Ma (1) – (40 – 79 AD)
Chinese empress consort (60 – 75 AD)
Ma was the daughter of the Marquis Ma Yuan, general of the Emperor Guangwu and his wife Lady Lin. Her father and much of his army died of the plague whilst involved in an expedition against the Wulin tribes (49 AD) and his enemies at court succeeded in posthumously blackening his name which resulted in the family being stripped of their titles and benefices. Despite this disgrace Ma became a consort of the Crown Prince Liu Zhuang, and maintained excellent relations with her mother-in-law, the Empress Yin Lihua and the other royal wives alike. Ma quickly attained her husband’s favour and supplied him with beautiful ladies from the court to share his bed, so he would have sons. She herself remained childless. At the command of her husband she formally adopted Prince Da, the son of her niece and raised him as her own. Her husband succeeded Guangwu as the Emperor Ming (57 AD) and several years later Ma was accorded the imperial styles and titles (60 AD). At the same time Ming raised up Da as crown prince.
Empress Ma retained her husband’s respect and admiration because she refused to allow her relatives to profit from her position, and she was consulted concerning troublesome matters of state, her advice always carefully given. With the executions that followed the abortive conspiracy of her brother-in-law Prince Liu Ying (71 BC) the empress successfully interceded on behalf of many and the retribution was tapered off. Ma survived her husband as Empress Dowager (75 – 79 AD) and Da ascended the throne as Emperor Zhang. When Zhang wanted to create Ma’s brothers marquesses she refused to consider it as their rank did not deserve it. When he gave them the titles they desired anyway (79 AD) the Empress Dowager so arranged it that they resigned their lucrative government positions, and thus removed some of their acquired wealth. A woman of scholarly tastes the Empress Ma educated the sons of Zhang in the wisdom of Confucius and established a mulberry garden for silkworms which provided some of the silks used in the Imperial household. Sometimes known by the name Mingde she was revered as ‘the understanding and virtuous empress.’

Ma (2) – (c1340 – 1382)
Chinese empress consort (1368 – 1382)
Ma was the daughter of the leader of the Red Turbans, a military group which opposed the overlordship of the Mongol empire. This rebel group was joined by her future husband (1353), Zhu Yuanzhang (1328 – 1398), the son of a common labourer, who later married Ma (c1355), and governed the region around Nanjing. Zhu Yuanzhang later succeeded as emperor with the name Hongwu (1368), and Ma was accorded the Imperial title, though her marriage remained childless. Remembered for her kindly and motherly nature, the empress died aged in her early forties, and was interred at Nanjing. Her husband’s successor, his grandson, Emperor Jianwen (1398 – 1402) was married to one of the empress’s own relatives, another Ma, who was granted the Imperial title, but died young (1395). The Emperor Yongle (1403 – 1424) is officially recorded as the child of the elder Empress Ma, but he was most probably the child of a concubine who was adopted by the empress (1360).

Ma (3) – (c1377 – 1395)
Chinese empress consort
Ma became the wife (c1390) of the Emperor Jianwen (1399 – 1402), to whom she bore two sons who did not succeed to the Imperial throne. She was the related to the Empress Ma, the wife of the Emperor Hongwu, and came from a powerful military family. Jianwen was offically placed as co-ruler with his father, but though he and Ma were accorded the Imperial titles, Hongwu retained real power. Empress Ma died young, before her husband succeeded his grandfather as sole ruler, and came to his ultimate disastrous and ignominious end.

Maacah – (c975 – after 908 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Maacah was the daughter of Absalom and granddaughter of King David. She became the favourite wife of her cousin King Rehoboam (c967 – 910 BC), the son of Solomon. Rehoboam also married her sister Mahalath at the same time.Queen Maacah was the mother of Rehoboam’s son and successor Abijah. During her son’s reign (911 – 908 BC) she was an influential person at court being granted the rank of queen mother. With Abijah’s death, Maacah appears to have ruled as regent for her grandson, King Asa. Later, Asa caused her to be formally deposed, and withdrew the honours granted her because of her involvement with idolatry, though it is possible that these charges could have been arranged by the young king’s councillors in order that the queen mother be removed from power.

Maacah of Geshur – (fl. c1000 – c980 BC)
Hebrew princess
Maacah of Geshur was the daughter of Talmai, King of Geshur, and was given as a secondary wife to David, King of Israel, to cement a peaceful alliance. Never accorded the title of queen, Maacah was the mother of two of David’s children. Her beautiful daughter Tamar was raped and by her half-brother, Amnon. Her son Absalom, after murdering Amnon for dishonouring his sister, fled to the court of Maacah’s father, at Geshur. Absalom was later removed by his stepmother Bathsheba and half-brother Solomon, on the grounds of treason, after he attempted to marry Abishag, his elderly father’s widow.

