. Favouring work with natural light, Clara never retouched and never enlarged her work. Her subjects included Edwin Markham, the poet, Alfred Stieglitz, the photographer, the composer Rachmaninoff, Dag Hammerskjold, and novelist Pearl Buck. She produced Moment of Light (1966) which represented five decades of photographic work, and in 1974 she received the Governor’s Award of the State of Vermont. Clara Sipprell died at Bennington, Vermont.

Sipuel, Ada Lois     see   Fisher, Ada Lois

Sirani, Elisabetta – (1638 – 1665)
Italian painter and etcher
Sirani was born in Bologna, the daughter of artist Giovanni Andrea Sirani. She was particular noted for her painting of historical and religious themes, and also wrote verse and composed music. Sirani was a prolific artist, being credited with producing almost two hundred separate pieces by the age of seventeen, and her known works included the Baptism of Christ which was commissioned from her by the Church of the Certosini in Bologna. Elisabetta Sirani died young at the age of twenty-seven, not without the suspicion of poisoning.

Siries, Violante Beatrice – (1709 – 1783)
Italian painter
Violante Siries was born in Florence and studied under Hyacinthe Rigaud and Francois Boucher in Paris from 1726. Returning to Florence she married M. Cerrotti and continued her studies under Conti. Siries was talented in several genres, but established herself as a famous portraitist. She succeeded to the patronage of the Grand ducal house with the death of Giovanna Fratellini (1731), and travelled to Rome and Vienna to execute commissions. Her most ambitious work was a fourteen figure family group of the family of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, father of the Empress Maria Theresa (1735), and three of her self-portraits are preserved in the Uffizi Gallery. In later life Siries became a respected teacher, and her pupils included Anna Piattoli.

‘Sirin’    see   Gertsyk, Adelaide Vladimirovna

Siritha of Denmark    see    Sigrid Sveinsdotter

Sisegutia – (fl. c580 – c590)
Suevic queen
Sisegutia was married firstly (c570) to Miron, King of the Suevii in Spain (570 – 583). She bore him two children, Eborico, King of Galicia and a daughter who became the wife of Audica (died after 585) who desposed his brother-in-law (584). Audica then became king and rejected his wife in favour of her mother Sisegutia whom he then married (584). The Johannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica that Audica married Sisegutiam relictam Mironis Regis. The Visigoths intervened on behalf of Sisegutia’s son Eborico and deposed Audica (585), and then annexed the kingdom for themselves. The queen’s fate remains unrecorded.

Sisetrude – (c615 – c655)
Anglo-Saxon nun
Sisetrude was the daughter of King Anna of East Anglia and his first wife Saewara. She never married and went to France where she trained to become a nun. She took her vows under St Burgundofara at the Abbey of Brie, where she was appointed as cellarer. She was said to have been warned of her death forty days beforehand by a divine vision. Venerated as a saint her feast (Dec 7) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sisile Khumalo – (c1834 – c1877)
Swazi queen mother
Sisile Khumalo was the daughter of Mgangeni, a Swazi chieftain, and became the second wife of King Mswati II (c1821 – 1868) to whom she bore a son, Ludvonga II (c1851). With the death of Mswati II (1868) the royal council selected Sisile’s son as king under the regency of Queen Tsandzile Ndwandwe, the late king’s chief widow. Sisile Khumalo was accorded the rank of queen mother. However, with the death of her son Ludvonga (1872) without a male heir, the council decided to elect one of his half-brothers as king. The Queen Regent Tsandzile left the choice of prince to Queen Sisile, and she chose, not without some disapproval, Prince Mbandzeni.
Trouble soon developed between the queen mother and Mbandzeni due to his choice of a wife from outside Swazi custom. The king insisted and the girl bore him a son. When the child died suddenly, the king decided it was murder, and Queen Sisile fled the court, taking with her the insignia of her rank and two regiments from Nknanini. Mbanzeni ordered troops to pursue her and Sisile was overtaken and put to death by being throttled with a noose.

Sisygambis – (c400 – 323 BC)
Queen consort of Persia
Sisygambis was the daughter of Prince Otanes, and granddaughter of King Artaxerxes II, she married her half-brother King Arses, and was the mother of King Darius III (381 – 330 BC). Her husband was assassinated in 336 BC at the instigation of the eunuch Bagoas, and her son Darius III ascended the throne.  In 333 BC, with her daughter-in-law Queen Statira, her grandchildren, and many ladies of the royal court, she was captured by Alexander the Great after Darius’ defeat at the battle of Issus.
When Darius was finally murdered by his troops (330 BC), Alexander sent his body to Sisygambis at Persepolis for honourable burial. Allowed to bring up her granddaughters in the Persian fashion, Alexander treated the queen mother with great respect, and she successfully intervened with the king on behalf of her rebellious kinsman Medates, governor of Uxii, near Persis.  On receiving news of Alexander’s death, the queen mother bade farewell to her family, shut herself away, and starved herself to death (June, 323 BC), being interred with full royal honours at Babylon.

Sitba – (fl. c2800 BC)
Egyptian princess
Sitba was a member of the IInd Dynasty (c2800 – c2584 BC) and was perhaps the daughter of King Hotepsekhemwy, or of one of his immediate successors, Nebre or Ninetjer. Her tomb was excavated at Helwan and she was depicted in reliefs on the walls. Surviving inscriptions gave her the title of ‘King’s Daughter.’

Sithathor (Sat-Hathor) – (fl. c1820 – c1780 BC)
Princess of Egypt of the XIIth Dynasty (1994 – 1781 BC)
Sithathor was the daughter of King Senwosret III. She probably survived her father and died during the reign of Amenemhat IV. She was sister to Queen Sobkneferu, the last ruler of the dynasty. Sithathor’s tomb was excavated at the north side of the king’s pyramid at Dahshur (1894 – 1895). Her sacrophagus had been robbed but a small cache of magnificent jewellery was discovered elsewhere within the tomb. This collection was preserved in the Cairo Museum and inlcluded a pectoral cross of Senwosret II.

Sithathoriunet (Sat-Hathor-Iunet) – (c1900 – c1830 BC)
Egyptian princess and queen consort
Sithathoriunet was the daughter of King Senwosret II, and was probably wife to her brother, Senwosret III. Surviving inscriptions from her father’s pyramid refer to her with the title of ‘King’s Daughter’ and ‘King’s Wife.’ Her shaft tomb at Lahun was discovered near the pyramid of Senwosret II by Sir Flinders Petrie (1913) and a collection of her beautiful jewellery and other personal effects were recovered. The entire collection, which included inlaid diadems, necklaces of gold and other precious stones and objects, alabaster and obsidian. The whole collection had originally been placed in three ebony caskets, at least one of which was inlaid with gold, ivory, carnelian, and blue faience. These objects are preserved in the Cairo Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA.

Sitkamose – (fl. c1570 – c1540 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Sitkamose was probably the daughter of the short-lived King Kamose of the XVIIth Dynasty, and his wife Ahhopte II. She was probably married to her cousin, Ahmose I, though it remains unknown whether she was the mother of any of his children. Queen Sitkamose received the titles of ‘King’s Wife’ and ‘King’s Great Wife’ though the title ‘God’s Wife’ appears to have been granted her posthumously. Her remains had sufferred from the depredations of tomb robbers, and during antiquity her mummy was reburied in the tomb of Queen Inhapi at Der-el-Bahri. There it was rediscovered (1881) and is now preserved in the Cairo Museum.

Sitre – (c1350 BC – after 1296 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Sitre was not of royal birth, but may have been attached to the court of King Horemheb, the successor of Tuthankamun and Ay. She may have been called Tia prior to her husband’s accession.
Sitre became the ancestress of the Ramesside dynasty (1298 – 1069 BC), through her marriage with Paramessu, the son of Sety, who later assumed the throne (1298 BC) as Ramesses I. She was the mother of King Seti I (c1330 – 1279 BC), and was the paternal grandmother of the famous pharoah, Ramesses II the Great (c1305 – 1213 BC).
Long before his accession, her husband was a noted military commander under Pharoah Horemheb, and he may have married Sitre to consolidate his social and political position. She survived her husband’s short reign, and was not interred with him, but was granted the honour of her own tomb in the Valley of the Queens at Thebes, though the decorations appear never to have been completed. She is attested by surviving inscriptions with the title of ‘god’s wife’ which may have been accorded her by her son, during her widowhood, and her statue is depicted in the temple of her son at Abydos.

Sitrude – (fl. c650)
Merovingian saint
Sitrude was the daughter of the patrician Wadelenus and his wife Flavia, and was the sister of Donatus, Bishop of Besancon. After her father’s death Sitrude became a nun under the rule of her widowed mother in a convent she had built in Besancon. Donatus and Flavia later established two more monasteries, one of which was a double house for monks and nuns, and over which Sitrude was appointed to preside as abbess. Sitrude and Flavia were buried in Besancon. Venerated as a saint her feast (Sept 30) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Sitt al-Mulk – (970 – 1023)
Arab Fatimid queen (1021 – 1023)
Sitt al-Mulk was the daughter of Ali az-Aziz Sultan of Cairo in Egypt (975 – 996). She was the paternal aunt of Sultan Al-Hakim for whom she ruled as regent and then eliminated her political rivals. The queen abolished the strict Sharia law and persecuted the followers of the Druze sect forcing them to flee to the mountains of Lebanon. In the middle of important negotiations with the Byzantine over the control of the city of Aleppo Queen Sitt al-Mulk died (Feb 5, 1023) aged fifty-two.

Sitti Hatun – (c1434 – 1467)
Ottoman sultana
Sitti Hatun was the daughter of Ibrahim, the emir of the Dulkadirli Turkmen tribe in eastern Anatolia. The Greek historian Dukas mistakenly indentified her as the daughter of Spentiar (or Isfendyar), Lord of Sinope. She was married (1449) to Prince Mehmet Osman of Turkey (1432 – 1481), the marriage being arranged by his father Sultan Murad II. Contemporary chronicles testify to the bride’s beauty as does her portrait in a surviving Greek codex in Venice.
However the marriage proved a complete failure. Sitti Hatun had been forced upon Mehmet by his father who had disapproved of his liaison with the slave girl Gulbahar who had borne him a son. The sultana spent the remainder of her life neglected in the harem of the palace in Adrianople. Sultana Sitti Hatun died at Edirne, and was interred within the gardens of a mosque built in her memory by her niece.

Sitwell, Dame Edith Louisa – (1887 – 1964)
British poet, critic and autobiographer
Edith Sitwell was born at Scarborough in Yorkshire, the daughter of Sir George Revesby Sitwell (1860 – 1943), baronet. Her two brothers were the equally famous authors, Sir Osbert Sitwell (1887 – 1964) and Sir Sacheverell Sitwell (1897 – 1988), who both succeeded to their father’s baronetcy. Edith Sitwell’s work was characterised by unusual images and epithets, which enabled her to escape from contemporary poetic restraints.
Her first published anthology Wheels (1916 – 1921) was financed by herself and her brothers. Sitwell’s best known work was her collection entitled Facades (1923) the public reading of which was accompanied by chamber music conducted by the composer Sir William Turner Walton (1902 – 1983). This was followed by her Elegy for Dead Fashion (1926) and her collection of short romantic poems in Gold Coast Customs (1929). Edith Sitwell wrote a biography of the poet Alexander Pope (1930), the collective biography entitled English Eccentrics (1933) and The Queens and the Hive (1962), which dealt with the lives of Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart. Her other works included The Canticle of the Rose (1949), Victoria of England (1936) and Fanfare for Elizabeth (1946). Her autobiography Taken Care Of (1965) was published posthumously.

Sivekiar Fehmi (Chivekiar) – (1876 – 1947)
Princess of Egypt
Sivekiar Fehmi was born (Oct 25, 1876) in Constantinople, Turkey, the daughter of Prince Ibrahim Fehmi Pasha of Egypt (1847 – 1894), and his Circassian second wife Nevdjan (1857 – 1940).
Princess Sivekiar was married five times. Her marriage was as the first wife (1895 – 1898) of her cousin Prince Ahmed Fouad of Egypt (1868 – 1936) (later King Fouad I). They were divorced after Sivelkiar had borne two children, Prince Ismail (1896 – 1897) who died in infancy, and Princess Fawzia (1897 – 1974), later the second wife of Prince Mahmud Fawkry Pasha. Her second marriage (1899 – 1903) with was Abdel-Raouf Sabit-Bey (1881 – 1964), later Prime Minister of Turkey (1922 – 1923) and Turkish ambassador to London (1942 – 1945) from whom she was divorced after four years years, having borne two children.
Sivekiar’s third marriage (1904 – 1916) with Seyfullah Yousri Pasha (1870 – 1949), the Egyptian minister to Berlin and Washington, likewise produced two children but also ended in divorce. Her fourth marriage with Selim Halil Bey (1917 – 1925), which took place at Pera, near Constantinople, produced a son and ended in divorce. The princess was married for the fifth and last time (1927) at Nichantache, to Ilhami Husayn Bey. There were no children of this union. The princess served as president of the Muhammad Ali Benevolent Association and of the feminist organization Mar’al-Guedida (New Woman). Princess Sivekiar died (Feb 17, 1947) aged seventy, in Cairo.

Sjoberg, Josabeth – (1812 – 1882)
Swedish painter and musician
Sjoberg was born (June 30, 1812) in Stockholm, into a wealthy family. She was taught the piano and guitar, but with the deaths of her parents was obliged to earn her living as a governess in Stockholm. She produced primitive but expressionistic watercolours of every day contemporary life and examples of her work were preserved in the Stockholm City Museum. Madamoiselle Sjoberg remained unmarried and died (dec 29, 1882) aged seventy, in Stockholm.

Skarbek, Krystyna     see    Granville, Christine

Skeet, Muriel Harvey – (1926 – 2006)
British nurse
Skeet was born (July 12, 1926) in Suffolk. She was appointed as the chief officer with the British Red Cross Society (1970 – 1978). She published several works on health matters including Home from Hospital (1970) and Health Needs Help (1978). Muriel Harvey Skeet died (Nov 22, 2006) aged eighty.

Skene, Mary – (1833 – 1857)
Anglo-Indian mutiny victim
Mary was the wife of Captain Alexander Skene, British superintendent of the cities of Jhansi and Jaloun. Mary arrived in Jhansi when her husband took up his new post there (June, 1854). On receiving notice of the Sepoy rebellion, Mrs Skene was forced to flee on foot with her husband and four small children to the Star Fort, outside the city of Jhansi. Lack of water forced the party to officially surrender to the insurgents, and Mrs Skene, with her husband and children, and other British, were all slaughtered outside the main gate of Jhansi (June 3, 1857).

Skinner, Cornelia Otis – (1901 – 1979)
American actress, writer, and entertainer
Cornelia Skinner was born (May 30, 1901) in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of actor Otis Skinner. Skinner made her stage debut on Broadway, in Blood and Sand (1921), and received critical acclaim for her roles in Candida (1935), Lady Windemere’s Fan (1946), Major Barbara (1952) and The Pleasure of His Company (1958) which she co-wrote with Samuel Taylor.
Skinner was the author of a biography of the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt entitled Madame Sarah (1967) and of the volume of reminiscences entitled Elegant Wits and Grand Horizontals (1962). She was co-author with Emily Kimbrough, of the very popular travel work Our Hearts Were Young and Gay (1942). Cornelia Otis Skinner died (July 9, 1979) aged seventy-eight, in New York.

Skinner, Mollie – (1876 – 1955)
British novelist
Mollie Skinner had originally worked as a nurse, and had published one work (1918) by the time she first met D.H. Lawrence when he visited Western Australia (1924). Skinner collaborated with Lawrence to write, The Boy in the Bush (1924). She herself published the classic Tucker Sees India (1937), as well as Black Swans (1925) with the heroine Letty Granville, and the wartime work WX – Corporal Smith: A Romance of the A.I.F. in Libya (1941).

Skipton, Cecily de – (c1140 – c1190)
Anglo-Norman medieval heiress
Cecily de Skipton was the eldest of the three daughters of William FitzDuncan, earl of Moray in Scotland, and his second wife, the Yorkshire heiress Alice de Romilly, Lady of Skipton, daughter of the Norman lord William le Meschin, Lord of Copeland. Through her father Cecily was the granddaughter of Duncan II, King of Scotland (1093 – 1094). Her only brother William was accidentally drowned in his youth (c1156), leaving Cecily and her sisters as co-heiresses of their father’s extensive estates.
It was around this time that she was married to William le Gros (the Fat), third Earl of Aumale (c1125 – 1179). She survived him a decade as Dowager Countess (1179 – c1190). Cecily left only two daughters, the eldest of whom, Hawise (c1163 – 1214) became countess of Aumale and Lady of Holderness, having three husbands, William de Mandeville, Earl of Essex (died 1189), William de Forz (died 1195), and Badouin de Bethune, Seigneur de Chocques in Artois, France (died 1212), who all held the county of Aumale in Hawise’s right.

Skleraina, Maria – (c1010 – 1044)
Byzantine courtier
Maria Skleraina was the daughter of the Greek prince Bardas Skleros and his wife Princess Pulcheria Argyra, the sister of the Emperor Romanus III. She was a descendant of the usurper Emperor Bardas Skleros (976 – 979), of the Mamikonid princes of Armenia and of the Muslim Hamdanid emirs of Mosel. Skleraina (as she is usually known) became the mistress of Prince Constantine Monomachus (980 – 1055) and later accompanied him into exile. When Monomachus became the Emperor Constantine IX (1042) after marrying the Empress Zoe Porphyrogennita, Skleraina resided with them in the Imperial palace, apparently without causing any discord between the Imperial couple.
With Zoe’s apparent acquiescence the emperor continued his long term relationship with Skleraina, who was accorded the rank of Augusta and given the privileges usually reserved only for the legitimate empress consort. Her death in Constantinople caused the emperor great personal grief. Maria Skleraina bore Constantine a daughter Princess Maria Monomacha (1030 – 1067) who became the first wife of the Russian prince Vsevolod I Jaroslavitch (1030 – 1093), Prince of Pereiaslavl (1054) and later Grand Prince of Kiev (1078). She took the name of Irene at the time of her marriage (1046) and left many descendants. Through her daughter’s marriage Maria Skleraina was the ancestress of the Plantagenet kings of England.

Skleraina, Pulcheria Argyra – (c965 – 1034)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Princess Pulcheria Argyra was sister to the emperor Romanus III Argyrus. She was married to Bardas Skleros, a Greek prince. Pulcheria was a woman of strong character, and was said to have possessed considerable influence over her brother. Her son Romanus Skleros was the father of Maria Skleraina, the favourite and bigamous ‘wife’ of the Emperor Konstantine IX Monomachus (1050 – 1055), whilst her daughter Pulcheria Skleraina had been Konstantine’s second wife, and had died before his elevation to the Imperial throne (1042).

Skleraina, Sophia Phokaina – (c936 – c980)
Byzantine patrician
Princess Sophia Phokaina was the daughter of Prince Leo Phokas, the prefect of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. She became the wife of Prince Constantine Skleros and their daughter Theophano Skleraina became the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II (973 – 983).

Sklover, Theodora Klein – (1937 – 1992)
American film director
Sklover attended Bennington College and became interested in the medium of television for educational purposes. During the late 1960’s Theodora organized Open Channel, a non-profit organization that lobbied for public programming and access. In 1979 she created and was made director of the Governor’s office of Motion Picture and Television Development in New York State. Theodora Sklover committed suicide (May 11, 1992) in Manhattan, by jumping from her apartment window.

Skobelova, Zenaide Dimitrievna – (1856 – 1899)
Russian countess
Zenaide Skobelova was born (June 11, 1856) in St Petersburg, the daughter of Dimitry Ivanovich Skobelov and his wife Olga Nikolaievna Poltavsevskaia. Countess Zenaide became the second and morganatic wife (1878) of Eugene de Beauharnais (1845 – 1901), the fifth Duke of Leuchtenberg, at the Peterhof Palace. On the same day by Imperial decree (ukase) of Tsar Alexander II, she was granted the title of Comtesse de Beauharnais for herself and any subsequent children she should bear. However, her status as a royal wife as being the equal rank to her husband was finally recognized by a decree of Alexander III (Aug 28, 1889), which granted Comtesse Zenaide the rank and styles of Duchess of Leuchtenberg, with the qualification of Serene Highness. She was then duchess consort of Leuchtenberg (1889 – 1899). Duchess Zenaide died childless (June 28, 1899) aged forty-three, in St Petersburg.

Skobtsova, Maria – (1891 – 1945)
Russian Orthodox nun, poet and social activist
Born Elizaveta Iurievna Pilenko in Riga, she was interested in literature and religion from her youth, and became the first woman to graduate from the Petersburg Theological Academy. Having been married twice, with the outbreak of the revolution, Maria was elected mayor of the town of Anapa in the Crimea (1917), but was arrested and imprisoned by the Bolsheviks. She managed to affect her escape from Russia (1920), and travelled to France via Constantinople. Taking religious vows (1932), Maria became involved with mentally handicapped Russian refugees, and organized hostels to provide for the indigent. During World War II she bravely defied the Nazi occupiers, and hid Jewish refugees in her monastery. Betrayed, Maria, her son, and Pastor Klepinin, who had been working with her, were all arrested by the Gestapo (1943). Sent to the concentration camp at Ravensbruck, she perished bravely in the gas chambers (March 31, 1945).

Skogulsdotter, Sigrid    see   Sigrid of Vastergotland

Skolimowska, Kamila – (1982 – 2009)
Polish sportswoman
Skolimowska was born (Nov 4, 1982) in Warsaw. She first attracted attention when she won the hammer throw event at the European Junior Championships at the age of fifteen (1997) and became the Polish national champion. She competed in the 1998 European Championships and the 1999 World Championships and was the winner of the World Youth Championships (1999). She won the silver medal in the hammer throw event in the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia, but was given the gold medal after Mihaela Melinte was disqualified after a drug test. This record stood for four years (2000 – 2004) and she was honoured with the Polish Cross of Merit. Kamila Skolimowska died suddenly from a pulmonary embolism (Feb 18, 2009) aged twenty-six, at Vila Real de Santo Antonio in Portugal.

Skram, Amalie – (1847 – 1905) 
Norwegian feminist and novelist
Born Amalie Alver in Bergen, she divorced her first husband and remarried (1884) to Erik Skram, a Danish writer. This marriage also ended in divorce (1900), after which her mental condition deteriorated. Amalie Skram published several popular novels which dealt with issues important to women such as Constance Ring (1885) and Hellemyrsfolket (The People of Hellemyr) (1887), and Foraadt (Betrayed) (1892).

Skrimshire, Betty    see   Harvie Anderson, Betty

Sladen, Victoria May – (1910 – 1999)
British soprano
Victoria Sladen was born (May 24, 1910) at Kilburn of German emigrants named Schlageter. She won a scholarship to the Trinity College of Music, but went to Berlin for vocal lessons, returning to London in 1939. Performing in recitals and pantomime, Victoria adopted the surname of Sladen, and made her operatic debut in London (1942) as Giulietta in The Tales of Hoffmann. Victoria joined the Sadler’s Wells Opera in 1943 and her roles included that of Butterfly (which she performed over 150 times), Tosca, Donna Anna, Marenka in The Bartered Bride, and Amelia in the first performance of Verdi’s Simon Boccanegra (1948).
Also performing at Covent Garden, Victoria began singing at the Proms from 1946 as well as with the Royal Choral Society, her voice being much admired by Sir Thomas Beecham. She performed in radio broadcasts, notably as Lisa in The Queen of Spades, and published her autobiography Singing My Way (1951). A consummate performer with a strong stage prescence, Victoria Sladen’s popularity never waned with her audiences.

Slancikova, Bozena    see   Timrava

Slane, Elizabeth Stucley, Lady – (c1490 – 1526)
Irish peeress (1512 – 1517)
Elizabeth Stucley was the daughter of Nicholas Stucley, of Affeton, Devon, Cornwall, and his second wife Anne, the daughter of Edward Pomeroy. Elizabeth became the second wife (before 1512) of the Irish peer, Christopher Fleming (1473 – 1517), eighth Baron Slane (1492 – 1517). With her husband she founded the Friary of Slane, which fact was recorded by Grosse in his Antiquities of Ireland. Her husband died in London (Aug, 1517) and Elizabeth became the Dowager Baroness Slane (1517 – 1526).
Lady Elizabeth remarried secondly (1518) to Thomas Dudley, the servant of the powerful Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of Henry VIII. There remains the record of a payment made to Lady Slane and her second husband by Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, for their financial interest in the wardship and marriage of Thomas Fitzgerald. Lady Slane had inherited the manors of Highbray and Credihoo in Devon for use until her own death, but her possession of these properties was contested by kinmen of Lord Slane. The Star Chamber found in Lady Slane’s favour, and one of the claimants was committed to the Tower of London for refusing to observe the court’s decision. Lady Elizabeth was perhaps the mother of James Fleming (1508 – 1573), ninth Baron Slane (1517 – 1573), though he may have been her stepson.

‘Slasher Mary’    see   Richardson, Mary Raleigh

Slesinger, Tess – (1905 – 1945)
American author
Slesinger graduated from Swarthmore College and Columbia University, and wrote her first novel The Unpossessed (1934) after publishing several short stories. Tess removed to Hollywood, California (1935) to take on a career as a screenwriter, and was best known for her screen adaptation of Pearl S. Buck’s novel set in China The Good Earth (1937). Tess Slesinger died of cancer before she was forty.

Slessor, Mary Mitchell – (1848 – 1915) 
Scottish missionary in Africa
Mary Slessor was born in Aberdeen, and worked as a mill girl in Dundee. After much waiting she was finally accepted as a missionary by the United Presbyterian Church, and was sent to Calabar in Nigeria (1876). Slessor spent many years amongst the natives, who much admired her as the ‘Great Mother’ and was able to assist with the demise of such customs as human sacrifice.

Slingsby, Mary Aldridge, Lady – (c1650 – 1694) 
English stage actress
Mary first joined the Duke’s company as Mary Aldridge (1670). Her earlier roles included that of Daranthe in Edward Howard’s Woman’s Conquest (1671) and Leticia in Townshend Shifts, or the Suburb Justice (1672). Her other noted roles included Mariamne in the Empress of Morocco (1674), Queen Deidameia of Sparta in Alcibiades (1675) by Otway, Roxalana, the wife of Suleyman in Ibrahim, the Illustrious Bassa (1676), the Queen in Don Carlos, Prince of Spain (1676), Berenice in Otway’s Titus and Berenice (1677), and Cleopatra in Charles Sedley’s Antony and Cleopatra (1677).
Mary Aldridge also played the title of Davenant’s Circe (1677). Mary was married to a minor actor named John Lee (died c1677), after which she made a society marriage (1680) with Sir Charles Slingsby, baronet, of Bifrons, near Patrixbourne, Kent, the nephew of Sir Robert Slingsby (1611 – 1661). An attractive and talented performer, who specialized in tragic and romantic roles, she continued to perform on stage after her second marriage until 1685, when she retired. Lady Mary Slingsby was buried (March 1, 1694) in the churchyard of St Pancras, London.

Sloane, Mary Annie – (c1877 – 1961)
British painter and artist
Sloane studied under Herkomer at Bushey, and then at the Royal College of Art in London under Sir Frank Short. Mary Sloane produced portraits and various types of landscapes, her work being exhibited at the Paris Salon (1903) and at the Royal Academy Salon. She was a member of the Leicester Society of Artists and served for almost a decade as president of the Women’s Guild of Artists (1953 – 1961). Mary Sloane died (Nov 29, 1961).

Slone, Verna Mae – (1914 – 2009)
American story writer
Slone was born (Oct 9, 1914) in Kentucky, and was raised in the Appalachians. She wrote several accounts of her life for her grandchildren including What My Heart Wants to Tell (1979). Verna Mae Slone died (Jan 5, 2009) aged inety-four.

Small, Annie Hunter – (1857 – 1945)
Scottish missionary, educator, and author
Annie Small was born at Redding in Falkirk, the daughter of a missionary. She travelled to India with her father, where she worked at a school for girls at Pune (1876 – 1892). Ill-health later necessitated her return to Scotland where she was appointed as the first principal of the Free Church in Edinburgh (later the United Free Church), which trained female missionaries, and later evolved into St Colm’s College. It was a post she filled with great determination and success for two decades (1894 – 1913). Her published works included Light and Shade in Zenana Missionary Life (1890) and The Psalter and the Life of Prayer (1914).

Smalneckh, Ermengard von – (c1205 – c1260)
German nun and virgin saint
Ermengard was the daughter of Conrad von Winterstettin, Count of Thann. She married Count Conrad von Smalneckh. Widowed (1241) she became a nun at the Cistercian convent of Paindt, founded by her father in 1241. She succeeded as second abbess in 1244, and was revered by the church as a beata (Oct 3).

Smedley, Agnes – (1890 – 1950)
American feminist and author
Smedley was born (Feb 23, 1890) in Osgood, Missouri and was raised in poverty. She trained as a schoolteacher and was employed as such in Arizona. She was married (1912) to Ernest Brundin and studied at the San Diego Normal School in California. From 1918 she resided in New York, but was arrested for her public support of Indian nationalism and spent some time in prison. With her release she went to Rueope and settled in Germany (1920) and later in China.
There she was employed as a correspondent by the Manchester Guardian and observed at first-hand the Chinese revolution. Her published works included her autobiography Daughter of Earth (1929), and the Battle Hymn of China (1943). Her work Portraits of Chinese Women in Revolution (1976) was published posthumously, a quarter of a century after her death. Agnes Smedley died (May 6, 1950) aged sixty, in England.

Smieton, Dame Mary Guillan – (1902 – 2005)
British civil servant pioneer
Mary Smieton was born (Dec 5, 1902), the daughter of the librarian of Westminster College, Cambridge. She attended secondary school at Wimbledon and then went to Bedford College in London. She remained unmarried. Mary entered the civil service (1925) and after a stint with the Public Records Office (1925 – 1928) and the Ministry of Labour, she was appointed as the private secretary to the Labour minister Sir Henry Betterton (1933), becoming the first woman to serve in that capacity. Just prior to WW II Smieton was seconded to the Home Office and was appointed as the general secretary (1938 – 1940) of the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service), where she was concerned with the mobilisation of women for the war effort.
Mary Smieton was then appointed as under-secretary and became the first director of personnel at the United Nations in New York (1946 – 1948). Returning to England Smieton returned to the Ministry of Labour (1948 – 1953) and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1949) in recognition of her valuable contribution to the civil service. Dame Mary was later appointed as the under secretary (1953 – 1959) and then as the permanent secretary of the Ministry of Education (1959 – 1963). Dame Mary Smieton retired in 1963 served as the British representative to the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) Council Board (1962 – 1968) and was chairman of the Bedford College Council (1964 – 1970). Smieton was also a trustee of the British Museum and (1963 – 1973) and served as the vice president of the Museums Association (1974 – 1977). Dame Mary Smieton died (Jan 23, 2005) aged one hundred and two years, at Westminster in London.

Smith, Alathena Johnson – (1894 – 1982)
American psychotherapist
Alathena Johnson was born in Chicago, Illinois and attended Wellesley College. She then studied at the University of Toronto and the Ohio State University. She worked as a nursery school teacher in Ohio before spending two decades (1929 – 1948) working with gifted children in Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Her marriage to William Fulton Smith to whom she bore two children ended in divorce (1933) and she retained her married name.
A specialist in clinical psychology Dr Johnson served as the chief of psychology and as a parental education specialist with the John Tracy Clinic in Los Angeles, California (1948 – 1977), founded by Louise Tracy, wife of actor Spencer Tracy, which dealt with problems experienced by children with hearing problems, and established educational correspondence courses and workships internationally. Alathena Johnson Smith died (Nov 12, 1982) aged eighty-eight, in Los Angeles.

Smith, Alexis – (1921 – 1993)
American film actress
Born Gladys Smith (June 8, 1921) in Penticton in British Columbia, Canada, and became involved with acting whilst attending the Los Angeles City College. She became an actress after winning a talent contest in high school and being noticed by a Warner Brothers talent scout. She made her film debut in Lady with Red Hair (1940) and became a leading actress of the 1940’s – 1950’s, with a trademark aloofness as part of her allure. Alexis Smith was married for fifty years (1944 – 1993) to fellow actor Craig Stevens.
Her other film credits included The Constant Nymph (1942), Rhapsody in Blue (1945), Of Human Bondage (1946) as Nora Nesbitt, Night and Day (1947) as Mrs Cole Porter, The Two Mrs Carrolls (1947), The Woman in White (1947), The Turning Point (1952), Undercover Girl (1952), The Eternal Sea (1956), The Young Philadelphians (1959), The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane (1977), Tough Guys (1986) and the Age of Innocence (1993). Alexis Smith appeared in the television series Dallas (1984) and Hothouse (1988) and the television movie A Death in California (1985).

Smith, Alice Orme – (1888 – 1980)
American landscape architect
Alice Smith attended Smith College. Miss Smith received an award from the New York Times for her designs of the Main Vista and the Garden of Religion at the World’s Fair in New York (1939). She designed the grounds of the American Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford, Connecticut, as well as many estates of prominent people such as that of the US senator William Benton in Southport, Connecticut, and was awarded medals from the New York Horticultural Society and the Garden Club of America.
Her old alma mater awarded Miss Smith the College Medal for professional accomplishment (1973) and she was elected as a fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects (1974). Alice Orme Smith died (April 4, 1980) aged ninety-one, in Fairfield, Connecticut.

Smith, Anna Nicole – (1967 – 2007)
American actress and scandal figure
Born Vicki Lyn Hogan (Nov 28, 1967) in Mexia, Texas, she became a stripper and centrefold for Playboy magazine, adopting her professional name of Anna Nicole Smith. Blonde and large breasted, Smith appeared in several films such as Naked Gun 33 1/3: The Final Insult (1994) and The Hudsucker Proxy (1994). She became the wife (1994) of the elderly tycoon, J. Howard Marshall II, four times her age. He spent six million dollars on her. With Marshall’s death she became involved in litigation over his estate. Anna Nicole Smith died (Feb, 2007) aged thirty-nine, of a probable accidental drug overdose, leaving an infant daughter by her partner and lawyer, both of whom claimed paternity, as did Prince Friedrich von Anhalt, the husband of actress Zsa Zsa Gabor.

Smith, Bessie – (1892 – 1937)
Black American blues vocalist
Elizabeth Smith was born (July, 1892) in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Bessie began her musical career in vaudeville, but her oustanding stage prescence and mode of delivery soon earned her the popular epithet ‘The Empress of the Blues.’ She made recordings during the 1920’s, and was most famous for her rendition of St Louis Blues. , and she appeared in the film of the same title (1929). Bessie Smith died (Sept 21, 1937) at Clarksdale, Mississippi, from injuries received in a car accident.

Smith, Charlotte – (1749 – 1806)
British poet
Charlotte Smith was the wife of an errant husband, with twelve children to provide for, and decided to try her hand at writing in order to supplement her family’s sparse income. Her first published work, Elegiac Sonnets and Other Essays (1784), proved extremely successful, being reprinted nearly a dozen times, and translated into French and Italian. Charlotte’s literary success empowered her, and she left her husband, supporting her children alone. She produced nearly two dozen books, some of which dealt with politically and socially important issues, her last work entitled Conversations Introducing Poetry for the Use of Children (1804).

Smith, Claire – (1933 – 1998)
American literary agent
Smith was associated with the literary agency Harold Ober Association in Manhattan, New York for four decades (1959 – 1998). Her clients included Sheila Burnford for her work The Incredible Journey, James Herriot, and the horror author Dean Koontz. Claire Smith died (Aug 15, 1998) aged sixty-four, in South Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York.

Smith, Constance – (1928 – 2003)
Irish film and television actress
Smith was born (Jan 22, 1928) in Limerick. Her early film roles were uncredited appearances in movies such as Brighton Rock (1947), Jassy (1947), Easy Money (1948) and Murder at the Windmill (1949). Constance appeared as the Irish servant, Kate Noonan in The Mudlark (1950) with Irene Dunne as Queen Victoria, and as Lila in Impulse (1954). She made several Italian films before her eventual retirement (1959) including the Medici historical drama Giovanni dalle bande nere (1956) in which she played Dona Emma Caldana, and Addio per sempre? (1958). She also appeared in the Italian film La Congiura dei Borgia (Conspiracy of the Borgias) (1959). Other film credits included The Perfect Woman (1949), Room to Let (1950), Red Skies of Montana (1952), The Treasure of the Golden Condor (1953), Man in the Attic (1953) and Tiger by the Tail (1955). Constance Smith died (June, 2003) aged seventy-five, in Islington, London.

Smith, Dodie – (1896 – 1990) 
British dramatist, novelist, and children’s author
Dorothy Gladys Smith was born in Manchester, Lancashire and trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art to be an actress. She worked for a period in the theatre before leaving the stage and working in a furniture factory. Dodie Smith conducted a liasion with the noted designer, Sir Ambrose Heal (1872 – 1959) but later married her longtime companion Alec Beesley. At the end of WW II she and Beesley removed to the USA, where her work was much influenced by her firendship with the writer Christopher Isherwood (1904 – 1986).
As a writer she used the pseudonym ‘C.L. Anthony’ until 1935. Her plays included, Autumn Crocus (1930), Dear Octopus (1938) and I Capture the Castle (1952) which she had adapted from one of her own novels. However, she was best remembered as the author of the famous children’s book One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1956) which was made into an animated fim by Walt Disney. Dodie Smith published several volumes of autobiography including Look Back with Love (1974) and Look Back with Gratitude (1985).