Maar, Dora – (1907 – 1997)
French artist and photographer
Born Theodora Markovic (Nov 22, 1907) in France, she was the daughter of an architect, and was raised in Argentina, South America.Dark-haired and attractive, she came to Paris (1925) where she was a model for Man Ray (1890 – 1976), the noted Dadaist and surrealist photographer, and adopted the proferssiona; name of ‘Dora Maar.’ She then joined the Union of Intellectuals Against Fascism. After meeting the artist Pablo Picasso she recorded the painting of his piece Guernica (1937) using photography. Dora Maar was Picasso’s mistress for almost a decade but was forced to share his affections with his longtime lover, Marie Therese Walter. She was the model for several of Picasso’s paintings including Weeping Woman (1937), Woman Reclining With a Book, Bust of a Seated Woman and Portrait of Dora Maar (1942), amongst others. With the end of her relationship with Picasso, Maar embarked upon a relationship with the writer James Lord, fifteen years her junior, who published an account of their affair in a memoir (1993). During the 1950’s Dora Maar turned increasingly to painting, and an exhibition of her work was held (1990) at the Paris gallery 1900 – 2000. Dora Maar died (July 16, 1997) aged eighty-nine, in Paris.

Maas, Audrey Gellen – (1934 – 1975)
American author and film producer
Audrey Gellen was born (Dec 7, 1934) in New York. She became the wife of Peter Maas (1929 – 2001), the novelist and screenwriter. Audrey Maas wrote screen adaptations for several television productions such as Our Town (1959), The Philadelphia Story (1959), The Heiress (1961), and Harvey (1972). She later went into television production with A Moon for the Misbegotten (1975) and Eleanor and Franklin (1976). Maas produced the film Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974). Audrey Maas died (July 2, 1975) aged forty.

Maathorneferure – (c1262 – c1210 BC) 
Queen consort of Egypt
Maathorneferure (Maneferure) was the daughter of Hattsulis III, King of the Hittites and his wife, the Queen Pudu-hepa. She became one of the wives of the famous King Ramesses II (c1305 – 1213 BC) in the thirty-fourth year of his reign (c1246 BC) after considerable diplomatic wrangling. The marriage was an imprtant one in Egyptian history and it marked the final reconciliation of the two countries, formerly enemies since the reign of King Ay in the previous century. The celebrations lasted for a full year. The name Maathorneferure was assumed at her marriage, her former name remains unknown. The marriage proved such a success that Ramesses married a second Hittite princess. Maathorneferure was raised to the rank of ‘Great Wife’ which she shared with his Ramesses’ other chief queens, which included her stepdaughters, Bintanath I, Merytamun and Nebttawy. Her name which meant ‘she who beholds the Falcon (king) that is the splendour of Re,’ appeared on monuments of Pi-Ramesses, as a full queen on royal statuary and on glazed plaques, used as amulets or laid in foundation deposits. The queen was depicted with her father on a stela at Abu Simbel and was remembered in the so-called Bentresh stela of the Ptolemaic period, which is preserved in the Louvre Museum in Paris. In later years the queen appears to have retired to the royal estate at Gurob and died during the reign of her stepson, Merneptah.

Maatkare I – (fl. c1100 – c1050 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Maatkare I was the daughter and later chief queen to King Pinudjem II who ruled (c1070 – c1032 BC), though she has been incorrectly claimed as a daughter of King Psusennes I. As a child Maatkare became consecrated as priestess to the Theban god Amun and received the honorific title ‘God’s Wife of Amun.’ She is depicted thus as a child. Her mummy was discovered inside the tomb of Queen Inhapi at Der-el-Bahri (1881) and entombed with her was a mummified pet monkey, thought by the original excavators to her own child. This mistake was the cause of some wildly romantic stories and theories which were circulated concerning Maatkare’s supposed fall from grace. Her mummy is preserved in the Cairo Museum.

Maatkare II (fl. c950 – c920 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Maatkare II was the daughter of King Psusennes II and became the wife of King Osorkon I (c960 – c886 BC). At her father’s death (c945 BC), the throne was taken by Shoshenq I who caused Maatkare to be married to his son and heir Osorkon. Her rights to the throne as heiress were set forth in a long inscription in the temple of Karnak. Their son and heir, Shoshenq served as high-priest but predeceased his father.

‘Mab’   see    Fotheringhame, Pattie Lewis

Mabel of Belleme    see     Talvas, Mabel

Mabel of Bury St Edmunds(fl. 1239 – 1256)
English medieval embroiderer
Mabel of Bury St Edmunds worked for the family of King Henry III (1216 – 1272) and his wife Eleanor of Provence. Her name was mentioned frequently in surviving records. Mabel was highly paid for her work, which included chasubles and religious vestments for use in the royal chapel, which were decorated with precious gems and pearls. She also produced a banner with images of the Virgin Mary and St John the Baptist (1244). Over a decade after she had left the royal service, Mabel received gifts from the king in recognition of her services.

Mabena – (fl. c470 AD – c500)
Welsh saint
Sometimes called Mabina and Maby, Mabena is believed to have been one of the many children or grandchildren of the Welsh king Brychan of Brecknock, and his wife Ribrawst. She was the sister or niece of St Eiluned (Almedha), but no details remain recorded of her life. Mabena was represented in a stained glass window in the church of St German in Cornwall, seated, with a dead Christ, crowned with thorns, resting in her lap. The church dedicated to St Mabe in the village of the same name is probably identical with Mabena.

Mabon, Inez - (1911 - 1992)
American newspaper publisher
Inez Camprubi was born in New York, the daughter of newspaperman Jose Camprubi, and attended the Art Students League in Manhattan. She became the wife of the publishing executive John Scott Mabon. Mrs Mabon ran the the La Prensa Spanish language newspaper (1950 - 1963) which had national circulation and had been originally founded by her father (1913). Inez Mabon died (March 6, 1992), aged eighty, at Southport in Connecticut.