Smith, Lady Eleanor Furneaux – (1902 – 1945)
British novelist and dramatist
Lady Eleanor Smith was born at Birkenhead, Cheshire, the eldest daughter of Sir Frederick Edwin Smith (1872 – 1930), first Earl of Birkenhead, the noted lawyer and politician, and his wife Margaret Eleanor Furneaux (1878 – 1968), the daughter of Reverend Henry Furneaux. Though well educated by governesses at home, and attending a schhol in Belgium, Lady Eleanor was always remained a highly eccentric and scandalous character, whose bizarre behaviour had been encouraged by her father, and she brazenly thumbed her nose at polite society all her life. She remained unmarried, though indulged in romantic liasions with a circus lion-tamer and with Rudolph Valentino.
Her first work was the autobiography, The Story of My Life, written when she was only eight years old (1910). She worked as a society reporter and film critic for the London Dispatch and the Sphere And Bystander. Particularly fond of the circus, she one worked in the publicity department of Carmo’s circus, and appeared in the ring. Lady Eleanor was the author of the popular novels Red Wagon (1922), Flamenco (1923), The Man in Grey (film 1943) and Caravan (film 1946), which were all made into films of the same title.
Her novel Tzigane was turned into a film under the title Gypsy (1937) whilst Ballerina (1932) was also turned into a film with the title The Men in Her Life (1941). Other works included Satan’s Circus And Other Stories (1932) and Christmas Tree (1933)(reprinted as Seven Trees). She published her autobiography as Life’s A Circus (1939). Lady Eleanor Smith died (Oct 20, 1945) aged forty-three.

Smith, Elizabeth – (1776 – 1806)
British poet and scholar
Elizabeth Smith was born at Burn Hall, near Durham, the daughter of a minor landowner, and was educated at home. A talented linguist she spoke French, Italian, Arabic, Persian, Hebrew and Latin. She produced translations from the Bible, most notably a version of the Book of Job, as well as a vocabulary of the Hebrew, Persian, and Arabic languages.

Smith, Elizabeth Grant     see    Grant of Rothiemurchus, Elizabeth

Smith, Eugenia – (1899 – 1997)
Russian imposter
Born Eugenia Drabek Smetiska in Bukovina, she later claimed to the Romanov grand duchess Anastasia Nikolaievna (1901 – 1918), the youngest of the four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II (1894 – 1917) and his German wife, Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt (Alix). Smith published the book Autobiography of HIH Anastasia Nicolaievna of Russia (1963) to further her claims, but thirty years afterwards refused DNA testing which would have definitely solved the matter (1995). Eugenia Smith died (Jan 31, 1997) aged ninety-six.

Smith, Gladys Marie    see   Pickford, Mary

Smith, Granny     see     Smith, Maria Ann

Smith, Hannah Whitall – (1832 – 1911)
American Quaker and author
Hannah Whitall was born into a Quaker family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was married (1851) to Robert Pearsall Smith. With her husband she was greatly influenced by Methodism, and they left the Society of Friends, only to rejoin that community later on. Hannah and her husband removed to England where they established the annual Keswick Convention (1874) in the Lake District. She was a founder member of the WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union).

Smith, Jeanne Allen – (1931 – 2006)
American geneticist ans researcher
Smith was born in Manhattan, New York. Smith became a spcialist concerning sickle cell anemia, and established the process of screening new-born infants. She was later appointed as administrator of the Harlem Hospital Center. Jeanne Allen Smith died (Nov 11, 2006) aged seventy-five, in Lewisboro, New York.

Smith, Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon, Lady – (1795 – 1872)
Spanish-Anglo colonial figure
Dona Juana de Leon was the wife (1812) of the noted British general Sir Harry Smith (1787 – 1860) whom she accompanied on is campaigns. She was beloved by the soldiers as ‘Juanita’ and the town of Ladysmith in Natal was named in her honour. Juana survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Smith (1860 – 1872).

Smith, Kay Nolte – (1931 – 1993)
American novelist and mystery writer
Smith was born in Eveleth, Minnesota, and was raised in Wisconsin. She attended the University of Minnesots and the University of Utah, before removing to New York, where she worked as a copywriting in an advertsiing firm, and as a stage actress, using the name ‘Kay Gillian.’ Kay Smith was best known for the novel The Watcher (1980), for which she received the Edgar Allan Poe Award from the Mystery Writers of America. Other novels included Elegy for a Soprano and Venetian Song (1994) which was published posthumously. Kay Nolte Smith died (Sept 25, 1993) aged sixty-one, in Long Branch, New Jersey.

Smith, Lillian Eugenia – (1897 – 1966)
American novelist and essayist
Lillian Smith was born (Dec 12, 1897) in Jasper, Florida. She was best known as the author of the novel Strange Fruit (1944). Her other published work included Killers of the Dream (1949), Now Is the Time (1955) and One Hour (1959). She became involved in the civil rights movement and worked as an adviser in racial relations and as a college lecturer. Lillian Smith died (Sept 28, 1966) aged sixty-eight.

Smith, Linda – (1957 – 2006)
British television actress and radio panelist
Smith was born in Erith, Kent, where she attended college before studying at Sheffield University. Smith began her career in a touring repertory company, and then worked as a successful standup commedienne, receiving the Hackney Empire New Act of the Year award (1987). She performed very successful one-woman shows for the Edinburgh Fringe. Linda Smith became the first female team captain on the popular shows The News Quiz and, I’m Sorry I Haven’t A Clue. She wrote and appeared in the radio comedy A Brief History of Brainwashing, and later received the Sony Award for her radio work (2002) and was elected president of the British Humanist Society (2004). Linda Smith died of cancer, aged forty-eight.

Smith, Lucy Toulmin – (1838 – 1911) 
American scholar
Lucy Toulmin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the daughter of the lawyer and reformer, Joshua Toulmin Smith. She came to England with her family (1842) and was educated at home by her father. Lucy worked with her father on his periodical The Parliamentary Remembrancer (1857 – 1865), and later edited Leland’s Itinerary (1906 – 1910). She appointed as librarian to the Manchester College, Oxford (1894 – 1911), the first woman to hold such a position.

Smith, Madeleine Hamilton – (1835 – 1928) 
Scottish murder suspect
Madeleine Smith was born in Glasgow, the daughter of an architect. She was residing with her family in Blythswood Square, and was engaged to one William Minnoch, a match approved of by her family, when she was arrested on the charge of causing the murder of her lover, Pierre Emile L’Angelier (1857), a native of Jersey, who was employed in Edinburgh as a clerk. Madeleine was the recipient of considerable public resentment when her unrestrained love letters were read in court. However, despite this, and the fact that she had purchased arsenic on several occasions, no real proof of her complicity could be proven, and Smith was released after the verdict was returned of ‘not proven.’ Abandoned by her family she travelled to London, where she was married (1861) to the publisher and artist George Wardle and settled in Bloomsbury, where she achieved some fame as a literary hostess. She later went to the USA where she refused an offer made by Hollywood to appear in a silent film concerning the famous case.

Smith, Margaret Chase – (1897 – 1995) 
American Republican politician
Margaret Chase was born in Skowhegan, Maine, the daughter of a barber. She trained as a schoolteacher and later married (1930) a newspaper editor, Clyde Smith. Her husband had been elected as the US Representative of the state of Maine to Washington, and with his death she took over his position (1940 – 1949). Margaret Smith then served the US Senate (1949 – 1973) and was the first woman to be elected to both the House of Representatives and the Senate. She campaigned against the wave of hysteria fanned by Senator Joseph McCarthy and later campaigned unsuccessfully for the presidency (1964). Her published works were Gallant Women (1968), and Declaration of Conscience (1972).

Smith, Maria Ann – (c1801 – 1870)
Australian orchardist
Popularly known as ‘Granny Smith’, Maria was a fruit-grower in Eastwood, Sydney, New South Wales. She had experimented with a French crab-apple, which had grown well in the colder climate of Tasmania, and from this she developed the famous ‘Granny Smith’ green apple, which kept longer and became famous as a particularly Australian export fruit.

Smith, Maria Constance – (1853 – 1930)
British civil servant
Maria Smith was the daughter of the noted academic, Philip Smith, a prfessor at New College, Oxford, and was educated at home. Maria worked as a bank clerk, and was later promoted as lady superintendent (1876 – 1913), retaining this position until her retirement, at which time there were two thousand civil servants under her direct control. Smith was later awarded the Imperial Service Medal (1902) in recognition of her service. Maria Constance Smith died at Folkestone, Kent.

Smith, Mary Ellen – (1862 – 1933) 
Canadian politician
Born Mary Ellen Spear in Tavistock, in Devon, she was married (1883) to a theological student, Ralph Smith, with whom she immigrated to Canada (1891). They settled in Nanaimo, British Columbia, where her husband was elected as minister of finance in the state legislature (1916). With his death, Mary took her husband’s seat (1917 – 1928) and continued his responsibilities. She served briefly (1921 – 1922) as a minister without portfolio, becoming the first woman in the British Empire to serve in Cabinet.

Smith, Mary Harris – (1847 – 1934)
British chartered accountant
Mary Harris Smith was the daughter of a banker. She studied mathematics at King’s College, Cambridge. Despite her brilliant talent she was consistently refused permission to practice by the Institute of Chartered Accountants, and it would not be until 1918 that the Society of Chartered Accountants permitted the inclusion of women within their ranks. Smith was made an honorary fellow of the Society. When the institute was finally forced by the implementation of The Sexual Discrimination Act to open its doors to women, Mary Smith became the first officially accredited woman chartered accountant (1919).

Smith, Pamela Colman (Pixie) – (1878 – 1951)
Jamaican folk-lorist, illustrator, and author
Smith designed and illustrated the most popular twentieth century tarot card deck, the original ‘Rider-Waite Tarot Deck’ (1909), which had been commissioned by the noted author Arthur Edward Waite. Pamela Smith’s published works included Anancy Stories (1899) and Chim-Chim: folk stories from Jamaica (1905).

Smith, Pleasance Reeve, Lady – (1773 – 1877)
British centenarian
Pleasance Reeve was born (May 11, 1773) at Lowestoft, Suffolk, the daughter of Robert Reeve. She was married (1796) to Sir James Edward Smith, but the union remained childless. Pleasance survived her husband for forty-nine years as the Dowager Lady Smith (1828 – 1877). Lady Smith was painted as a gypsy by Amelia Opie, and from 1849 she removed to reside in her father’s house at Lowestoft. She was a friend to Dean Stanley and to the salon hostess Sarah Austin. She edited and published the Memoir and Correspondence of the late Sir J.E. Smith (1832) in two volumes. Her one hundredth birthday was the occasion of a public dinner given for the poor at Lowestoft (1873) and she received a personal gift from Queen Victoria of a signed copy of her work Our Life in the Highlands. Lady Smith died (Feb 3, 1877) aged one hundred and three.

Smith, Rubye Doris    see    Robinson, Rubye Doris Smith

Smith, Sarah    see     Stretton, Hesba

Smith, Sophia – (1796 – 1870) 
American educator, philanthropist
Sophia Smith was born in Hatfield, Massachusetts. She spent most of her life in the company of her sister and never married. After inheriting her brother’s fortune (1861), Sophia left her money to establish Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, for the education of women. Her private journal has been edited and published.

Smith, Stevie – (1902 – 1971) 
British poet and novelist
Florence Margaret Smith was born in Hull, and later removed with her family to Palmer’s Green, London, where she attended the North London Collegiate School for Girls before working for a publishing company. Stevie Smith’s first published work by the autobiographical Novel on Yellow Paper (1936) which was followed by Over the Frontier (1938) and The Holiday (1949). Her collections of verse included the delightfully childlike A Good Time Was Had By All (1937), and Not Waving but Drowning (1957) which dealt with depression. Her other works included The Frog Prince (1966) and Scorpion (1972), which was published posthumously.

Smither, Jessie    see    Orme, Denise

Smithson, Alison Margaret – (1927 – 1993) 
British architect
Born Alison Gill in Sheffield, south Yorkshire, she became a prominent figure in the Modern Movement, founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. She worked for over forty years in partnership with her husband, fellow architect Peter Smithson (1923 – 2003), and was noted for her large glass and steel designed schools. The architectural term ‘New Brutalism,’ was inspired by her use of rough-cast concrete in a London housing project.
Examples of their work included the Secondary Modern School at Hunstanton, and the ‘House of the Future’ which featured at the Ideal Homes Exhibition (1956). Her published works included Without Rhetoric: An Architectural Aesthetic (1955), Ordinariness and Light : Urban Theories 1952 – 1960 and Their Application in a Building Project (1970) and The Shift in Our Aesthetic: Ephemera 1950 – 1978 (1982). Alison Smithson died (Aug 22, 1993) aged sixty-five, in London.

Smithson, Evelyn Lord – (1923 – 1992)
American academic
Evelyn Lord was born in Indiana, and attended the University of Washington and Bryn Mawr College, where she obtained her doctorate in classical archaeology and Greek. She was married and divorced and retained her married name. Evelyn Smithson joined the faculty of the State University at Buffalo, where she was a specialist of the Greek classics. Professor Smithson’s area of archaeological expertise was Homeric Greece (1200 – 900 BC) and she worked for over four decades at excavations in Athens organized by the American School of Classic Studies. She was employed as a researcher (1951 – 1962) with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Evelyn Smithson died (March 9, 1992) aged sixty-eight, in Amherst, New York.

Smithson, Harriet – (1800 – 1854) 
British stage actress
Born Henrietta Constance Smithson in Ireland, she made her stage debut at the Drury Lane Theatre in Dublin (1818). Though not particularly well thought of in England, Harriet created a sensation in Paris (1827) and was acclaimed for her interpretations of Shakespearean heroines. She made a disastrous marriage with the French composer, Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869) whose first wife she became (1833). She was the inspiration for his Symphonie Fantastique (1840). They later seperated (1840) and Harriet Smithson died (March 3, 1854).

Smyser, Jane Worthington – (1914 – 1975)
American academic and author
Jane Worthington was born (Aug 1, 1914) in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and was educated at Wells College and then at Yale University. She worked as an instructor at Connecticut College in New London (1942 – 1947) and was married (1949) to Hamilton Smyser, professor of English. Jane Smyser was appointed as the professor of English (1962 – 1975) at Connecticut College and was the department chairman (1969 – 1971). She was a member of the Modern Language Association of America. Professor Smyser’s published works were Wordsworth’s Reading of Roman Prose (1946) and The Prose Works of William Wordsworth (1974) in three volumes. Jane Smyser died (Oct 2, 1975) aged sixty-one, in Norwich, Connecticut.

Smyth, Dame Ethel Mary – (1858 – 1944)
British musician, composer, feminist and suffragette
Ethel Smyth was born in London and studied music in Leipzig, Saxony. She composed devotioanl works, choral works, symphonies, and operas including The Wreckers (1906) and The Boatswain’s Mate (1916). An ardent supporter of the women’s suffrage movement Smythe composed ‘The March of the Women,’ the anthem of the Women’s Social and Political Union, and sufferred a term of imprisonment. She was later created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1922) and published several volumes of autobiography Female Pipings for Eden (1933) and What Happened Next (1940).

Smyth, Penelope Caroline – (1815 – 1882)
Anglo-Neapolitan royal
Penelope Smyth was born (July 9, 1815) the daughter of Grice Smyth and his wife Mary Broderick. She became the morganatic wife (1836) of Prince Carlo of Naples (1811 – 1862), Prince di Capua, they having been married at Gretna Green. The marriage was not recognized and was considered to be a morganatic one. Penelope was known as the Duchessa di Marescala and Contessa de Mascali, though she was not formally granted these titles. With the death of her husband (1862) King Vittorio Emanuele recognized her formally as Princess of the Two Sicilies, and her children all bore their father’s rank. The princess died (Dec 20, 1882) aged sixty-seven. Her children were,

Smythe, Pat – (1928 – 1996)
British equestrienne
Patricia Rosemary Smythe was born at Barnes in London. For almost two decades (1947 – 1964) she was a member of the British show jumping team, and won the European ladies championship four times on the horse Flanagan (1957 and 1961 – 1963). Smythe was the first woman rider to perform at the Olympic Games (1956), and won a bronze medal in the team event. She also won the Queen Elizabeth II Cup (1958), riding Mr Pollard. Smythe was married (1963) to the Swiss lawyer and businessman Sam Koechlin, after which her jumping career declined, and she devoted herself more to writing, producing over twenty books in all, including some volumes for children. Her works included Jump for Joy: Pat Smythe’s Story (1954) and Jumping Life’s Fences (1992). Her later years were affected by fall related illnesses but she did serve as president of the British Show Jumping Association (1986 – 1989).

Snaefrid (Snefrid) – (fl. c880 – c900)
Sandinavian queen
Snaefrid was the daughter of Finnen Svasa, and became the fourth wife (c878) of Harald I Haarfager (853 – 936), King of Norway. Queen Snaefrid bore Harald four sons, Sigurd Rise (c880 – 937) the under-king of Trondheim who left descendants, Halfdan Haaleg, Gudrod Ljome, King of Hardaland and Ragnvald Rettilbein, King of Hardaland who left descendants.

Snagge, Dame Nancy Marion – (1906 – 1999)
British women’s air force officer
Born Nancy Salmon (May 2, 1906), she attended school at Notting Hill in London. She was married (1962) to Thomas Mordaunt Snagge (died 1984). Nancy Salmon joined the WAAF (Women’s Auxiliary Air Force) at the beginning of WW II (1939) and served as a command officer, for which she was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by George VI (1945). She later served as ADC (aide-de-camp) to King George VI (1950 – 1952) and then to his daughter, Queen Elizabeth II (1952 – 1956). In recognition of her service she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by the queen (1955). She served as director of the WRAF (Women’s Royal Aif Force) (1950 – 1956) and retired with the rank of Air Commandant. Dame Nancy Snagge died (Oct 9, 1999) aged ninety-three.

Snandulia – (d. c343 AD)
Persian Christian martyr
Her real name may have been Isnandul which was rendered Snandulia in Greek. The Acts of Bishop St Acepsima recorded that Snandulia was put to death with Pherbutha and several others when they refused to participate in the stoning of a Christian priest named Joseph. Snandulia was venerated as a saint and her feast (Nov 3) was recorded in the Graeco-Slavonian Calendar. The Acta Sanctorum records her feast on (April 2).

Snelgrove, Victoria (Torie) – (1982 – 2004)
American college student, she was born (Oct 29, 1982).
Victoria was accidentally killed by police (Oct 21, 2004), when she and other students were celebrating the Boston Red Sox victory over the New York Yankees in the American League Championship Series. Her funeral was attended by Mitt Romney, the governor of Massachusetts, and unsuccessful presidential candidate (2007 – 2008).

Snell, Hannah – (1723 – 1792) 
British soldier and heroine
Snell was born in Worcester and was left an orphan after the deaths of both parents. She fled from home and was married in London (1743) to a Dutch seaman, who abandoned her when she became pregnant. Snell donned male attire and successfully joined the marines. She fought bravely at the battle of Pondicherry in southern India (1745), and once extracted a fullet from her own groin so her sex would not be detected. Hannah revealed her true sex at the end of the war, but the government insisted on granting her a pension in recognition of her brave service. She returned to England and published an account of her adventures The Female Soldier; Or,The Surprising Life and Adventures of Hannah Snell (1750).

Snelling, Lilian – (1879 – 1972)
British artist and water colour painter
Lilian Snelling studied under Morley Fletcher, and was particularly noted for her botanical illustrations and her lithographs. Snelling served as the official botanic artist (c1916 – 1921) to Sir Isaac Bailey Balfour, the keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, Scotland. She was later attached to the Curtis’s Botanical Magazine as a lithographer, and in which publication appeared her work A Study of the genus Paeonia. Examples of her botanic work appeared in various botanical publications such as The Art of Botanical Illustration (1950) by W. Blunt, whilst others were exhibited at the Royal Horticultural Society.

Snodgrass, Carrie – (1946 – 2004)
American stage, film, and television actress
Caroline Snodgrass was born (Oct 27, 1946) in Park Ridge, Illinois, where she was educated before training for her stage career in Chicago. Snodgrass made a few minor television appearances before appearing in Easy Rider (1969) and Rabbit, Run (1970) opposite James Caan. Carrie Snodgrass was best remembered for her appearance in The Diary of a Mad Housewife (1970) for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress, and for which she won two Golden Globe awards. She later appeared in The Fury (1978). Her stage credits included roles in Oh!, What a Lovely War, Caesar and Cleopatra, The Balcony and Curse of the Starving Class. Carrie Snodgrass died (April 1, 2004) aged fifty-seven, at Los Angeles, California.

Snow, Helen Foster – (1907 – 1997)
American industrial advocate
Helen Foster was born in Cedar City in Utah, the daughter of a lawyer, and attended the University of Utah before traveling to China, where she studied at the universities of Yanjing and Qinghua in Beijing (Peking). She was married to the journalist Edgar Snow with whom she later worked to report the civil war in China and the Japanese invasion. Helen Snow worked as an industrial advocate in China where she was vital to the creation of the Gung-Ho (Work Together) movement of industrial cooperatives in Shanghai during the 1930’s which lasted until the overthrow by the Communists (1958).
Her other written works included The Chinese Labor Movement, Women in Modern China and An American Experience in Yenan. After her retirement she published the autobiography entitled My China Years: A Memoir (1984). The Chinese government later named her as a Friendship Ambassador (1996). Helen Foster Snow died (Jan 11, 1997) aged eighty-nine, at Guildford in Connecticut.

Snow, Pamela Hansford Johnson, Lady   see   Johnson, Pamela Hansford

Snow, Sophia      see    Baddeley, Sophia

Snowden, Ethel Annakin, Lady – (1880 – 1951)
British traveller, suffrage supporter, feminist and Christian socialist
The wife of Philip, first Viscount Snowden (1864 – 1937), Lady Snowden was the author of several works such as The Woman Socialist (1907), A Political Pilgrim in Europe (1920) and Through Bolshevik Russia (1920). Lady Snowden died (Feb 22, 1951) aged seventy.

Snyder, Beatrice – (1924 – 1998)
American executive
Beatrice attended Hunter College where she studied statistics. She was married to Harold Snyder with whom she was the co-founder and executive of Biocraft Laboratories in New Jersey for over three decades (1964 – 1996). The company produced generic pharmaceuticals and became the first generic pharmaceutical company to become listed on the New York Stock Exchange (1985). Mrs Snyder was senior vice president and secretary of the company, and was responsible for the financial side of the business. The company was later sold (1996) to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries and Mrs Snyder then became a member of the Teva board of directors. Beatrice Snyder died (June 21, 1998) aged seventy-four, in Lenoxville.

Snyder, Peggy Lou    see   Hilliard, Harriet

Soares, Manuel de   see   Lisboa, Irene do Ceu Viera

Sobkneferu (Sebekoneferure) – (c1830 – c1781 BC)
Queen regnant of Egypt
Sobkneferu was the daughter of King Amenenemes III of the XIIth Dynasty, and sister to the last ruler of the dynasty, King Amenenemes IV and probably also of his sister-wife, Tanefru. With her brother’s death (c1786 BC), Sobkneferu became queen for nearly four years, taking the style and titles of a pharoah, being officially styled ‘king of Upper and Lower Egypt’. Her name is included in the Saqqara King List.
Queen Sobkneferu may have been responsible for the completion of her father’s mortuary temple at Hawara known as ‘The Labyrinth,’ which was excavated by the noted British archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie for well over two decades (1886 – 1911). It is speculated that Sobkneferu may have owned one of the two badly ruined pyramids at Mazghuna, situated close to other pyramids of the the XII Dynasty.

Socarras, Maria Regla   see   Prio, Maria Regla

Sodergran, Edith – (1892 – 1923) 
Scandinavian symbolist poet
Sodergran was born in Petrograd, Russia, the daughter of combined Swedish and Finnish parentage, and received her education in Russia. Her first language however, was formal German, and her earliest poetry was written in that language. Later, having been influenced by Swedish literary figures she produced her first collection of verse in Swedish, Dikter (Poems) (1916). With the outbreak of the revolution in Russia (1917), Edith and her family emigrated. Her othe published collections of verse included Septemberlyan (September Lyre) (1918) and Rosenaltaret (The Rose Altar) (1919). Edith Sodergran died young of tuberculosis.

Soeharto, Madame    see   Suharto, Siti Hartinah

Sohn, Ruth Southard – (1908 – 1992)
American novelist
She was best known for her work No Sad Songs For Me (1944), which was published under her maiden name of Southard. This work was later made into a film which starred Margaret Sullavan and Natalie Wood (1950). Ruth Sohn died (Aug 28, 1992) aged eighty-four, in Seattle, Washington.

Soissons, Olympia Mancini, Comtesse de – (1640 – 1708)
Italian-French courtier
Olympia Mancini was born in Rome, the niece of Cardinal Mazarin and sister to Hortense Mancini, Marie Anne, Duchesse de Bouillon, and Laure, Duchesse de Mercoeur. A great beauty, like all her sisters she was educated with her sisters at the Visitation convent in the Rue de St Jacques in Paris. She was presented at court and then Cardinal Mazarin arranged for her marriage (1657) in Paris with Prince Eugenio Maurizio of Savoy (1635 – 1673), the Comte de Soissons a scion of the House of Savoy, to whom she bore a large family of eight children.
By nature an imperious intriguer the comtesse became the mistress of Louis XIV, but their relationship proved of short duration. Jealous of the elevation of the king’s mistress Louise de La Valliere, the comtesse continually plotted for her downfall with no effect. She was dismissed from court (1664) because of her involvement in intrigues against the king’s sister-in-law Henriette Anne, Duchesse d’Orleans, but later reinstated and granted the title of superintendent (surintendante) of the household of Queen Marie Therese. She was suspected of poisoning her husband (1673), though her complicity could not be proved.
With her sister the Duchesse de Bouillon Madame de Soissons became involved in the infamous ‘Affair of the Poisons’ (1679 – 1681) involving the witch La Voisin, where she was accused of poisoning both her husband and the late Queen of Spain and of using witchcraft to to regain her former position as the king’s mistress. Due to King Louis’s arrangement, she was permitted to escape by coach to the Netherlands with her friend Madame d’Alluye who was also implicated. They settled in Belgium. Her position in the queen’s household was sold to Madame de Montespan for two hundred thousand crowns, which sum was then sent to the comtesse for her maintenance. Olympia was later permitted to visit the Spanish court in Madrid (1686) but her intrigues there to secure her son Eugene a place in Spanish affairs failed. Madame de Soissons died (Oct 9, 1708) aged sixty-eight, in Brussels. She was mother to the famous soldier, Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663 – 1736) who served with the Imperial Austrian army.

Sokolova, Lydia – (1896 – 1974)
British ballerina
Born Hilda Munnings in Wanstead in Essex, she was niece to the noted painter Sir Alfred James Munnings (1878 – 1959), president of the Royal Academy (1944 – 1949). She trained under Anna Pavlova and joined the company of Mikhail Mordkin which toured the USA. She then performed with the troupe of Feodor Kosloff. Lydia became the first British girl to join Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1913), and remained with him till his death (1929).
Sokolova performed with Massine, who created the role of Kikimora in Contes Russes, and the tarantella in La Boutique Fantastique, especially for her, and cast her as the maiden in dramatically challenging role for, The Rite of Spring, which performed admirably. Sokolova later performed for Leon Woizokovski’s troupe and emerged from retirement to perform in Massine’s revival of The Good Humoured Ladies (1962). She left memoirs entitled Dancing for Diaghilev (1960).

Sokolow, Anna – (1912 – 2000) 
American dancer, choreographer and educator
Anna Sokolow was born in Hartford, Connecticut, and studied dance at the School of American Ballet and at the Metropolitan Opera School before joining the dance group organized by noted choreographer Martha Graham. Sokolow later founded her own dance company and then established La Paloma azul, the first modern dance troupe in Mexico (1939). She also worked in film and television before she retired (1954).

Solanas, Valerie Jean – (1936 – 1988)
American radical feminist and author
The founder of SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men) and author of the Scum Manifesto, she was born in Atlantic City and studied psychology at the University of Maryland. Solanas later attended the University of Minnesota and the University of Berkeley. Her own experiences with her father, who deserted the family, and working as a prostitute to pay her way through college, convinced her that men could done without altogether, and advocated test-tube pregnancies for women. She gained media notoriety after she shot Andy Warhol (1968), whilst sufferring from schizophrenia, but he recovered. She was presented in the film I Shot Andy Warhol (1996) as suffering from mental instability, partly created by her abusive family situation. Valerie Solanas died in poverty in a public hostel in San Francisco, California.

Soldene, Emily – (c1840 – 1912)
British actress, vocalist, journalist, and novelist
Soldene was born at Islington and was educated at Miss Freeman’s Select Academy for Young Ladies in Islington. She was author of the novel Young Mrs Staples (1896) and a volume of reminiscences entitled My Theatrical and Musical Recollections (1897). Emily Soldene died (April 8, 1912).

Solms, Melle de   see  Betzon, Therese

Solms, Studholmina Hodgson, Comtesse Bonaparte de – (1831 – 1902)
French novelist and historical writer, political journalist, and adventuress
Studholmina Hodgson was born in Weedon, England, the illegitimate daughter of Captain Studholm John Hodgson and Princess Letitia de Bonaparte, the daughter of Lucien de Bonaparte, Prince de Cansino-Musignano and niece to emperor Napoleon I. She adopted the surname of Bonaparte-Wyse prior to her first marriage. Brought up in Paris, she frequented the salon of Madame Recamier and was married firstly (1848) to the wealthy German Comte Frederick de Solms, who subsequently abandoned her after she gave birth to the child of her lover, the Marquis de Pommereau, who bore the name and title of Comte Alexis de Solms (1852 – 1927).
Due to this scandal she was refused admittance to the court of Napoleon III, and her written attacks against the new court became so violent that she was expelled from France. She lived abroad for many years establishing a revolutionary salon in her home, where she entertained other literary and political exiles such as Victor Hugo, Michelet and Quinet. She later became the mistress of King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia, and only returned to her native land in 1860, where she worked as a journalist and editor.
Widowed in 1863 the comtesse remarried (1863) to Urbain Rattazzi (1808 – 1873) the Italian prime minister. Their daughter Roma Rattzzi (1871 – 1943) became the wife of Luis Villanova de la Cuadra (1859 – 1901). Madame Rattazzo’s novel Bicheville (1867) portrayed her husband’s political enemies and friends in such obvious disguise that he was forced to retire from politics till 1870.  She entertained Alexandre Dumas in her salon at the palazzo Santa Croce, but removed to Madrid after the death of Rattazi. Madame de Solms then married her third husband Luis de Rute y Giner (1844 – 1889) to whom she bore two daughters who both died young.
Accusations of homosexual perversion proven against the comtesse in the ‘Charlotte affair’ (1892), concerning her relationship with a former servant Charlotte de Boulu, created a great scandal, especially when her love letters were published. She produced two further novels which appeared together under the title Si j’etais reine (If I Were Queen), and the erotic novel Les Mariages de la Creole (The Marriages of a Creole) (1866) which was subsequently banned. The comtesse died aged seventy-one, in Paris.

Solntseva, Yulia – (1901 – 1989)
Russian actress and film director
Born (Aug 7, 1901) in Moscow, Solntseva graduated from the State Institute of Musical Drama (1922). She made her first noteworthy movie appearance in Aelita (1924), and then in Earth/Soil (1930), under the direction of Alexander Dovzhenko, whom she later married. She worked with her husband as associate director of Schors (1939) and was co-director of the war propaganda film The Fight for our Soviet Ukraine in Flames (1943). With her husband’s death (1956) Yulia continued to work as a film director, and made a film concerning the life of her husband Zolotye Vorota (1971). She was a member of the jury for the Cannes Film Festival (1975). Yulia Solntseva died (Oct, 1989) aged eighty-eight.

Sologne, Madeleine de – (1912 – 1995)
French theatre and film actress
Born Madeleine Simon Vouillon (Oct 27, 1912) at Ferte-Imbault, and was raised near Romorantin in the Sologne region from where she took her prpfessional name. She made appearances in such films as Girls of the Rhone (1937), Conflict (1939), Fevers (1942), The Wolf of Malveneur (1943), The Femme Fatale (1946) and The Time of the Wolves (1969) Sologne also appeared in the television films Salome (1973) by Pierre Koralnik and The Nettle (1975) by Roger Kahane. Her second husband was the director Leopold Schlosberg. Madeleine de Sologne died (March 31, 1995) aged eighty-two, at Vierzon.

Solomon, Flora – (1895 – 1984)
Russian-Anglo welfare organizer
Born Flora Beneson in Pinsk, into a wealthy family, she was raised at Baku on the Caspian Sea, and was educated in Germany. She later removed to England with her father, where she was married (1919) to a British colonel, Harold Solomon.The couple resided for several years in Jerusalem, Palestine (1919 – 1924), where her husband was employed by the colonial office. With their return to England, she became a socialist and was a friend to Margaret Bondfield and Ellen Wilkinson. She later became involved in a lengthy affair with the Russian revolutionary leader Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (1881 – 1970).

With the death of her husband (1930), Flora was employed by the department store, Marks & Spencer, and insitituted health care and maternity benefits for staff. Solomon established the famous wartime British Restaurants and was appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George VI (1945) in recognition of her valuable work. She was the mother of Peter Benenson, the founder of Amnesty International.

Solomonia Yurievna (Salome) – (c1490 – 1542)
Russian grand princess
Solomonina Saburova was the daughter of the boyar (noble) Yury Konstantovich Saburov. She became the first wife (1505) of Grand Prince Vassily III of Moscow (1479 – 1533), the wedding taking place in the Cathedral of the Dormition within the Kremlin Palace. The couple had no children despite the princess’s desperate applications to sorcery and astrology in an attempt to end her barrenness. Finally, after two decades the marriage the prince gave in to his advisers and it was annulled (1526).
Princess Solomonia vainly protested against the divorce but was forcibly removed from the Kremlin Palace, and made to become a nun at the Nativity Monastery in Moscow as Sister Sophia. During the ceremony of taking the veil, Solomonia struggled so violently that one of her husband’s officers struck her with his stick to recall her to order. Several courtiers and monks who dared to intercede on her behalf were immediately exiled from Russia. The princess was later removed to the monastery of Suzdal. Princess Solomonia died (Dec 18, 1542) at Suzdal, leaving persistent rumours that she had borne an illegitimate son.

Solre-Le-Chateau, Dame Adrienne de   see   Berlaymont, Adrienne de

Solser, Adrienne – (1873 – 1943)
Dutch film actress and director
Solser was born (Feb 18, 1873) in Rotterdam. Solser appeared in silent films such as De Jantjes (The Bluejackets) (1922), Keen en Janus naar Paijs (1924), and Cirque hollandais (1924) before she directed several silent films such as Bet de koningin van de Jordan (Bet, Queen of Jordan) (1924). She later appeared in sound films such as Het Meisje met den blauwen hoed (1934), De Suikerfreute (1935) and Ik fluit in de Loop dat je zult Komen’ (1943) her last movie role. Adrienne Solser died (Nov 29, 1943) aged seventy, at Doetinchem, Gelderland.

Solsona i Querol, Josefina – (1907 – 1960)
Spanish dramatist, translator and poet
Solsona was born in Barcelona and became a journalist. She wrote articles for various publications such as Las noticias, the Mexican magazine Abside,for the children’s section of the Patufet publication in Barcelona (1931 – 1938) and for the weekly publication L’Atalaya. She wrote novels for juveniles which included Los alegres cacharreros (The Happy Potters) (1943), Los caballeros de Santa Clara (The Knights of Santa Clara) (1943), Cuando Agustin se Ilamo Pedro Claver (When Agustin was called Pedro Claver) (1946) and Eulalia (1950).
Solsona also wrote several plays such as El misteri de ca l’encantat (The Mystery of the Haunted House) (1950) and Maritza (1952), and the children’s story La dulce Julieta (Sweet Julieta) (1943). She translated the work of the Italian author Augusto de Angelis into Castilian as Il misterio di Cinecitta, and gave lectures before the Astronomy Society of Spain and America. Some of her work was published under the pseudonym of ‘Cecilia Beltran.’ Josefina Solsona i Querol died in Barcelona.

Solveig Halfdansdotter – (fl. c700 – c720)
Scandinavian queen
Solveig was the daughter of Halfdan Gold-Tooth and became the wife of Olaf Ingialdsson (c679 – c710) known as Tree-Hewer, King of Vermaland. Queen Solveig was the mother of Halfdan Olafsson White Leg, the King of the Upplanders and left descendants.

Somalladevi – (fl. c1100 – c1130)
Indian queen
Somalladevi was the wife of Ajayaraja, King of the Chahamara, and was the mother of his successor King Arnaraja. A woman of some considerable power and influence the queen had coins minted in her own name, an honour accorded to few consorts.

Sombernon, Istiburgis de – (c980 – after 1027)
French mediaeval heiress and religious patron
Istiburgis was the wife (c995) of Warner (c970 – before 1027), Seigneur of Sombernon in Burgundy, the brother of Aldo I, seigneur de Tilchatel. Her own parentage remains unknown though Istiburgis may have been a family connection of Aimo I, Comte de Auxois, whose family possessed lands at Salmaise. When Warner donated land at Salmaise to the abbey of St Benigne at Dijon, the charter mentioned his wife Istiburgis and their two daughters. As a widow (1027) she confirmed a gift made by her daughter Addilla of other lands at Salmaise to St Benigne, for her burial. In this charter she is called ‘Engelberga.’ Her daughters were,

Somers, Ann    see   Gorham, Kathleen

Somerset, Anne Stanhope, Duchess of    see    Stanhope, Anne

Somerset, Charlotte Finch, Duchess of – (c1700 – 1773)
British Hanoverian peeress
Lady Charlotte Finch was the second daughter of Sir Daniel Finch (1647 – 1730), seventh Earl of Winchilsea, and second Earl of Nottingham, and his second wife Anne Hatton (1667 – 1743), the daughter of Christopher, first Viscount Hatton of Gretton (1632 – 1709). Lady Charlotte became the second wife (1726) of Charles Seymour (1662 – 1748), sixth Duke of Somerset, and bore him two daughters. When the widowed duke had desired to marry the widowed Duchess of Marlborough, she refused his suit, but successfully suggested Lady Charlotte in her place.
Her married life cannot have been east due to her husband’s proud temperament. It was recorded that when the duchess once tapped her husband on the arm with her fan, in order to get his attention, he loftily replied ‘Madam, my first duchess was a Percy, and she never took such as liberty.’ Charlotte survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (1748 – 1773), and attended the joint coronations of George III and Queen Charlotte (1761). As a widow she resided at Sutton Court in Middlesex. The Duchess died (Jan 21, 1773) at Chiswick, Middlesex. Her children were,

Somerset, Elizabeth Herbert, Lady    see    Herbert, Lady Elizabeth

Somerset, Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of – (1667 – 1722)
British heiress and courtier
Lady Elizabeth Percy was born (Jan 26, 1667), the only surviving child and sole heiress of Josceline Percy, eleventh and last earl of Northumberland and his wife Elizabeth Wriothesley. At the age of only three years (1670) Elizabeth succeeded to the honours and estates of the Percy dynasty, holding in her own right, six of the oldest baronies of the kingdom, namely Percy, Lucy, Poynings, Bryan, Fitz-Payne, and Latimer. She was reared by her paternal grandmother Elizabeth Howard, widow of the tenth earl, who refused her hand (Feb, 1679) for Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of Charles II and Louise de Keroualle. She was married to Henry Cavendish, earl of Ogle (1663 – 1680), heir of Henry, second Duke of Newcastle, who took the surname of Percy. With Lord Ogle’s death, Lady Northumberland arranged for Elizabeth to remarry (1681), much against her will, to the well battered rake, Thomas Thynne of Longleat (1468 – 1682), popularly known as ‘Tom of Ten Thousand,’ whom she promptly deserted. Thynne was murdered in Pall Mall by hired assassins (Feb 12, 1682) at the instigation of Count Karl von Konigsmarck, who had been a suitor for Lady Ogle’s hand.
Elizabeth was married thirdly and lastly (May 30, 1682) to Charles Seymour, the sixth Duke of Somerset (1662 – 1748). The duchess was a prominent figure at the court of William and Mary, and served as chief mourner at the funeral of Mary II (1694). Despite her extreme coolness towards Sir Robert Harley and Mrs Masham, she retained her court appointments of Mistress of the Robes and Groom of the Stole under Queen Anne, to which she had succeeded the Duchess of Marlborough (Jan, 1711), and the queen remained adamant against any efforts to remove the duchess from office. No-one worked harder towards this objective than Jonathon Swift, who circulated cruel lampoons (Dec, 1711) about the duchess, The Windsor Prophecy (which he later tried to recall). In this worh the duchess was reproached for her red hair, ‘Beware of Carrots from Northumberland,’ and for the death of Thomas Thynne. Whether or not in Swift’s words, the duchess worked to ‘instil venom in the royal ear,’ she certainly aided Hanoverian interests and influenced her husband in the same direction. Her thirteen children included Algernon Seymour (1684 – 1750), who succeeded his father as seventh Duke of Somerset (1748 – 1750) and left descendants.

Somerset, Frances Thynne, Duchess of – (1699 – 1754)
British peeress, courtier and poet
Frances Thynne was born (May 10, 1699) at Longleat in Wiltshire, the eldest daughter and coheiress of the Hon. (Honourable) Henry Thynne, and his wife Grace Strode, the daughter of Sir George Strode of Leweston, Dorset. Her father was the son and heir of Sir Thomas Thynne, first Viscount Weymouth. Frances was married (1715) to Algernon Seymour (1684 – 1750), Earl of Hertford, the eldest son and heir of Charles Somerset, sixth Duke of Somerset. Lady Hertford was appointed to serve at the Hanoverian court as lady-in-waiting (1723) to Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales, and soon became involved in scholarly patronage at court. When she was not residing at the court Lady Hertford spent much time at her country estate of Marlborough Castle.
A contemporary recorded that,” She was a firm fostering patroness of Thomson, and was high in the esteem of Watts and Shenstone.” James Thomson dedicated his poem ‘Spring’ (1727) to Lady Hertford and was entertained by her with Shenstone at Alnwick in Northumberland. Isaac Watts dedicated to her his Reliquiae Juveniles (1734) in which were included four of her own poems under the name ‘Eusebia,’  as well as his edition of Elizabeth Rowe’s work Devout Exercises of the Heart (1737). Her surviving poems included ‘The Story of Inkle and Yarico’ (1726) and ‘Life at Richkings’ (1740) which was addressed to Lady Pomfret. Lady Hertford corresponded with Henrietta Fermor, Countess of Pomfret and Mrs Elizabeth Rowe. Her letters were edited posthumously in two volumes by William Bingley (1805).
The countess influenced Queen Caroline to the extent of interceding to save the life (1728) of the poet Richard Savage who was condemned for murder, explaining to her mistress that he should not hang for a murder that could not have been premeditated. Lady Hertford was present at the marriage of Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales with Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. Her period of service with the royal household ended with the death of Queen Caroline (Nov, 1737). Lady Frances became the Duchess of Somerset (1748 – 1750) when Lord Hertford succeeded his elderly father as the seventh Duke of Somerset. Frances survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (1750 – 1754) and died (July 7, 1754) aged fifty-five, at Percy Lodge. She was interred within the Chapel of St Nicholas in Westminster Abbey with her husband (July 20). Their only son George Seymour (1725 – 1744), Viscount Beauchamp died of smallpox in Bologne, Italy, without leaving issue and his sister Lady Elizabeth Seymour (1716 – 1776) became her father’s heiress. She succeeded to the barony of Percy (1750) whilst her husband, Sir Hugh Smithson Percy (1715 – 1786) became the first Duke of Northumberland (1766) in her right.

Somerset, Lady Geraldine Harriet Anne – (1832 – 1915)
British courtier and diarist
Lady Geraldine Somerset was the third daughter of Henry Somerset, the seventh Duke of Beaufort and his second wife Emily Frances Culling-Smith, the daughter of Charles Culling-Smith. She never married and served as lady-in-waiting to HRH (Her Royal Highness) Duchess Augusta of Cambridge, the aunt of Queen Victoria. Geraldine served the duchess for many decades until her death (1889). The duchess had been crippled by a stroke and Lady Geraldine wrote her diary entries for her. Those and Lady Geraldine’s own personal reminiscence of the Cambridge branch of the royal family remain within the Royal Archives at Windsor Castle in Berkshire.

Somerset, Isabella Caroline Somers-Cocks, Lady – (1851 – 1921)
British civic activist and author
Lady Isabella Somers-Cocks was the daughter of Sir Charles Somers-Cocks, Earl Somers, and his wife Virginia, the daughter of James Pattle, a member of the Bengal civil service. She married (1872) Lord Henry Somerset (1849 – 1932). Ostracized from polite society after the scandalous revelations of her husband’s homosexual activities were publicly revealed (1878), Lady Isabella devoted herself to work amongst the poor at Ledbury and Eastnor Castle, in Herefordshire. The suicide of a close friend led her to take up the cause of temperance work, and she later served as president of the World Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WWCTU) from 1898 – 1906.
Initially well received in America, her refusal to support the Prohibition movement lost her much favour there.  She founded a farm colony for disadvantaged children at Duxhurst, near Reigate (1895), the first institution of its king in England.  Lady Isabella was the founder (1894) and editor of the, Women’s Signal journal, and herself contributed many articles to both British and American magazines. Other works included Our Village Life (1884), Sketches in Black and White (1896), the novel Under the Arch of Life (1906) and Beauty from Ashes (1913).

Somerset, Jane Georgiana Sheridan, Duchess of – (1809 – 1884)
British Victorian beauty and writer
Jane Goergiana Sheridan was born (Nov 5, 1809), the third daughter of Thomas Sheridan and his wife Caroline Henrietta Callander, and was the granddaughter of the dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan and his wife Elizabeth Linley, daughter of the composer Thomas Linley. She was sister to Caroline Norton and to Helen Selina Sheridan. Edward Adolphus Seymour, Earl of St Maur (1805 – 1885), the eldest son and heir of Edward Seymour, the eleventh Duke of Somerset fell in love with Jane and married her (1830) despite the opposition of his father, and Jane became the Countess of St Maur. Lord and Lady St Maur attended the coronation of King William IV and his wife Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen in Westminster Abbey (1831).
As Lady St Maur she was the ‘Queen of Beauty’ at the famous tournament held at Eglinton Castle (1839) and her nephew Lord Dufferin wrote of her ‘The beauty of each of these sisters was of a different type, but they were all equally tall and stately. The Duchess of Somerset had large deep blue-violet eyes, black hair, eyebrows and eyelashes, perfect features and a complexion of lilies and roses – a kind of colouring seldom seen out of Ireland.’ Benjamin Disraeli wrote of her ‘anything so splendid I never gazed upon … clusters of the darkest hair, the most brilliant complexion, a contour of face perfectly ideal.’
When her husband succeeded as the twelfth Duke of Somerset (1855) Lady Jane became popularly known as the ‘Sheridan Duchess’ which made the Somerset family resent her inferior birth all the more, the thirteenth Duke of Somerset describing her as a ‘low-born greedy beggar woman’ whose sole aim was gain control of the family estates and alienate them from the direct heirs. The duchess published a book of guinea pig recipes, and when her eldest son Lord St Maur died of heart disease (1869) the grieving Duchess though his death so unexpected that she printed for private circulation an account of his illness with reflections upon the conduct of the physician Charles Williams (1805 – 1889). The Duchess died (Dec 14, 1884) aged seventy-five, at her residence in Park Lane, London. She was buried at Gerrard’s Cross in Buckinghamshire. Her children were,

Somerset, Sarah Alston, Duchess of – (1631 – 1692)
English Stuart philanthropist and founder
Sarah Alston was born in London, the elder daughter and coheir of the physician, Sir Edward Alston and his wife Susan Hudson Hussey, a widow. Sarah married three times, firstly to George Grimston, secondly to John Seymour, fourth Duke of Somerset (died 1675), from whom she later seperated (1672), and lastly to Henry Hare, second Baron Coleraine (1625 – 1708), though she always retained use of the ducal title by royal warrant (1682). Despite her marriages she died childless.
The duchess resided in London throughout the interregnum which followed the end of the Cromwellian regime and throught the entire Restoration period that followed. She is remembered as one of the most outstanding of all philanthropic benefactors of the seventeenth century. The list of her interests included the Broad Town Charity, the Tottenham Grammar School, (now known as The Somerset School), the Hereford Cathedral School, and the Green Coat School. She herself founded scholarships both at Brasenose College, Oxford, and St John’s College, Cambridge, as well as providing almshouses for the poor and indigent, and presenting valuable silver plate to Westminster Abbey. The Duchess of Somerset died (Oct 25, 1692) aged sixty-one, in London, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, where her monument remains.

Somerville, Edith Anna Oenone – (1858 – 1949)
Irish novelist
Edith Somerville was born in Corfu, Greece, the daughter of an officer. She was raised at Drishane in Skibbereen, County Cork, and attended Alexandra College in Dublin. She studied art and was then employed as a magazine illustrator. From 1886 she formed a lasting literary association with her cousin Violet Florence Martin, who published her work under the pseudonym ‘Martin Ross.’
Together they published several satirical novels of Irish life such as An Irish Cousin (1889), The Real Charlotte (1894), Some Experiences of an Irish RM (1899) and In Mr Knox’s Country (1915). With Violet’s death (1915) Edith stillpublished works under their joint names. These included Irish Memoirs (1917) and The Big House at Inver (1925). Edith Somerville was one of the founding members of the Irish Academy of Letters (1933).

Somerville, Mary – (1897 – 1963) 
Scottish educator and broadcasting executive
Somerville was born (Nov 1, 1897) in New Zealand, the daughter of a clergyman, and was raised in East Lothian, Scotland. She attended Somerville College at Oxford after which she was employed as a radio broadcaster at the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). She was married twice. Mary Somerville was later placed in charge of all educational broadcasting for children, being appointed assistant controller (1947) and then controller (1950), the first woman to hold that position with the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). Mary Somerville was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1935) in recognition of her valuable work. Mary Somerville died (Sept 1, 1963) aged sixty-five, in Bath, Somerset.

Somerville, Mary Greig – (1780 – 1872)
Scottish astronomer, mathematician, and physical geographer
Born Mary Greig Fairfax in Jedburgh, she was the daughter of a naval officer. Despite the disapproval of her family she studied the classics. Mary was married to William Somerville and from 1816 she resided in London, where she became a prominent member of literary society. Mary Somerville was the author of The Magnetic Properties of the Violet Rays in the Solar Spectrum (1826), and The Mechanism of the Heavens (1831), her own adaption of Mecanique Celeste by the Frenchman Pierre Simon Laplace. She later received an annual government pension because of her valuable research, and Somerville College at Oxford was named in her honour (1879).

Sommerville, Mary   see   Lawford, Mary Sommerville Bunny, Lady

Somroo, Zeb-un-nissar, Begum – (1750 – 1836)
Indian princess and ruler of Sardhana
Princess Zeb-un-nissar became the wife of the German adventurer Walter Reinhardt, known as ‘Somru’ (Sombre) because of his dark complexion, and the princess, who had been baptised in Agra as a Christian (1781) became known as the ‘Begum Somroo’ after him. Because of his services to the Mughal emperor, Reinhardt had been granted the fief of Sardhana. With Reinhardt’s death the Begum managed this vast estate with great ability and cunning, with the assistance of her late husbnad’s privately trained army.
Her careful cultivation of, and friendship with the British, ensured her survival as the ruler of Sardhana. She was renowned for her amorous intrigues and strength of character. Her legatee was her step grandson, David Uchterlony Dyce, who became a social celebrity when he visited London (1838). He later married the daughter of Lord St Vincent, and died insane (1851). Begum Somroo died (May 7, 1836) aged eighty-five.

Sondergard, Gale – (1899 – 1985)
American film actress famous for her sinister smile
Born Edith Sondergaard in Litchfield, Minnesota, after finishing her education at the University of Minnesota she became a theatre actress before arriving in Hollywood. Tall and exotic looking, her second husband was the director Herbert Biberman (1900 – 1971), who was one of the ‘Hollywood Ten.’ Her husband was persecuted during the rabid anti-communist period in the 1950’s and as a result, Sondergaard’s own career faltered.
Sondergard received an Academy Award for her role in Anthony Adverse (1940), and was particularly remembered as the wronged and vengeful Malay wife in The Letter (1940) with Bette Davis. Her other film credits included The Cat and the Canary (1939), The Bluebird (1940), Spider Woman (1944), Anna and the King of Siam (1946) with Irene Dunne and Rex Harrison, in which she played the king’s chief wife Lady Tiang, and Road to Rio (1947). After an absence from the screen of several decades, Sondergaard returned to films and appeared in the television movie The Cat Creature (1974), and the movie Pleasantville (1976).

Sondok – (c580 – 647) 
Korean ruler and astronomer
Sondok was the eldest daughter of Chinp’yong, King of Silla (579 – 632),and his first queen, Ma-ya. She succeeded her father (632) as the 27th ruler of Silla, and was the first queen regent in Korean history, there being no male heir. She built the famous nine-story pagoda at the Hwangyong monastery with the Buddhist monk Chajang, and constructed the Ch’omsongdae (Nearer the Stars) observatory at Kyongju. This structure remains today, being the oldest known astronomical observatory known in that part of the world.
Gifted with the voice of prophesy, according to the Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms), the queen made three famous predictions all of which came to pass, one of which foiled an attempted invasion of her kingdom by a Paekche army. An attempt to remove her from the throne at home was defeated by her loyal general Kim Yu-shin, and Queen Sondok forged useful foreign alliances with the T’ang Dynasty in China. This pro-China policy saved the kingdom of Silla from eventual ruin. At her death the throne passed to another female, her cousin Chindok.

Song Mei-ling (Madame Chiang Kai-Shek) – (1901 – 2003) 
Chinese stateswoman, sociologist, reformer, educator, and author
The wife of General Jiang Jeshi (Chiang Kai-Shek), Song Mei-ling was the fourth daughter of a wealthy industrialist from Shanghai. She was raised as a Christian in the USA, where she was educated (1908 – 1917). She was married (1927) to Jiang Jeshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) (1887 – 1975), then the leader of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang). Song Mei-ling worked closely with her husband as his secretary and interpreter, and was a leading figure in the New Life Movement which encouraged the old traditional Chinese values.
During WW II she worked to further her husband’s political cause, and made a highly successful trip to the USA (1942 – 1943). After the fall of the Nationalist government she held no official posts. With her husband’s death (1975) she resided in the USA. She died aged one hundred and two. Her published works included This Is Our China (1940), and China Shall Rise Again (1941).

Song Qingling (Soong Ch’ing-ling, Madame Sun Yat-Sen) – (1892 – 1981) 
Chinese revolutionary leader and civil rights activist
Song Qingling was the elder daughter of a wealthy industrialist, and was raised as a Christian in the USA. She was appointed to be the English language secretary to the Chinese revolutionary politician and statesman Sun Yat-Sen (1866 – 1925), and the couple were soon married soon afterwards (1914). With her husband’s death Song Qingling became increasingly active in politics, and was closely associated with the leftist Guomindang. She was elected to their Central Executive Committee and then became part of the new Guomindang government at Wuhan (1927), in opposition to General Chiang Kai-Shek (1887 – 1975), the husband of her younger sister, Song Mei-ling.
With the collapse of the Wuhan government soon afterwards however, she fled to Russia and remained there several years. During the period of the 1930’s Song Qingling maintained her opposition to Jiang Jeshi’s rule and served with the China League for Civil Rights movement. With the eventual victory of the Chinese communist party (1949) she was appointed as an honorary non-communist chairperson for the new People’s Republic, and was accorded great respect by the Comminist government.

Sontag, Henriette Gertrud Walpurgis – (1806 – 1854)
German coloratura soprano
Sontag was born (Jan 3, 1806) at Koblentz, the daughter of the actor Franz Sonntag and his wife the actress and vocalist Franziska Martloff. Henriette appeared on stage from early childhood in various operas and studied singing under Anna Czegka at the Prague Conservatory. She made her operatic debut in the role of the princess in Francois Adrien Boieldieu’s Jean de Paris in Prague (1821).
Possessed a very high vocal range as well as beauty, Henriette Sontag became an internationally famous opera divaperformed the title role of Karl Weber’s opera Eurynanthe (1823). She became the wife (1828) of the Sardinian diplomat Count Carlo Rossi and was ennobled by the King of Prussia as Henriette von Lauenstein. She later resumed her stage career after her husband lost his diplomatic post (1849), and performed in London, Paris, Berlin and the USA before touring Mexico with an Italian opera company. Her last stage appearance was as Lucrezia Borgia (June 11, 1854). Henriette Sontag died of cholera (June 17, 1854) aged forty-eight, in Mexico.

Sontag, Susan – (1933 – 2005)
American intellectual, critic, and essayist
Sontag was born in New York City and attended Chicago University, and then worked at Harvard and Oxford. She was married to the Freudian analyst Philip Rieff, and published several philosophical works on education such as Against Interpretation (1966) and Styles of Radical Will (1969). Sontag wrote two screenplays Duet for Cannibals (1969) and Brother Carl (1971), as well as two films Promised Lands (1974) and Unguided Tour (1983). She also published the works Illness as a Metaphor (1978), AIDS and Its Metaphors (1989) and the novel The Volcano Lover (1992). Susan Sontag died of cancer.

Sonwha – (fl. c590 – c620) 
Korean queen
Sonwha was one of the younger daughters of Chinp’yong, King of Silla, and his first queen Ma’ya, and sister to Sondok, the astronomer queen (632 – 647). According to tradition King Mu of Paekche fell in love with Sonwha, and inconsequence she was banished from her father’s kingdom, with only the clothes on her back and a bag of gold. The lovers were then married, and Sonwha was the mother of Euja, King of Paelche from (641 – 660).

Soong    see    Song

Sophia, Aelia – (c519 – c601)
Byzantine Augusta (565 – 578)
Sophia was the daughter of Sittas, duke of Armenia, and his wife Comto, the elder sister to the famous empress Theodora, wife of Justinian I. It was her aunt who organized her marriage (c534) with the future Justin II (c505 – 578), nephew and heir to Justinian I. Their son Justus died before 565, and their daughter Arabia married count Baduarius by whom she left an only daughter.
During her husband’s reign, the empress Sophia played a significant role in Byzantine politics. When the emperor failed in his efforts to make a peace with the Persians (572) either in Armenia, or in the diocese of the east, the empress entered into the peace negotiations on her husband’s behalf (574).
The emperor had, by this stage, become subject to fits of insanity, and Sophia influenced him to adopt as his heir and successor, the general Tiberius, who was granted the title of Caesar (574). Justin on his deathbed commended Sophia to the care of Tiberius as his adopted mother, but it is probable that Sophia had hoped to marry him herself, and thus retain her imperial title and influence in public affairs. Tiberius II was in fact already married, and publicly proclaimed his wife as Anastasia as empress. She plotted to replace him with a more grateful and subservient successor, but her conspiracy was detected. Her Imperial honours were withdrawn, nd she was provided with a modest allowance for her maintenance. Her attendants were dismissed, her correspondence intercepted, and her person guarded. Her honours were restored by the emperor Maurice, son-in-law of Tiberius II (582) and she was still living as empress dowager when the chronicler Theophanes recorded that Sophia and Constantina were granted Imperial crowns by the Emperor Maurice (March 26, 601). Empress Sophia died soon after this date but before the downfall of Maurice (602) aged over eighty. She was interred within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

Sophia Alexievna – (1657 – 1704) 
Russian tsarina (1687 – 1689)
Grand Dcuhess Sophia Alexievna Romanovna was born (Sept 27, 1657) in Moscow, the fourth daughter of Tsar Alexis I and his first tsarina, Maria Ilinichna Miloslavskaya. Sophia was educated by Simon of Polotsk and remained unmarried. With the death of her childless brother Tsar Feodor III (1682), Sophia took control of the palace and the political situation and caused her younger brother Ivan and her half-brother Peter (the Great) to be proclaimed joint rulers with herself as regent, with the support of the powerful royal guard the streltsky.
With the support of the feared palace guard and that of her lover, Prince Vassily Golitsyn, Sophia became the real ruler of Russia. She conducted a witch hunt of members of the powerful Naryshkin family, relatives of her stepmother, the Dowager Tsarina, and wiped out many of her kinsmen, to prevent their taking up the cause of young Peter. She signed peace treaties with Sweden and Denmark (1684) and was proclaimed empress in 1687, though she failed to rally support for her coronation which never took place. She made a peace treaty with China (1689) but several crushing defeats against Turkish troops led to her government becoming discredited and she was removed from power in a palace coup (1689) and immured within the Novodevichy convent in Moscow, loudly protesting against her confinement.
Sophia remained there for a decade and was not forced to take vows as a nun. However, after the streltsky’s abortive revolt (1698) which had aimed at replacing Sophia in power, Peter was forced to take sterner measures. Though Sophia had not participated in this rebellion she was then forced to become a nun, in order to remove her as a focus for future rebellions. She took the religious name of Susanna and never emerged from seclusion. Sophia died (July 14, 1704) aged forty-six, at Novodevichy.

Sophia Artsruni – (c875 – c940)
Armenian queen consort of Siounia
Sophia Artsruni was the daughter of Grigor Derenc Artsruni, King (Grand Ishkhan) of Siounia, by his wife Sophia Bagratid, the daughter of Ashot I ‘the Great,’ King of Armenia. She was the sister of Gagic Artsuni, prince of Vaspurakan and king of Armenia (909 – 936). Sophia’s marriage (c890) to Sembat Orbeliani, King of Siounia (Grand Ishkhan) was one of great political significance. Stephen Orbeliani in his Histoire de la Sounte (1864) recorded that Queen Sophia unsuccessfully defended her husband’s capital of Erchendrac against the Persian invader Youssouff ‘Ostigan’ of Armenia. The citizens of the conquered city were taken into captivity in Persia, but Sophia remained free in Armenia, where later records mentioned her as the founder of several churches and convents.

Sophia Holczanska – (1405 – 1461)
Queen consort of Poland (1421 – 1434)
Zofia Andreievna Holczanska was the daughter of Prince Andrei Holczanska and was closely related to the ruling dynasty of Lithuania. She became the fourth wife (March 24, 1422) of Vladyslav II Jagiello (1351 – 1434), King of Poland, the wedding taking place in the city of Navahrudak. Her marriage was a dynastic arrangement which reunited Lithuania with Poland and made the two countries into a great mediaeval power.
Queen Sophia was the mother of the two kings Vladislav III (1434 – 1444) and Kasimierz IV (1447 – 1492). Her third son died during childhood. The queen sponsored translations of the Bible into the Polish vernacular and her portrait appears on surviving coins from Belarussia. Sophia survived Vladyslav for over twenty-five years (1434 – 1461) as the Queen Dowager of Poland. Queen Sophia died (Sept 21, 1461).

Sophia Lekapena – (c900 – after 963)
Byzantine Augusta
Sophia was the daughter of the patrician Niketas. She was married (c909) to Christopher Lekapenus, eldest son of the future emperor Romanus I. The couple had two sons, Romanus and Michael, and a daughter Maria (Irene) who married Tsar Peter of Bulgaria. Sophia’s father-in-law assumed the Imperial purple in Dec, 919, and in 921 her husband was created co-emperor with his father. With the death of her mother-in-law the empress Theodora (Feb, 922), Romanus granted Sophia the title of Augusta which she held from (March, 922 – 931).
In 928 Sophia’s father Niketas was expelled from the Imperial palace and forced into a monastery, being accused of inflaming Sophia’s husband Christopher against his father. Sophia’s actual involvement in this vague conspiracy remains unknown.  With Christopher’s death (Aug, 931) Sophia retired to the abbey of Kanikleion where she was veiled as a nun. She was still living there when the sisters of the Emperor Romanus were sent to Kanikleion to become nuns (959 – 963). Neither of her sons achieved the Imperial purple, the elder, Romanus, died during childhood, whilst the younger Michael was made a cleric, and held the patrician rank of magister and rector. He left two daughters.

Sophia of Anhalt – (c1215 – 1274)
German mediaeval princess
Sophia was the second daughter of Heinrich I, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben (1212 – 1252) and his wife the Landgravine Irmengarde of Thuringia, the daughter of Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia. She was named as daughter of Prince Heinrich by the Cronicon Principum Saxonie which also recorded her first and second marriages. She was the first cousin of Landgrave Ludwig IV of Thuringia (1217 – 1227) who was married to St Elisabeth of Hungary. Sophia was married firstly to Otto I (c1170 – 1234), Duke of Meran, as his second wife, and became the duchess consort of Meran (1231 – 1234). The marriage remained childless and Sophia survived Otto as the Dowager Duchess of Meran.
The young duchess was remarried secondly (c1236) to Count Siegfried of Regenstein and was the mother of his son Count Heinrich IV of Regenstein (c1237 – c1284) who was married twice and left descendants. With Count Siegfried’s death (before March 12, 1251), Sophia was remarried a third time to Count Otto von Hadmersleben (living 1274). Duchess Sophia died (Jan 5, 1274) aged in her late fifties.

Sophia of Armenia – (c855 – 889)
Artsrunid queen consort
Princess Sophia Bagratid was the younger daughter of Ashot I the Great, King of Armenia and his wife Kotramide. She became the wife (c870) of the Artsrunid ruler Grigor Derenik (c840 – 887), King (Ilkhan) of Vaspurakan and was the queen consort of Vaspurakan. Her marriage was of great political importance and her subjects called her ‘Sopi.’ Her children were,

Sophia of Bavaria (1) – (1171 – 1238)
German landgravine consort of Thuringia
Sophia was the eldest daughter and second child of Otto I, Duke of Bavaria (1180 – 1183) and his wife Agnes of Loos, the daughter of Ludwig I, Count of Loos and Rieneck, the Burgrave of Magdeburg and his wife Agnes of Metz. Sophia was the sister to Duke Ludwig I (1183 – 1231). Sophia became the second wife (1196) of Hermann I (1155 – 1217), Landgrave of Thuringia and became his consort (1196 – 1217). She bore Hermann six children and presided over a magnificent court at Wartburg Castle, where she encouraged the works of many contemporary warriors, musicians, writers and poets.
A woman of proud and haughty character little is recorded of Sophia during the lifetime of her husband. She survived Hermann as the Dowager Landgravine of Thuringia (1217 – 1238) and became remembered for her unpleasant treatment of her saintly daughter-in-law Elizabeth of Hungary, in which she was aided by her own daughter Agnes. Both women treated Elizabeth with much unkindness, and with Hermann’s death, Sophia and a faction of Thuringian nobles attempted to make her son Ludwig IV renege on his betrothal with Elizabeth, send her and her retinue back to the Hungarian court, and instead to take a bride from a more powerful local family. Sophia proved unsuccessful and despite her disapproval Ludwig married Elizabeth at Wartburg Castle (1220).
It is now speculated that Sophia’s dislike of Elizabeth stemmed more from her misunderstanding of the younger woman’s strong religious piety, but it is certainly to her credit that she later came to appreciate Elizabeth’s qualities, for when Ludwig died abroad on crusade (1227) and her younger sons Konrad and Heinrich drove Elizabeth from the Thuringian court, the Dowager Landgravine herself remonstrated with her sons against their harsh and cruel treatment, though her appeal fell on deaf ears. Landgravine Sophia died (July 15, 1238) at Wartburg Castle, aged sixty-seven. Her children were,

Sophia of Bavaria (2) – (1376 – 1425)
Queen consort of Boehmia
Princess Sophia of Bavaria was the third child and only daughter of Johann II, Duke of Bavaria-Munich and his wife Catherine of Gorz, the daughter of Meinhard VII, Count of Gorz. Sophia became the second wife (1389) of Wenzel IV (Wenceslas) (1361 – 1419), King of Bohemia (1389 – 1419), the son of the Emperor Karl IV, and became his queen consort (1389 – 1419). The marriage remained childless.
During her husband’s lifetime the queen was a quiet supporter of the Bohemian religious reformer John Huss (1369 – 1415) but was unable to prevent his execution. King Wenzel was forced to take action against the spreading Hussite movement which was causing riots and disturbances throughout Bohemia, most intensely in Prague, where crowds murdered the lord mayor and several councillors. News of this outrage caused the king to suffer a stroke and he died soon afterwards. The Queen Dowager ruled as regent for her brother-in-law, the German king Sigismund I (later emperor). As regent Sophia was forced to rely on the use of foreign mercenaries to protect the city of Prague. Severe fighting broke out in the capital between these hastily collected forces and the Hussites but eventually a truce was concluded (Nov, 1419).
The nobility had remained loyal to the queen regent despite their own sympathies with the Hussite cause, and they promised to act as mediators with King Sigismund. The citizens of Prague then agreed to restore the castle of Vysehrad which they had captured. However Sophia possessed little real power outside of Prague, and her actions were contrained by the wishes of Sigismund. She was unable to maintain the peace in the kingdom. Queen Sophia died (Sept 26, 1425) aged forty-nine.

Sophia of Bavaria (3) – (1805 – 1872)
Archduchess of Austria
Born Princess Frederica Sophia Dorothea Wilhelmina (Jan 27, 1805) in Munich, Bavaria, she was the third daughter of Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, and his second wife Caroline of Baden. She was married in Vienna (1824) to the Hapsburg archduke Franz Karl (1802 – 1878), a younger son of the emperor Franz II (1792 – 1835), to whom she bore six children. Sophia was ruthlessly ambitious and later persuaded her husband to renounce his rights to the succession so that their son Franz Josef (1830 – 1916) could succeed the emperor Ferdinand I as emperor on his abdication (1848) and thus save the shaky Hapsburg throne from threatened collapse.
As the emperor’s mother she was a formidable figure at the Imperial court, thiugh her son defied her plans when they did not suit him. A rather stern, authoritarian figure, Sophia’s relationship with her daughter-in-law, Elisabeth of Bavaria, her own niece, was not an easy one, particularly as she had wanted Franz Josef to marry Elisabeth’s more pliable sister Helena instead. Sophia even accompanied the couple on their honeymoon to Laxenburg Castle (1854). Sophia’s influence and advice to the emperor was not always beneficial, and proved to be the ultimate which led Austria to lose Lombardy in Italy, and she never fully recovered from the shock of the murder of her younger son Maximilian in Mexico (1867). Archduchess Sophia died in Vienna (May 28, 1872) aged sixty-seven, and was interred within the Hapsburg family crypt in the Church of the Capuchins there.

Sophia of Berg – (c1090 – 1126)
German nun
Countess Sophia of Berg was the daughter of Heinrich I, Count of Berg-Schelkingen and his wife Countess Adelaide von Monchenthal. She was married (c1105) Duke Otto II of Moravia, Prince of Olmutz, to whom she bore four children. Widowed in Feb, 1126, immediately after Otto’s death, Sophia became a religious recluse at the Praemonstratensian abbey of Tepl, taking the name of Woyslava. She soon removed to the abbey of Chotinschau, where her sister Judith was a nun. There she died after a widowhood of only three months (May 27, 1126). Sophia was venerated as a saint.

Sophia of Birkenfeld – (1593 – 1676)
Bavarian princess
The Countess Palatine Sophia of Birkenfeld was born (March 19, 1593) at Ansbach, the only daughter and second child of Karl I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld and his wife Princess Dorothea of Brunswick-Luneburg, the daughter of Wilhelm V, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg. Countess Sophia became the wife (1615) of Kraft (1582 – 1641), the reigning Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and became his countess consort (1615 – 1641). She bore Kraft fourteen children. Sophia survived her husband for thirty-five years (1641 – 1676) as the Dowager Countess of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein. Sophia died (Nov 16, 1676) aged eighty-three, at Neuenstein. Her children were,

Sophia of Bohemia – (1630 – 1714)
Electress consort of Hanover (1692 – 1698)
Princess Sophia of Bohemia was born (Oct 13, 1630) at the Wassenaer Court Palace at The Hague in Holland, the daughter of Frederick V, King of Bohemia and elector Palatine of the Rhine and his wife Elizabeth Stuart the ‘Winter Queen,’ daughter of Charles I of England (1625 – 1649). She was fluent in five languages and was an expert on English history. Early hopes that she might marry her cousin, Charles II did not eventuate, and she herself refused the suit of Count Adolf von Zweibrucken, who was said to be heavy handed with his wives. After becoming betrothed to Duke George William of Brunswick-Celle, he handed her and his rights to the succession over to his brother, Ernest Augustus (1630 – 1698), so that he might morganatically marry his mistress instead. The couple were married (1658) at Heidelberg, Sophia bearing seven sons and a daughter Sophia Charlotte, later queen consort of Frederick I of Prussia.
Her court, particularly at her favourite palace of Herrenhausen (which was destroyed by Allied bombing during WW II) was devoted to cultural pursuits, and the electress (as she became in 1692) received such prominent contemporaries as the composer, George Frederic Handel and the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. The electress received the Russian tsar Peter I and his entourage at her court at Koppenbrugge, where the Tsar and his attendants danced with the German ladies. The British Act of Settlement (1701) settled the succession upon ‘the most excellent princess Sophia, electress and duchess dowager of Hanover, the heirs of her body being Protestant,’ if Queen Anne died childless, in order to prevent the succession of Catholic heirs. During her later years her granddaughter-in-law Caroline of Ansbach became a close friend to her.
The Electress Sophia predeceased Anne by two months, dying at Herrenhausen Castle, aged eighty-three (June 8, 1714) in the presecence of her eldest son and Princess Caroline. The Elector George Ludwig then succeeded to the British throne as George I (1714 – 1727), the first of the Hanoverian Dynasty (1714 – 1837). Sophia was interred in the Chapel of the Leine Castle in Hanover. Her voluminous correspondence with her niece Liselotte, the Duchesse d’Orleans, has been edited and published. Sophia appears as a main character in the historical novels The Princess of Celle (1967) and Queen in Waiting (1967) by British author Jean Plaidy.

Sophia of Brandenburg – (1568 – 1622)
Electress consort of Saxony (1586 – 1591)
Princess Sophia of Brandenburg was born (June 6, 1568) the daughter of Johann George, Elector of Brandenburg and his second wife Sabine, the daughter of George, Margarave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1484 – 1543). Princess Sophia was married (1582) to Prince Christian of Saxony, the son of Augustus I, whom he succeeded on the throne as Elector Christian I (1586). The couple had seven children before Christian’s death, and Sophia survived him over three decades as Electress Dowager of Saxony (1591 – 1622).  
As a widow the electress summoned Benedikt Carpzou (1565 – 1624) to her court at Colditz, where she appointed him her chancellor, as well as a councillor of the court of appeal in Dresden, Saxony. Carpzou remained in the electress’s service until her death, when he returned to Wittenberg. Her five surviving children included the electors Christian II (1591 – 1611) and Johann George I (1611 – 1656), and Sophia of Saxony (1587 – 1637) who was married to Duke Friedrich I of Pomerania. Her youngest daughter Princess Dorothea (1591 – 1617) remained unmarried and was appointed abbess of the Imperial abbey of Quedlinburg. Electress Sophia died (Dec 7, 1622) aged fifty-four.

Sophia of Denmark – (1245 – 1286)
Queen consort of Sweden (1260 – 1275)
Princess Sophia was the daughter of Erik IV, King of Denmark and his wife Jutta, daughter of Albert I, Duke of Saxony. Her uncle, Dule Albert of Brunswick escorted the bride to Sweden, and she and Valdemar were married at Jonkoping (1260) to King Valdemar (1243 – 1302). The marriage had been brought about largely due to the political machinations and alliances of her father-in-law Jarl Birger to secure the throne for his son who had ascended in 1250. However, the marriage proved incongenial to both parties, and the king went so far as to seduce the queen’s own sister, a crime regarded as incestuous by the church. King Erik was eventually deposed (1275). Queen Sophia was the mother of a son Erik, who never gained the throne, and five daughters.

Sophia of Enos – (fl. c930 – c950) 
Greek widow and saint
Sophia was originally a native of Enos in Thrace. She became the wife of an unidentified senator from Constantinople, and was the mother of six children. With the deaths of her husband and all of her children Sophia returned to Enos. Sophia then devoted herself and her considerable resources to the welfare of Greek widows and orphans. Living frugally and ascetically herself, she provided wine for the poor. She died at the age of fifty-four, and miracles were attributed to her. Regarded a saint, her feast was observed by the Orthodox calendar (June 4).