Maboshoane – (c1875 – c1906)
African queen consort
Maboshoane was born a member of the Mafokeng tribe. She was married (c1894) to Mitchell (c1850 – 1922), the principal chief of the Matse’ekheng in Lesotho. She was mother to Boshoane (1895 – 1940), who succeeded his father as principal chief (1922 – 1940). Queen Maboshoane died at Mapoteng.

Maby    see   Mabena

McAllister, Anne Hunter – (1892 – 1983)
Scottish speech therapist
Anne McAllister was born at Biggar in Lanarkshire. She began her career as a schoolteacher in Glasgow before joining the staff of the Jordanhill College of Education where she taught for three decades. McAllister personally trained speech therapists, writing their text-books, and becoming involved with extendive research on the subject of vocal improvement and speech training at Glasgow University. She later assissted speech education trainer William Boyd at his own clinic (1926) and established the Glasgow School of Speech Therapy (1935). Anne McAllister was one of the co-founders of the College of Speech Therapists.

Macarthur, Elizabeth(1767 – 1850)
Anglo-Australian pastoralist and merchant
Born Elizabeth Veale at Bridgerule in Devon, England, she became the wife (1788) of John Macarthur. She accompanied him to New South Wales with the second fleet (1789) and his grant of land near Parramatta, outside Sydney was named Elizabeth Farm in her honour. Elizabeth managed her husband’s business affairs and raised seven children during Macarthur’s abscences from New South Wales, including his period of exile in England (1810 – 1816) after the failure of the Rum Rebellion. The Macarthurs’ were later granted more crown land at Camden where Elizabeth began successful experiementation with merino sheep. With this project she had the assistance of her husband’s nephew, Hannibal Macarthur, and it would form the basis frm which would eventually develop the Australian wool industry. Governor Lachlan Macquarie later granted the couple a further six hundred acres in recognition of Elizabeth Macarthur’s contribution to the fledgling colony’s growing agricultural system. Some of her correspondence survives.

Macarthur, Mary Reid – (1880 – 1921)
Scottish trade unionist
Mary Macarthur was born in Glasgow the daughter of a draper. Educated at Glasgow High School, she went to Germany for a year (1896) before returning to work in her father’s shop. Her meeting with the organiser of the Shop Assistant’s Union, John Turner, led her to join the union (1901). Though president of the Scottish National District (1902) Mary went to London (1903) where she became secretary of the Women’s Trade Union League. Mary organized strikes, and maintained a constant battle for minimum wages and better working conditions. Her most famous campaigns concerned sweated labour (1906), outworkers (1907) and chainmakers (1910). She founded the National Federation of Women Workers (1906), and also the feminist journal Woman Worker (1907). A prominent member of the National Council of the Independent Labour Party (1909 – 1912), Mary campaigned for female munition workers during WW I. This work brought her into contact with Queen Mary, the wife of George V, and the two women were to remain friends. Mary Macarthur died aged only forty, having lost her husband William Anderson during the influenza epidemic (1919).

Macarthur-Onlsow, Elizabeth – (1840 – 1911)
Australian landowner and businesswoman
Elizabeth Macarthur was born at the estate of Camden Park, at Menangle, in New South Wales, the daughter of James Macarthur, and the granddaughter of Elizabeth Macarthur. Educated at home, she travelled Europe with her parents (1860 – 1864), before returning to Australia, where she married (1867) a naval captain, Arthur Walton Onslow, to whom she bore eight children. Widowed in 1882, Mrs Macarthur travelled in Europe with her children (1887 – 1891) and she eventually inherited the entirety of the Camden Park estate (1890), when she changed her name officially to Macarthur-Onslow (1892). Elizabeth Macarthur-Onslow now introduced twelve cooperative dairies at Camden Park, with a central creamery installed, to process cream to butter. It was a share-farming principle but the cows remained the property of the Macarthur family. The enterprise proved highly profitable, though Macarthur-Onslow’s project with the Victorian Silk Culture Association did not prove viable. She edited some of the family history in Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. Elizabeth Macarthur-Onslow died in England (Aug 2, 1911) aged seventy-one, whilst visiting her daughter.

Macarthur-Onslow, Rosa Sibella – (1871 – 1943)
Australian civic leader
Rosa Macarthur-Onslow was the daughter of Captain Arthur Onslow, an officer in the royal navy, and his wife Elizabeth Macarthur, the granddaughter of John and Elizabeth Veale Macarthur. Rosa was never married, adopting the hyphenated form of the family name, along with her mother and surviving siblings (1892). Rosa remained her mother’s constant companion and amanuensis, and completed the editing of her mother’s work, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. With her mother’s death, Rosa Macarthur-Onslow received the estate of Camden Park House for the remainder of her life.

Macaulay, Catharine Graham – (1731 – 1791)
British historian
Born Catherine Sawbridge at Olantigh, near Wye in Kent, she was educated at home by her father, learning Latin and Greek from an early age. She was married (1760) to the Scottish physician George Macaulay. With his death (1766) she travelled to France (1777) and America (1784), during which visit she was the guest of President George Washington, who was to remain a friend. Catherine Macaulay remarried (1778) to the much younger William Graham, with whom she resided in Berkshire. Mrs Macaulay responded to the philosopher Thomas Hobbes, and took exception to Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revoution in France (1790). She is best remembered for her eight volume work, History of England from the Accession of James I to that of the Brunswick Line (1763 – 1783), which took two decades to complete. Her own Letters on Education (1790) influenced Mary Wollstonecraft’s most famoust feminist text, the Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). Other published works included the Modest Plea for the Property of Copyright (1774) and Observations on Religious and Metaphysical Subjects (1790). Catharine Macaulay died at Binfield in Berkshire.