Sophia of Formbach – (c1050 – c1087)
Queen consort of Germany (1081 – c1087)
Countess Sophia of Formbach was most probably the daughter of Abalrech, Count of Formbach (died c1051) and his wife Countess Uta of Diessen the daughter of Friedrich II, Count of Diessen. She became the wife of Herman I of Salm (c1045 – 1088) who was elected King of Germany (1081). Queen Sophia appears to have predeceased King Hermann who died (Sept 28, 1088) at Metz. Her children were,

Sophia of Great Britain – (1777 – 1847)
British Hanoverian princess
Princess Sophia was born (Nov 3, 1777) the fifth daughter of King George III (1760 – 1820) and his wife Charlotte Sophia, the daughter of Karl Ludwig, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Princess Sophia suffered from ill-health most of her life and remained unmarried. Despite her health problems, the princess excelled as a horsewoman. As a young woman she indulged in an illicit affair with General Thomas Garth (1744 – 1829) a gentleman of the court, to whom she bore an illegitimate son Thomas (1799), who was well proved for and eventually became a naval captain.
With the death of her mother (1818) her brother, the Prince Regent (George IV) provided Sophia with an income and her own establishment. With the death of her father (1820) she received apartments in Kensington Palace and a yearly allowance of seventeen thousand pounds. She also received from the Prince Regent a portion of her mother’s jewels. In her later life she attended the court of her niece Queen Victoria, and was afflicted with blindness. Some of her letters have survived. With the death of her favourite brother, Duke Frederick of York (1827), Princess Sophia was left the residue of his estates after the payment of his debts. She was present at the coronation of Queen Victoria (1838) and with the decline in her health she removed to York House. Princess Sophia died (May 27, 1848), aged seventy, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, where her large and imposing monument remains.

Sophia of Holstein-Gottorp – (1569 – 1634)
German duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Sophia was born (May 31, 1569) the eldest daughter and second child of Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife Christina of Hesse, the daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. She was married (1588) to Johann V (1558 – 1592), Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, to whom she bore three children. With her husband’s early death Duchess Sophia ruled the small dukedom of Schwerin as regent for their eldest son Adolphus Friedrich I (1592 – 1604). She never remarried and survived her husband for over forty years (1592 – 1634) as the Dowager Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Duchess Sophia died (Nov 14, 1634) aged sixty-five. Her children were,

Sophia of Hungary (1) (Zofia) – (1047 – 1095)
Duchess consort of Saxony (1072 – 1095)
Princess Zofia was the eldest daughter of Bela I, King of Hungary (1060 – 1063) and his wife Richesa, the daughter of Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland. She was sister to kings Geza I (1063 – 1077) and St Ladislas I (1077 – 1095). Sophia was married firstly (c1063) to Count Ulrich I of Istria (c1033 – 1070) to whom she bore several children,

Sophia married secondly (1071) to Magnus I Billung (1072 – 1106), Duke of Saxony, to whom she bore two daughters,

Through her daughter Wulfhilda of Bavaria, Sophia was the maternal great-grandmother of the German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (1123 – 1190). Duchess Sophia died (June 18, 1095).

Sophia of Hungary (2) (Zofia) – (c1098 – after 1131)
Princess and heiress
Princess Zofia was the elder daughter of King Koloman and his first wife Felicia of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger I, Count of Sicily. She was granddaughter to King Geza I of Hungary (1074 – 1077) and his Byzantine queen Synadena, and was sister to King Stephen II. Sophia was married (c1115) to Saul, the gespan (governor) of the province of Bibar to whom she bore a son. The Hungarian Chronicle recorded that Bela (II) was involved in a conspiracy and fled to the Byzantine court (1126).
When the king learned of this treachery the nation decided that after the king’s death, Saul (c1116 – 1131), the son of his sister Sophia, should reign as king. Sophia’s son was the designated as heir in case her brother Stephen II, who was childless, should died without an heir (1127). As it was, Saul’s death, following closely on that of his uncle, paved the way for his cousin Bela II to assume the crown. Princess Sophia, by this time a widow, had remarried (c1130) to the Russian ruler Vladimirko Volodarovich (c1097 – 1153), the Prince of Galicia, to whom she bore an only child and heir, Jaroslav Vladimirkovich (c1132 – 1187), who succeeded his father as Prince of Galicia (1153 – 1187) and left descendants.

Sophia of Istria – (c1102 – 1128)
German heiress and religious patron
Countess Sophia of Istria was the daughter of Poppo III, Count of Istria and Krain, and his wife Richarda, the daughter of Engelbert I of Lavantthal, Count of Sponheim. She married (c1115) Berthold IV, Count of Meran and Andechs (1096 – 1151), to whom she bore five children. With her husband she had endowed the double monastery of Edelstetten, which they founded on their own estate at Diessen, on the Ammersee River, Bavaria. 
Their daughter Matilda was placed there as a nun and eventually was appointed abbess. The important margraviate of Istria passed successively to Sophia’s sons Poppo I, who died childless (1148) and Berthold V (c1122 – 1188) through her, and she was also the heiress to the duchy of Meran. Sophia died from the effects of childbirth (Sept 6, 1128) aged about twenty-five.

Sophia of Looz – (c1044 – 1065)
German princess
Countess Sophia of Looz was the daughter of Giselbert, Count of Looz, and his second wife, Erlende de Jodoigne. Sophia became the first wife (1062) of Prince Geza of Hungary (1041 – 1077) who succeeded to the throne as Geza I after her death (1074). Sophia of Looz was the mother of koloman (1065 – 1114), who succeeded as king of Hungary with the death of his uncle, Ladislas I (1095). She was the grandmother of King Stephen II (1116 – 1131), the last male ruler of her dynastic line.

Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1) – (1481 – 1503)
German duchess consort of Saxony (1500 – 1503)
Princess Sophia of Mecklenburg was born (before Dec 18, 1481), the second daughter of Magnus II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1477 – 1503) and his wife Princess Sophia of Pomerania-Stettin, the daughter of Erich II, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin. She was married (1500) to Duke John I the Constant of Saxony, and her multi-layered and multi-coloured wedding dress created a social sensation. Her husband only became elector of Saxony after her death. Sophia was the mother of Johann Friedrich I (1503 – 1554), who succeeded his father as elector of Saxony (1532). His wife Sibylla of Cleves was the sister-in-law of Henry VIII of England (1509 – 1547). Duchess Sophia died at Torgau (July 12, 1503) aged only twenty-one.

Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (2) – (1508 – 1541)
German duchess
Princess Sophia was born (April 12, 1508) at Schwerin, the eldest daughter of Heinrich V, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1503 – 1552) and his first wife Princess Ursula of Brandenburg, and was the sister of Magnus III 91509 – 1550), Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was married (1528) at Schwerin to Duke Ernst of Brunswick-Celle (1497 – 1546) and was the Duchess consort of Brunswick-Celle.
Duchess Sophia inherited a claim to the thrones of Denmark and Sweden as a descendant of Albert II (1318 – 1379), Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and his wife Princess Euphemia Eriksdotter, the granddaughter of Magnus I, King of Sweden. These claims Sophia passed on to her children. Duchess Sophia died (June 17, 1541) aged thirty-three, at Celle.

Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (3) – (1557 – 1631)
Queen consort of Denmark and Norway (1572 – 1588)
Princess Sophia of Mecklenburg was born (Sept 4, 1557) at Wismar, the daughter of Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and his wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Friedrich I, King of Denmark. Princess Sophia became the second wife (1572) of King Fredrik II, to whom she bore seven children, including Anne of Denmark, who became the wife of James VI of Scotland and I of England. Thus she was grandmother to Charles I (1625 – 1649) and great-grandmother to Charles II (1660 – 1685) and James II (1685 – 1688).
Queen Sophia survived over forty years as Queen Dowager (1588 – 1631) and resided at the castle of Nykoping, which she caused to be enlarged and improved. She was devoted to the art of astronomy and bred thoroughbred horses, using her financial resources so wisely that she became an extremely wealthy woman. On more than one occasion she was able to come to the financial assistance of her son with a substantial loan whilst he was heavy in debt. Queen Sophia died (Oct 14, 1631) aged seventy-four, at Nykoping. Her children were,

Sophia of Meissen – (1259 – 1318)
Polish duchess consort (1273 – 1274)
Princess Sophia of Meissen was the elder daughter of Dietrich the Wise, Margrave of Meissen, Landsberg and Groitzsch (1265 – 1285), and his wife Helena of Brandenburg, the daughter of Johann I, Margrave of Brandenburg. She was sister to Margrave Friedrich Tuta of Meissen (1289 – 1291). Sophia became the second wife (1273) of Konrad II (1231 – 1274), Duke of Silesia-Glogau and was his duchess consort (1273 – 1274). The Chronica Principum Polonie recorded that Konrad granted Sophia as her dower settlement the castles of Crosnam, Greyfinsteyn and Pirszin. Her father later sold these estates to the Archbishop of Magdeburg. The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum referred to Sophia without naming her as filiam Theoderici (Dietrich) marchionis orientalis, relictam Conradi, fili Frederici.
Left a childless widow several months afterwards, Sophia survived Konrad for over forty-five years (1274 – 1318) as the Dowager Duchess of Silesia-Glogau. Not long after her husband’s death Sophia became a nun at the royal Abbey of St Clara at Weissenfels. She was later elected as Abbess of that community and retained that position until her death. Her younger unmarried sister Gertrude was mentally unstable and became a nun at Weissenfels under her sister’s rule (1286). When Gertrude’s condition became worse it was Abbess Sophia who arranged for her to be suitably cared for by the sisters. When her brother Friedrich was killed at Hirschstein (Aug, 1291) Sophia arranged for his burial at the Abbey of St Clara. Princess Sophia died (Aug 24, 1318) aged fifty-eight.

Sophia of Montferrat – (1396 – 1437)
Byzantine Augusta (1421 – 1426)
Princess Sophia Palaeologina of Montferrat was born at Casale, the daughter of Teodoro II Palaeologus, Marquis of Montferrat (1381 – 1418) and his second wife Johanna, the daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar and Marie de Valois, daughter of King Jean II (1350 – 1364). Sophia was married firstly (1406) to Filippo Maria Visconti (1392 – 1447), Count of Pavia (later duke of Milan). The union remained childless and ended in annullment (1411). Sophia was then remarried to her cousin, the Emperor Johannes VIII Palaeologus (1392 – 1448) as his second wife (1421) at the instigation of his father Emperor Manuel II, and was crowned empress the day of her marriage.
Despite possessing beautiful hands and a mass of titian coloured hair, the empress did not appeal to her husband, who left her neglected in the Blanchernae Palace, in Constantinople, though he dared not divorce her till the death of his father (1426).  Within months of her husband’s accession to the throne, the empress, under the guise of an outing, crossed to Pera, and took ship to her brother’s court in Montferrat. With her she took her Imperial crown, to prove that she had once been an empress. She later entered a convent and was a nun for the last decade of her life (1427 – 1437). The former empress died (Dec 10, 1437) aged forty-one, at Turin, in Piedmont.

Sophia of the Netherlands – (1824 – 1897)
Princess and Grand duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar
Princess Wilhelmina Maria Sophia of the Netherlands was born (April 8, 1824) at The Hague, the daughter of William II, King of the Netherlands and his wife the Russian Grand duchess Anna Pavlova, the daughter of Paul I, Tsar of Russia (1796 – 1801). She was married at The Hague (1842) to the Hereditary Duke Karl Alexander (1818 – 1901) of Saxe-Weimar, the son and heir of Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar and became the Herditary Grand Duchess consort (1842 – 1853) When Karl Alexander succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (1853 – 1901) Sophia became Grand Duchess consort for four decades (1853 – 1897). Grand Duchess Sophia died (March 23, 1897) aged seventy-two, at Weimar. Her children were,

Sophia of Orlamunde – (c1184 – 1244)
German countess of Gleichen and Erfurt in Thuringia
Countess Sophia of Orlamunde was the eldest daughter of Siegfried III, Count of Orlamunde and his wife Sophia of Denmark, the daughter of King Valdemar I the Great. Sophia was married (c1200) to Lambert II, Count of Gleichen (c1159 – 1227), whom she survived two decades as Dowager Countess (1227 – 1244). Countess Sophia died (Sept 3, 1244) aged about sixty.
Her death was recorded in the Annales Erphesfurdenses in which she is styled Sophia comitissa mater comitis Henrici (Countess Sophia, mother to Count Heinrich). She left several children,

Sophia of Pomerania – (1498 – 1568)
Queen consort of Denmark (1523 – 1533)
Princess Sophia of Pomerania was the daughter of Boleslav X, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast and his wife Princess Anna of Poland, the daughter of Kazimir III, King of Poland. She became the second wife (1518) of Duke Frederik of Holstein-Gottorp (1471 – 1533) and was with her husband at Viborg when he was proclaimed King Frederik I (1523). When Frederik was recognized as king of Norway (1525) Sophia became Queen consort of Norway. Her children included Prince Adolf, the ancestor of the Holstein branch of the Danish royal family.
Despite their grandiose titles the king and queen resided at Frederik’s estate at Gottorp on a totally inadequate income. The queen supervised the arrangements for the marriage of her stepdaughter Princess Dorothea of Denmark with Duke Albert of Prussia (1526). Sophia was present at Frederik’s deathbed (April 10, 1533) at Gottorp, and was among the group of nobles who officially proclaimed her stepson Christian III as king at Rye in Jutland (Aug, 1534). The queen mother attended the coronation of the new king and his wife Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. Christian was very kind to his stepmother, and his reign brought great prosperity to Denmark which enabled him to largely augment her income. With Christian’s death (1559) Sophia, as the elder queen dowager, retained presidence over her daughter-in-law Queen Dorothea. Queen Sophia died (May 13, 1568) having survived Frederik I for thirty-five years.

Sophia of Saxony    see  also   Judith of Saxony

Sophia of Saxony – (975 – 1039)
German Imperial princess
Princess Sophia of Saxony was born (Oct, 975) the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II (973 – 983) and his Byzantine wife, Theophano Skleraina, the daughter of Prince Konstantine Skleros. She was sister to emperor Otto III (983 – 1002). Sophia never married and served as abbess of Gandersheim (1002 – 1039) and Essen (1011 – 1039). As a princess of the Empire the abbess held a seat of the German Diet. Princess Sophia died (Jan, 1039) aged sixty-three. She was succeeded in office at Gandersheim by her sister Adelaide, the abbess of Quedlinburg.

Sophia of Sommerschenburg – (1142 – 1190)
German literary patron
Countess Sophia of Sommerschenburg was the daughter of Count Frederick of Sommerschenburg and Count Palatine of Saxony and his wife Luitgarde of Stade, the daughter of Rudolf I of Stade, Margrave of Nordmark and his wife Richarda of Sponheim. Her parents were divorced when Sophia was an infant and her mother remarried ro Eric III (c1110 – 1147), King of Denmark. She was married firstly (before 1160) to Heinrich I, Count of Wettin (c1136 – 1181), a younger son of Conrad the Great, Margrave of Meissen to whom she bore four children, Sophia of Meissen (c1160 – 1189) the wife of Count Burchard of Querfurt (died 1190, Count Heinrich II of Wettin (c1163 – 1187) who died unmarried and childless, Conrad of Meissen who died young, and Count Ulrich of Wettin (c1167 – 1206) who succeeded his brother Heinrich but whose line ended with the death of his childless son Heinrich III (1217).
Countess Sophia of Wettin was married secondly (1182) to Hermann I (1155 – 1217), Landgrave of Thuringia as his first wife, she being over a decade his senior. This marriage gave Hermann control of her sons’ patrimony until they came of age, and ended a long-standing feud between the two families which had originated at the beginning of the twelfth century with the murder of Count Friedrich III of Sommerschenburg by Ludwig II of Thuringia during the reign of Emperor Heinrich IV (1056 – 1106).
Landgravine Sophia was an important patron of the eminent minstrels and poets of the period such as Heinrich von Veldeck, a member of her own court, Walter von der Vogelweide, Reinhard von Zwetzen, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Peter Ollp, and Heinrich Offerdingen, at her castle of Wartburg. Landgravine Sophia was interred at Reinhardsbrunn. She had borne Hermann two daughters, Jutta of Thuringia (1183 – 1235) the first wife of Margrave Dietrich of Meissen (1162 – 1221) after which she married Count Poppo XIII of Henneberg (died 1245), and Hedwig of Thuringia (c1185 – 1247) the wife of Count Albert of Orlamunde (died 1227).

Sophia of Thuringia – (1224 – 1275)
German ruler
Princess Sophia of Thuringia was born at Wartburg Castle, Thuringia, the daughter of Landgrave Louis IV and his wife St Elizabeth of Hungary. Forced from the court with her mother (1227), they fled to the abbey of Kitzingen, ruled by the abbess Matilda, Elizabeth’a aunt. Sophia and her two younger sisters then resided at Bollenstein Castle, under the supervision of their great-uncle Egbert, Bishop of Bamberg. Before 1230 she was betrothed to Henry of Brabant, and was brought up at Kreuzburg Castle with her elder brother Herman, in preperation of her future marriage. Sophia married (1240) as his second wife, Henry II, Duke of Brabant, to whom she bore a son Henry I (1244 – 1308), surnamed ‘the Child,’ because of his youth.
With the death of her uncle Henry Raspe without heirs (1247) there followed a long war of succession for the possession of Hesse until Sophia finally managed to acquire it (1264) for her son, whence it became an independent landgraviate, with Kassel and Marburg as its chief seats. Thus she was the founder of the Brabant dynasty of Hesse.  An energetic and courageous woman, proud of her saintly ancestry, she began her letters and charters with the formula, “ We, Sophia, duchess of Brabant, daughter of St Elisabeth.” Her daughter Elisabeth became the first wife of Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg.

Sophia of Vaspurakan   see    Sophia Artsuni

Sophia of Verdun – (c1012 – 1078)
French heiress
Countess Sophia of Verdun was the daughter of Frederick I of Verdun, Duke of Upper Lorraine, she married (c1028) Louis I, Count of Ivoix and Chiny (c1005 – 1068) to whom she bore six children. Sophia inherited the county of Bricy, in Lorraine (1022), and was styled countess of that fief in her own right. With her husband, she lavishly entertained the Holy Roman emperor Henry III and Henry I of France (1048). Sophia was a generous patron of the abbey of Suxi, which she had built and endowed with her husband. Her eldest son was Arnold II (c1030 – 1106) who became Count of Warcq, Ivoix and Chiny, and was the only one of her children to leave descendants.

Sophia Vasa – (1547 – 1611)
Princess of Sweden
Princess Sophia was born (Oct 29, 1547) the fourth daughter of King Gustavus I Vasa (1523 – 1560) and his second wife Margareta Leihonhfvud, the daughter of Erik Abrahamsson Leihonfvud pa Loholmen, Governor of Westergotland, and was sister to King Johann III (1568 – 1592) and half-sister to Erik XIV (1560 – 1568). Sophia was married (1568) to Magnus II (1543 – 1603) twice the Duke Regent of Saxe-Lauenburg (1571 – 1574) and (1581 – 1588), and was duchess consort of Saxe-Lauenburg. Magnus II was the son of Duke Franz I of Saxe-Lauenburg and his wife Sibylla of Saxony. Sophia survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (1603 – 1611). Duchess Sophia died (March 17, 1611) aged sixty-three. Her only surviving child, Duke Gustav of Saxe-Lauenburg (1574 – 1597) made an unsuitable marriage and died young and childless.

Sophia Volodarovna – (1140 – 1198)
Queen consort of Denmark
Princess Sophia Volodarovna of Polotsk was the only daughter of Volodar of Polotsk, Prince of Minsk and his wife Princess Richesa of Poland, the daughter of Boleslav III, Duke of Poland. Her mother was the widow of King Magnus of Denmark and later took Sverker I, King of Sweden as her third husband. Sophia was married firstly (1157) to Valdemar I of Denmark (1131 – 1182) whom she survived as Queen Dowager (1182 – 1198). Sophia bore Valdemar eight children,

Queen Sophia remarried secondly (1184) to Ludwig III (1153 – 1190), Landgrave of Thuringia, over a decade her junior, as his second wife. Sophia as then also the Landgravine consort of Thuringia (1184 – 1187) though she retained her royal titles after her second marriage. The union remained childless and she and Ludwig were later divorced (1187). The Danish chronicler Sven Aggesen praises the queen’s beauty in his Brevis historia, but Saxo Grammaticus was not favourable concerning her character in his Gesta Danorum, and she was possibly the model for the Hunnish princess married by the legendary Danish king Frode III in the legendary earlier books of his work. Queen Sophia died (May 5, 1198).

Sophia Witoldovna – (c1378 – 1453)
Lithuanian Grand princess consort of Russia
Sophia Witoldovna was the only child of Grand Prince Witold of Lithuania and his second wife Anna of Smolensk. She became the wife (1390) of Vassily II (1371 – 1425), Grand Prince of Russia, the marriage being one of great political and dynastic importance. Sophia became her husband’s mainstay and loyal support, but was possessed of ambition and political talents of her own. Vassily left Sophia the control of extensive properties in his will and she survived him for nearly thirty years (1425 – 1453) as the Dowager Grand Princess of Russia.
Sophia ruled as regent for their son Vassily II despite the claims to the succession of her brother-in-law Prince Yuri of Zvenigorod, who was ultimately forced to acknowledge Sophia’s son as the legitimate sovereign. With the death of Sophia’s powerful father Yuri of Zvenigorod agains tried to wrest the crown from her son, but she sent several loyal boyars to the court of the Tatar khan on behalf of her son who thus retained hisa crown. Despite this bitterness remained which erupted into a public scandal at a royal wedding (1433) and escalated into civil war. The princess and her son eventually proved victorious, though not before Vassily was blinded by his enemies and Grand Princess Sophia herself spent ten years imprisoned in the city of Chuckholma. By the 1440’s Sophia and Vassily had restored the balance of power and the princess founded several abbeys and monasteries. As regent Sophia also promulgated a new code of laws and her last act was organizing a successful defence of the city of Moscow when it was attacked by the Tatar leader Mazovsha (1451). Sophia died (June 15, 1453). Her surviving children were,

Sophia Agnes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin – (1625 – 1694)
German princess and nun
Princess Sophia Agnes was the eldest daughter and second child of Duke Adolphus Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588 – 1658) and his first wife Princess Anna Maria of Ostfriesland (East Friesland) the daughter of Enno III (1563 – 1625), Prince of Ostfriesland. Raised as a Lutheran she became a nun and served for forty years as abbess of the Protestant abbey of Buhne (1654 – 1694). Sophia Agnes died (Dec 26, 1694) aged sixty-nine.

Sophia Albertina of Erbach – (1683 – 1742)
German duchess consort
Countess Sophia Albertina of Erbach was born (July 30, 1683) at Erbach, the daughter of George Ludwig I, Count of Erbach (1643 – 1693), and his wife Countess Amalia Catherine of Waldeck. She was married at Erbach (1704) to Duke Ernst Friedrich I of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1681 – 1724) and was his duchess consort (1715 – 1724). She survived her husband as Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen for almost two decades (1724 – 1742).
She was the mother of Elisabeth Albertina of Saxe-Hildburghausen, the wife of Duke Karl Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and their daughter Charlotte Sophia (1744 – 1818) became thw wife of George III, king of Great Britain (1760 – 1820). She was the great-grandmother to the British kings George IV (1820 – 1830) and William IV (1830 – 1837) and great-great-grandmother to Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901). Sophia Albertina’s two sons were Ernst Friedrich II (1707 – 1745), duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1724 – 1745), who married and left descendants, and Duke Ludwig Friedrich (1710 – 1759), who married Christiane Louise (1713 – 1778), the daughter of Duke Johann Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Ploen, but died childless. Duchess Sophia Albertina died (Sept 4, 1742) aged fifty-nine, at Eisfeld.

Sophia Albertina Vasa – (1753 – 1829)
Princess of Sweden
Princess Sophia Albertina was born (Oct 8, 1753) in Stockholm, the only daughter of King Adolphus Friedrich and his wife Louisa Ulrica, the daughter of Freidrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1713 – 1740) and sister to Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786). Princess Sophia Albertina never married and was elected prioress of the royal abbey of Quedlinburg in Germany (1787). She later lost her sovereignty when the abbey was secularized (1801) and the abbey was then given to the Prussians (1803). An intrepid traveller who paid visits to many European courts, the princess returned to the court of Stockholm, where her favour assisted the rise of the Bernadotte family after the abdication of her nephew, Gustavus IV. Princess Sophia Albertina died (March 17, 1829) aged seventy-five, at Stockholm Castle.

Sophia Aletea Stuart – (1606)
Princess of Great Britain
Princess Sophia Aletea was born (June 22, 1606) at Greenwich Palace, Kent, the fourth and youngest daughter of James I, King of Great Britain and Ireland (1603 – 1625) (VI of Scotland) and his wife Anne of Denmark, the daughter of Frederik II, King of Denmark. She was christened in honour of her maternal grandmother Sophia of Mecklenburg but lived for only twenty-four hours and died (June 23, 1606) at Greenwich.
Her small corpse was borne by river aboard a barge draped in black velvet, escorted by three other black barges, was interred within Westminster Abbey, where her small tomb remains her monument being executed by Maximilian Colt. The princess is shown asleep in an alabaster cradle with the following inscription,

            Sophia, a royal rosebud untimely plucked to death …
            Torn from her parents to bloom afresh in the rose garden of Christ.

Sophia Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg– (1628 – 1685)
Queen consort of Denmark (1648 – 1670)
Duchess Sophia Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg was born (March 24, 1628) at Herzberg am Harz, the second daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and his wife Landgravine Anna Eleanore of Hesse-Darmstadt, the daughter of Ludwig V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was the sister of Ernst Augustus, Elector of Hanover (1692 – 1698) and was the aunt of George I, King of Great Britain (1714 – 1727). She was raised at Castle Iburg, near Osnabruck until her father’s death (1641) after which she resided with her mother at Herzberg. Her brother Duke Christian of Brunswick-Celle arranged for Sophia Amalia to be married (1643) to Frederik III (1609 – 1670), King of Denmark to whom she bore six children. The queen was granted the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard which she administered herself.
As queen Sophia Amalia was best remembered for her hatred and persecution of the king’s half-sister the Princess Leonora Christina, who spent many years in the famous Blue Tower in Copenhagen due to the queen’s persecution. When her son Christian V, aided by his mother-in-law, the Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel, attempted to have the lady released after King Frederik’s death the Queen Dowager refused to consider it, and threatened to permanently retire from the court if her son persisted. Face with such implacable maternal opposition King Christian backed down, and Leonora Christina remained imprisoned until the queen mother’s death. During her widowhood she resided mainly at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen. Queen Sophia Amalia died (Feb 20, 1685) aged fifty-six, at Nykoping Castle. She was interred within Roskilde Cathedral. Her portrait was painted by Abraham Wichter. Her children were,

Sophia Antoinette of Brunswick – (1724 – 1802)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1764 – 1800)
Princess Sophia Antoinette was born (Jan 23, 1724) in Wolfenbuttel, the third daughter of Ferdinand II Albrecht, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern-Wolfenbuttel, and his wife Antoinette Amalia of Brunswick. She was sister to Duke Charles I of Brunswick, and to Elisabeth Christina, queen consort of Frederick the Great of Prussia, and to Juliana Maria, queen consort of Frederik V, King of Denmark. Sophia Antoinette was married (1749) to Ernst Friedrich, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to whom she bore seven children.
A woman of famously imperious character and autocratic manner, the duchess ruined the finances of the small dukedom with her extravagances. Her grandson King Leopold I of the Belgians later wrote of her “ She ruled everything at Coburg and treated that little duchy as if it had been an empire. She was very generous, and, in that respect did much harm as she squandered its’ revenues in a dreadful manner. The Duke stood very much in awe of his imperious wife ….. . She was, in fact, too great a person for so small a duchy; but she brought into the family energy and superior qualities; above the minute twaddle of these small establishments.” As Dowager Duchess (1800 – 1802) she resided mainly at Gotha and at Rosenau. The duchess was the maternal great-grandmother of Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901). Duchess Sophia Antoinette died (May 17, 1802) aged seventy-eight, at Coburg. Her death was said to have been caused by shock when she received a letter from the newly formed German Republican Government, which addressed her simply as ‘Frau Coburg.’ Her children were,

Sophia Charlotte of Hanover – (1668 – 1705)
Queen consort of Prussia (1701 – 1705)
Princess Sophia Charlotte was born (Oct 20, 1668) at Iburg Castle, near Osnabruck in Hanover, the only daughter of Ernst Augustus, Elector of Hanover (1692 – 1698), and his wife Sophia of Bohemia, and was sister to George I, King of Great Britain (1714 – 1727). Sophia Charlotte was married (1684) to the elector Frederick III of Brandenburg (1657 – 1713), as his second wife. Her husband became the first King of Prussia (1701) as King Friedrich I and Sophia Charlotte became queen consort being crowned by the king at a magnificent coronation ceremony at Konigsberg (Jan 18, 1701). She was the mother of Prince Friedrich August of Brandenburg (1685 – 1686) who died an infant and of King Friedrich Wilhelm I (1688 – 1740) who later married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, the daughter of George I.
Through this marriage, Sophia Charlotte was the grandmother of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786). As electress, and then as queen, Sophia Charlotte encouraged the patronage of learning and the arts instigated by her husband, and became a close friend to Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz, the noted philosopher, also a close friend to her mother. Sophia Charlotte and Liebnitz established the Berlin Academy of Sciences. The queen transformed the castle of Lutzenburg in Brandenburg into a miniature version of the Palace of Versailles and her husband built the Palace of Charlottenburg especially for her. There she entertained scientist, philosophers, Jesuits and Lutherans. She is believed to have been responsible for the downfall of Eberhard von Danckelmann (1697) the president of the royal council. The district of Charlottenburg in West Berlin was named for her. Queen Sophia Charlotte died (Feb 1, 1705) aged thirty-six, at Hanover, a confirmed atheist, her grieving mother at her bedside. She was interred in Berlin Cathedral.

Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg – (1879 – 1964)
Princess of Prussia (1906 – 1926)
Princess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg was born in Oldenburg (Feb 2, 1879), the eldest daughter of Friedrich August II (1852 – 1931), Grand Duke of Oldenburg, and his first wife Elisabeth (1857 – 1895), the daughter of Friedrich Karl, Prince of Prussia. Sophia Charlotte was married firstly (1906) in Berlin, to her cousin, Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia (1883 – 1942) a younger son of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The marriage remained unahppy, and there were no children. They were later divorced (1926), and Princess Sophia remarried secondly (1927) to Harold von Hedemann (1887 – 1951), but there were no children. Sophia Charlotte died (March 29, 1964) aged eighty-five, at Westerstede, Oldenburg.

Sophia Charlotte Albertina of Bayreuth – (1713 – 1747)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar (1734 – 1747)
Princess Sophia Charlotte Albertina was born (July 23, 1713) at Castle Weferlingen, near Bayreuth, the second daughter and fourth child of the Margrave George Friedrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and his wife Dorothea of Holstein-Beck, and was a close relative of Friedrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1713 – 1740). With the divorce of her parents (1724) Sophia Charlotte was brought up at Bayreuth Castle by a series of governesses. From an early age this princess showed apparent signs of mental instability but her family does not appear to have been worried by her abnormal behaviour. Despite her mental problems Princess Sophia Charlotte grew into an acknowledged beauty.
Anecdotes and descriptions of her personality, which was of a kind, generous and simple-minded nature, are to be found in the Memoires of her sister-in-law Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, sister to Friedrich the Great. One one occasion when suffering from deep depress Sophia Charlotte attempted to throw herself from a castle window and was only saved by the intervention of devoted servants. The princess was married (1734) at Bayreuth to the elderly Duke Ernst Augustus I of Saxe-Weimar (1688 – 1748) as his second wife. The new duchess’s erratic behaviour caused some consternation at the court of Weimar, but the fact that she gave birth to a healthy son and heir (1737) caused this to be ignored. Her elderly husband remained devoted to her and the duchess bore him three more children. Her pregnancies and feeble-mindedness accelerated a decline in her health. Duchess Sophia Charlotte died (March 2, 1747) aged thirty-three, at Eisenach in Saxony. Her children were,

Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle – (1666 – 1726)
Electoral princess of Hanover (1682 – 1694)
Princess Sophia Dorothea was born (Sept 10, 1666) at the Castle of Celle, the only child and coniderable heiress of George Wilhelm, Duke of Celle (Zelle) and his former mistress and wife Eleonore Desmier d’Olbreuse, who was formally created Duchess of Celle by the Emperor Leopold I. Sophia Dorothea was married for dynastic and financial reasons to her first cousin George Louis of Hanover, son of the elector Ernst August, depsite her previous engagement with Prince August Wilhelm, son and heir of Duke Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. She bore him two children, the future George II of England (1727 – 1760) and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, the mother of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786).
The marriage remaned unhappy and the princess became involved in a romantic liasion with the Swedish soldier and adventurer, Count Karl Philipp von Konigsmarck, which lasted several years. The pair planned to elope together to Sweden. The plot was detected and expose, and Konigsmarck mysteriously killed, almost certainly by the elector’s mistress, Countess von Platen, whose advances he had spurned (1694). Sophia Dorothea was formally divorced, granted the title of Duchess of Ahlden, and retired to reside for the next thirty years a prisoner at the castle of Ahlden. In the film version of her life entitled Saraband for Dead Lovers (1948), the princess was portrayed by Joan Greenwood, and Konigsmarck by Stewart Granger. Her letters to Konigsmarck survive. Princess Sophia Dorothea died (Nov 13, 1726) aged sixty.

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover – (1687 – 1757)
Queen consort of Prussia (1713 – 1740)
Princess Sophia Dorothea was born (March 16, 1687) in Hanover, the daughter of George Louis, elector of Hanover (1698 – 1727) who became George I of England from 1714. Her mother was Sophia Dorothea, the daughter of George Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Celle. Her education was overseen by her intelligent and well educated paternal grandmother, the Electess Sophia, widow of Ernst August of Hanover. Her parents were divorced (1694) and the princess and her brother, the futire George II (1727 – 1760) were raised in their father’s household. She was educated by Madame von hartig under the supervision of her paternal grandmother the Electress Sophia.
Princess Sophia Dorothea was married to her Prussian cousin, Friedrich Wilhelm I (1687 – 1740) after his father King Friedrich I negotiated for her hand (1706), and bore him a large family of fourteen children including Friedrich the Great, King of Prussia (1740 – 1786) and was grandmother to King Friedrich Wilhelm II (1786 – 1797) and great-grandmother of Caroline of Brunswick, the ill-fated wife of George IV of England. Her husband succeeded his father as king (1713) but preferred a simple and frugal court life without any extravagance. He loved his wife dearly and bore her a great respect but Queen Sophia Dorothea bore the king a grudge for the simple life she was forced to lead and pretended to be frightened of his temper, though he never directed it against her, only their children. The queen spent most of her married life squabbling with her husband and fruitlessly trying to arrange the marriages of her children Wilhelmina and Friedrich with their English cousins, Frederick, Prince of Wales and his sister Amelia.  She also tried to arrange the release of her mother from the castle of Ahlden where she had remained imprisoned since her divorce. She seemed to be succeeding when her mother died (1726) a year before her father’s death would have released her.
Queen Sophia Dorothea was deprived of the legacy left by her father in his will because her brother George II disliked her.
Sophia Dorothea survived her husband as Queen Dowager (1740 – 1757) and with the marriage of her daughter Louisa Ulrica with Adolphus Fredrik of Sweden (1744) her constant companion was her only unmarried daughter Amalia. The queen mother retired to the palace of Monbijou. Her son Friedrich treated her with respect and affection, but did not permit her to become involved in politics. Her portrait was painted by Antoine Pesne. Queen Sophia Dorothea died (June 28, 1757) aged seventy, at Monbijou. She was buried at Potsdam. Her children were,

Sophia Dorothea Maria of Prussia – (1719 – 1765)
Princess of Prussia
Princess Sophia Dorothea was born (Jan 25, 1719) in Berlin, the daughter of Fredrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1713 – 1740) and his wife Sophia Dorothea, daughter of Geroge I, King of Great Britain (1714 – 1727) and elector of Hanover (1698 – 1727).  Sophia Dorothea was a younger sister of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786), and her mother had vainly hoped that she might become the wife of her English cousin, Frederick, Prince of Wales, if he were not permitted to marry her elder sister Wilhelmina. Neither of these marriages eventuated and Sophia Dorothea was married instead (1734) to Friedrich Wilhelm (1700 – 1771), margrave of Brandenburg-Schwendt to whom she bore several children. She was particularly noted for her patronage of literature and the arts. Margravine Sophia Dorothea died (Nov 13, 1765) at Schwendt, aged forty-six. Her surviving children were,

Sophia Dorothea Ulrica Alice – (1870 – 1932)
Queen consort of Greece (1913 – 1917) and (1920 – 1923)
Princess Sophia was born (June 14, 1870) at Potsdam, Prussia, the third daughter of the German Kaiser Frederick III (1888), and his wife Victoria, the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria, and the younger sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II.  She married (1889) Constantine, Duke of Sparta, eldest son of Giorgios I, to whom she bore six children. With the assassination of Giorgios (1913) her husband ascended the Greek throne as Constantine I.
During World War I Queen Sophia’s close relationship to the Kaiser brought trouble and unrest to Greece. She and her husband were accused of being pro-German, and it was even said that the queen’s country villa at Tatoi had a secret cable link to German submarines. The family narrowly escaped death when Tatoi Palace was burnt down (1916), and following a popular revolt soon afterwards (1917), the family escaped to Athens and from there to Oropos in the Gulf of Euboea, aboard the Sphacteria. The family remained in exile in Germany, and Sophia survived her husband ten years as the Queen Dowager of Greece. Queen Sophia was the mother of three Greek kings, Giorgios I (1922 – 1924) and (1935 – 1947), Alexandros I (1917 – 1920) and, Pavlos I (1947 – 1964). Queen Sophia died at Frankfurt-am-Main, aged sixty-one (Jan 13, 1932).

Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg (Sophie Frederikke) – (1758 – 1794)
Princess of Denmark
Princess Sophia of Mecklenburg was born (Aug 24, 1758) in Schwerin, Mecklenburg, the daughter of Duke Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and his wife Charlotte Sophia of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Princess Sophia became the wife (1774) in Copenhagen, of Hereditary Prince Frederik of Denmark, the younger son of King Frederik V (1746 – 1766). She bore her husband four children, including King Christian VIII (1839 – 1848) and was grandmother to Frederik VII (1849 – 1863). Princess Sophia died (Nov 29, 1794) aged thirty-six, in Copenhagen. She was interred in Roskilde Cathedral.