Macaulay, Fannie Caldwell – (1863 – 1941)
American novelist and author
Fannie Macaulay was born at Shelbyville in Kentucky during the Civil War. Having married and raised a family, her literary career did not take off until after the age of forty. Then, under the pseudonym of ‘Frances Little,’ she produced works such as The Lady of the Decoration (1906), Little Sister Snow (1909), The Lady and Sada San (1912), The House of the Misty Star (1914), Camp Jolly (1917) and other novels. Fannie Macaulay died (Jan 6, 1941) aged seventy-seven.

Macaulay, Dame Rose – (1881 – 1958)  
British novelist and writer
Emilie Rose Maucaulay was born (Aug 1, 1881) at Rugby in Warwickshire, the daughter of a Cambridge lecturer. She was the granddaughter of William John Conybeare, and resided near Genoa, in Italy during her childhood. She finished her education at home in England at Somerville College, Oxford. Macaulay’s first novels were Abbots Verney (1906), Views and Vagabonds (1912), Potterism (1920), a satiric attack on Victorian family values, and the prize winning The Lee Shore (1920). She never married and devoted the rest of her life to writing. Other works included Dangerous Ages (1921) for which she was awarded the Femina Vie Heureuse prize, Told by an Idiot (1923), Keeping Up Appearances (1928), I Would be a Private (1937) and And No Man’s Wit (1940). After the war she wrote two further novels The World My Wilderness (1950) and The Towers of Trebizond (1956) for which she was awarded the Tait Black Memorial Prize. She travelled the world extensively and some of her works in this field include They Went to Portugal (1946) and The Pleasure of Ruins (1953). Rose Macaulay was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1958) in recognition of her lifelong contribution to literature. Her private correspondence was published posthumously in the trilogy Letters to a Friend (1961), Last Letters to a Friend (1962) and Letters to a Sister (1964). Dame Rose Macaulay died (Oct 30, 1958) aged seventy-seven, in London.

McAuley, Catherine Elizabeth – (1787 – 1841) 
Irish nun and founder
Catherine McAuley was born in Dublin. Orphaned during childhood she was adopted by a Protestant couple, from whom she inherited some property. With this small inheritance McAuley built the House of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy in Dublin, which functioned as a school for orphans and the children of the poor, and also provided refuge for working women. After some persuasion by the Archbishop of Dublin, McAuley took vows as a nun with two others and founded the order of the Religious Sisters of Mercy (1831) which she ruled as superior till her death

McAuley, Eliza Isabella Campbell – (1866 – 1931)
Australian masseuse
Eliza McAuley was born in Whittlesea, Victoria, the daughter of David McAuley. Educated at Grace Park House in Hawthorn, she was employed as a governess, and then worked for ten years as a clerk for the Melbourne Tramway Company. Leaving this employ in 1898, Eliza decided to study massage, and with this aim she attended lectures on anatomy at the University of Melbourne, being one of the first honoraries appointed to Melbourne Hospital (1899). She later established herself in private practice in Collins St, which she ran successfully for over twenty years. She remained unmarried. Eliza McAuley died at Healsville, Victoria.

MacAvoy, Margaret – (1800 – 1820)
British blind needlewoman
Margaret MacAvoy was born at Liverpool. Trained as a seamstress and embroiderer, she became totally blind by the age of sixteen, and thereafter learnt to distinguish colours in fabrics by the touch of her fingers. A committee of physicians questioned her at length concerning her abilities, the notes of which have survived.

McAvoy, May - (1900 - 1984)
American actress
May McAvoy was born in New York, the daughter of a stable owner. She left school at an early age and worked as a model and then as an actress in silent films for Paramount Studios before going on to further her career in Hollywood, California. There she worked freelance after refusing to appear scantily dressed in Cecil B. De Mille's film Adam's Rib (1923). Miss MacAvoy's film credits included Lady Windemere's Fan (1925), opposite Ronald Coleman, Ben Hur (1925) with Ramon Navarro, The Jazz Singer (1927) as Al Jolson's leading lady, and The Lion and the Mouse (1928) with Lionel Barrymore. Due to an unfortunate lisp McAvoy's career ended with the advent of sound films (1929). She was married to a theatrical agent from whom she was later divorced. May McAvoy died (April 26, 1984) aged eighty-three, in Los Angeles.

Macbeth, Lady       see      Gruoch

Macbeth, Ann – (1875 – 1948)
British embroideress
Ann Macbeth was born at Little Bolton, and studied design at the Gladgow School of Art. Macbeth later joined the staff for two decades (1901 – 1920) and was appointed to head the embroidery department. Ann Macbeth lectured wideley and introduced new teaching methods as well as producing the teaching manual Educational Needlecraft (1911). She produced many commissions for the church and was granted the Lauder Award (1930).

McBride, Katharine Elizabeth – (1904 – 1976)
American educator and psychologist
Katharine McBride served as president of the prestigious Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania for almost three decades (1942 – 1970), during which time she advocated the equality of both sexes and was remebered for her constant promotion of educational excellence. McBride served as chairman of the College Entrance Examination Board (1949 – 1952) and of the Educational Testing Service several terms over a period of almost twenty years (1947 – 1964). She was the author two works in her particular field Aphasia (1935) and Adult Intelligence (1936). Katharine McBride died (June 3, 1976) aged seventy-two, at Bryn Mawr.

McBride, Mary Margaret – (1899 – 1976)
American radio presenter and author of travel books
Mary McBride was born (Nov 16, 1899) in Paris, Missouri, the daughter of a farmer. She attended boarding school before going to study at the University of Missouri She became a reporter with The Evening Mail in New York and wrote articles for such publications as The Saturday Evening Post and Cosmopolitan. She remained unmarried. For two decades (1934 – 1954) McBride hosted an extremely popular talk show program on radio which included stories and recipes, delivered in a popular homespun style. This led to national celebrity when she worked at NBC. There she interviewed many famous people including President Harry S. Truman and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt amongst others. Mary McBride died (April 7, 1976) aged seventy-six, in West Shockun, New York.

MacBride, Maud    see    Gonne, Maud Edith

McCafferey, Dorothy Kane(1917 – 1980)
American state official and agricultural commissioner
Dorothy Kane McCafferey was a prominent figure in Connecticut state politics from 1955 onwards. Two decades later McCafferey was named as executive assistant to the State Labour Commissioner (1975). She then served as deputy commissioner of Agriculture and died in office (Sept 11, 1980) aged sixty-three.

McCall, Sidney    see   Fenellosa, Mary McNeil

McCalla, Margaret – (fl. 1861 – 1865)
Southern American diarist
Margaret McCalla was a native of Tennessee. During the Civil War, her husband was serving with the Confederate army, and Margaret was forced to refugee to South Carolina for safety from the invading Union army (1863). The modern work The Wartime Experiences of Margaret McCalla: Confederate Refugee from East Tennessee (1965) was compiled from the surviving letters written to her husband after she had been forced to flee from their home.

McCardell, Claire – (1905 – 1958) 
American fashion designer
Claire McCardell was the daughter of Senator Adrian Leroy McCardell. She created the first ‘seperates’ in women’s fashion, which quickly became a classic, and designed the leotard or ‘body suit’ which became, and remained, immensley popular with women. During the 1940’s she was awarded the American Fashion critics Award and the Neiman-Marcus Award for best international designe, in all fields. She was the author of, What Shall I Wear? (1956). Claire McCardell died of cancer (March 22, 1958) aged fifty-two, in New York City.

McCarthy, Dame Emma Maud – (1858 – 1949)
British military nurse
Emma Maud McCarthy was born (Sept 22, 1858) in Sydney, Australia, the daughter of a solicitor. Educated in Australia, she later went to London and trained as a nurse at the London Hospital. She among the six volunteers chosen by the Princess of Wales (Alexandra) to form her own nursing service, which she equipped to send to help the troops engaged in the Boer War in South Africa. On her return to England, McCarthy founded the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service (later renamed Queen Alexandra’s Royal Army Nursing Corps). McCarthy was appointed as principal matron at the War Office (1910) and during WW I she served in France with the troops as matron-in-chief. After the war she served as matron-in-chief of the Territorial Army Service (1920 – 1925). For her valuable war service she was awarded the DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1918) and then received the Florence Nightingale Medal (1919). Dame Emma Maud McCarthy died (April 1, 1949) aged ninety, in Chelsea.

McCarthy, Lillah Emma – (1875 – 1960)
British actress stage actress and writer
Born Lila Emma McCarthy at Cheltenham, she was the daughter of an Irish furniture dealer. She studied under her father who was a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, and but received music and voice training in London under Hermann Vezin and Emil Behnke. McCarthy made her first stage appearance in London (1895) annd then toured as a Shakespearean actress with the company of Sir P. Ben Greet, and played the role of Berenice in The Sign of the Cross at the Lyric Theatre (1896). She toured for eight years partnered by actor Wilson Barrett, appearing in Virginius, Othello, and Hamlet, and then worked with Herbert Beerbohm Tree. Tall and statuesque, she later married (1906) the theatrical producer Harley Granville-Barker, and the role of Jennifer Dubedat in The Doctor’s Dilemma was created especially for her, and had a gift for the interpretation of tragedy.
Lillah McCarthy herself created the role of Lady Sibyl in Barrie’s play What Every Woman Knows (1908) and achieved success in the role of Anne Pedersdotter in The Witch (1911) which had been adapted from the Norwegian writer H. Wiers-Jenssen. With her husband she managed the Savoy Theatre but the couple finally divorced (1918) and she remarried (1920) to Sir Frederick Keeble (1870 – 1952). Miss McCarthy appeared in a few roles, notably as Joanne in The Wandering Jew (1920) by Temple Thurston and as Dona Sol in Blood and Sand (1921) by Tom Cushing. McCarthy continued to appear on stage periodically thoughout the 1930’s and wrote her autobiography entitled Myself and My Friends (1933). Lillah McCarthy died (April 15, 1960) aged eighty-four, in London.