Sophia Frederica Caroline Louisa – (1778 – 1835)
German princess and countess
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Sophia of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was born (Aug 19, 1778) the eldest daughter of Francis Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1800 – 1806) and his second wife Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorff. She bore the additional title of Duchess of Saxony. Sophia accompanied her mother and several of her sisters to the Imperial court of St Petersburg where they resided until her sister Juliana was chosen to be the wife of Grand Duke Constantine Romanov, the grandson of Empress Catherine the Great.
The princess defied contemporary convention and the royal family and was married for love (1804) to the French émigré and soldier Emmanuel de Pouilly (1777 – 1852), Count von Mesndorff, the son of Albert Louis, Baron de Pouilly and du Chauffer and Comte de Roussu, and his wife Marie Antoinette Philippe de Custine de Guermonge. Her husband possessed estates and properties in Austria which he retained, though his family had lost other properties in France due to the Revolution. The French general Marshal Lannes occupied the castle of Saalfeld in Thuringia whilst the Count and Countess were in residence (1806). It was Sophia’s husband who gave the dead Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Prussia a fitting burial in defiance of the French. Princess Sophia died (July 19, 1835) aged fifty-six. Her pastel portrait by Schroder has survived. Her children were all first cousins to Queen Victoria,

Sophia Frederica Mathilda of Wurttemburg – (1818 – 1877)
Queen consort of the Netherlands (1849 – 1877)
Princess Sophia of Wurttemburg was born (June 7, 1818), the second daughter of Wilhelm I, King of Wurttemburg, and his second wife Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlova, the daughter of the Russian tsar Paul I (1796 – 1801). She was raised by her stepmother Pauline of Wurttemburg and was married (1839) to her cousin Crown Prince Wilhelm of the Netherlands (1818 – 1890), who succeeded his father as King Wilhelm III in 1849, whereupon Sophia became queen consort. The couple produced three sons, all of whom predeceased their father, without heirs.
The queen was chosen by the French emperor Napoleon III to be the godparent of Prince Victor de Bonaparte (1862 – 1926), together with Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy, but because of her Protestant religion the queen was not considered to be suitable as the French bishops would not permit a Protestant queen to attend a baptism in a Catholic church. Her marriage proved a failure as the king became exasperated by her more liberal politics, the queen being popularly known as ‘la reine rouge (the Red Queen) because of her advanced ideas.
The queen preferred to live apart from King Wilhelm, who spent his time instead with his mistresses on whom he bestowed the queen’s personal jewellery. Queen Sophia died (June 3, 1877) aged fifty-eight, at The Hague, whereupon Wilhelm III remarried to Emma of Waldeck-Pyrmont and became the father of Queen Wilhelmina. Her personal correspondence was edited and published as Een vreemdelinge in Den Haag (Sophie, a Stranger in The Hague) by the Dutch writer Hella Haasse.

Sophia Hedwig of Denmark – (1677 – 1735)
Princess of Denmark
Sophia Hedwig was born (Aug 28, 1677), the daughter of King Christian V and his wife Charlotte Amalia of Hesse-Kassel. Sophia Hedwig was long-betrothed to her cousin Charles XII, King of Sweden, but the marriage never eventuated. She never married and devoted herself to philanthropic and social concerns. She was a talented portrait painter, and over a dozen of her works are preserved in the Danish Royal Collection at Rosenborg Castle. Princess Sophia Hedwig died (March 13, 1735).

Sophia Helena Cecilia – (1885 – 1936)
Princess consort of Albania
Princess Sophia of Schonburg-Waldenburg was born (May 21, 1885) at Potsdam, near Berlin in Prussia, the daughter of Prince Otto Karl Victor of Schonburg-Waldenburg and his wife Princess Lucie Francziska of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. Possessed of artistic talent Princess Sophia sang, painted and played the harp, and became a member of the court of Elisabeth of Wied, wife of King Carol I of Roumania whose protégé she became, and who arranged for her to marry (1906) at Waldenburg in Saxony, her own nephew Prince Wilhelm of Wied (1876 – 1945).
Queen Elisabeth was ambitious for the young couple and when Albania became independent from Turkey (1913) she persuaded King Carol that Wilhelm would make a suitable candidate for the vacant throne. Soon afterwards Wilhlem of Wied accepted the Albanian crown as Prince Wilhelm I (Feb 6, 1914) and Sophia became the princess consort, the couple establishing their court at Durazzo. Despite the political upheavals throughout Prince Wilhelm’s short reign Sophia soon devepoled a deep love for Albania and its people, and sent highly enthusiastic letters to her aunt Queen Elisabeth in Bucharest, informing her of all her ideas and plans. However, such was the country’s turmoil by Sept, 1914 that Wilhelm decided that he could no longer continue as sovereign of Albania, and he left the country with Sophia and their children. Such was the confusion at their departure that the royal couple lost all their personal possessions, even Sophia’s treasured harp. Princess Sophia died (Feb 3, 1936) aged fifty, at Fontaneli in Moldavia. Her children were,

Sophia Louisa of Mecklenburg-Grabow – (1685 – 1735)
Queen consort of Prussia (1708 – 1713)
Duchess Sophia Louisa of Mecklenburg-Grabow was born (May 16, 1685), the only daughter of Duke Friedrich of Mecklenburg-Grabow and his wife Landgravine Christina Wilhelmina of Hesse-Homburg. Sophia Louisa became the third wife (1708) in Berlin, of Friedrich I (1657 – 1713), King of Prussia after he proposed to her at his hunting lodge. The new queen was not possessed of any striking looks or beauty and had a reputation for being bad tempered, but King Friedrich had married her to ensure the succession as he had only one son Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm.
The marriage proved a disaster, both dynastically and on a personal level. Queen Sophia Louisa remained childless and slowly became mentally deranged, having to be closely watched by her attendants in case she should cause harm to herself. The queen escaped from her keepers (Feb, 1713) and wandered into her husband’s room clad only in a white nightgown, after walking straight through a closed glass French window. When the king beheld this blood bespattered white vision he took the queen to be the ghost of the famous Weisse Frau (White Lady) whose appearance was said to announce the death of a male member of the Hohenzollern family, and promptly collapsed in shock. On hearing of these strange events the Electress Sophia of Hanover commented ‘the only pleasure the king ever had from the marriage was the wedding itself. I expect he would not be sorry to be planning the Queen’s funeral now.’ Instead it was King Friedrich who died (Feb 25) having never recovered from the experience.
With the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm I the Dowager Queen’s condition prevented his youing stepmother from attending the court and it was deemed necessary for her to live in seclusion under care. Eventually Queen Sophia Louisa was returned to the safety of her family in Grabow, though this was probably so that the Hohenzollern family did not have to provide for her expensive maintenance. Queen Sophia Louisa never recovered her faculties and died (July 29, 1735) aged fifty, at Grabow.

Sophia Magdalena of Denmark – (1746 – 1813)
Queen consort of Sweden (1771 – 1792)
Princess Sophia Magdalena was born (July 3, 1746) in the Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, the eldest daughter of Fredrik V, king of Denmark (1746 – 1766) and his first wife Louisa, the daughter of George II, King of Great Britain (1727 – 1760). Her mother died during her early infancy, and the princess was piously educated by her stepmother, Queen Juliana Maria, and her grandmother Sophia Magdalena, the widow of Christian VI. She was briefly considered (1760) as a possible bride for her cousin, George III of England, but her candidature was not seriously considered, as she was believed to have already been promised to the Swedish Crown Prince Gustavus (later Gustsvus III in 1771). He eventually made overtures for her hand in marriage (1765), a suitable dynastic match, but his parents disagreed and the proposal proceeded no further. However, with the death of King Fredrick (Jan, 1766), the parliament, the Riksdag, urged the crown prince to pursue the former negotiations, and he and Sophia Magdalena were finally married (Nov, 1766), despite the disapproval of her new parents’-in-law.
Despite all these arrangements the marriage proved unhappy. Sophia Magdalena did not shire her husband’s interests, was of a pious, sweet, and submissive nature, and regarded the theatre, which Gustavus loved, as sinful. Eventually the couple resided in different apartments in the palace, and her mother-in-law, Queen Louisa Ulrika, did all she could to make the princess’s life miserable. The chief officer (Kammerherr) of her household was the famous Swedish statesman, Baron Gustaf Adolf von Reuterholm (1756 – 1813). The court took its tone from the king and queen mother, and even when Sophia Magdalena produced a son and heir, Gustavus IV (1778 – 1837) after twelve years of marriage, the queen’s life went on as before.
With her husband’s assasination at the Stockholm Opera House (1792) the new queen mother was given, at the insistence of her husband (who had little faith in her abilties) no part in the government of their son Gustavus, his brother Karl, Duke of Sodermanland (Charles XIII) being appointed as regent instead. As queen mother she lived in retirement. When her son was deposed and exiled (1809) Queen Sophia Magdalena was permitted to remain in Stockholm. Queen Sophia Magdalena died (Aug 21, 1813) aged sixty-seven, at Ulriksdal Castle.

Sophia Magdalena of Kulmbach – (1700 – 1770)
Queen consort of Denmark (1730 – 1746)
Princess Sophia Magdalena was born (Nov 28, 1700) at Castle Schoenberg, Brandenburg, the daughter of Christian Heinrich, the Margrave of Kulmbach, and Countess Sophia Christiana Theodora von Wolfstein. Sophia Magdalena was married (1721) to the Danish Crown Prince Christian (1699 – 1746), son and heir of Fredrik IV, King of Denmark, whom he succeeded as Christian VI (1730 – 1746). Sophia Magdalena and was the mother of King Fredrik V (1723 – 1766). Their daughter Princess Louisa (1726 – 1756) became the first wife of Ernst Friedrich III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
The king and queen jointly encouraged the study of the sciences, regulated the activites of the clergy, and improved the royal buildings and palaces in Copenhagen, such as the Christainsborg Palace, which was completed in 1745. Such was the pain she bore due to her husband’s many infidelities that when Christian died, rumour had it that Sophia Magdalena had poisoned him. Though she was never openly accused of this crime, it was never forgotten. With the death of her son Fredrik, Sophia Magdalena ruled as regent (1766 – 1770) for her insane grandson, Christian VII (1766 – 1808), and disliked his British wife, Princess Caroline Matilda, the sister of King George III, whose scandalous behaviour provoked her severe disapproval. Imbued with German pietism, the queen mother particularly resented the introduction of French masques to the Danish court. Queen Sophia Magdalena died (May 27, 1770) aged sixty-nine, at Christiansborg Castle, and was buried in Roskilde Cathedral. The queen bequeathed much of her personal jewellery to augment the royal collection.

Sophia Medica – (d. c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Sophia Medica had trained as a physician and was probably of slave status. The nickname ‘Medica’ refers to her profession. She was arrested as a Christian during the persecutions of the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Refusing to sacrifice to the pagan gods, and despite her fame as a skilled physician, she was killed with a sword. Sophia Medica was listed as a saint in the Acta Sanctorum (May 22).

Sophia Wilhelmina Vasa – (1801 – 1865)
Princess of Sweden
Princess Sophia Vasa was born (May 21, 1801) in Stockholm, the daughter of Gustavus IV Adolf, King of Sweden and his wife Frederica of Baden. She was married (1819) to her great-uncle Prince Leopold of Baden (1790 – 1865) to whom she bore eight children. Her portrait was painted by Franz Winterhalter. When her husband succeeded his father as the reigning Grand Duke of Baden Sophia became the Grand Duchess consort (1830). She survived her husband as the Dowager Grand Duchess of Baden (1852 – 1865). Grand Duchess Sophia died (July 6, 1865) aged sixty-four, at Karlsruhe. Her children were,

Sophie Caroline Marie Wilhelmine – (1902 – 1941)
Princess of Luxemburg and Nassau
Princess Sophie was born (Feb 14, 1902) the sixth and youngest daughter of Guillaume IV of Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxemburg (1905 – 1912), and his wife Maria Anna of Braganza, Infanta of Portugal, the daughter of Miguel I of Braganza, one-time King of Portugal. She was sister to the Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide (1912 – 1919) and the Grand Duchess Charlotte (1919 – 1964). Her Grand Ducal Highness was married (1921) to Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony (1896 – 1971), the second son of King Friedrich Augustus III, as his first wife, and became Princess of Saxony (1921 – 1941). Princess Sophie died (May 31, 1941) aged thirty-nine. Her children were,

Sophie Charlotte Augustine – (1847 – 1897)
Princess of Bavaria and duchesse d’Orleans
Princess Sophie was born (Feb 23, 1847) at Possenhofen Castle, near Starnberg, the fifth daughter and eighth child of Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and his wife Princess Ludovica, the daughter of Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. Her sister Elisabeth (Sisi) was the wife of Austrian emperor Franz Josef I (1848 – 1916). The ministers of her cousin the mad Ludwig II of Bavaria suggested that he marry and produce an heir to the throne (1866). An attractive girl with a slim figure, good figure and ash-blonde hair Sophie and her cousin seemed attracted to her and announced his intention of marrying her. Sophie accompanied the king to the French court (1867) where they were received by the Emperor Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenie, and the wedding was planned for October of that year but was repeatedly postphoned. Finally, after receiving a letter from Duke Maximilian the wedding was called off. All sorts of rumours circulated including one that the princess was involved in a liaison with the court photographer. The truth was that Ludwig II was becoming increasingly unstable and had homosexual preferences, and that he realized a marriage would make both of them unhappy.
Sophie was married instead (1868) to Prince Ferdinand d’Orleans (1844 – 1910), Duc de Alencon, the son of King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) and she graced the French court during the final years of the Second Empire (1868 – 1870). The duchesse’s marriage produced two children but was not a particularly congenial one, and she developed a pronounced melancholia. She was stricken with scarlet fever (1886) and recuperated with her parents at Possenhofen.  She was then admitted to a mental clinic in Dobling where her family had sent her to recover from a physical infatuation for a young physician (1887). Her portrait as a young woman was painted by Lenbach.
The Duchesse d’Orleans died (May 4, 1897) aged fifty, in a fire in a charity bazaar. She had refused to leave the burning building until all the girls working at her stall had been rescued. There was little remaining of her charred body, that only her dentist could identify her. Her children were Emanuel d’Orleans (1872 – 1931), Duc de Vendome who left issue and Princess Louise Victoire d’Orleans (1869 – 1952) the wife of Prince Alfons of Bavaria (1862 – 1933) who also left issue.

Sophie Helene Beatrix de Bourbon – (1786 – 1787)
French Bourbon princess
Princess Sophie was born (July 9, 1786) at the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, the second daughter and youngest child of King Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) and his wife Marie Antoinette, daughter of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa. The princess was a large child but her limbs were not well-formed, as her mother could not be persuaded to leave off wearing her corsets during her pregnancy. The infant princess died (June 19, 1787) at Versailles, aged only eleven months, and was interred in the royal abbey of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris.

Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine de Bourbon – (1734 – 1782)
French Bourbon princess
Princess Sophie was born (July 27, 1734) at the Palace of Versailles, the seventh daughter of Louis XV (1715 – 1774) and his wife Marie, the daughter of Stanislas I Lezscynski, King of Poland. She spent a decade (1739 – 1750) at the abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault before finally returning to reside at Versailles. A nervous, delicate child, Madame de Pompadour, her father’s mistress, recorded of her at the time ‘Madame Sophie is almost as tall as myself, very good, plump, a fine throat, well-built, fine skin and eyes, and in profile as like the king ‘as one drop of water to another ….’. Princess Sophie sufferred from excruciating shyness and was absolutely terrified by thunderstorms.
Sophie never married. With her mother’s death (1768) she received an income of two hundred thousand francs annually and resided with her elder unmarried sister Princess Victoire. She shared her sisters’ dislike of the king’s mistress, the Comtesse Du Barry and was a member of that court faction. With her sisters Sophie attended the king during his last illness from smallpox, and showed great courage in the face of that contagious disease. During her last years she suffered terribly from dropsy. Princess Sophie died (March 13, 1782) at Versailles, aged forty-seven. She was interred on the royal abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris and her will survives.

Sophonisba – (c225 – 203 BC)
Princess of Carthage
Sophonisba was the daughter of the noted general Hadsdrubal Gisgo, and his second wife, an Iberian princess, and was niece to the famous Carthaginian general Hannibal (247 – 183 BC).  Her name in Carthaginian was Saphanbalal. Her father was later killed fighting the Roman forces at the Metaurus in Italy (207 BC). Sophonisba was married (c210 BC) to Syphax, prince of Carthage. When the Romans invaded Numidia and king Masinissa came to Carthage for aid, Syphax refused him. Masinissa later joined with the Romans under Scipio Africanus (204 BC) and quickly turned on Carthage, which quickly fell, together with forty thousand of its inhabitants. Sophonisba and her husband were amongst the survivors.
Syphax was later routed at Soul el Kremis (203 BC) and captured, being presented to Scipio in chains. Sophonisba and several courtiers were forced to receive Masinissa at Cirta, where, on her knees before him, she begged to be spared the shame of a Roman triumph. Impressed by her beauty and courage, Masinissa, hoping to protect her, vowed never to hand her over to Scipio, and forced the temple priests at Cirta to marry them the next day, despite the warnings of the Roman officers accompanying him. Sophonisba probably offerred Masinissa hopes of the crown of Carthage through her. However, Masinissa was summoned to Scipio’s camp, where the Romans demanded the princess’s surrender. Recalling his promise, Masinissa sent Sophonisba a messenger with a letter and a draught of poison. She died bravely. Syphax died later in Italy, perhaps before Scipio’s triumph (202 BC).

Sophrosyne – (c395 – 344 BC)
Greek queen of Syrakuse
Sophrosyne was the daughter of King Dionysius I and his second wife, Aristomake, the daughter of Hipparinus. Her name means ‘prudence’ or moderation, and her father caused her to be married (c383 BC) to her kinsman, King Dionysius II (c397 – c325 BC) in a dynastic family alliance. Sophrosyne was his queen at his accession (367 BC), and she had borne Dionysius two sons, including his eldest, the heir Apollokrates, and two daughters. Whilst Dionysius was making a military stand in Syrakuse, there was an uprising at Locri, in which the queen, her eldest son and other children, were all maltreated and then murdered.

Sopi Bagratid    see   Sophia of Armenia

Sora, Constanza Sforza, Duchess di – (1550 – 1617)
Italian papal heiress
Constanza Sforza was the great-granddaughter of Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549). She was married (1576) to Giacomo Boncampagni (1548 – 1612), Duca di Sora, the illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII. The duchess bore her husband twelve children, and her descendants included Pietro Ottoboni who became Pope Alexander VIII (1681 – 1691). She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess di Sora (1612 – 1617) and died (Jan 22, 1617) aged sixty-six.

Sora, Margherita Maroscelli, Duchess di – (c1475 – 1531)
Italian courtier and literayr patron
Margherita Maroscelli was a member of the patrician Maroscelli family of Ferrara, and became the wife of Sigismondo Cantelmo, Duke di Sora. The duchess was a prominent patron of poets and the arts, Count Castiglione presented the duchess with a copy of his book, the Cortegiano (1527). She was for many years a close friend to Isabella s’Este, the marchesa of Mantua, and long resided at her court. The duchess was also a friend to Castiglione’s mother, Albisa Gonzaga, and Duke Federico Gonzaga entrusted the duchess with the upbringing of his illegitimate daughter Livia Gonzaga.

Sorabji, Cornelia – (1866 – 1954)
Indian lawyer
Cornelia Sorabji was the first female student to be accepted at the Decca College in Poona. She was refused a sholarship to attend a university because of her sex, but the influence of friends prevailed, and she travelled to England where she attended Somerville College in Oxford. Sorabji then went on to study law at Lincoln’s Inn, where she became the first woman to sit for the Bachelor of Civil Law examination (1893). With her return to India she campaigned against the ancient custom of keeping women in seclusion (purdah) and denying them an education. She was later appointed legal adviser to represent female wards of the state in Assam and Bihar (1904). She later established her own law practice in Calcutta and was the author of India Calling (1934) and India Recalled (1936).

Soraya – (1932 – 2001)
Queen consort of Iran
Born Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari in Isfahan, she was of German parentage. She was studied in Isfahan, and later travelled to England and Switzerland to finish her education. She became queen of Persia with her marriage (1951) with Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1941 – 1980), as his second wife. Though the couple remained attached to each other, Queen Soraya’s failure to produce a male heir caused the marriage to be dissolved (1958).

Sorba, Julie Therese Melanie – (c1720 – 1786)
Italian society figure and courtier
Julie Sorba was the daughter of Giambattista Sorba, the Genoese diplomatist. Her brother Agostino, Marchese Sorba was the Genoese minister to the French court, and Madamoiselle Sorba accompanied her brother to France, and the court of Versailles. With her brother’s death (1771), King Louis XV granted Julie a state pension which she enjoyed until her death.

Sorbalan, Viscondesa    see   Deraisieres, Maria Micaela

Soreff, Helen – (1926 – 1998)
American painter
Soreff was born in Brooklyn, New York, and attended the University of Georgia, the Srt Students League of New York, and Long Island University. Soreff was especially noted for her subtle and inflected minimalist abstract works. She exhibited her works over three decades (1963 – 1995) and was a teacher at the Parsons School of Design in New York. Helen Soreff died (Sept 10, 1998) aged seventy-two, in Manhattan.

Sorel, Agnes – (1410 – 1450)
French royal mistress
Agnes Sorel was born at the Chateau de Fromenteau, Lorraine, the daughter of Jean Sorel, seigneur de Couches de Saint-Gerain, of Touraine, and his wife Catherine de Maignelay. She was a member of the household of Isabelle of Lorraine, the wife of Rene I d’Anjou, king of Naples. From 1444 till her death, Sorel was the mistress of King Charles VII (1422 – 1461) and was the first maitresse en titre to be publicly acknowledged at the court of France.

A woman of great beauty, elegance, and charm, the king remained devoted to her, though she attracted the hatred of his son, Louis XI, who resented the dishonour done to his mother, Queen Marie. Charles bestowed upon her the estate of Beaute-sur-Marne, from which was derived her nickname ‘Dame de Beaute.’ Although she promoted her own family, and was accused of immorality and extravagance, being credited with making diamonds fashionable at the French court, Agnes was possessed of a particular generous nature, as well as shrewdness and sensibility. Agnes Sorel died of dysentery (Feb 9, 1450) aged thirty-nine, at the manor of Mesnil-sous-Jumieges, Normandy, after the birth of her last child, with the king at her bedside, but court gossip accused Louis XI, probably unfairly, as having brought about her death by poison. Sorel was interred at Loches.

Sorel, Claudette – (1932 – 1999)
French-American pianist
Claudine Sorel was born (Oct 10, 1932) in Paris, and had received early training before the family fled France for New York, ahead of the Nazi invasion (1940). She studied in New York under the Hungarian concert pianistm Sari Biro, and received a scholarship to the Julliard School, where she studied under Olga Samaroff. Sorel made her stage debut at the age of eleven, and she performed regularly as an orchestral soloist. With Samaroff’s death (1948) she enrolled at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, and studied under Rudolf Serkin and Mieczyslav Horszowski.
Several years later she earned her degree in mathematics from Columbia University (1954). Sorel toured as a soloist, and her last public performance was a recital of the music of Sergei Rachmaninoff at the Alice Tully Hall to honour the centenary of his birth (1973). Though a fall ended her performing career, Sorel had established herself as a teacher, and taught at the University of Kansas and the State University of New York, at Fredonia. Sorel was the author of several works such as A Compendium of Piano Technique: 17 Little Piano Studies and Mind Your Musical Manners, and was the editor of From Madam: Selected Writings of Olga Samaroff Stokowski From Her Years at the Julliard School. Claudette Sorel died (Aug 6, 1999) aged sixty-six, at Hampton Bays, New York.

Sorenson, Belle    see    Gunness, Belle

Sorghaqtani – (c1193 – 1252)
Mongol princess and political player
Sorghaqtani was a princess of Kerait before her marriage (c1207) to Prince Tului, the youngest son of Genghiz Khan. A devout Nestorian Christian, she bore Tului four sons, Mongka (Mangu), Kunilai, Hulagu and Ariqboga before his death (c1232). Khan Ogodai later wished Sorghaqtani to marry his son Guyuk, but she politely refused his offer and devoted herself to the upbringing of her sons. Khan Guyuk died in 1248 and his widow Oghul Qaimach ruled as regent for their three sons. However Batu, viceroy of the West, whose former quarrel with Guyuk had never healed, joined with Sorghaqtani in claiming the throne for her eldest son Mongka. Batu, whose personal admiration for Sorghaqtani was great, summoned a Mongol council (kuriltay) in July, 1251 which deposed the regency of the empress mother, and elected Mongka as khan. Sorghaqtani founded a Moslem theological college at Bokhara.

The chronicler Bar-Hebraeus called her ‘the all-wise and believing Queen’ and her son Hulagu told the Armenian historian Vartan that his mother was a devout Christian. It was in respect for her memory that her son Mongka later especially favoured the Nestorians at his court. Of her sons, her eldest Mongka (c1208 – 1259) ruled as khan till his death (Aug, 1259) whereupon his sons, being young and untried, his next brother the famous Kubilai (1215 – 1294) became khan. The third son Hulagu (c1217 – 1265) became Ilkhan of Persia, whilst the fourth Ariqboga attempted to become Great Khan in 1259, but was finally crushed by his brother Kubilai in 1261, and died in 1266. Princess Sorghaqtani died (Feb, 1252).

Sorma, Agnes Martha Karoline – (1865 – 1927) 
German actress
Sorma appeared on the stage from childhood and later worked at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Prussia (1883), where she excelled in tragedy roles. Later attached to the Berliner Theater (1890 – 1894), she made her first appearance in the USA in New York (1897). Sorma toured Scandinavia and Europe and was especially admired as Nora in Henrik Ibsen’s The Doll’s House and in the title role of George Bernard Shaw’s Candida. She later worked with Max Reinhardt in Berlin (1904 – 1907), appearing as Hermione in A Winter’s Tale (1906). During WW I she worked to entertain troops at the front, and later removed to the USA. Agnes Sorma died in Arizona.

Sorrell, Elizabeth – (1916 – 1991)
British painter
Born (Oct 12, 1916) at Skelton-in-Cleveland in Yorkshire, she specialized in water colour paintings of flowers such as Ferns in the Conservatory (1945).

Sosa, Mercedes – (1935 – 2009)
Argentinian folk vocalist
Mercedes Sosa was born (July 9, 1935) in Tucman province into a poor family. She entered a singing contest on radio using a pseudonym (1950) and won a contract agter which her career never looked back. She achieved great national and international popularity and was accordingly known as ‘the Voice of Latin America.’ Her songs took on political content as the ruling government cracked down of the civil rights of the population and she released the album entitled Hasta la Victoria (Till Victory) (1972).
Sosa was arrested whilst singing before students in La Plata (1979) but was quickly released due to pressure from foreign governments. Forced in exile (1979 – 1982), Sosa lived and performed in Spain and France until she was able to return to her country. Mercedes Sosa died (Oct 4, 2009) aged seventy-four, in Buenos Aires.

Sosia Falconilla, Pompeia – (fl. c150 – c170 AD)
Roman dynastic wife
Sosia Falconilla was the daughter of Quintus Pompeius Sosius Priscus (consul ord. 149 AD), and was sister to Quintus Pompeius Sosius Priscus (consul ord. 169 AD) who was married to Ceionia Fabia, a sister of the Emperor Lucius Verus (164 – 169 AD), son-in-law to Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). Sosia Falconilla became the wife of Marcus Pontius Laelianus (consul ord. 163 AD) and was the mother of Marcus Sosius Laelianus Pontius Falco (living 171 AD). She is attested by a surviving inscription from Cirtensis.

Sosia Polla – (c87 – c122 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Sosia Polla was the daughter of Quintus Sosius Senecio, consul in 99 and then in 107 AD. Her mother was Julia Frontina, the daughter of Sextus Julius Frontinus, consul in 99 and 100 AD. Sosia Polla was married to Quintus Roscius Pompeius Falco, consul 109 AD, and governor of Lower Moesia and Britain, as well as proconsul of Asia. Sosia Polla was a member of the court of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, and appears to have accompanied her husband on his Imperial postings, there being evidence of her prescence with him in Britain. She was the mother of Quintus Pompeius Senecio Sosius Priscus (118 – 180 AD), who served as consul under the emperor Marcus Aurelius (169 AD).

Sosipatra – (c315 – c380 AD)
Greek philosopher
Sosipatra was born into a wealthy family in Ephesus, and was a contemporary of the noted female philosophers, the elder Asclepigenia and Hypatia. She was married to the philosopher Eustathius, who served the emperor as prefect of Cappodocia in Asia Minor. A highly intelligent woman, she had been educated by the Chaldeans from the age of five. She married Eustathius after correctly predicitng that he would die within five years, and that they would have three sons. With his death she retired to Pergamum in Asia Minor, where she owned estates, and she and her sons were protected by the philosopher Aedesius.
In Ephesus Sosipatra actively participated within the neo-Platonist school of philosophy, holding a chair in her own home. She was cured by the magic of Maximus of Ephesus from falling in love with her cousin Philometer. Philostratus recorded that ‘her surpassing wisdom made her own husband seem inferior and insignificant,’ and her contemporaries credited her with the gifts of prophecy and clairvoyance. One of her sons was the celebrated prophet and philosopher, Antoninus of Canopus, in Egypt, who died shortly before the destruction of the Serapeum (391 AD).

Sotomayor, Leonor de – (1460 – 1522)
Portugese courtier
Leonor de Sotomayor was the daughter of Juan de Sotomayor and his wife Isabel de Portugal-Eca. She was married to Alfonos de Aragon, Duke of Villahermosa. Leonor became involved in a romantic liasion with the Infante Diego of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1460 – 1484) to whom she bore a son Alfonso (1484 – 1504), who was legitimated and created Duke of Viseu, and later appointed Constable of Portugal (1500).

Soubise, Anne de Rohan-Chabot, Princesse de – (1648 – 1709)
French courtier at Versailles, the mistress of Louis XIV
Anne de Rohan-Chabot was the daughter of Henry de Rohan-Chabot, Duc de Rohan and his wife Margeurite de Rohan, Princesse de Leon. Anne became the second wife (1663) of Prince Francois de Rohan-Montbazon (1631 – 1712), who was created Prince de Soubise in honour of their marriage. Anne was the mother of eleven children including Hercule Meriadec de Rohan (1669 – 1749), Prince de Soubise-Maubuisson. Two of her four daughters became nuns, Anne Margeurite de Rohan-Soubise (1664 – 1721) being appointed as Abbess of Jouarre, and Eleonore de Rohan-Soubise (1679 – 1753) becoming Abbess of Origny-en-Picardy.
Her relationship with the king lasted several years and was conducted with decorum, the king probably being the father of her fifth son Cardinal Armand Gaston de Rohan-Soubise (1674 – 1749). Louis XIV was considerate to her financially and the Prince de Soubise remaining acquiescent. This association founded the fortunes of the family and Madame de Sevigne wrote ‘The Madame de Soubise episode has passed like a shooting star across the summer sky …. . Never was so prodigious a family fortune founded so speedily.An abundant and magnificent heritage building up to be left to her house.’ Her former palace now houses the French National Archives. She was mentioned in the Memoires of the the famous court chronicler the Duc de Saint-Simon. Princesse de Soubise died (Jan, 1709) aged sixty, and was interred in the Church of Notre Dame de la Merci in Paris, where her husband was later buried with her.

Soule, Isobel Walker – (1898 – 1972)
American labour leader and author
Isobel Walker became the wife of George Soule, the economist and author. They were later divorced. Mrs Soule wrote articles concerning China and Russia for People Press and Soviet Russia Today, and was the author of such publications as Vigilantes Hide Behind the Flag and A Guide for Ladies’ Auxiliaries. She was a member of the board of The League of Women Shoppers and was the first vice president of the Union of the United Office and Professional Workers of America. She also served as chairman of the National Council of Pan-American Democracy.
Isobel Walker Soule died (Aug 1, 1972) aged seventy-four, at Stonington in Connecticut.

Sousa, Violante da – (c1345 – c1400)
Portugese saint
During her youth Violante became a nun at the abbey of Odivellas, near Lisbon. Because of her virtue and administrative abilities, Violante was later appointed superior of the Benedictine convent of Castro from c1372 till her death. The church honoured her as a saint (Feb 28).

Southampton, Ismania Catherine Nugent, Lady – (1836 – 1918)
British Victorian courtier
Ismania Nugent was the daughter of Walter Nugent of Clonlost in County Westmeath, a baron of the Austrian Empire and his second wife Georgiana Elizabeth Jenkinson, the eldest daughter and coheiress of Sir Charles Jenkinson, tenth baronet of Hawkesley, Gloucester. Miss Nugent was married (1862) to Charles Fitzroy (1804 – 1872), third Baron Southampton, as his second wife and became the Baroness Southampton (1862 – 1872). Lord Southampton was a descendant of King Charles II and Lady Southampton bore him five children. Lady Ismania survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Southampton for over forty-five years (1872 – 1918).
From 1878 until 1901 Lady Southampton served at court as Lady of the Bedchamber in Ordinary to Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and at Osborne and in recognition of this service she was awarded the VA (Royal Order of Victoria and Albert). Another lady in waiting Marie Mallett recorded in her diary for 1888 ‘Lady Southampton is most kind but her dullness is beyond description, she never originates a remark,’ and again (March, 1899) ‘She is such a dear, kind woman, but hardly an exhilarating companion for a long journey.’ This was an occasion where they accompanied the queen on a visit to the Hotel Excelsior Regina at Cimiez in Boulogne. As the widow of a peer Lady Southampton attended both the coronations of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902) and that of George V and Queen Mary (1911). Lady Southampton died (Aug 14, 1918) at Park Place, Englefield Green. She was interred at Whittlebury Lodge in Northampton. Her children were,

Southampton, Jane Cheney, Countess of – (c1515 – 1574)
English Tudor peeress and courtier
Jane Cheney was the daughter of William Cheney, of Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire, and his wife Emma Walwyn, later the wife of William Gardiner. Her stepfather William Gardiner was the brother of Stephen Gardiner (1483 – 1556), Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chancellor under Mary I. Her stepgrandmother, Helen Tudor, the wife of William Gardinier (I), was the illegitimate daughter of Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, and was first cousin to King Henry VII (1485 – 1509).
Jane Cheney became the wife (1531) of Sir Thomas Wriothesley (1505 – 1550), a prominent courtier of Henry VIII. Lady Wriothesley and her husband were present at the funeral ceremonies of Queen Jane Seymour (1537) and Lady Jane was one fo the ladies appointed to attend Anne of Cleves, the king’s fourth wife, after her arrival in England. Her half-brother, Germaine Gardiner, was executed for denying the royal supremacy (1543). Her husband was later appointed as first Earl of Southampton (1547) by King Edward VI, whom he served as Lord Chancellor, and Jane became Countess of Southampton (1547 – 1550). Southampton was later exiled from court by the Duke of Northumberland because of involvement against the Duke of Somerset, and he remained with the countess at their London residence, Lincoln House, until his death there (July 30, 1550), amidst rumours of suicide. Lady Jane survived her husband for over two decades as the Dowager Countess of Southampton (1550 – 1574) during which time she was present at the coronations of both Queen Mary (1554) and Queen Elizabeth (1559). A manuscript of prayers, written by Roger Welden, was dedicated to Lady Southampton. The countess died (Sept 15, 1574) and was buried at Titchfield. Her children were,

Southard, Ruth    see   Sohn, Ruth Southard

Southcott, Joanna – (1750 – 1814) 
British religious mystic and writer
Joanna Southcott was born in Devon, the daughter of a farmer. She worked as a domestic servant until 1792, when she pronounced herself to be the woman mentioned in the biblical book of Revelations (XII), and publicly announced the imminent arrival of Jesus Christ on earth. Her strange beliefs attracted a karge number of followers, known popularly as ‘Southcottians’ and she eventually came to London. There she published A Warning (1803) and The Book of Wonders (1813 – 1814). Finally, when aged well over sixty, Southcott claimed that she would give birth to the new Messiah. Instead, she fell into a coma and died (Dec, 1814) of a tumour of the brain.

Southern, Elizabeth – (c1530 – 1612)
English witchtrial victim
Popularly known as ‘Old Demdike,’ she was native of Pendle in Lancashire and her family had been closely connected with witchcraft practices for several generations. She herself is said to have initiated her own daughter and her granddaughter, Janet Device to these pagan practices. Later she was arrested (1612), together with a witch rival, Anne Whittle, by a Puritan justice of the peace, Roger Nowell, after complaints made by several landowners. Both women, each accompanied by a granddaughter, were then imprisoned in Lancaster. Her accomplices appear to have planned to blow up Lancaster Gaol, but all were arrested and incriminated each other. Elizabeth Southern herself died in prison before the trial, though several family members were executed.

Southern, Jeri – (1926 – 1991)
American popular vocalist and pianist
Born Genevieve Hering, in Royal, Nebraska, she played the piano during childhood, later receiving classical instruction. Southern came to Chicago, Illinois, in the early 1940’s and worked as a cocktail waitress, whilst establishing her career as a singer. Later signed up to Decca Records, ahe produced her first single in 1951, and achieved acclaim with her recordings of ‘You Better Go Now,’ ‘When I Fall in Love,’ and ‘An Occasional Man.’ Jeri Southern was best remembered for the extrememly popular song ‘Fire Down Below’ which she sang in the Rita Hayworth film of the same name (1957). During her later career, Southern gave vocal lessons and taught piano technique, and was the author of Interpreting Popular Music at the Keyboard. Jeri Southern died of pnuemonia (Aug 4, 1991) aged sixty-four, in Hollywood, California, aged sixty-four.

Southesk, Evelyn Julia Williams-Freeman, Countess of – (1909 – 1992)
British peeress
Evelyn Williams-Freeman was born (July 27, 1909) the elder daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Peere Williams-Freeman (1877 – 1965) and his wife Hilda Gwladys Saunders, the daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Erasmus Saunders of Alton Pancras in Dorset. Evelyn was married firstly (1933) to Major Ion Edward Fitzgerald Campbell 91897 – 1936) and their son Ion Campbell (born 1936) of Kinnaird Castle, was born posthumously. Mrs Campbell later became the second wife (1952) of the Scottish peer Sir Charles Alexander Carnegie (1893 – Feb 16, 1992), eleventh Earl of Southesk, who she survived for seven months as Countess Dowager of Southesk. During their last years Lord and Lady Southesk made their home at Kinnaird Castle in Brechin, Angus, the home of Lady Southesk’s son. Lady Southesk died (Aug 30, 1992) aged eighty-three, at Kinnaird Castle.