McCarthy, Mary Therese – (1912 – 1989) 
American novelist and critic
Mary McCarthy was born (June 21, 1912) in Seattle, Washington, and was educated in a convent, and graduated from Vassar College, New York (1913). Her parents perished during the great influenza epidemic (1918). Mary was especially remembered for her acerbic observations of middle class society, and was editor and theatre critic for the Partisan Review (1937 – 1948). Mary McCarthy’s first husband was the actor Harold Johnsrud, who died tragically in a fire, and her second (1938) was the critic Edmund Wilson, who encouraged her in her literary efforts. This marriage ended in divorce, and she remarried thirdly (1948) to Bowden Bowater, from whom she was also divorced (1961), and fourthly James West. Her works included The Groves of Academe (1952) and The Group (1963) which topped the best-seller list but was best known for her novel The Company She Keeps (1942). Her later works included Birds of America (1971). Mary McCarthy was also the author of a work which denounced the USA’s involvement in the Vietnam War, Vietnam and Hanoi (1968) and wrote two volumes of autobiography Memories of a Catholic Childhood (1957) and Cannibals and Missionaries (1979). Mary McCarthy died (Oct 25, 1989) aged seventy-seven.

MacCarthy, Mary Warre-Cornish, Lady (Molly) – (1882 – 1953)
British writer
Mary Warre-Cornish was the daughter of the vice-provost of Eton College, and became the wife (1906) of Sir Desmond McCarthy (1877 – 1952), the noted literary critic. She bore him two sons and a daughter Rachel, who became the wife (1932) of Lord David Cecil. Lady McCarthy was the author of A Pier and a Band (1918), and the volume of personal recollections entitled A Nineteenth-Century Childhood (1924).

McCartney, Linda - (1941 - 1998)
American-Anglo photographer and vocalist
Linda Louise Eastman was born (Sept 24, 1941) in New York, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish attorney, and was raised in Scarsdale in Westchester. She trained as a photographer and was captivated by the rock and roll scene in New York. Her subjects included such figures as Jimi Hendrix, The Who, Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin and The Doors. Whilst in England researching for her book Rock and Other Four Letter Words, Eastman met Paul McCartney, singer for The Beatles, and became his second wife in London (1969). She bore McCartney four children including the fashion designer Stella McCartney. Linda McCartney possessed keen amateur musical and vocal skills, and her husband taught her the keyboard. This resulted in her joining the new group Wings in the 1970's, which went on to have successful hits like ' Mull o' Kintyre,' and received several Grammy awards. Her own album entitled Wide Prairie (1998) was released posthumously. Linda McCartney died of breast cancer (April 17, 1998) aged fifty-six, in Tucson, Arizona. A passionate campaigner for the rights of animals, husband later made a two million dollar donation to the cancer facility in Tucson which had treated her, through the Garland Appeal, on the condition that no animals would be used for testing. The Linda McCartney Centre cancer clinic was established at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital in England (2000).

McCauley, Mary Ludwig Hays – (1754 – 1832)
American Revolutionary war heroine
Born Mary Ludwig near Trenton in New Jersey, she was married firstly to John Hays, and secondly to George McCauley. Her first husband served with the 7th Pennsylvania Regiment during the war with England. During the battle of Monmouth (1778), she carried water for the benefit of the soldiers. According to another tradition, when Hays collapsed of exhaustion, Mary took his place and operated the cannon. Because of this bravery she was later granted a government pernsion (1822).

Maccetta, Blanche – (1858 – 1898)
French writer
Born Blanche Roosevelt, she was the biographer of the famous French painter and illustrator Gustave Dore (1832 – 1883).

Macclesfield, Anna Mason, Countess of     see    Brett, Anna

McClatchey, Minerva Leah Rowles – (fl. 1861 – 1865)
Southern American diarist
Minerva McClatchey was the wife of a northwestern Georgian plantation owner. Her personal diary published as A Georgia Woman’s Civil War Diary: The Journal of Minverva Leah Rowles McClatchey, 1864 – 1865 (1967), described plantation life during the last years of the Confederacy.

McClatchy, Eleanor Grace – (1895 – 1980)
American businesswoman
Eleanor McClatchey was the daughter of newspaper president C.K. McClatchy, owner of the Bee newspapers in California, which had been founded by her paternal grandfather, James McClatchy in Sacramento (1857). Eleanor never married, and from her father’s death (1936), she served the company as president, attaining great power within the newspaper industry in California, though she went to great lengths to avoid publicity. She later become chairman (1978), and was succeeded in that position by her nephew. Eleanor McClatchy died (Oct 17, 1980) aged eighty-five, in Sacramento, California.

McClintock, Barbara – (1902 – 1992)
American geneticist
Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford, Connecticut, and graduated in botany from Cornell University (1927). She later held positions at the University of Missouri (1936 – 1941) and Cold Harbour, Long Island, where she remained over five decades with the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (1941 – 1992). McClintock’s research revealed that changes in the chromosomes of maize resulted in physical changes in the corn kernels, which proved the chromosome theory of heredity. In the 1940’s she discovered the ‘controlling elements ‘in genes and presented her work at a Cold Harbour symposium (1951). However, the true significance of her discoveries was not appreciated for another two decades. A symposium later acknowledged the value of her research (1976) and introduced the term ‘transposon’ to describe her ‘controlling elements.’ Barbara McClintock was awarded the National Medal of Science (1970), the Columbia University Horwitz Prize (1982), and the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1983). Barbara McClintock died (Sept 2, 1992) at Long Island, New York.

McClung, Nellie Letitia – (1873 – 1951)
Canadian suffragist and writer
Born Nellie Mooney in Chatsworth, Ontario, she was educated in Manitoba. She was married (1896) and bore five children.McClung is best remembered for the highly sentimental children’s novel, Sowing Seeds in Danny (1908), about the life of a child in Manitoba, who goes into domestic service in order to repay debts incurred by her father. She wrote short stories which dealt with the contemporary social issues of women’s suffrage and prohibition, and two other novels The Second Chance (1910) and Purple Springs (1921). Nellie McClung rose to become a prominent member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and later entered politics in Alberta. She was elected to the Alberta Legislative Assembly (1921), but was defeated when she attempted to liberalize the state’s divorce laws.

McCollum, Vashti - (1912 - 2006)
American atheist activist
Vashti Ruth Cromwell was the daughter of an architect, and was named for the historical Persian queen Vashti, wife of Xerxes I (486 - 465 BC). She was raised in an atheistic household, and later attended the University of Illinois, where she studied law and political science. Vashti became the wife (1933) of the academic John McCollum, to whom she bore three sons. When her eldest son was attending school Mrs McCollum became involved in a famous lawsuit to prevent religious instruction on school property. She lost her case in two Illinois courts, but these rulings were overturned by the US Supreme Court which ruled that church and state should remain forever seperate in the public education system (1948). Mrs McCollum published the book One Woman's Fight, and later served as the president of the American Humanist Association. Vashti McCollum died aged ninety-three.

McCord, Louisa Susanna Cheves – (1810 – 1879)
American author and poet
Louisa Cheeves was born in Charleston, South Carolina (Dec 3, 1810), the daughter of Langdon Cheves, and his wife Mary Elizabeth Dulles. Educated at home and at school in Philadelphia, she had also studied mathematics and languages under the guidance of tutors employed to teach her brothers. She married (1840) a prominent lawyer, David James McCord. Fervently believing that the Negro population was being civilized by its slave connection with the white Christian society she published an English translation (1848) of Sophismes Economiques by Frederic Bastiat, which work had influenced and confirmed her own personal views on the subject. Louise also contributed political essays to the Southern Quarterly Review (1853) and produced My Dreams (1848), a volume of poetry, and a blank verse drama Gaius Gracchus, A Tragedy (1851). Widowed before the Civil War, Louisa McCord eventually settled in Columbia, South Carolina, after returning from Europe. Active in relief work during the Civil War, which claimed the life of her son Langdon McCord, an officer, at the second Battle of Bull Run, 1862 (Manassas), Louisa devoted herself to nursing the wounded. Louisa Cheves McCord died (Nov 23, 1879) aged sixty-eight, in Charleston, South Carolina, and was interred there.

McCormick, Anne Elizabeth O’Hare – (1880 – 1954)
American journalist and writer
Anne O’Hare was born at Wakefield in Yorkshire, England. Her family immigrated to the USA during her early childhood, and was raised in Columbus, Ohio. She was married (1910) to Francis McCormick, and engineer. McCormick wrote articles for such publications as Catholic World and the New York Times Magazine, and became the first woman to serve on the editorial board of the New York Times. She wrote a series of articles concerning Europe for the Ladies’ Home Journal (1933 – 1934) and became the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for foreign correspondence (1937). Anne McCormick was awarded the Medal of the National Institute of Social Science (1942), and the Laetare Medal of the University of Notre Dame (1944). McCormick wrote The Hammer and the Scythe: Communist Russia Enters the Second Decade (1928), and served as delegate to several UNESCO conferences, (1946) and (1948). Anne O’Hare McCormick died (May 29, 1954) aged seventy-four, in New York City.

McCormick, Elizabeth – (1892 – 1905)
American notable
Elizabeth McCormick was the only child of Cyrus Hall McCormick of Chicago, Illinois and his wife Harriet Bradley Woodbury. Elizabeth died aged twelve and her death caused her mother to become interested in civic philanthropy. Her parents established the Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund (1908) in Chicago which aimed to improve the social conditions for children.

McCormick, Harriet Bradley Hammond Woodbury – (1862 – 1921)
Anglo-American philanthropist
Harriet Woodbury was born (Dec 21, 1862) in Monmouthshire, England, the daughter of Captain George Woodbury. She became the wife of Cyrus Hall McCormick of Chicago, Illinois. The death of their daughter Elizabeth McCormick (1905) caused Mrs McCormick to become interested in civic philanthropy and she campaigned to improve the conditions of American children. To this end she and her husband established the Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund in Chicago (1908). Mrs McCormick died (Jan 17, 1921) aged fifty-eight in Chicago.