Southesk, Maude Alexandra Victoria Georgina Bertha Duff, Countess of – (1893 – 1945)
British royal, she was born (April 3, 1893)
Lady Maude Duff was the granddaughter of Edward VII (1901 – 1910), being the younger daughter of his eldest daughter Louise Victoria, the Princess Royal (1901 – 1931) and of Alexander Macduff (1849 – 1912), the Scottish duke of Fife. She was the granddaughter of Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901). Lady Maude attended Mary, Princess Royal the daughter of George V and acted as her bridesmaid (Feb, 1922) togther with two of her cousins, Victoria, later Duchess of Beufort, and Lady May Cambridge, later Lady Smith.
Lady Maude became the first wife (1923) of Sir Charles Alexander Carnegie, eleventh Earl of Southesk (1893 – 1992). During WW II the countess served with the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service) and was appointed a Counsellor of State (1943) by King George VI. With the death of her nephew Alistair of Connaught without heirs (1943), she became a co-heir of the dukedom of Fife. Her son, James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, Lord Carnegie (born 1929), later succeeded Maude’s elder sister, Princess Alexandra of Connaught, as third Duke of Fife (1959). The Countess of Southesk died (Dec 14, 1945) aged fifty-two.

Southey, Caroline Anne – (1786 – 1854)
British poet and letter writer
Born Caroline Bowles, she became the second wife of the poet Robert Southey. She was popularly known as ‘the Cowper of our modern poetesses.’

Southgate, Margaret Cecil Irene – (1918 – 1970)
British educator
Southgate was born (Oct 5, 1918) and educated at Newnham College at Cambridge, where she studied the classics, eventually being appointed as mistress of that department in several schools, notably St James’s at West Malvern (1942 – 1945) and St Monica’s School at Clacton-on-Sea (1946 – 1960). Southgate also served at Clacton as housemistress, before returning to St James’s at Malvern where she spent a decade as headmistress (1960 – 1970). Southgate remained unmarried. Margaret Southgate died (Jan 3, 1970) aged fifty-one.

Southworth, Dorothy Fay     see    Fay, Dorothy

Soutzo, Helene Chrissoveleni, Princess – (1879 – 1975)
Romanian salonniere and literary figure
Helene Chrissoveleni was born at Galatz (Feb 5, 1879) and became the wife of Prince Dimitri Soutzo. She held a fashionable salon in Paris prior and after WW I, and kept an apartment at the Ritz Hotel. She was a particular patron of Marcel Proust and of the writer and diplomat Paul Morand (1888 – 1976), who later became her second husband. Her correspondence with Proust was published by Morand in Le Visiteur du soir. Madame Soutzo died (Feb 26, 1975) aged ninety-four, in Paris.

Souza, Adelaide Marie Emilie de – (1761 – 1836)
French-Portugese novelist
Born Adelaide de Filleul at the Chateau de Longpre in Normandy, swas married firstly to the Comte de Flahault (1727 – 1793), who perished upon the guillotine in Arras, and secondly (1802) to the Marques se Souza-Botelho (1758 – 1825), the Portugese minister to Paris. With the initial outbreak of the Revolution (1789) the comtesse and her young son immigrated firstly to Germany, and then went to England for greater safety. She turned to writing in order to provide herself with an income. Her popular novels included Adele de Senange (1794), Emilie et Alphonse (1799) and Eugene de Rothelin (1808).

Souza, Dona Ana de     see     Nzinga, Mbande

Souza, Dona Grace de     see     Kifunji

Souza, Rachel     see   Entwhistle, Rachel Elizabeth

Sovern, Jean Rosenthal – (1936 – 1993)
American sculptor
Sovern was born in Manhattan, New York, and studied art at Bennington College, before studying sculpture under John Havannes and William Zorach. Jean married Michael Rosenthal, president of Columbia University.  Her early works were abstract pieces, but later in her career Jean turned her talent to assemblage, and she held two solo exhibitions of her work in Manhattan in 1988 and 1991. She also assisted with the creation of the Henry Moore Sculpture Reserve at the Columbia Campus in Harriman, New York. Jean Sovern died of cancer in Manhattan.

Sowerby, Katherine Githa – (c1888 – 1970)
British dramatist
Sowerby was married and bore a daughter. She was best known for the play, Rutherford & Son (1912) which was so successful that it was translated into virtually every European language. Her other published plays included Before Breakfast (1912), A Man and Some Women (1914) and The Stepmother (1924). She also published several children’s books including Yesterday’s Children. Katherine Sowerby died (June 30, 1970) in London.

Soyembika (Soyenbika) – (1516 – after 1554)
Tartar ruler, the wife of three khans
Soyembika was the daughter of Yosif Bak of the Nogay tartars. She became the wife firstly to Khan Cangali (1533 – 1535), and secondly to Khan Safagaray (1536 – 1549). With the death of her second husband she ruled as regent for her young son Kazan Khan Utamesgaray (1549 – 1551), and took a third husband, Sahgali, who was installed as Khan. She was later removed from power and was forcibly removed to Moscow with her son by order of Ivan the Terrible. Legend has it that she was later poisoned and she became the national hero of the Tartar nation.

Spaeth, Eloise – (1902 – 1998)
American art collector
Eloise Spaeth was born at Decatur in Illinois, and was the wife of Otto L. Spaeth the prominent industrialist who served as vice president of the Whitney Museum of American Art. She was the exhibition chairwoman for the American Federation of Art and was appointed as the deputy commissioner of the American Pavilion at the Venice Biennale (1952).
Together they built up an impressive collection of European and American art from the period between the two world wars (1918 – 1939) which included works by Matisse and Picasso. The collection was exhibited at the Gallery of Fine Arts in Columbus, Ohio and they presented Edward Hopper’s Carolina Morning to the Whitney Museum. Eloise was widowed in 1966 and survived her husband by over three decades. She assisted with getting the Archives of American Art accepted as a branch of the Smithsonian Institute. Mrs Spaeth died (Sept 4, 1998) aged ninety-six, in East Hampton, New York.

Spain-Dunk, Susan – (1880 – 1962)
British musician, composer and conductor
Susan Spain-Dunk was born (Feb 22, 1880) at Folkestone in Kent, the daughter of a clergyman. She studied at the Royal Academy of Music and conducted her own compositions at the Queen’s Hall Promenade Concerts for several years. She composed her Idyll for Strings at the request of Sir Henry Wood, which was followed by the overture entitled Kentish Downs. She conducted her won works at the Bournemouth festival (1927) and was awarded prizes from the Royal Academy.
Spain-Dunk became a professor at the Royal Academy and produced chamber music and became the first woman to ever conduct a military orchestra when she conducted her own work at the Royal Academy Theatre in Woolwich (1932). Her works included the symphonic poem Stonehenge and Cantilena for the clarinet and orchestra, Phantasy String Quartet, Two Overtures for a Military Band and Quintet for Wind Instruments. Susan Spain-Dunk died (Jan 1, 1962) aged eighty-one, in London.

Spalding, Catherine – (1793 – 1858)
American Roman Catholic nun and hospital organizer
Spalding was born (Dec 23, 1793) in Charles County, Maryland. She became a nun and served as the first superior of the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth in Kentucky (1813). Catherine Spalding was the founder of the St Vincent’s Orphan Asylum 91832), whilst the Catholic infirmary she established in Kentucky (1836) later evolved into the hospital of St Joseph. She also establishesd St Catherine‘s Academy in Lexington (1823) and the Presentation Academy (1831). Sister Catherine founded the School of St Frances at Owensboro (1850) and Spalding University in Louisville was named for her. Catherine Spalding died (March 20, 1858).

Sparer, Nancy    see   Marchand, Nancy

Spark, Dame Muriel Sarah – (1918 – 2006)
Scottish poet, novelist, story writer, and biographer
Born Muriel Camberg in Edinburgh, she was the daughter of a Jewish engineer. She was educated there and later attended Heriot-Watt University. With her marriage she spent the war years living in Central Africa, but when it foundered she returned to England and was employed by the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office. After the war she was the general secretary of the Poetry Society and editor of the Poetry Review (1947 – 1949). She later converted to Roman Catholicism (1954) and spent considerable living in Italy.
Her early published works included The Comforters (1957), Momento Mori (1959) and The Bachelors (1961), but she achieved real literary success with The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) which was later made into a film (1969) starring Dame Maggie Smith in the title role as an influential teacher at the Marcia Blaine School for Girls, which institution was based on Spark’s memories of the James Gillespie School for Girls in Edinburgh. Spark published several volumes of autobiography including Curriculum Vitae (1992) and her contribution to literature was formally recognized when she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1993). Her other novels included The Abbess of Crewe (1974), A Far Cry from Kensington (1988) and Reality And Dreams (1996). Dame Muriel Spark died aged eighty-eight, in Italy.

Sparks, Tryphaena – (1851 – 1890)
British literary muse
Tryphaena Sparks was the cousin of poet and novelist Thomas Hardy (1840 – 1928). Tryphaena met Hardy when she was sixteen and he was nearly thirty. They became lovers and were engaged for five years (1867 – 1872), during which time she graduated as a teacher from the Stockwell Normal School in London (1871). Tryphaena and Hardy parted under bitter and unpleasant circumstances (1872). She taught school at Plymouth, and finally married (1877) and had four children, residing at Topsham with her family. She may have borne Hardy a son (1868), who died in his youth. They never met again, though Hardy wrote his poem Thoughts of Pena only days before her death, which occurred at the early age of thirty-eight. Hardy’s character Sue Bridehead, the heroine of his novel Jude the Obscure (1895) was based almost entirely upon Tryphaena.

Sparre, Ebba (Belle) – (1630 – 1662)
Swedish courtier
Ebba Sparre was born into a patrician family, the daughter of Lars Eriksson Sparre (died 1644) and his wife Ebba Brahe. She was sent to the Swedish court to be raised and educated with the young Queen Christina. The two women remained close friends all their lives, even after her marriage (1653) with Count Jakob de La Gardie (died 1658), and the birth of several children. The english ambassador referred to the countess as ‘modest, virtuous, witty, of great beauty, and excellent behaviour.’ The exact nature of her relationship with the queen has remained the subject of much speculation over the centuries. Her early death at the age of thirty-two, was a source of great grief to the queen.

Sparre, Countess Ulrika    see   Stromfelt, Ulrika

Speare, Elizabeth George – (1908 – 1994)
American children’s author and historical novelist
Speare was born (Nov 21, 1908) in Melrose, Massachusetts. She was the winner of two Newbery Medals for her popular novels The Witch of Blackbird Pond (1959) and The Bronze Bow (1962). Her other published works included Calico Captive (1957), Life in Colonial America (1963) and The Sign of the Beaver (1983). Elizabeth Speare died (Nov 15, 1994) aged eighty-five, in Tuczon, Arizona.

Spears, Mary Borden, Lady – (c1892 – 1968)
American-Anglo author
Mary Borden was born in Chicago, Illinois. After her marriage Mary Spears was the author of Jericho Sands (1925) and The Hungry Leopard (1956). Lady Spears died (Dec 2, 1968) in England.

Speciosa – (fl. 503)
Roman patrician
Speciosa was of patrician birth and was related to the Emperor Olybrius (472 AD). She resided with her sisters at Ticinum and was visited there by Ennodius (503) who described her in his Epistulae as lux ecclesiae. Ennodius wrote Speciosa two letters.

Speed, Nell    see   Sampson, Emma Speed

Speedy, Cornelia Mary – (fl. c1870 – 1884)
British traveller
Born Cornelia Cotton, she became the wife (1868) of the esxplorer and adventurer, Tristram Charles Sawyer Speedy (1836 – 1911). She accompanied her husband to Sitapur in India where he was appointed district superintendent of the Oudh Police. The couple decided to spend their official leave in the Sudan region of Africa shooting big game, and spent several weeks in the jungles and deserts between Kassala and the Seit River. Cornelia left an account of their travels My Wanderings in the Soudan (1884) and proudly claimed to be only the second European lady to safari in that particluar region of Africa since Florence Baker (1870 – 1873).

Speght, Rachel – (fl. 1615 – 1617) 
English feminist and author
Rachel Speght was the daughter of a clergyman, perhaps one Thomas Speght. When Joseph swetnam published his The Arraignment of Lewd, Froward and Unconstant Women (1615), she, then aged under twenty, published her own reply in defence of her sex entitled A Mouzell for Melastomus, the Cynicall Bayter of and Foule Mouthed Barker against Evah’s Sex: or, an Apologetical Answere to the Irreligious and Illiterate Pamphlet made by Jo. Sw. (1617).

Spence, Catherine Helen – (1825 – 1910) 
Australian writer, feminist, and social reformer
Catherine Spence was born near Melrose, Scotland. She immigrated to Adelaide, South Australia with her family as a young girl (1839), and worked as a governess. Spence’s first two novels were published anonymously in London as Clara Morison: a Tale of South Australia during the Gold Fever (1854) and Tender and True: a Colonial Tale (1856). Successive novels such as Mr Hogarth’s Will (1865) and The Author’s Daughter (1868), were published under her own name.
Her last novel Handfasted (1984) was not published until seventy-five years after her death. A confirmed suffrage supporter and social activist, Spence worked tirelessly for various community groups such as orphans and destitute families from the poorest areas. In pursuance of this work she travelled Britain and the USA on the lecture circuit, and published the social manual The Laws We Live Under (1880). She founded the Effective voting League of South Australia and became Australia’s first female political candidate (1897). Her personal memoir Catherine Helen Spence: an Autobiography (1910) had been incomplete at her death, and was published posthumously.

Spencer, Anna Garlin – (1851 – 1931)
American feminist, religious minister, women’s rights campaigner and reformer
Anna Garlin was born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, into a wealthy family. She was educated at home and worked as a teacher in Providence, Rhode Island. She was married (1878) to the Unitarian clergyman, William Spencer. Anna Garlin Spencer began preaching in Unitarian churches in New York and Massachusetts and was officially ordained as a minister (1891). She was a member of the American Purity Alliance and became a leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, and was appointed as a director of the New York School of Philanthropy. She lectured at the University of Chicago and was professor of sociology and ethics at the Meadville Theological School. Spencer was the author of Woman’s Share in Social Culture (1912) and The Family and its Members (1923).

Spencer, Celia    see    Gandy, Celia

Spencer, Charlotte Frances Frederica Seymour, Countess – (1838 – 1903)
British Victorian peeress and courtier
Charlotte Seymour was born (Sept 28, 1838) the fourth daughter of Frederick Charles Seymour and his wife Lady Augusta Hervey, the daughter of Frederick Henry Hervey, first Marquess of Bristol. She became the wife (1858) at the Church of St James in Westminster, of John Poyntz Spencer (1835 – 1910), the fifth Earl Spencer and became the Countess Spencer (1858 – 1903). Lady Spencer served at the court of the Prince of Wales and his wife Alexandra. She and her husband and Sir William Knollys accompanied the prince and princess, and their infant son the Duke of Clarence, on a visit to the Danish court of Christian IX of Denmark (1864). The party returned to England several months later via the Prussian court in Berlin. A famous beauty who attended the younger royals at Marlborough House in London and at Sandringham in Norfolk, the countess was popularly known as ‘Spencer’s Fairy Queen.’ Her portrait survives. Lord and Lady Spencer attended the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra at Westminster Abbey (1902). Countess Spencer died (Oct 31, 1903) aged sixty-five, at her apartment in St James’s Palace in London.

Spencer, Dorothy Sidney, Lady     see    Sidney, Dorothy

Spencer, Lavinia Bingham, Countess – (1762 – 1831)
British painter
Lady Lavinia Bingham was born (July 27, 1762) at Castlebar, Mayo, Ireland, the daughter of Charles Bingham, Earl of Lucan and his wife Margaret Smyth. She was married (1781) in London, George John, second Earl Spencer (1758 – 1834) to whom she bore six children including John, third Earl Spencer (1782 – 1845), Frederick, fourth Earl Spencer (1798 – 1857), and Sarah (1787 – 1870) the wife of William, Lord Lyttelton, and governess to the children of Queen Victoria.
Lavinia Spencer spent fifteen years working on the embellishment of William Shakespeare’s historical plays. This work was printed in five volumes by Herring. The collaphon of the last volume was a portrait of Lady Lucan (herself a famous amateur painter) drawn by Lady Spencer. Her sister-in-law Lady Bessborough wrote at length of Lady Spencer’s brilliant, charming, and scathingly clever character, and also much admired her political astuteness. Her portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds was engraved by Bartolozzi. Her youngest son George Spencer (1799 – 1864) became a Roman Catholic priest as Father Ignatius, and was appointed as superior of the Order of the Passionists. Countess Spencer died (June 8, 1831) aged sixty-eight, at Spencer House, St James’s Palace, London, and was interred at Brighton.

Sperandei, Gennaia dei – (c1215 – 1293)
Italian nun and saint
Gennaia was the wife (1233) of Sperandio dei Sperandei (c1205 – 1260) of Gubbio. The marriage remained childless and in 1250, by mutual agreement, the couple seperated and entered the religious life. Gennaia took the veil, becoming a nun at the Abbey of St Maria, at Gubbio, commonly called ‘Paradiso,’ whilst her husband ultimately became abbot of the Benedictine abbey of St Pietro, Gubbio. Gennaia dei Sperandei died (Jan 17, 1293) in Gubbio, and was regarded a saint. When the nuns removed to the convent of San Sisto in 1482, by order of Pope Sixtus IV, the remains of Gennaia were translated to the new convent.

Spesshardt, Anna Sophia von – (1693 – 1767)
German noblewoman and courtier
Spesshardt was born (Sept 16, 1693), the daughter of a German noble. She became the second wife of Philip Karl (1677 – 1736), the reigning Count of Erbach-Furstenau. Despite her inferior birth she was granted the titles and styles of a reigning countess consort of Erbach-Furstenau, and was the mother of George Albert III (1731 – 1778), Count of Erbach-Furstenau (1736 – 1778). Anna Sophia survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Countess of Erbach-Furstenau (1736 – 1767). Countess Anna Sophia died (Jan 10, 1767) aged seventy-three, at Furstenau.

Spessivtseva, Olga Alexandrovna – (1895 – 1991) 
Russian ballerina
Olga Spessivtseva was born in Rostov, the daughter of an opera singer, and was raised in an orphanage in St Petersburg. She attended the Imperial Academy of Dancing with her siblings, performed at the Mariinsky Theatre (Kirov), and was taught dance by Agrippina Vaganova and Mikhail Fokine. Spessivtseva toured the USA with Serge Diaghilev, and partnered Nijinsky in the Blue Bird and Le Spectre de la Rose (1916). She returned briefly to Russia (19171 – 1921), then rejoined Diaghilev’s company in London as guest ballerina in The Sleeping Princess. A second return to Russia led to her reappearance at the Mariinsky, but she left for the last time in 1924, with George Balanchine and Alexandra Danilova.
After a stint at the Paris Opera, Spessivtseva performed the title role in Balanchine’s La Chatte with Diaghilev’s company (1927), which he had created especially for her, but she was best remembered for her performance of Giselle, which she performed with Anton Dolin for the Camargo Society in London (1932). Spessivtseva toured South America (1934) and later moved to America (1939). She later suffered a nervous breakdown (1943) which ended her career, and was hospitalized for the next twenty years. She finally retired to the Tolstoy Farm, a Russian setlement in New York State (1963). Gerald Arpino choreographed a tribute to her L’Air d’Esprit for the Joffrey Ballet (1978). Olga Spessivtseva died (Sept 16, 1991) aged ninety-six, at Nyack, New York.

Speyer, Leonora Von Stosch – (1872 – 1956)
American-Anglo poet, violinist, and educator
Leonora Speyer was born in Washington, D.C. Her first collection of verse was published as A Canopic Jar (1921) and was followed by Fiddler’s Farewell (1926), for which she awarded the Pulitzer Prize (1927). Her later collection Naked Heel (1931) was not as well received, due to the use of a heavily formalized style.

Spezia, Maria    see    Aldighieri, Maria Spezia

Sphinters, Annette    see   Quast, Anna

Spiers, Dorothy Beatrice – (1897 – 1977) 
British actuary
Dorothy Spiers was the daughter of a Jewish headmaster, and was educated in London. Dorothy then attended Newnham College, Cambridge where she studied mathematics and qualified as a fellow of the Institute of Actuaries (1923). She was married (1931) to Henry Michael Spiers, to whom she bore two sons. During WW II and afterwards (1946 – 1954) Spiers worked for the Guardian Insurance Company. She served as a member of the League of Jewish Women, which organization she served as national treasurer.

Spigno, Marchesa di   see   Canali, Anna Teresa

Spilimbergo, Irene di – (1542 – 1561)
Italian painter
A patrician of Venice, she was the granddaughter of Paolo di Ponte, friend of the famous master Titian. Her father died, and her mother remarried, and Irene was taught the technique of painting by Titian himself. Three of her paintings are known, Noah entering the Ark, The Deluge, and, a Flight into Egypt. She died aged only eighteen, after catching a chill whilst working. Such were here accomplishments and talents that a collection of eulogistic poems were addressed to Irene posthumously by every prominent Venetian contemporary, including several patrician women. This work entitled Rime di diversi nobilissimi et eccellentissimi autori in morte della Signora Irene delle Signore di Spilimbergo, was published in Venice shortly after her death.

Spinelli, Ottavia – (c1785 – 1857)
Italian patrician
Donna Ottavia Spinelli was the daughter of the Duca di Laurino. She was the youthful widow of the Neapolitan prince di Butera (died 1814), when she became the second wife (1814) in the Butera Palace in Palermo, of the British peer, Robert Henry Herbert (1791 – 1857), twelfth Earl of Pembroke (1827 – 1857). Though valid by Sicilian law, the parents of both parties caused the couple to be seperated, Ottavia being immured within a convent. Lord Pembroke then abandoned her, but Lord Stawell later declared the marriage to be valid (1819). The couple never saw each other again, but Pembroke was forced to pay Ottavia an annity of five thousand pounds annually for her maintenance.
Ottavia Spinelli died (Dec, 1857).

Spinner, Alice   see   Fraser, Augusta Zelie

Spiridonova, Maria Alexandrovna – (1884 – 1941)
Russian revolutionary, terrorist, and socialist
Maria Spiridovna was born in Tambov, to a wealthy family. She became a socialist and joined the revokutionary movement, and she herself shot and killed General Luzhenovski, the local vice-governor (1906), after he had ruthlessly repressed a peasant uprising. Spiridonovna was arrested and sentenced to death, though this was subsequently commuted to hard labour for life in Siberia. She was exiled to Nerchinsk, but the arrival of the revolution (1917) brought about her release. She returned to her former activities in Moscow which caused her to be arrested by the new government, and remained in prison for the remainder of her life, perishing during a regular prison purge in WW II.

Spottiswoode, Alicia Ann (Lady Scott) – (1810 – 1900)
Scotish lyricist and composer
Alicia Spottiswoode was born at Spottiswoode, near Westruther, Berwickshire. A friend of the Scottish antiquary Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Alicia became the wife (1836) of Lord John Douglas Scott, a younger son of the fifth Duke of Buccleuch. She wrote many popular songs and ballads, almost seventy in all, but is best remembered as the author of the famous Scottish ballads Annie Laurie and Durrisdeer. Lady Scott died (March 12, 1900) aged eighty-nine.

Spriggs, Elizabeth – (1929 – 2008)
British stage, television and film actress
Spriggs was born (Sept 18, 1929) in Buxton, Derbyshire, and was educated in Coventry. She evinced a desire to become an actress from a young age, and worked for twenty-five years with the Royal Shakespeare Company at Stratford-on-Avon, appearing as Queen Gertrude in Hamlet, Calpurnia in Julius Caesar, the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet and Mistress Ford in the Merry Wives of Windsor. Though not a beauty, Elizabeth Spriggs specialized in maturely eccentric or aristocrat roles, though she also excelled in comic roles.
Her film credits included Work Is a Four Letter Word (1968) with Cilla Black, Two Won’t Go (1969), An Unsuitable Job for a Woman (1982) and Impromptu (1989), Hour of the Pig (1993), Paradise Road (1997) directed by the Australian Bruce Beresford, which dealt with the women held captive by the Japanese after the fall of Singapore. Spriggs also appeared in various television movies such as The Glittering Prizes (1976), Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit (1990) and Martin Chuzzlewit (1994) when she played Mrs Gamp. Spriggs also appeared in several popular television series such as Fox (1980), Shine on Harvey Moon (1982) as Nan, possibly her most popular television role, Jeeves and Wooster (1992 – 1993) as Aunt Agatha and Taking Over the Asylum (1994).
Spriggs appeared as in the title role of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) children’s series Simon and the Witch (1987), and made two appearances in the popular Midsomer Murder series (1997) and (2005). Miss Spriggs was the recipient of the Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role (1978) for her performance in Love Letters on Blue Paper.and she played the Fat Lady in the children’s film Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001). Elizabeth Spriggs died (July 2, 2008) aged seventy-eight, at Oxford.

Springfield, Dusty – (1939 – 1998)
British popular vocalist
Born Mary O’Brien in Hampstead, London into a musical family, she became a member of the singing group the Lana Sisters, which she left to form the group The Springfields, which included her brother Tom and Mike Hurst. Possessed of an exceptionally strong gospel style voice, and glamorous persona, her popular songs included the solo hit single, ‘I Only Want To Be With You’ (1964), ‘You Don’t Have To Say You Loved Me’ (1966), and ‘Son of a Preacher Man’ (1968).

These were followed by the album, Dusty in Memphis (1969). Dusty’a personal life was unhappy and her career foundered because of drugs and alcohol, though she made a dramatic popular comeback after appearing in the film Scandal (1989) which dealt with the famous Christine Keeler case during the 1960’s. She sang with the popular eighties group The Pet Shop Boys, which closely indified her with the gay community.

Sprota – (c915 – c950)
Breton concubine
Sprota was a high-born Breton noblewoman who became a captive of Duke William I Longsword of Normandy (died 942) during one of his early military campaigns (c930). He made her his concubine and she was the mother of Richard I the Fearless (933 – 996) who succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy (942 – 996) and left descendants. The duke’s Norman subjects called her ‘Adela.’ Some ancient genealogies have named Sprota as the daughter of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, Senlis and Peronne by his wife Princess Hildebrande of France, the daughter of King Robert I (922 – 923) but this identification remains unverified and it seems unlikely that such a highborn lady would be a mere concubine.
Her relationship with William had ended prior to his legitimate marriage with Luitgarde of Vermandois (940), and he then arranged for her to be married to Count Asperleng of Vaudreuil, Vicomte of Bayeux, one of his trusted vassals. Her marriage with Asperleng produced several children including Count Raoul I of Ivry (c942 – c1015) who left descendants including Hugh d’Ivry (c975 – 1049), Bishop of Bayeux (c1011 – 1049) and Jean d’Ivry, Archbishop of Rouen (c1070 – 1079). Sprota’s other descendants included the Norman heiress Amicia de Gael, who became the wife of Robert de Beaumont (1104 – 1168), first Earl of Leicester.

Spry, Constance – (1886 – 1960) 
British floral arranger and culinary writer
Spry was born in Derby, but was raised and educated in Ireland. Possessed of a talent for administration and organization, with the end of WW I she established several flower shops in London. She was chairman of the Constance Spry Flower School and later served as floral director at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (1953). Spry served as joint principal of the Cordon Bleu Cookery School in London with Rosemary Hume, and established a school at Winkfield, Berkshire to train young women in the domestic arts of cooking and entertaining. With Hume she co-wrote The Constance Spry Cookbook (1956), and by herself published several works on flower arranging including Simple Flowers and, Favourite Flowers.

Spunicci, Clara (Chiara) – (1741 – 1792)
Italian noblewoman and matriarch
Contessa Clara Spunicci was born (Aug 30, 1741) at Fermo, the daughter of Conte Giuseppe Spinucci. Contessa Clara became the morganatic wife (1765) of Prince Franz Xavier of Saxony (1730 – 1806), to whom she bore nine children. She was created Countess von der Lausitz, which title was borne by all her children, male and female. Clara Spunicci died (Nov 22, 1792) aged fifty-one, at Fermo. Her children were,

Spurinnia Nice – (fl. c14 – c37 AD)
Roman slave and freedwoman
Spurinnia nice was attested by surviving inscription as the nurse of Tiberius Julius Antigonus, who was probably a freedman in the household of the Emperor Tiberius. She is thought to have been a slave in the household of Torquata, the wife of Quintus Volusius (consul 56 AD) before her manumission.

Squires, Catharine – (1843 – 1912)
Anglo-New Zealand religious leader
Kate Dewe was born (July 13, 1843) at Leamington in Warwickshire, the daughter of a bookseller. Kate immigrated to New Zealand with her family as a child aboard the Blundell (1848), and was raised and educated on the family farm at Tokomairiro. She was married to farmer John Squires (1835 – 1901) and bore him an only son. To the consternation of her husband Mrs Squires became involved with the Plymouth Brethren and insisted that their son be raised in that faith.
When the family moved to Woodend in Invercargill (1864) Mrs Squires held prayer meetings and promoted the Brethren faith. The family later returned to reside in England (1875) at Haydock in Lancashire where John Squires became the manager of a family coalmine. Kate taught Sunday School at the Haydock Chapel and was active in the temperance movement. With their return to New Zealand the family settled at Pyramid Creek, near Gore (1883 – 1896), where she established the ‘Squireites’ congregation and preached on a regular basis at Wendon. When the family removed to Hillend near Bluff in Southland Kate continued with her religious activities and became known locally as ‘Granny Squires.’ Kate Squires died (July 15, 1912) aged sixty-nine, at Bluff and was buried there.

Staal, Margeurite Jeanne Cordier, Baronne de – (1684 – 1750)
French writer and memoirist
Born Margeurite Cordier in Paris, she was the daughter of an artist. She later took her mother’s maiden name and was known as Margeurite Delaunay and was employed as a ladies’ maid before beimg appointed as secretary to the Duchesse du Maine at the chateau de Sceaux. Margeurite became entangled in the duchesse’s plotting against the regency of the Duc d’Orleans, which involved Philip V of Spain being installed in his place as regent for the young Louis XV. Margeurite spent two years imprisoned within the Bastille. After her release she became the wife (1735) of the Baron de Staal. She was the author of Memoires (1755) and of Ouvres completes (1821), both of which works were published posthumously.

Stade, Gerberga von – (c950 – c1000)
German mediaeval noblewoman
Gerberga was the daughter of Heinrich I, Count of Stade and his wife Judith of the Wetterau, the daughter of Count Odo (Eudes) of the Wetterau and Kunigunde of Vermandois. she was married firstly (c965) to Count Dietrich von Querfurt (died c990) by whom she was the mother of Dietrich von Querfurt (c969 – 1022) the Bishop of Munster. Gerberga then contracted a second dynastic marriage with Bruno II (died 1014), Margrave of Saxony, twenty years her junior, whose first wife she became. This marriage remained childless.

Stader, Maria – (1911 – 1999)
Hungarian concert soprano
Stader was born (Nov 5, 1911) in Budapest. She published her autobiography Nehmt meinen Dank (Take my Thanks) (1979). Maria Stader died (April 27, 1999) aged eighty-seven, in Zurich, Switzerland.

Stael-Holstein, Anne Louise Germaine Necker, Baronne de – (1762 – 1817)
French author
Germaine Necker was born (April 22, 1762) in Paris, the daughter of financier, Jacques Necker, and his Swiss wife, the salonniere Suzanne Curchod. She was married (1785) to the Baron Eric de Stael-Holstein, the Swedish ambassador to Paris, who died in 1802. Her earliest written work was a panegyric of Jean Jacques Rousseau. Regarded as the most intellectual and cultured woman of her era, and her two famous salons, in Paris, and at her Swiss home at Coppet, were attended by many of her most brilliant contemporaries. Her efforts to attract the attention of the emperor Napoleon failed, as he disliked clever women, and the two became implacable enemies. Eventually he forced to leave Paris and go into exile (1803). The baroness travelled to Berlin in Germany, where she met Schiller, Goethe, and August von Schlegel, and produced her famous work De l’Allemagne (1810).
This work has been credited with introducing German Romanticism to French literature, but it was suppressed by Napoleon, and she was forced to continue her peripatetic lifestyle, visiting Vienna, Russiam Stockholm, and Britain. With Napoleon’s eventual exile to St Helena (1815), Mme de Stael re-opened her famous salons at Coppet and Paris. Her two famous novels Delphine (1802) and Corinne (1809), drew from her romantic liasion with the writer and politician, Benjamin Constant (1761 – 1830), said to have been the father of her daughter Albertine Ida Gustavine Necker (1797 – 1838), later wife of Achilles Charles, Duc de Broglie (1785 – 1870). Some of her works were published posthumously as Oeuvres Completes (1820 – 1821) and Oeuvres inedites (1820 – 1821). Madame de Stael died (July 14, 1817) aged fifty-one, in Paris.

Stafford, Claude Charlotte de Gramont, Countess of – (1665 – 1739)
French-Anglo peeress and courtier
Claude de Gramont was born in France, the elder daughter of Philibert, Comte de Gramont, and his English wife Elizabeth Hamilton. Claude spent the first part of her life in France, where she was appointed to serve as maid-of-honour to the Dauphine, Marie Christine Victoire of Bavaria, daughter-in-law of Louis XIV, at Versailles. She was married in Paris (1694) to a Catholic English nobleman, Henry Stafford-Howard (1648 – 1719), the second Earl of Stafford. The marriage proved a complete disaster, and the earl and countess quickly seperated (Dec, 1695) on the very worst of terms. They were never reconciled, and Lord Stafford in his will referred to his wife as; ‘the worst of women,’ and contemptuously left her enough small change to buy a cheap meal for her supper.
Lord Hervey however, described her as “ an old French lady … who … had as much wit, humour and entertainment in her as any man or woman I ever knew, with a good justness in her way of thinking, and very little reserve in her manner of giving her opinions of things and people.” Lady Stafford was also mentioned in the Memoires of the palace chronicler, the Duc de Saint-Simon. She survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Countess of Stafford (1719 – 1739) and was a confidante of Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu. Her will survives. Lady Stafford died (May 14, 1739) in London, and was buried in the Church of St John at Westminster.

Stafford, Dorothy – (1526 – 1604)
English Tudor courtier
Dorothy Stafford was the elder daughter of Sir Henry, first Baron Stafford (1501 – 1563) and his wife Ursula Pole, the daughter of Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, niece of Edward IV (1461 – 1483), and her husband Sir Richard Pole. Dorothy became the second wife (c1545) of Sir William Stafford (c1495 – 1556), of Grafton and Chebsey, whose first wife had been Mary Boleyn, mistress of Henry VIII, and maternal aunt of Elizabeth I.
Widowed when young, Lady Stafford never remarried and became the Mistress of the Robes to her kinswoman Queen Elizabeth, a post she held for forty years (1556 – 1604) till the queen’s death. It was probably due to Lady Dorothy’s influence that her youngest son Edward secured his employment from Elizabeth. A woman of upright and honest character, and of great piety and Christian charity, she did not long survive her royal mistress and died (Sept 22, 1604) aged seventy-eight. She was interred within the Church of St Margaret at Westminster where her monument remains, atopped with a small figure representing her which was placed there by her son Edward. The tomb inscription speaks of her noble and royal ancestry and testifies to her good qualities and recorded that Lady Stafford was ‘loved by all, doing good all she could to every body, never hurted any.’ Her children were,

Stafford, Jean – (1915 – 1979)
American novelist
Stafford was born (July 1, 1915) in Covina, California, the daughter of a minor Hollywood movie scriptwriter. She attended Colorado University and finished her education in Heidelberg in Germany. Jean was married three times, firstly (1940) to the poet Robert Lowell, and then to two writers, (1950) Oliver Jensen, an editor of Life magazine, and A.J. Liebling.

Jean Stafford worked as a newspaper journalist and was a lecturer at Flushing College. The collapse of her first marriage (1948) led to Stafford being institutionalized for alcoholism. Her second marriage also ended in divorce (1955) after which she turned to her teaching career. Her published works included the novels Boston Adventure (1944), The Mountain Lion (1947) and The Catherine Wheel (1952). She was famous for her interview with the mother of supposed presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, published as A Mother in History (1966). She received the Pulitzer Price (1970) for her Collected Stories (1969). Jean Stafford died (March 26, 1979) aged sixty-three, in White Plains, New York.

Stafford, Mary – (1621 – 1694)
English Catholic peeress and heiress
Mary Stafford was the daughter of Edward Stafford and his wife Anne, the daughter of Thomas Newman. Mary was the sister and sole heir of Henry, fifth Baron Stafford. Mary was married (1637) to William Howard (1614 – 1680), Viscount Stafford, the younger son of Thomas Howard, second Earl of Arundel, and his wife Lady Alathea Talbot. The first marriage had been public, at St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London, and this was followed by a Catholic ceremony at Arundel House. Roger Stafford, the last male heir of the Staffords, was compelled to surrender to King Charles I the barony of Stafford (1639), and he caused Mary and her husband to be created Baron and Baroness Stafford (1640), with remainder of that barony to their heirs. Howard was further created Viscount Stafford and entered the House of Lords.
With the outbreak of the Civil War, Lord and Lady Stafford retired to Antwerp, returning to England in 1646. With the restoration of Charles II, Lord Stafford vainly petitioned Charles II to fully restore Lady Mary to the earldom of Stafford and barony of Newnham and Tunbridge, as if her ancestor, Edward Stafford, third Duke of Buckingham had never been attainted. Apparently Lady Stafford’s relations with her husband were less then even, as the diarist John Evelyn recorded that William Stafford, ‘was not a man beloved especially of his own family.’ He was later executed by Charles II for treason (1680) and Mary remained suo jure Baroness Stafford. At the coronation of James II and Queen Mary Beatrice (1685), Mary was summoned to attend as a peeress in her own right. She was later created Countess of Stafford for life (Oct 5, 1688), the same patent creating her son an earl. Lady Stafford died (Jan 13, 1694) aged seventy-two, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London. Her nine children were,

Stafford, Mary Boleyn, Lady    see   Boleyn, Mary

Stafford, Matilda de    see   Matilda of Lancaster (2)

Stafford, Robserta Chapman, Lady    see    Robsart, Robserta

Stafford, Ursula Pole, Lady – (1503 – 1570)
English Tudor courtier
Ursula Pole was the only daughter of Sir Richard Pole and his wife Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury. Through her mother, Ursula was great-niece to kings Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485). Her marriage settlement with Henry Stafford (1501 – 1563) was concluded in 1518 and marriage took place the next year (Feb, 1519). With her mother Ursula attended Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII, Lady Salisbury being governess to the Princess Mary, their only child. Her husband was later created first Baron Stafford by King Edward VI (1547) and she bore him thirteen children. Lady Stafford attended the courts of Mary Tudor and Queen Elizabeth I, both of whom she served as lady-in-waiting. She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Stafford (1563 – 1570). Lady Stafford died (Aug 15, 1570) and was buried at Stafford. Her surviving children included,

Stafford-Howard, Anastasia – (1722 – 1807)
British Hanoverian Catholic peeress (1792 – 1807)
Lady Anastasia Stafford-Howard was born (Nov 21, 1722) the second daughter and third child of William Stafford-Howard, second Earl of Stafford and his wife Anne Holman. She never married and became a nun in France joining the Order of the Immaculate Conception in Paris. Notwithstanding the original attainder (1680) Anastasia succeeded as suo jure sixth Baroness Stafford (1792) as the general heir of Lord William Stafford (died 1680). Anastasia died (April 27, 1807) aged eighty-four, in Paris.

Stagemann, Helene – (c1859 – 1923)
German operatic soprano
Particularly noted as a lieder singer, Helene was the daughter of Max Stagemann (1843 – 1905), the noted baritone and chamber vocalist. Helene later became the wife of Botho Sigwart, Count von Eulenburg. Helene Stagemann died (Aug 24, 1923) in Dresden, Saxony.

Stainville, Therese de Clermont d’ Amboise, Comtesse de – (1746 – 1789)
French aristocrat
Thomasse Therese de Clermont d’ Amboise was born (Sept, 1746) the only child of Jacques Louis Georges de Clermont d’ Amboise (1728 – 1746), Marquis de Reynel, an officer with the Breton infantry, and his wife Marie Henriette Racine du Jonquoy. She was married (1761) in Paris to Jacques Philippe de Choiseul (1727 – 1789), Comte de Stainville, younger brother to Etienne, Duc de Choiseul, the Prime Minister of Louis XV, to whom she bore two daughters. Though possessed of both beauty and wealth, marriage proved unhappy and both partners were unfaithful, the Comtesse embarking upon an indiscreet affair with Armand Louis de Gontaut-Biron, the Duc de Lauzun, which ended with her being disgraced and, with the consent of Louis XV, she was sent to live in a convent in Nancy, Lorraine, where she remained the rest of her life.
The details of her unfortunate romance with Lauzun are recorded in his own Memoires, and are probably reliable. He recorded of Madame de Stainville that ‘She had the greatest success at all the balls, was the centre of an admiring throng that included all the men of fashion; ashamed to have a boy for a lover, she cast me off, treated me harshly, and took a fancy for M. de Jaucourt; I was jealous, indignant, desperate, but it availed me nothing.’ Mon. de Jaucourt was Charles Leopold de Chezelles, the Chevalier and later Marquis de Jaucourt. Her relationship with Lauzun was later revived but she then deserted him after froming an attachment with Jean Baptiste Guignard, popularly known as Clairval (1735 – 1795), the principal actor with the Comedie Italienne. It was this association which caused her ultimate ruin. She was mentioned in the letters of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.
The Comtesse de Stainville within her convent at the time of the outbreak of the Revolution, and was thus spared the ensuing horrors. Her two daughters were Marie Stephanie de Choiseul-Stainville (born 1763) and Francoise Therese de Choiseul-Stainville (1766 – 1794), the first wife of Joseph Grimaldi, Prince of Monaco, who perished under the guillotine during Robespierre’s Terror. Her portrait by Carmontelle has survived.

Stamford, Henrietta Bentinck, Countess of – (1737 – 1827)
British society figure
Lady Henrietta Bentinck was born (Feb 8, 1737) the second daughter of William Bentinck, second Duke of Portland and his wife Margaret Cavendish. She was married (1763) at her mother’s house, at Whitehall, London, to George Grey (1737 – 1819), Lord Grey of Groby, who later succeeded (1768) as fifth Earl of Stamford. The countess was mother of several children, including George Grey, sixth Earl of Stamford (1765 – 1845) who left descendants, and was ancestress of the family of Lister-Kaye, baronets. Lady Stamford had been bridesmaid at the marriage of George III and Queen Charlotte (1761).
The author A.S. Tuberville, in the second volume of his work History of Welbeck Abbey, refers to the countess and her husband, self-styled ‘Groobina’ and ‘the Groobianians.’ A portrait of her as child, by C.F. Zincke, survives, and Lady Stamford also figures in the Autobiography and Correspondence of Mrs Delany edited by Lady Llanover. With the death of her husband at Enville Hall (May 23, 1819) she was Dowager Countess for a decade. The Countess of Stamford died (June 4, 1827) aged ninety, in Berkeley Square, London.

Stamler, Rose Steinberg – (1922 – 1998)
American medical professor
Rose Steinberg was trained as a sociologist and became the wife of the cardiovascular specialist Dr Jeremiah Stamler. She was appointed as a professor emeritus of preventive medicine at the Northwestern University Medical School. Professor Stamler was an international specialist in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure, and with her husband conducted detailed research which enabled them to identify the risk factors in heart disease. Rose Stamler died (Feb 28, 1998) aged seventy-five, at Scottsdale in Arizona.

Stamp, Olive Jessie Marsh, Lady – (1882 – 1941)
British churchwoman and peeress
Olive Marsh was the daughter of Alfred Marsh of Grove Park. She became the wife (1903) of Sir Josiah Charles Stamp (1880 – 1941) to whom she bore four children. Josiah was created the first Baron Stamp by King George V (1935) and Lady Olive became the Baroness Stamp (1935 – 1941). Lady Stamp served as the president of the Free Church Women’s Council and was a Justice of the Peace for the County of Kent.
Lady Stamp was killed during an air raid in London (April 16, 1941), together with her husband and eldest son William Carlyle Stamp (1904 – 1941). As her husband and eldest son had died together it was decreed that William had become the second Baron Stamp. As he left three daughters Olive’s second son Trevor Charles Stamp succeeded as the third Baron Stamp. Her youngest son was the author Josiah Colin Stamp (born 1917).

Stampa, Cassandra – (fl. c1530 – after 1554)
Italian literary figure
Cassandra Satmpa was born in Padua into a middle class family, and was sister to the famous poet, Gaspara Stampa. She accompanied her father, sister, and brother Baldassare to reside in Venice, and later published her sister’s Rimes (1554) after her tragic early death. Cassandra’s own subsequent history remains inrecorded.

Stampa, Gaspara – (1523 – 1554)
Italian Renaissance poet
Gaspara Stampa was born in Padua. She studied music, history, philosophy and the classic, and became a considerable scholar. With her residence in Venice her scholarly erudition earned her the epithet of ‘the Venetian Sappho.’ Gaspara became involved in a liasion with a Venetian nobleman, the Conte Collitano di Collato, who later betrayed and abandoned her. Her collection of verse, her style influenced by that of Petrarch, and entitled Rime d’amore (Love Poems) (1554), was published posthumously b her sister Cassandra Stampa.

Standing, Dorothy Katharine    see    Hammond, Kay

Stang, Dorothy Mae – (1940 – 2005)
American nun and activist
Stang was born (June 14, 1920) in Dayton, Ohio, and joined the Order of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. Sister Stang lived in the Amazon region of Brazil in South America for twenty years, where she fought alongside the peasant farmers who were taking a stand against the deforestation of the rain-forests at the hands of loggers and ranchers. Sister Stang was murdered at Anapu in Brazil (Feb 12, 2005), where she had been working as a missionary, being shot by a hired gunman because she objected to locals setting illegal fires in order to clear land. She was aged seventy-four. Her death caused international attention to be drawn to the problems in the Amazon region, where violent land disputes were common. The rancher Vitalmiro Bastos Moura was later convicted of her murder and sentenced to thirty years in prison (2007).

Stanger, Sophia – (fl. 1841 – 1882)
Australian colonial diarist
Stanger came to Sydney in New South Wales as a young woman with her family, and wrote the memoir entitled A Journey from Sydney over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst forty years ago (1882) which was published in Bathurst.

Stanhope, Anne – (c1505 – 1587)
English Tudor political figure
Anne Stanhope was the daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope (c1450 – 1512), of Sudbury in Suffolk, and of Rampton in Nottinghamshire, and his second wife Elizabeth Bourchier, the daughter of Sir Fulk Bourchier, Baron Fitzwarin and sister to John Bourchier (1499 – 1561), the first Earl of Bath. Anne was her mother’s heiress and through her she was a descendant of Edward III (1327 – 1377) and his wife Philippa of Hainault through their youngest son Prince Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester.
Anne Stanhope accompanied the sister of Henry VIII to France for her marriage with Louis XII (1514), and then remained at the French court to serve as lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude the wife of King Francois I. Anne returned to England after Claude’s death (1524) and joined the household of Catherine of Aragon. She became the second wife (1535) of Sir Edward Seymour (1500 – 1552), first Earl of Hertford, the brother to Queen Jane, third wife of Henry VIII and mother of Edward VI. Despite being aged almost thirty at the time of her marriage, Anne produced a large family of four sons and six daughters. Her husband’s two sons from his first marriage to Katherine de Fillol had actually been fathered by their paternal grandfather Sir John Seymour, the result of an incestuous liaison, and it was at Lady Hertford’s instigation that an Act of Parliament was passed (1540) which stated that the Hertford estates were to be entailed upon the earl’s issue by Anne, and his two older sons were thus legally disinherited.
With the king’s marriage to her sister-in-law (1536), the Seymours lived almost constantly at court and were granted apartments at Hampton Court Palace. Anne was a follower of the new Protestant religion and a friend to Queen Catharine Parr whose marriage to the king she and her husband attended (1543), but with the king’s death (1547) Anne quarrelled with the queen dowager over precedence at court after she had remarried to her husband’s younger brother Sir Thomas Seymour. Queen Catherine won this argument by invoking the Act of Succession in which her titles and honours were clearly stated. A woman of great pride the Countess of Hertford never allowed anyone to forget that royal blood flowed in her veins. Contemporaries referred to the countess as ‘a woman of a haughty stomack’ and ‘a lady of high minde and haughty undaunted spirit.’ When the Earl of Surrey paid her attentions, despite his antipathy towards her husband, she scornfully rejected him and he composed the ode entitled On a lady who refused to dance with him.
With the accession of Edward VI her husband was created Duke of Somerset (1548). During the reign of Edward (1547 – 1553) the duchess was an important patron of Protestantism and John Olde translated the Paraphrases of Erasmus, which he dedicated to her as his especial patron. When her husband was arrested for treason (1551), Anne accompanied him to the Tower of London. With his subsequent execution (Jan, 1552), the duchess remained in confinement there until the accession of Queen Mary (1553) when she was released. Lord Paget confided to the Dutch ambassador that the reason that for the Lord Protector Somerset’s fall had been for the simple reason that ‘ he had a bad wife.’ The duchess was present at the queen’s coronation and her subsequent marriage with Philip II of Spain (1554). Anne then remarried (1554) to Francis Newdegate (died 1582), her late husband’s former steward, and Queen Mary I bestowed the manor of Haworth upon her for life. She was also granted the Seymour manors of Wolf Hall and Savernake in Wiltshire. Anne survived for almost four decades as the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (1552 – 1587). Anne Stanhope died (April 16, 1587) aged about eight-two. The statement that she died at the age of ninety cannot be sustained, as her last child was born in 1551, so this must be an exaggeration. Her tomb remains in the Chapel of St Nicholas in Westminster Abbey atopped by her recumbent effigy.
Anne Stanhope was portrayed by actress Jo Kendall in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) production of The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) with Keith Michell and Anne Stallybrass as Queen Jane. She was portrayed by Emma Hamilton in the Showtime production of The Tudors (2008 – 2009) though her supposed affair with Sir Francis Bryan (Alan Van Sprang) is not documented by historical fact, and neither is her supposedly sensual personality. Her children were,

Stanhope, Elizabeth Wilhelmina Savile, Lady – (1673 – 1708)
English Stuart courtier
Lady Elizabeth Savile was the daughter of George Savile, first Marquess of Halifax and his second wife Gertrude Pierrepoint. Her father wrote his work A Lady’s New Year Gift, or Advice to a Daughter especially for her. She was married (1692) to Philip Stanhope (1673 – 1726), who became third Earl of Chesterfield after her death. She was the mother of Philip Dormer Stanhope (1694 – 1778), who succeeded his father as fourth Earl of Chesterfield (1726 – 1778). He was later married to Petronilla Melusina, Countess of Walsingham, the illegitimate daughter of George I and the Duchess of Kendal. Her other sons were Sir William Stanhope of Ascot in Berkshire (1702 – 1772) and John Stanhope (1704 – 1748). Her daughter Lady Gertrude Stanhope (1705 – 1775) became the wife of Sir Charles Hotham, fifth baronet. Lady Stanhope died (Sept 7, 1708) aged thirty-five.

Stanhope, Grizel Hamilton, Countess of – (1719 – 1811)
British Hanoverian society figure
Grizel Hamilton was the daughter of Charles Hamilton, Lord Binning, and his wife Rachel Baillie, of Jerviswood, Lanark. She was married (1745) in London, to Philip, second Earl of Stanhope (1714 – 1786), and was the mother of Charles Stanhope (1753 – 1816), Viscount Mahon, who succeeded his father as third Earl of Stanhope. Her granddaughter was Lady Hester Stanhope, the famous traveller. Lady Stanhope visited Naples with her family (1731) and kept a diary of her trip which has survived.
As chatelaine of her husband’s residence of Chevenning, the countess showed considerable skill and business sense, but ill-health forced her to curtail some of these activities from 1773. From 1780 she devoted herself to the education of her three granddaughters. With her husband’s death (1786) Lady Stanhope resided at her dower residence of Ovenden, where she died (Dec 28, 1811) aged ninety-two, leaving all her fortune to her surviving son Charles who observed that ‘A person more remarkable for acuteness of understanding, and exquisite sensibility of heart, has perhaps never existed.’ Her portrait by Allan Ramsay remains at Chevenning.

Stanhope, Lady Hester Lucy – (1776 – 1839) 
British traveller and eccentric
Lady Hester Stanhope was born (March 12, 1776) at chevenning in Kent, the eldest daughter of Charles, third Earl Stanhope and his first wife Hester Pitt, the daughter of the Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder. Hester remained unmarried and served as hostess in the household of her uncle, the younger William Pitt. From 1800 – 1803 she resided with her grandmother hester, Countess of Chatham at burton Pynsett. With the death of William Pitt (1806) Lady Hester was granted a government pension by King George III. Lady Hester left England for the east (1810), grieving for the death of Commander Sir John Moore at Corunna in Spain (1809).
Hester wandered in Palestine and made a trip to Jerusalem. She mingled with the Bedouins in Palmyra, Syria, and finally settled on Mount Lebanon (1814). Hester remained in the east for the remainder of her life. She became increasingly eccentric, adopted eastern manners and dress, smoked the hookah, and was regarded by the locals as a queen. She granted refuge to druses persecuted by the Ottoman government and withstood barbaric threats from the local emir Beshyr, who caused the bodies of her murdered servants to be left at her gates at Dar Djoun. Her later request from the British government for an increase in her pension because of her reckless spending was ignored, and she died in poverty (June 23, 1839) aged sixty-three. Her household was then plundered by her servants and her burial was arranged by Niven Moore, the British Consul of Beirut, and William McClure Thomson, the American missionary.
Charles Meyron’s Memoirs (1845) and Travels (1846) contain much of Lady Hester’s writing, and she is revealed as an archetypal adventurer. Sketches of her fortalice and her grave appeared in Thomson’s The Land and the Book (1886).

Stanislawska, Anna – (c1653 – 1701)
Polish poet
Stanislawska was the first to write in the Polish language instead of the traditional Latin. The daughter of a high-born Polish provincial official, at her mother’s early death Anna was educated by nuns. Her first marriage, forced on her by her father, to Johann Warszycki, was annulled in 1669 by King Johann III Sobieski, who became her guardian after her father’s death. The same year Anna remarried to Jan Olesklicki, a military officer who was killed in battle against the Turks in 1675, and thirdly (1677) to Jan Zbaski, the royal chamberlain, who was killed during the siege of Vienna (1683).
Anna never remarried, and retained control of her property and estates, even appearing in court herself, and succeeded in regaining the estates of her late father, which had been briefly taken over by the Turks. During her widowhood Anna also established several charitable foundations, much to the annoyance of her relatives, who, she being childless, had thought to benefit at her death. She was the author of an autobiographical poem Transakoja albo opisanie calego zycia jedneji sieroty przez zalosne treny od tejze samej pisane roku 1685. Anna Stanislawska died (before June 2, 1701).

Stanitsky, N    see   Panaeva, Avdotia Iakovlevna

Stanley, Augusta Elizabeth Frederica Bruce, Lady – (1822 – 1876)
British courtier and letter writer
Lady Augusta Bruce was the fifth daughter of Thomas Bruce (1766 – 1841), the seventh Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, and his second wife Elizabeth Oswald of Dunnikeir in Fifeshire. She was the sister of General Robert Bruce (1813 – 1862). She served at the court in the household of the Duchess of Kent as lady-in-waiting, and was a prominent figure during the early decades of the reign of Queen Victoria with whom she remained after the death of the Prince Consort (1861) becoming a source of confort to the queen in this dire time.
When aged forty-one Lady Augusta became the wife (1863) of the Reverend Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815 – 1881), the Dean of Westminster in London, and became Lady Stanley (1863 – 1876). There were no children. Queen Victoria was not happy to hear of the proposed marriage and wrote ‘It has been my greatest sorrow and trial since my misfortune! I thought she would never leave me! … she will remain in my service and be often with me but it cannot be the same for her first duty is now to another.’ However this unpleasant situation was quickly resolved and Lady Augusta was chosen to represent Queen Victoria at the wedding of the Duke of Edinburgh and the Russian Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia at Westminster (1874). Lady Augusta Stanley died (March 1, 1876) and was interred within the Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey, where a glass window was erected to her memory by her husband (1877). Her portrait was painted by George Richmond of the Royal Academy. Her correspondence was edited and published posthumously by Albert Baillie and Hector Bolitho in two volumes, Letters of Lady Augusta Stanley, 1849 – 1863 (1927) and The Later Letters of Lady Augusta Stanley (1929).

Stanley, Dorothy Tennant, Lady – (c1862 – 1926)
British author and traveller
Dorothy Tennant was the wife of Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841 – 1904) the famous African explorer. Lady Stanley was the author of London Street Arabs (1890), and was co-editor of the Autobiography of Henry M. Stanley (1909).

Stanley, Eleanor Juliana – (1821 – 1903) 
British courtier and memoirist
Eleanor Stanley served at court lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria prior to her marriage, by which she became the Hon. (Honourable) Mrs Long. Her private correspondence was edited and published posthumously as Twenty Years at Court: From the Correspondence of the Hon. Eleanor Stanley, Maid of Honour to Her Late Majesty Queen Victoria, 1842 – 1862 (1916).

Stanley, Henrietta Maria Dillon, Lady – (1807 – 1895)
British peeress and philanthropist
Lady Henrietta Maria Dillon was born (Dec 21, 1807) at Halifax in Nova Scotia, the eldest daughter of Henry Augustus Dillon (1777 – 1832), the fifth Earl and thirteenth Viscount Dillon, and his wife Henrietta Browne (1787 – 1862). Henrietta first came to England in 1814, and later spent time in Florence where she attended the weekly gatherings held by the Countess of Albany, the widow of The Young Pretender. She was married in Florence (1826) to Edward Stanley (1802 – 1869) of Alderley. She became the Baroness Stanley after her husband succeeded as the second Baron Stanley of Alderley (1850 – 1869).
Lady Stanley was a woman possessed of remarkable frankness of expression, but also had considerable social skills and qualities which effectively used to pursue the doctrine of liberal politics, and was an active participant of the Women’s Liberal Unionist Association. Lady Stanley rendered herself extremely useful in assisting Stanley’s political career and was an admirer of William Gladstone, but after the question of Home Rule for Ireland (1886) she discontinued to follow him. She was one of the original ‘lady visitors’ of Queen’s College at Cambridge (1848), supported the admission of female students to universities, was a promoter of Girton College, and was an active supporter of the Girl’s Public Day-School Company founded in 1872.
With the death of her husband Henrietta became the Dowager Baroness Stanley of Alderley (1869 – 1895). Lady Stanley died (Feb 16, 1895) aged eighty-seven, at her residence in Dover Street in London. She was buried at Alderley. Her twelve children were,

Stanley, Margaret Evans-Gordon, Lady – (1875 – 1964)
British peeress and governor’s lady
Margaret Evans-Gordon was the daughter of Henry Evans-Gordon, of Prestons, near Ightham in Kent, and his wife May Sartoris, whose mother was the operatic performer Adelaide Kemble. She became the wife of Sir Arthur Lyulph Stanley (1875 – 1931), the eldest son and heir of the fourth Baron Stanley of Alderley and became Lady Stanley. She was the mother of Edward John Stanley (1907 – 1971), later the sixth Baron Stanley of Alderley, and of Lyulph Stanely (1915 – 1971) later the seventh and last Baron Stanley of Alderley. Her daughters included the actress Pamela Stanley and of the memoirist Adelaide Lubbock.
Lady Margaret accompanied her husband and children to Melbourne in Australia, when Lord Stanley was appointed as Governor of Victoria (1914 – 1919). As the governor’s wife Lady Stanley had many official duties and served on the boards of many charitable and philanthropic foundations in Melbourne, and worked with the Australian Red Cross during WW I. Many of Lady Stanley’s letters to her mother, husband and daughters for the period (1906 – 1926) survived and some of her correspondence appeared in Mrs Lubbock’s memoir entitled People in Glass Houses: Growing Up at Government House (1977). Her husband succeeded his father as the fifth Baron Stanley of Alderley (1925) and Lady Margaret became the Baroness Stanley. She survived her husband for almost thirty-five years as the Dowager Baroness Stanley of Alderley (1931 – 1964).

Stanley, Maria Josepha Holroyd, Lady – (1771 – 1863)
British letter writer and literary figure
Lady Maria Josepha Holroyd was born (Jan 3, 1771) the daughter of John Holroyd (1735 – 1821), first Earl of Sheffield and his first wife Abigail Way. Lady Maria Josepha was married (1796) to John Thomas Stanley (1766 – 1850), first Baron Stanley of Alderley (1839 – 1850), to whom she bore nine children, and whom she survived as Dowager Baroness Stanley of Alderley (1850 – 1863). Her children included Sir Edward John Stanley (1802 – 1869) who succeeded his father as the second Baron Stanley of Alderley (1850 – 1869), Isabella Louisa Stanley (1804 – 1839), the first wife of Sir William Edward Parry (1790 – 1855), and Harriet Alethea Stanley (1805 – 1888) who became the wife of General William Henry Scott (died 1868).
Lady Stanley corresponded with the historian Edward Gibbon and the Comte de Lally-Tollendal. She assisted her father and William Hayhey in editing Gibbon’s Synoptic Memoirs (1796), for publication. Her youthful correspondence was edited and published posthumously as The Girlhood of Maria Josepha Holroyd (Lady Stanley of Alderly) Recorded in Letters of a Hundred Years Ago: From 1776 – 1796 (1896). Lady Maria Stanley died (Nov 1, 1863) aged ninety-two, at Holmwood, Shiplake. She was buried at Alderley

Stanley, Maude Alethea – (1833 – 1915)
British social reformer and author
Hon. (Honourable) Maude Stanley was the daughter of Sir Edward, second Lord Stanley of Alderley, and his wife Henrietta Maria Dillon. Maude remained unmarried, and devoted her life for several decades to bettering the working conditions for ordinary working girls. She established the first Club for Working Girls in Soho, London (1880), and a second was established at Walworth (1903). Maude also founded the London Girls Club Union (1883) and from 1884 she served as manager on the Metropolitan asylum Board, and was a governor of the Borough Polytechnic from 1892. She was the author of Work about the Five Dials (1878) and Clubs for Working Girls (1890).

Stanley, Pamela Margaret – (1909 – 1991)
British actress
The Hon. (Honourable) Miss Pamela Stanley was born (Sept 6, 1909) the daughter of Sir Arthur Lyulph Stanley (1875 – 1931), the fifth Baron Stanley of Alderley and his wife Margaret Evans-Gordon, the daughter of Henry Evans-Gordon. She was educated abroad in France and Switzerland, and after returning to England she studied at the Webber Douglas School of Acting and Singing. Miss Stanley made her stage debut in Derby Day (1932) at the Lyric Theatre in Hammersmith. This was followed by six months working with the Oxford Repertory Company (1932 – 1933). She appeared with Martin Harvey in The Bells (1933) at the Savoy Theatre, and also appeared as Wendy in Peter Pan (1934).
Pamela Stanley appeared as Queen Victoria in Victoria Regina (1935) at the Gate Theatre, and then travelled to America with Leslie Howard with whom she appeared in Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1936). She then returned to the Lyric for another season in Victoria Regina (1937 – 1938). Her stage career ended with her marriage and the birth of her children. Pamela Stanley was married (1941) to Sir Henry David St Leger Brooke Selwyn Cunynghame (1905 – 1978), eleventh baronet, and became Lady Cunynghame. Lady Pamela bore her husband two sons including Sir Andrew David Francis Cunynghame (born 1942) who succeeded his father as the twelfth baronet (1978) and was married and left issue. she made a brief return to the stage when she appeared as Queen Victoria in The Queen’s Highland Servant (1968) at the Savoy Theatre in London. Pamela survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Cunynghame (1978 – 1991) and resided either in London or at Leamington Spa in Warwickshire during her widowhood. Lady Pamela died (June 30, 1991) aged eighty-one.

Stanley, Venetia   see also   Digby, Venetia Stanley, Lady

Stanley, Venetia – (1887 – 1948)
British socialite and letter writer
A famous Edwardian beauty, the Hon. (Honourable) Beatrice Venetia Stanley was born (Aug 22, 1887), the youngest daughter of Edward Lyulph Stanley, the fourth Baron Stanley of Alderley. She was best remembered for her correspondence with the Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith (1910 – 1915) whom she first met through her friendship with his daughter Violet Asquith. She became the wife (1915) of the Liberal Member of Parliament Edwin Montagu after converting to Judaism.
Venetia bore Montagu an only child (1923) but was left a widow soon afterwards (1924) residing at his estate of Attleborough in Norfolk. She never remarried and became involved in a romantic liaison with Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook (1879 – 1964) the noted politician and newspaper proprietor. The Liberal Party later invited Venetia to stand as the candidate for South Norfolk but she declined to become actively involved in politics (1928). Venetia Stanley died of cancer (Aug 3, 1948) aged sixty.

Stanley-Wrench, Mollie – (c1879 – 1966)
British story writer, poet and domestic author
Louise Gibbs was born in banbury the eldest daughter of John Kennedy Gibbs. Known as Mollie she was educated at home under the supervision of a governess. Mollie Stanley-Wrench wrote articles and stories which were published in various magazines. She was a particular authority on rural and regional cookery and folk-lore. Her published stories included A Perfect Passion (1910), Pillars of Smoke (1912), Lily Louisa (1915), Devil’s Stairs (1918) and Divorced Love (1927).
Stanley-Wrench published The Lyceum Book of Verse (1931) and also published various works concerning household management including Bachelor Woman’s Cookery (1934), Home Management (1934), Complete Home Cookery Book (1938), Good Things in the Kitchen (1946), Brides’ Cook Book (1946) and A Book of Hors-d’oeuvres, Cocktail Canapes and Snacks (1952). She was appointed as a fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society. Mollie Stanley-Wrench remained unmarried and died (Oct 27, 1966) in London.

Stannard, Emily Coppin – (1803 – 1885)
British artist and water colour painter
Stannard was born at Norwich in Norfolk. She was married to fellow artist Joseph Stannard, and was particulalry known for her still-life and flower paintings. Emily Stannard died in Norwich.

Stannard, Henrietta Eliza Vaughan     see    Winter, John Strange

Stannard, Lilian – (1877 – 1941)
British artist and water colour painter
Stannard was born at Foxburn, near Woburn in Bedfordshire, the daughter of artist Henry Stannard. Lilian specialized in botanical illustrations and flower paintings, and apart from her own exhibitions, her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy over a three decade period (1902 – 1930) and at the Royal Institute.
Lilian Stannard died at Blackheath, near London.

Stannus, Edris     see      De Valois, Dame Ninette

Stansfield, Grace    see    Fields, Dame Gracie

Stansfield, Margaret – (1860 – 1951) 
British physical instruction pioneer
Margaret Stansfield was born in London, the daughter of a baker. She was educated in Bloomsbury and was trained as a teacher. Stansfield was appointed as a teacher to the Bedford High School, where she successfully campaigned to establish a gymnasium for the female students, and other outdoor facilities. Stansfield founded the Bedford Physical Training College (1902) and was a firm believer that general health enhanced the studies of students. She retired in 1918.

Stanton, Elizabeth Brandon – (1851 – 1942)
American novelist and juvenile author
Elizabeth Stanton was born in Adams County, Mississippi, the daughter of General Robert Stanton. She remained unmarried and resided at the family estate of Windy Hill Manor for her entire life. She was an active participant in women’s clubs and served for almost a decade as the historian of the Colonial Dames of Mississippi. Stanton was best known for the historical novel Fata Morgana (1917) which dealt with the Aaron Burr conspiracy. Her other work was A Boston Boys Adventure in Louisiana (1909). Elizabeth Brandon Stanton died (Feb 27, 1942).

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady – (1815 – 1902)
American suffrage leader, feminist, abolitionist and writer
Elizabeth Cady was born in Johnstown, New York, the daughter of US Congressman Daniel Cady, who was New York State Supreme Court Justice. Her father supervised Elizabeth’s legal education, and it was at this time that her attention was drawn to the inequality of, and discrimination directed against, women in the law. Elizabeth married Henry Brewster Stanton (1840), but continued to campaigne for female equality and basic rights. Her husband supported her efforts, and helped to secure the passage of a statute which granted women property rights within marriage. Elizabeth became associated with Lucretia Coffin Mott, and the two organized the first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York (1848).

However, Mott was against the idea of voting rights for women, which disagreement led to a plit within the movement. Elizabeth then joined Susan B. Anthony, whose philosophy was more attuned to hers, and Anthony managed the business side of affairs, whilst Elizabeth continued to write. Together they produced the feminist journal The Revolution and with Matilda Joslyn Gage, The History of Woman Suffrage (1881 – 1886, 6 vols). Other of her published works included the two pamphlets The Degradation of Disenfranchisement and The Solitude of Self (1892). Elizabeth Cady Stanton died (Oct 26, 1902) in New York.

Stanwyck, Barbara – (1907 – 1990)
American film and television actress
Born Ruby McGee Stevens in Brooklyn, New York, she originally trained as a dancer and appeared in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923. She made her stage debut in The Noose (1926) at which time she adopted her professional name, and made her first film appearance in Broadway Nights (1927). Stanwyck was the winner of two Emmy Awards (1961) and (1966), and was the recipient of a special Academy Award (1982).
Stanwyck was best known for her appearances in Stella Dallas (1937) and as the scheming wife in Double Indemnity (1944) with Fred MacMurray, she was for several years, the highest paid working woman in the USA. Her comic talents were displayed in films such as Lady Eve (1941) and Ball of Fire (1941). Stanwyck later appeared in several popular televison series, most notably in The Big Valley (1965 – 1969) and later played Mary Carson in the television adaptation of the novel The Thorn Birds, written by Australian writer Colleen McCullogh.

Stapilton, Johanna Usflete, Lady    see   Usflete, Johanna

Stapleton, Maureen – (1925 – 2006) 
American stage and film actress
Stapleton was born (June 25, 1925) in Troy, New York and made her stage debut in The Playboy of the Western World (1926) by J.M. Synge. Stapleton received glowing acclaim after playing Serafina in Tennessee William’s play Rose Tattoo (1951). An extremely talented stage actress Stapleton’s other successes included roles in Twenty-Seven Wagons Full of Cotton (1955) and playing Amanda Wingfield in The Glass Menagerie (1965). Her film credits included A View from the Bridge (1962), Coccoon (1985) and Nuts (1988). She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in the film Lonely Hearts (1958). Maureen Stapleton died (March 13, 2006) aged eighty, in Lenox, Massachusetts.

Stapleton, Ruth Carter – (1929 – 1983)
American Baptist evangelist and faith healer
Ruth Carter was born (Aug 7, 1929) in Archery, Georgia, the younger sister of President Jimmy Carter (1977 – 1981). Ruth married and trained as a psychologist. She worked for the interaction between all faiths for the general good, and was the first woman to preach before the National Press Club in Washington D.C., during her brother’s presidential campaign (1976). Her published works included The Gift of Inner Healing and How Do You Face Disappointments? Ruth Stapleton died (Sept 26, 1983) aged fifty-four, in Hope Mills, North Carolina.

Stapp, Emilie Blackmore – (1876 – 1961)
American children’s writer
Emilie Stapp was born (July 4, 1876) in Des moines, Iowa. Whilst at school she worked for the Des Moines Capital newspaper and became the editor of the children’s section. Miss Stapp later resigned as an editor in order to devote more time to writing. During WW I She worked to raise funds for displaced children in France and Belgium. In recognition of this work she received the Queen Elisabeth Medal for the Belgian government.
Her published works included The Trail of the Go-Hawks (1908), The Squaw Lady (1913), Little Billy Bowlegs (1916), and Penny Wise (1935) but was best remembered for her series of Isabella books such as Isabella, the Wise Goose (1940), Isabella’s Big Secret (1946) and Isabella’s New Friend (1952). Emilie Stapp died (June, 1961) near Wiggins in Mississippi.

Starhemberg, Maria Franziska von Salm-Salm, Princess von – (1731 – 1806)
German courtier, diplomatic and salon figure
Princess Maria Franziska von Salm was the daughter of Prince Nicholas von Salm-Salm, and his wife Dorothea Agnes von Salm. She became the wife (1761) of Prince George Adam von Starhemberg (1724 – 1807), who served as the Austrian ambassador to the court of France at Versailles. Madame von Starhemberg spoke excellent French, though she remained somewhat in awe of Louis XV, especially when he commented on her excessive use of rouge. She was prominet at the court during her husband’s term of office. She appears in the correspondence of the British antiquarian and traveller, Horace Walpole.

Staritsa, Euphrosyne Andreievna Khovanskaia, Duchess of – (1516 – 1569)
Russian princess, courtier, and political intriguer
Princess Euphrosyne Khovanskaia was the daughter of Prince Andrej Khovansky, and became the wife (1533) of Prince Andrej Vassilievitch (1490 – 1536), the Duke of Staritsa, uncle to Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Duchess Euphrosyne survived her husband over three decades, but remained a powerful figure at the Kremlin court. However, when during an illness of the tsar (1553), the duchess supported the candidacy of her own son to be tsar, over the claims of Ivan’s infant son. Ivan never forgot or forgave his aunt, and later ordered her to leave the court and retire to the convent at Belozersk, where she was forced to become a nun. Finally, Ivan murdered Euphrosyne’s sons and grandsons, and ordered the duchess be taken from convent and drowned (Oct 15, 1569) in the White Lake at Belozersk.

Stark, Dame Freya Madeline – (1893 – 1993)
British traveller, author, writer and specialist on African political affairs
Freya Stark was born (Jan 31, 1893) in Paris and spent part of her childhood in Italy. She attended Bedford College at London University where she studied literature, and worked as a nurse in Italy during WW I. With the end of the war Stark studied Arabic at the School of Oriental and African Studies at London University before embarking on a career as a journalist with the Baghdad Times.
Fluent in several languages she travelled into areas where few Europeans, let alone women, had ever ventured, and mapped the Valley of the Assassins in Luristan. Stark later worked for the Ministry of Information in Aden and Cairo during WW II. Freya Stark published over thirty works including Valley of the Assassins (1934), The Southern Gates of Arabia (1938), Beyond Euphrates (1951), Alexander’s Path: From Caria to Cilicia (1958), Dust In the Lion’s Paw (1961),the travel memoirs West is East (1945) and The Journey’s Echo: Selected Travel Writings (1988). She was later ppointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) in recognition of her valuable contribution to literature and public life. Dame Freya Stark died (May 9, 1993) aged one hundred, in Asolo, Italy.

Stark, Helen – (c1510 – 1543) 
Scottish Protestant martyr
Helen Stark was the wife of James Ranoldsone, a citizen of Perth, to whom she bore several children. They were arrested on charges of heresy by Cardinal David Beaton, along with several other Protestants in Perth. Among other points, she was refused to believe that the Virgin Mary possessed any qualities which set her apart from other women for veneration. Ranoldsone was hanged, and Stark was condemned to death and executed by drowning, despite the attempts of the crowds to intercede with the priests for her release.

Starke, Mariana – (c1762 – 1838)
British author and travel writer
Marianne Starke was born in Surrey, the daughter of a civil servant. Her father was appointed as the governor of Fort St George in Madras and Marianne spent most of her youth in India. She later returned to England and produced two plays entitled The Sword of Peace (1788) and The Widow of Malabar (1791). Starke resided in Italy from 1791 and was the author of Letters from Italy (1800) which was published in London, and Travels on the Continent: written for the Use and Particular Information of Travellers (1820).

Starke, Pauline – (1901 – 1977)
American actress
Starke was born in Joplin, Missouri, and made her first appearance in the silent film The Claws of Green at the age of thirteen (1914). Starke appeared in over fifty silent films including The Regenerates (1917) as Nora Duffy, Whom the Gods Destroy (1919), The Fall of Babylon (1919) in which she played a harem concubine, The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come (1920), The Courage of Marge O’Doone (1920) playing the title role, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1921) in the role of Sandy, Salvation Nell (1921), My Wild Irish Rose (1922), Lost and Found on a South Sea Island (1923), Dante’s Inferno (1924) and The Man Without a Country (1925).
Starke only made about ten films after the advent of talkies which included The Viking (1928), Man, Woman and Wife (1929) and A Royal Romance (1930) in which she played the Countess von Baden. Her last film appearance in She Knew All the Answers (1941) remained unedited. She retired from movies during World War II. Pauline Starke died (Feb 3, 1977) aged seventy-six, in Santa Monica, California.

Starkie, Enid Mary – (1897 – 1970) 
Irish educator and critic of French literature
Starkie was born in Killiney, County Dublin, the daughter of the classical historian, W.J. M. Starkie, and was sister to the Spanish literature specialist Walter Starkie. She was educated at the Alexandra College in Dublin and at Somerville College, Oxford, and later attended the Sorbonne in Paris.Starkie lectured at Exeter and Oxford where she taught modern languages. She wrote concerning the wars of the famous French authors Baudelaire (1933), Andre Gide (1954), and Gustave Flaubert (1967) and helped to establish the reputation of the French poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854 – 1891).
Enid Starkie was a fellow of Somerville College for three decades (1934 – 1965) and then became an honorary fellow. She left memoirs entitled A Lady’s Child (1941) and was a resident commissioner of National Education for Ireland. In recognition of her contribution to literature she was appointed CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1967). Enid Starkie died (April 22, 1970) in Oxford.

Starovoitova, Galina Vasilievna – (1946 – 1998)
Russian democratic politician and parliamentary deputy
Galina Starovoitova was born in Chelyabinsk, the daughter of Vasili Starovoitov, a factory worker and Communist party official. She studied engineering at a military academy and then psychology at the Leningrad State University. With other students she openly opposed the Soviet crack down on democracy in Czechoslavakia (1968). Starovoitova was a close friend of the physicist and human rights campaigner Andrei Sakharov, and she campaigned tirelessly for his eventual release (1986).
Starovoitova represented the Armenians at the Congress of People’s Deputies, and was later appointed as one the key advisers (1991 – 1992) to President Boris Yeltsin, particularly concerning ethnic and national questions. She was a strong anti-corruption campaigner, and though ultimately dismissed by Yeltsin, as she strongly opposed the Russian backing of Ossetia, she remained loyal until 1994, when he sent troops into Chechnya. Fearless and unguarded in her opinions, Galina Starovoitova gained many enemies during her political career. Galina Starovoitova was assassinated outside her own apartment in St Petersburg (Nov 20, 1998), aged fifty-two. When the news of her death was released by the media she was mourned as ‘Russia’s last democrat.’

Starr, Belle – (1848 – 1889)
American outlaw and figure of legend
Born Myra Belle Shirley near Carthage, Missouri, after bearing an illegitimate child she took up with the notorious outlaw, Jim Reed, and became involved in a stagecoach holdup. Belle later settled in Dallas, Texas, where she operated a stable supplied with stolen horses. After her marriage (1880) with a Cherokee Indian, Sam Starr, the couple settled in a cabin at Fort Smith, near Arkansas. Credited with being the mastermind of the criminal outlaw gang she worked with Starr eventually died of a gunshot wound.

Stasova, Elena Dmitrievna – (1873 – 1966)
Russian revolutionary and feminist
Elena Stasova was born in St Petersburg, the daughter of a lawyer, and was educated there. She was the niece of feminist and educator Nadezhda Stasova. Until the end of the tsarist regime Elena became involved in socialist underground activities and served as secretary to the Central Committee of the St Petersburg Marxists. She had been working as a propagandist in Tbilisi in Georgia before being arrested and exiled to Siberia (1913) by the tsarist regime. With the advent of the Revolution Stasova was appointed as secretary of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party (1920). She was later appointed as staff editor of the Inostrannaia Literatura (1938).

Stasova, Nadezhda – (1822 – 1895)
Russian feminist
Nadezhda Stasova was born in St Petersburg, the daughter of an architect. She worked with other feminists such as Anna Filosova and Mariya Trubnikova to campaign for female suffrage in Russia. They organized inexpensive housing and schools for the poor, as well as kindergartens for working mothers. It was due to their successful peitioning that university courses were formally opened to female students (1869). Stasova was appointed as the first director of the Bestuzhev Advanced Courses curriculum at the University of St Petersburg. Her niece was the famous revolutionary feminist Elena Dmitrievna Stasova.

Statham, Vivian Bullwinkel    see   Bullwinkel, Vivian

Statilia Messallina – (c30 – after 70 AD)
Roman Augusta (66 – 68 AD)
Statilia Messallina was the daughter of Lucius Valerius Catullus, by his wife Messallina, the daughter of Titus Statilius Taurus, consul (11 AD). She was the granddaughter of Marcus Messalla Corvinus, consul (61 BC). According to the historian Juvenal, Statilia had been married four times by 65 AD, when she became the mistress of the emperor Nero, after the death of Poppaea Sabina. Her fourth husband, Marcus Vestinus Atticus, a close friend of Nero, was put to death (April, 65 AD) for supposed complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy, the real reason being his daring to marry the emperor’s mistress. Nero married Statilia (May, 66 AD), and she was accorded the rank of Augusta. She is represented on surviving coinage, and she and Nero were worshipped at Acraephia in Boetia, Greece as the deities Nero Zeus Liberator and Augusta Messallina in the temple of the Ptoian Apollo.
With Galba’s approach to Rome (68 AD), the empress abandoned Nero. The emperor Otho, on his accession (69 AD), wrote Statilia affectionate letters and would have married her, had he lived. Just before he committed suicide, he wrote to Statilia, asking her to see that he was given a decent burial. The former empress was still living after the accession of Vespasian, when she is recorded as having given orations of great eloquence and learning amongst the salons of the intellectual ladies of Rome. Borghesi supposed her to be the mother of Lucius Valerius Catullus Messallinus, consul (73 AD), and prosecutor during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81 – 96 AD).

Statilia Taura – (26 BC – c40 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician and courtier
Statilia Taura has been identified as the daughter of Statilius Taurus, consul (37) and (26 BC), she being born during his second consulship. She was married to Lucius Calpurnius Piso (48 BC – 32 AD) consul (1 BC), and became the mother of Lucius Piso (c6 BC – 25 AD). Inscriptions discovered at Samos in Greece, and at Pergamum in Asia Minor, pay honour to both Piso and Statilia who is described as Statilia L. Pisonis, though on the inscription at Samos there seems to have been an attempt at erasure. Statilia Taura’s daughter Calpurnia Pisonis later became the wife of Lucius Nonius Asprenas, consul suffect (6 AD), who was the owner of estates on an island near the coast of Liburnia.

Statira I (Stateira) – (c400 – 430 BC)
Queen consort of Persia (404 – 400 BC)
Statira I was the daughter of general Hydarnes and sister to Terituchmes. She was married (c414 BC) to King Artaxerxes II Memnon (444 – 358 BC) and was the mother of the crown prince Darius, who later executed for conspiracy against his father (358 BC) and of Artaxerxes III Ochus (c408 – 337 BC). The Roman historian Plutarch recorded in his life of her husband that the queen achieved popularity with the ordinary people by travelling with raised curtains in her carriage so that the people could see and approach her. Queen Statira was much respected and honoured by her husband, which had earned her the loathing of her mother-in-law Queen Parysatis. Eventually Parysatis murdered her with poison, she having blamed Statira and her family for the death of her own favourite son Cyrus (401 BC).

Statira II (Stateira) – (c365 – 331 BC)
Queen consort of Persia
Statira II was the daughter of King Arses of Persia and a concubine. His wife Sisygambis was her aunt, stepmother, and mother-in-law. She was married (c350 BC) to her son, Darius III Codomannus (383 – 330 BC), to whom she bore a son, and two daughters, Statira and Drypetis. Famous for her beauty, she became queen when her husband ascended the throne after the assasination of his father (336 BC). Queen Statira was captured with her mother-in-law, daughters, and other members of the royal family and the court by Alexander the Great, after her husband’s defeat at the battle of Issus (333 BC). Alexander treated the queen and her family with exceptional kindness and courtesy, and offerred Darius their return if only he would come and ask of it of him. Darius sent a letter, offerring a large ransom for his family, the cession of all the Persian Empire west of the Euphrates, and the hand of his daughter, Statira, in return for an alliance, but Alexander again refused.
The queen accompanied Alexander on his conquests, being present at the siege of Tyre (332 BC), and she was then taken to Gaza and Alexandria in Egypt. However, exhaustion, and worry about her husband overtook the queen. She died, aged about thirty-five, probably from the effects of childbirth, having sometime during her captivity been forced to become the mistress of Alexander. The Roman historian Plutarch records that one of Statira’s servants escaped to the camp of Darius and informed the king of her death. The grieving Darius was suspicious that Alexander may have been his wife’s lover, but the servant assured him that this had not been so, praising the Greek king’s kindness and courtesy to his family. Her eldest daughter Statira, became the wife of Alexander, whilst her younger, Drypetis, married his companion-at-arms and lover, Hephaestion. Both women remained childess, and were poisoned together by their kinswoman Roxana, Alexander’s other wife, and mother of Alexander IV.

Statira of Persia (Stateira) – (c345 – 323 BC)
Queen consort of Macedonia (324 – 323 BC)
Statira was the elder daughter of Darius III, King of Persia, and his wife Statira II. The princess was originally betrothed by her father to the nobleman Mazaeus, but he died (328 BC) before the wedding could take place. Togther with her mother, sister Drypetis, and grandmother, the Dowager Queen Sisygambis, and hundreds of other Persian ladies, she was captured by the Macedonians after the defeat of her father at the battle of Issus (333 BC). With her family she was generously treated by Alexander the Great, who permitted her to be raised by her grandmother at Persepolis.
The Roman historian Arrian called her ‘Barsine’ but confused her with Alexander’s Persian mistress of that name. Alexander was married to Statira (324 BC) amidst great ceremonial, whilst his close friend Hephaestion was married to her sister Drypetis at the same time. There were no children. With Alexander’s death (June 18, 323 BC), the young queen and her sister were removed by Alexander’s other wife Roxana with poison, in order to secure the throne for her son Alexander IV.

Statira of Pontus – (c122 – 71 BC)
Greek princess
Statira was born at Sinope, the fifth daughter of King Mithridates V, and his Seleucid wife Laodice. Statira was not permitted to marry, her brother, the famous Mihtirdates VI Eupator, not wanting potential rivals for the throne. With her sister Roxana she resided within the royal harem at Sinope. With the threat of a Roman invasion of Pontus (71 BC), the two princesses now elderly, were sent to the remote fortress of Pharnakia for safety. When this proved futile, her brother ordered their ceremonial suicide to prevent them from being degraded by the Romans. Statira took poison and died bravely, but left a moving speech, telling the eunuch Bacchides to thank her brother for his kindness in remembering his family when he was burdened with so many cares, and of giving her the opportunity to die free, before she was raped by Roman soldiers as was customary.

Statoria Marcella – (fl. c85 – c110 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Statoria Marcella was probably a connection of Lucius Vettius Statura, who served as quaestor in Narbonensis, Gaul. She was married to Gaius Minicius Fundanus, consul suffect (107 AD) and proconsul of Asia, they being courties of the emperor Trajan, and friends of the famous letter writer and Imperial official, Pliny the Younger. Her younger daughter was Minicia Marcella (93 – 106 AD), whose early death was much lamented by Pliny in a letter to Aefulanus Marcellinus.

Stawell, Charlotte – (c1710 – 1762)
British heiress
Charlotte Stawell was the only daughter of William, third Baron Stawell of Somerton, by his wife Elizabeth Port, the widow of William Forsler. Her only brother William died unmarried before their father, and at his death the Stawell title passed to their uncle. Charlotte married three times, and her last husband, Ralph Congreve, inherited from Charlotte the estate of Aldermaston in Berkshire at her death (July 24, 1762). The couple had remained childless, and at Ralph’s death (1775) the Aldermaston estate was devised to the Congreve family.

Stawell, Mary – (1726 – 1780)
British Hanoverian heiress and peeress (1760 – 1780)
Mary Stawll was born (Jan 27, 1726), the daughter of Edward Stawell, the fourth Baron Stawell of Somerton. She was married firstly (1750) to Henry Bilson Legge (1708 – 1764). The Stawell family had died out in the male line in 1755, and the Hon. Mrs Legge was created Baroness Stawell of Somerton by King George II (1760). This title became extinct at the death of her son Henry Legge (1757 – 1820), second Baron Stawell. Mrs Legge was married secondly (1768) to Wills Hill (1718 – 1793), Earl of Hillsborough, as his second wife. The Countess of Hillsborough died (July 29, 1780) aged fifty-four, at her residence in Hanover Square in London. She was interred at Hinton Ampner in Hants. Lord Hillsborough became the first Marquess of Downshire only after her death.

Stawell, Mary Greene – (1830 – 1921)
Irish-Australian diarist
Mary came to Port Phillip in Victoria with her parents as a child aboard the Sarah (1842). The family settled at Woodlands near Melbourne. She was married (1856) to William Stawell, the Victorian attorney-general, to whom she bore ten children. Mary Stawell later took her sons to England to settle them in school there and remained several years (1873 – 1877) before returning to the family estate of D’Estaville, at Kew. Mary wrote accounts of her journey to England, and included letters of her own, with copies of letters written by her family, which was published as, My Recollections (1911).

Stead, Christina Ellen – (1902 – 1983) 
Australian novelist, educator, and author
Christina Stead was born in Rockdale, Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of David George Stead, the naturalist. She trained as a teacher and then travelled to Europe where she worked in Paris and London and married a banker. With the outbreak of WW II she and her husband settled in America, where Christina worked as an instructor at New York University and as a scriptwriter for MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) in Hollywood, California, contributing articles to the New Yorker.
Her first published work was the collection of stories entitled Salzburg Tales (1934), but she achieved literary distinction with her subsequent works Seven Poor Men of Sydney (1934) and The Man Who Loved Children (1940). Stead lived in England for over twenty-five years (1947 – 1974) before finally returning to Australia where she became the first winner of the prestigious Patrick White literary award (1974). Her satiric novel I’m Dying Laughing (1986) was published posthumously.

Stearner, Sigrid Phyllis – (1919 – 1997)
American scientist and biological researcher
Stearner was born in Chicago, Illinois and attended the University of Chicago where she studied zoology. She contracted cerebral palsy as a child and remained a lifelong campaigner for the disabled and served as treasurer of the Foundation for Science and the Disabled of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. For thirty-five years (1946 – 1981) Dr Stearner conducted research into the effects of ionizing radiation on the heart and blood vessels at the Argonne National Laboratory. Sigrid Stearner died (Nov 17, 1997) aged sevent-eight, at Naperville, Illinois.

Stebbing, Susan – (1885 – 1943) 
British philosopher
Lizzie Susan Stebbing was the daughter of a barrister, and attended Girton College, Cambridge, and the University of London. She worked as a lecturer in philosophy at Girton, Newnham, and Bedford Colleges and was later appointed professor of philosophy (1933), the first woman to hold such a post in Britain. Stebbing served as president of the Aristotelian Society (1933 – 1934) and was the Hobhouse Memorial Lecturer (1943). Her published works included Pragmatism and French Voluntarism (1914), Logic and Practice (1933) and Thinking to Some Purpose (1939).

Stebbins, Emma – (1815 – 1882)
American painter and sculptor
Emma Stebbins was born in New York. She produced portraits and was elected as an associate of the National Academy of Design in New York. Her sculptures included a bronze of the the noted educator and politician Horace Mann (1796 – 1859) in Boston, Massachusetts, and The Angel of the Waters, commissioned for the Bethesda Fountain in Central Park.

Steel, Dawn – (1946 – 1997) 
American film executive and producer
Born Dawn Spielberg (Aug 19, 1946) in the Bronx, New York, she was the daughter of a salesman. She attended the New York University School of Commerce and was first employed by Penthouse magazine. Dawn later removed to Los Angeles in California where she was appointed as director of merchandising for Paramount Pictures. Steel rose to become president of production at Paramount, and her film successes included Flashdance (1983), Top Gun (1986) with Tom Cruise and Fatal Attraction (1987) with Glenn Close. Others included When Harry Met Sally and, Postcards from the Edge with Mery Streep and Shirley MacLaine. She earned the nickname ‘Steely Dawn’ whilst her autobiography was published as They Can Kill You But They Can’t Eat You: Lessons from the Front (1993). Dawn Steel died (Dec 20, 1997) aged fifty-one, in Los Angeles, California.

Steel, Dorothy Dyne – (1884 – 1965)
British sportswoman and croquet champion
Dorothy Dyne Steel was the winner of the Women’s Championship on fifteen occasions (1919 – 1939). Steel was the winner of the Open Croquet Championship four times (1925, 1933, 1935 and 1936), an event only ever won by two women before her, and during her career won a total of thirty-one titles. She was twice winner of the President’s Cup and participated in the MacRobertson Trophy for England on three occasions prior to 1939.

Steel, Flora Annie – (1847 – 1929) 
Scottish social reformer and novelist
Born Flora Webster at Harrow-on-the-Hill, near London, she was the daughter of the sheriff-clerk of Forfarshire, where she was raised. She was married (1867) to William Steel of the Indian Civil service and accompanied him to the Pinjabi region where she worked tirelessly to improve public health conditions and those of position of women in society. Flora Steel was appointed as the first female school inspector in India (1884) and then served on the Provincial Education Board (1885 – 1888). She retired to England with her husband in 1889. Steel co-authored The Complete Indian Housekeeper and Cook (1887) with her friend Grace Gardiner, and published a novel of the Indian Mutiny On the Face of the Waters (1896).

Stefanelli, Simonetta – (1954 – 2006)
Italian film actress
Stefanelli was born (Nov 30, 1954) in Rome, and appeared in about a dozen films, but was best known for her role as Al Pacino’s wife in The Godfather (1972), and as Giuliana in Le Amiche del Cuore (Close Friends) (1992). Her husband was was the director Michele Placido from whom she was later divorced. Simonetta Stefanelli died of cancer (July 23, 2006) aged fifty-one, in Rome.

Stefaneschi, Constantia – (fl. c970 – c1000)
Italian papal matriarch
Constantia Stefaneschi was the daughter of Hildebrand Stefaneschi, a Roman duke, and was the paternal aunt of Pope Benedict VI (973 – 974). Constantia supposedly became the wife of Duke Gregorio, and was the paternal grandmother of Pope Gregory VI (1045 – 1046). The more famous Pope Gregory VII (c1020 – 1085), whose former name was Hildebrand, was most probably one of Constantia’s descendants.

Stefanetta – (fl. 963)
Italian papal courtier
Stefanetta was a young married woman who became the mistress of Pope John XII (937 – 963). The profligate pope is said to have died of a stroke (Dec 4, 963) whilst in Stefanetta’s bed, but other sources stated that he was thrown from the bedchamber window to his death by her enraged husband. Stefanetta’s fate remains unrecorded.

Stefania – (fl. 867 – 872)
Italian papal courtier
Stefania was the wife of Pope Adrian II (Hadrian) (c797 – Dec 14, 872). Her parentage is unknown. Adrian was elderly when elected to the papacy (867), and he and Stefania and their children lived openly togther in the Lateran Palace. Because of the couple’s advanced age Catholic historians claimed that the couple resided as brother and sister.

Stefanilla Aemiliana – (fl. c270 – c320 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Stefania Aemiliana was the wife of Marcus Attius Insteius Tertullus Populonis, quaestor and praetor, and Imperial corrector of Apulia and Calabria. Husband and wife are attested by two surviving bronze seals, probably dating from the late fourth century, which reveals that they were both Christians. Stefanilla may have been the mother of Attius Insteius Tertullus, who served as prefect of Rome (307 – 308 AD), and as proconsul of Asia.

Steffanoni, Sophie – (1873 – 1906)
Greek-Australian artist and diarist
Sophie Steffanoni studied under the master William Lister Lister. She painted in the Impressionist style, producing seascapes, landscapes and cityscapes, and her work was exhibited with the Art Society of New South Wales. Sophie died aged thirty-two, from consumption. Relatives discovered some fifty of her paintings produced during the period (1895 – 1904), eighty years after her death in the family home in Sydney (1987). Also discovered were Sophie’s letters and personal diary. A posthumous exhibition of her work was held at Art Gallery of New South Wales (1996).

Stein, Charlotte von – (1742 – 1827) 
German writer and literary figure
Born Charlotte von Schardt (Dec 25, 1742) at Eisenach, Saxony, she was the daughter of a Weimar court official. She was appointed lady-in-waiting to the Duchess Amalia of Saxe-Weimar (1758) and was then married (1764) to Baron Friedrich von Stein, the duke’s master of the horse. Madame von Stein was an intimate friend of the poet and dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 – 1832) from 1775, but their friendship declined after he began his relationship with Christine Vulpius (1788), whom he later married.
Stein was the inspiration for Goethe’s work Iphigenie auf Tauris (1787), and she published several dramas including Rino (1776) and the tragedy Dio (1792). Also a friend of Schiller her letters to him and his wife were published in Charlotte von Schiller und ihre Freunde (1862). With the death of her husband (1793) the baroness remained resident in Weimar. Baroness von Stein died there (Jan 6, 1827) aged eighty-four.

Stein, Edith – (1891 – 1942) 
Jewish-German Carmelite nun and philosopher
Stein was born in Breslau, Poland, and studied philosophy at the University of Gottingen before being converted to Roman Catholocism (1922). She then studied phenemenology prior to entering the Carmelite convent in Cologne (1934), where she became Sister Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. With the rise of the Nazi regime, Edith was sent to the Carmelite house at Echt in Holland for greater safety (1938), but was eventually executed in the notorious Auschwitz concentration camp (Aug 9, 1942) together with other priests and nuns who had objected to the policy of anti-Semitism. Edith Stein was later beatified by Pope John Paul II (1987).

Stein, Gertrude – (1874 – 1946)
American writer, modernist and salon figure
Gertrude Stein was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and was raised in Vienna, Paris, and San Francisco. She studied psychology at Radcliffe College under William James and then medicine at John Hopkins University. From 1905 she resided in Paris, and from 1907 lived with her lesbian companion Alice B. Toklas (1877 – 1967) for the remainder of her life. Gertrude Stein was best remembered for her famous line ‘A rose is a rose is a rose,’ her published works included Three Lives (1909), the collection of verse Tender Buttons (1914), The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933), and the volume of art criticism Portraits and Prayers (1939). During WW II she remained in Europe, and resided quietly at the village of Chloz. Her novel Brewsie and Willie (1946) concerned the liberation of Germany by American soldiers.

Stein, Lillian Fuchs    see   Fuchs, Lillian

Stein, Marius    see   Janitschek, Maria

Stein, Sarah – (1870 – 1953)
German painter
Sarah Stein was the co-founder of the Academie Matisse with fellow artist Hans Purmann, who introduced Matisse and his work to the artistic circles of Berlin. The Academie, which closed in 1911, was attended by noted painters such as Rudolf Levy, Margarete Moll, and Mathilde Vollmoeller.

Steinbach, Sabina von – (fl. 1225 – 1240)
German sculptor
Sabina had been trained as a sculptor, probably by a male relative. She was said to have assisted in the making of the stautes which were produced to adorn Strasbourg Cathedral.

Steinbeck, Elaine – (1914 – 2003) 
American stage manager
Elaine Steinbeck was born in Austin, Texas, her father being in the oil business. She studied drama at the University of Texas, and married firstly (1939), Zachary Scott, the actor. This marriage ended in divorce, and she married secondly (1950), the novelist John Steinbeck (1902 – 1968). Elaine stage managed the original 1943 production of Oklahoma, being one of the first women to be recognised for their talent in this field. She also managed the Broadway production of Othello, which starred Paul Robeson and Uta Hagen.
With Steinbeck’s death, Elaine donated his papers and memorabilia to the Center for Steinbeck Studies at San Jose State University, California, and to Sanford University. She gave permission for the new production of Steinbeck’s famous work The Grapes of Wrath, produced by Frank Galati to appear on Broadway (1990) and edited a collection of Steinbeck’s works.

Steinheil, Margeurite Jeanne (Meg) – (1869 – 1954)
French murder suspect and society beauty
Born Jeanne Japy (April 16, 1869) in Beaucourt, she was the daughter of a wealthy industrialist. She was married (1890) to the famous painter Adolphe Steinheil and became a prominent society beauty, establishing her own salon in Paris, which attracted musical and literary figures such as Jules Massenet and Emile Zola. From 1897 Madame Steinheil became the mistress of President Felix Faure, who had a heart attack whilst they were engaged in their liasion in the Palais d’Elysee. He died several hours afterwards (1899). She later became the mistress of the important and wealthy industrialist Borderel. Several months afterwards, her husband and stepmother were found dead in suspicious circumstances. Though Margeurite was founded bound and gagged in another room of the house, she was the main suspect in the murders. Despite trying to lay the blame upon several innocent servants, Steinheil was arrested and incarcerated within the St Lazare prison.
This affair scandalized the nation and Steinheil became the focus of intense media interest and speculation, the Libre Parole even going so far as to accuse her of having poisoned President Faure. She was eventually acquitted (1909), the judge spurning her evidence as complete fabrication and lies. Madame Steinheil went to reside in London, where she became known as Madame Serignac. She published her personal recollections entitled My Memoires (1912) and later married (1917) to Robert Brooke Campbell Scarlett, sixth Baron Abinger (died 1927) whom she survived almost three decades as Dowager Baroness (1927 – 1954). Lady Abinger died (July 17, 1954) in Hove, Sussex.

‘Stella’    see    Johnson, Esther

Stepanova, Warwana (Varvara) – (1894 – 1958) 
Russian painter and modernist textile designer
Warwara Stepanova was born in Lithuania and was educated at the Kazan Art School (1910 – 1911). She later moved to Moscow and attended the Stroganov School. She trained as a teacher and was attached to the textile department of the Vkhutemas (1924 – 1925). Known for her avant-garde designs, Stepanova became a leading figure in the Russican Constructivsim movement. With her husband Alexander Rodchenko she founded the First Working Group of Constructivists (1921) and worked for the artistic journal Novyi (1927 – 1928).

Stephania – (fl. c490 AD – 512)
Roman literary figure
Stephania was probably the wife of the patrician Asterius, an advocate, and the mother of Flavius Marcianus, also an advocate, whose career was encouraged by Ennodius, Bishop of Ticinum. She was the sister of Flavius Anicius Probus Faustus Niger, consul (490 AD), and praetorian prefect (509 – 512). Widowed by 506, Stephania was in Rome in 509 and was mentioned in the Epistulae of Ennodius, who wrote her three letters. In his, Paraenesis Didascalica (512), Ennodius mentions her as a prominent Catholic and model of eloquence.

Stephanie of Armenia – (c1197 – 1220)
Queen consort of Jerusalem
Princess Rita of Armenia was the daughter of Leo II, King of Armenia and his second wife Isabella of Antioch. Her father was crowned king (1199) and the princess was raised at his newly formed court. Maria of Montferrato, the first wife of Jean de Brienne, King of Jerusalem died giving birth to her only child Isabella II of Jerusalem (Yolande) (1212) and King Leo then arranged for Rita to become King Jean’s second wife (1214). Intermarriage with crusading families was common in the Middle East, and Frankish political and cultural influence largely influenced King Leo’s nationalistic views. She adopted the French name of Stephanie at the time of her marriage.
King Jean began a crusade against Egypt (1218), taking Queen Stephanie and her infant son Leo (1215 – 1220) to Damietta. The king and queen later left Egypt (Feb, 1220) for Armenia, as King Leo II had died leaving the right to the Armenian throne to Stephanie’s younger half-sister Zabella. Stephanie persuaded her elderly husband to try and gain the Armenian throne for herself and their son but these plans never eventuated as when Jean proposed to sail for Armenia from Cilicia Queen Stephanie died, followed by Prince Leo a few weeks afterwards. Queen Stephanie had proved to be a bad stepmother and gossip attributed her death to a severe beating the king had given her when he discovered that she was trying to poison his little daughter Yolande.

Stephanie of Belgium – (1864 – 1945)
Austrian Hapsburg Crown Princess (1881 – 1889)
Princess Stephanie of Belgium was born (May 21, 1864) in Laeken Palace, Brussels, the second daughter of King Leopold II (1865 – 1909) and his wife Archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria. Princess Stephanie was married (1881) to Crown Prince Rudolph, son and heir of the Emperor Franz Josef I, to whom she bore an only daughter the Archduchess Elisabeth (1883 – 1964). The marriage was unhappy and Rudolph later died at Mayerling, where he committed suicide with his mistress, Marie Vescera.
The Crown Princess Widow Stephanie later remarried (1900), despite family disapproval, to the Hungarian nobleman, Prince Elmer Lonyay de Nagy-Lenya (1863 – 1946). She published the unreadable and discredited memoirs Ich sollte Kaiserin werden (I Was To Be Empress) (1935) which caused a great scandal within the family. Princess Stephanie died (Aug 23, 1945) at Pannonhalma, Hungary, aged eighty-one.

Stephanie of Flanders – (c1088 – after 1155)
French Crusader matriarch
Stephanie was the daughter of Count Baldwin VII of Flanders, and his wife Ida of Hainault. Stephanie was married firstly (c1103) to Guy of Milly (c1075 – c1109), Lord of Nablus in Palestine, to whom she bore three sons, including Philip of Milly (died after 1171) and Henry of Milly called the Buffalo (died after 1171), both lords of Nablus. Stephanie remarried (c1109) to Baldwin, Lord of Ramleh, to whom she bore a daughter Helvis, who married firstly to Balian I d’Ibelin, and secondly to Manasses de Hierges. Stephanie’s descendants included Humphrey IV of Toron, the first husband of Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem, Plaisance of Jebail, wife of Bohemond IV, Prince of Antioch, Eschiva d’Ibelin, the first wife of Amalric II of Lusignan, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, and the important Crusader families of Bures, Botrun, Ibelin, Milly, and Garnier.

Stephanie of Lampron (Etiennette) – (1217 – 1249)
Queen consort of Cyprus
Stephanie was the daughter of Prince Constantine the Thagadir (died 1263), the regent of Lampron. Her mother was a daughter of Prince Hethoum III of Lampron and sister to Hethoum IV (died 1250). Stephanie became the second wife (1237) of Henry I (1217 – 1253), king of Cyprus, the marriage gradually paving the way for a general reconciliation between the states of Cyprus, Armenia, and Antioch. Her parentage and marriage were recorded on a surviving inscription from the monastery of St Saviour in Armenia. A surviving letter from the papal legate, Odo de Chateauneuf, reveals the queen to have been suffering ill-health in the early part of 1249. Queen Stephanie died (Sept, 1249) shortly after her husband’s return to Cyprus from Egypt.

Stephanie of Metz – (c1033 – 1109)
Countess consort of Burgundy
Stephanie was the daughter of Adalbert III of Metz, Duke of Alsace and Count of Longwy and his wife Clemence de Foix. Stephanie was once mistakenly thought to be a connection of the family of the counts of Vienne as her surviving epitaph referred to her as ‘countess of the Allobrogians.’ Stephanie was married (c1048) to Guillaume I Tete-Hardi (c1018 – 1087), Count of Burgundy and Macon, to whom she bore a large family of thirteen children. With her husband and children the countess appears in various charters dated from the last quarter of the eleventh century. Stephanie survived Guillaume for over two decades as the Dowager Countess of Burgundy. She died (June 30, 1109).
Her sons included Rainald II (1087 – 1097) and Stephen II (1097 – 1102), successive counts of Burgundy and Macon, Raymond of Burgundy (c1060 – 1107), the husband of Queen Urraca of Castile, and ancestor of the Spanish royal house, and Guy (c1071 – 1124), who was elected Pope as Calixtus II (1119 – 1124). Her many daughters included Clementia of Burgundy, the wife of Robert II, Count of Flanders, and Bertha, the wife of Alfonso VI, King of Castile. Through her daughter Gisela, Countess of Maurienne, Stephanie was the grandmother of Adelaide of Maurienne, wife of Louis VI of France, and was the great-grandmother of Louis VII (1137 – 1180).

Stephanie of Milly (1) – (c1148 – c1199)
French Crusader heiress
Stephanie of Milly was the daughter of Philip of Milly, Lord of Nablus, and his wife Isabella of Oultrejordain, and was the granddaughter of Stephanie of Flanders. Stephanie held the important fief of Oultrejordain. Stephanie was married firstly (1163) to Humphrey III, lord of Toron (died 1173), and their daughter, Isabella of Toron, became the wife of Roupen III, Prince of Armenia. Her second husband was Miles de Plancy (died 1174), who held Oultrejordain in her right, but was soon assassinated. Her third and last husband (1176) was Raynald de Chatillon (c1110 – 1187), Prince of Antioch. Her son Humphrey IV of Toron was married (1183) to Isabella, the sister of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. The wedding ceremony at the castle of Kerak was interrupted by the arrival of besieging Muslim troops, sent by Saladin. Prince Raynald was killed at the battle of Hattin, whilst her son Humphrey IV of Torn was captured by the Muslims. Saladin agreed to release Humphrey in return for the castle of Kerak and Montreal, but when the castles refused to submit, Stephanie sent her son back to Saladin. He was later retturned safely to her.

Stephanie of Milly (2) – (c1140 – after 1197)
French Crusader heiress
Stephanie was the daughter of Henry the Buffalo of Milly, Lord of Nablus. She was cousin to Stephanie of milly, heiress of Oultrejordain, wife of Raynald of Chatillon. Stephanie was married firstly to William Dorel, Lord of Botrun, to whom she bore a daighter Cecile, and secondly (1179) to Hugh III Embriaco, lord of Jebail (died 1196), to whom she bore a son, Guy I Embriaco.
The princess later accompanied the Christian army to besiege the city of Jebail, which had been captured by the Muslims. She managed to bribe the Muslim guards to open up the city to her and her victorious army (1197). Despite this success, Stephanie lost Oultrejordain to Saladin.

Stephanie Josepha Frederica Wilhelmina Antonia – (1837 – 1859)
Queen consort of Portugal (1858 – 1859)
Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was born (July 15, 1837) at Krauchenweis, near Sigmaringen, the eldest daughter of Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1811 – 1885) and his wife Princess Josephine of Baden, the daughter of Grand Duke Karl of Baden and his French wife Stephanie de Beauharnais. She was the elder sister of Carol I (1839 – 1914), King of Romania and aunt to King Ferdinand I (1865 – 1927).
The young King Pedro V of Portugal (1837 – 1861) had made a tour of Europe and had formed a close friendship with his cousin Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. He met Princess Stephanie in 1858 and the two fell in love. They were married by proxy at Berlin in Prussia (April 29, 1858) and Stephanie was proclaimed queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves. She then travelled to Portugal where she and Pedro were married in person at Lisbon in Estramadura (May 18 following). Her youth and beauty rendered her extremely popular with her new Portugese subjects who called her Estefania. Queen Stephanie died (July 17, 1859) of diphtheria, aged only twenty-two, at Lisbon. She was interred in the Braganza family chapel in the Monastery of Sao Vicente de Fora in Lisbon. There were no children and her portrait survives.

Stephanie Louise Adrienne Napoleone – (1789 – 1860)
German Grand Duchess consort of Baden
Stephanie tascher de La Pagerie was born (Aug 28, 1789) in Paris, the daughter of Francois Claude de Beauharnais (1756 – 1819), Comte des Roches-Baritaud and his first wife Claude Francoise Gabrielle Adrienne de Lezay-Marnesia, the daughter of Claude Francois Adrien de Lezay, Marquis de Lezay-Marnesia. She was the cousin of the Empress Josephine, the first wife of Napoleon I. She was created Princess of France (Princesse francais) by the emperor who then adopted her and granted her the qualification of Imperial Highness (March 4, 1806) prior to her be given in a dynastic marriage one month later (April 8, 1806) in Paris, with Prince Karl Friedrich of Baden (1786 – 1818), the grandson and heir of Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Baden (1806 – 1811).
When her husband succeeded his grandfather as the reigning Grand Duke of Baden Stephanie became his Grand Duchess consort (1811 – 1818), and established her court at Karlsruhe. Stephanie survived her husband as the Dowager Grand Duchess of Baden for over four decades (1818 – 1860). The imposter Kaspar Hauser was said to have been her child, which was substituted for a dead baby by the Princess von Geyersburg, who was trying to alter the succession in favour of her own sons born from a morganatic marriage. Modern DNA testing in the twentieth century proved some connection between Hauser and the grand ducal family, but he was certainly not Grand Duchess Stephanie’s child. He was most probably an illegitimate child borne to an unidentified member of the family. Grand Duchess Stephanie died (Jan 29, 1860) aged seventy, at Nice. Her children were,

Stephanie Maria Isabelle – (1886 – 1890)
Hapsburg archduchess of Austria
HIH (Her Imperial Highness) Archduchess Stephanie was born (May 1, 1886) at Pressburg in Hungary, the fifth daughter of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen and his wife Isabelle de Croy, the daughter of Rudolf, Duc de Croy. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Bohemia and Hungary. Archduchess Stephanie died (Aug 29, 1890) aged four years, at Ostend in Belgium. She was interred in the Capuchin Chapel in Vienna.

Stephani von Marwitz, Edda    see   Editha Charlotte Wilhelmine

Stephen, Katharine – (1856 – 1924)
British educator
Katharine Stephen was born (Feb 26, 1856), the eldest daughter of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, first baronet, and his wife Mary Richenda Cunningham the daughter of the Vicar of Harrow. She attended a private school in Brighton before going on to study at Bedford College in London, where she trained as a school teacher. She remained unmarried. Miss Stephen was appointed as the librarian at Newnham College, a position she retained for over twenty years (1887 – 1911).
Several years after her initial librarian appointment, Stephen was appointed as the vice-principal of Newnham which post she retained until 1911 when she was elected as principal. She retired in 1920. Miss Stephen was a governor of the Horticultural College at Swanley and served as a managing committee member of the Carlyle School at Chelsea. Her published works included French History for English Children and Three Sixteenth Century Practices. Katharine Stephen died (July, 1924) aged sixty-eight.

Stephens, Annabel Wiseman – (1892 – 1972)
American historian and author