McCormick, Katharine Dexter – (1875 – 1967)
American philanthropist
Katharine Dexter was born in Dexter, Michigan, the daughter of a corporate lawyer. She graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1904), and was married in Switzerland to Stanley McCormick (1904). Her husband was later declared legally incompetent due to mental illness (1909). They remained childless, and he survived under the care of physicians until his death (1947). Katharine McCormick conducted a long quest to try to find a cure for her husband’s schizophrenic condition, which she believed could be traced to hormonal deficiencies. This led her to establish the Neuroendocrine Research Foundation at the Harvard Medical School (1927 – 1947). She also paid the costs of publishing the medical journal Endocrinology. McCormick also involved herself in the causes of female suffrage and the birth control campaigns, led by Margaret Sanger. Her association with the noted biologist Gregory Pincus led to the development of ‘the pill’ a combination of progesterone and estrogen, which was first marketed under the name Enovid (1960). McCormick made considerable endowments at her old alma mater, MIT, and paid for the construction of Stanley McCormick Hall West (1962) and East (1968), which provided accomodation for almost three hundred and fifty new female students. Katharine McCormick died (Dec 28, 1967) aged ninety-two, at Boston, Massachusetts.

McCoy, Gertrude – (1890 – 1967)
American film actress
Gertrude McCoy was born (June 30, 1890) in Sugar Valley, Georgia. Her silent movie credits included Was She Guilty? (1922), Heartstrings (1923), and Nelson (1926). Gertrude McCoy died (July 17, 1967) aged seventy-seven, in Atlanta.

McCracken, Esther Helen – (1902 – 1971)
British actress and dramatist
Born Esther Armstrong in Newcastle-uon-Tyne, and was married firstly to Lt-Col. Angus McCracken, who was killed in action during WW II (1943), and secondly (1944) to Mungo Campbell. McCracken was a member of the Newcastle Repertory Company (1924 – 1937) and wrote her first play The Willing Spirit, which was produced for the stage (1936). However, she was best remembered for the domestic comedy Quiet Wedding (1938). This was followed by Quiet Weekend (1941) and No Medals (1944).

McCrae, Georgiana Huntley – (1804 – 1890)
Anglo-Australian painter and diarist
Georgiana Huntley was born in London the illegitimate daughter of George, fifth Duke of Gordon, and his mistress Jane Graham (1772 – 1838). Raised in one of her father’s Scottish castles, she studied art in London and established a reputation for herself in Edinburgh as a gifted and talented portrait painter during the 1820’s. Her public painting career ended with her marriage to Andrew McCrae (1800 – 1874), to whom she bore nine children. With her husband and family she travelled to London, and then sailed to Australia, where McCrae pursued his career as a lawyer and magistrate on the goldfields. Her private journals, written in Melbourne, Victoria from the 1840’s, were edited by her grandson, Hugh McCrae as Georgiana’s Journal, Melbourne, 1841 – 1865 (1966). Georgiana Huntley McCrae died (May 24, 1890) aged eighty-six, in Melbourne.

McCullers, Carson – (1917 – 1967)
American novelist
Born Lula Carson Smith (Feb 19, 1917) in Columbus, Ohio, she was educated there and later attended both Columbia University on New York and New York University. She was married (1937) to Reeves McCullers, the couple divorcing and remarrying before finally divorcing for good (1948). Carson McCullers sufferred ill-health frm childhood, and was debititated and partially paralysed by several strokes, sufferred before the age of thirty. Her first novel The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (1940) set in the south, established her reputation as a serious author, and her factual portrayal of black people in her work attracted the favourable notice of the famous Negro novelist Richard Wright. Most of her work was produced during the war years, and, togrther with fellow writers Truman Capote, Tennessee Williams, and William Faulkner, McCullers is credited as the originator of the ‘southern Gothic’ style of novel. Other works include Reflections in a Golden Eye (1941), later filmed (1967) with Elizabeth Taylor, Marlon Brando, and Julie Harris, the play The Member of the Wedding (1946), which was staged (1950), then filmed with Julie Harris as the female lead (1952), The Ballad of the Sad Café (1951) which was later adapted for Broadway by Edward Albee, and Clock Without Hands (1961). Carson McCullers died (Sept 29, 1967) aged fifty, in New York.

McDaniel, Hattie – (1895 – 1952) 
Black American actress and vocalist
Hattie McDaniel as born in Wichita, Kansas, and began her career performing in vaudeville with her father. She was sister to actors Etta McDaniel (1890 – 1946) and Sam McDaniel (1896 – 1962). Hattie also sang on stage, and eventually formed her own band. She appeared in the film Show Boat (1936), and was the first black actor to win an Oscar for her performance as Mammy, with Viven Leigh and Clark Gable in Gone With the Wind (1939). Despite her success, McDaniel sufferred some criticism because she had played such a stereotypical black role, but she always retained an extremely practical approach concerning her acting career. Other film credits included Zenobia (1939), The Great Lie (1941), They Died With Their Boots On (1941), Since You Went Away (1944), Song of the South (1946) and Family Honeymoon (1948). McDaniel also made an early appearance in television in the series Beulah (1952). Hattie McDaniel died of cancer (Oct 26, 1952) aged fifty-seven, in Los Angeles, California.

McDevitt, Ruth – (1895 – 1976)
American character actress
Born Ruth Shoecraft in Coldwater, Michigan, she often appeared in engaging character roles in films such as The Parent Trap (1962) and the Alfred Hitchcock thriller The Birds (1963) with Tippi Hedren, Robert Taylor and Jessica Tandy, The Out of Towners (1969) and Change of Habit (1972). Ruth McDevitt also worked in telelvison and appeared in the series Pistols’n’ Petticoats (1966 – 1967), but was perhaps best known as the kindly ‘Miss Emily’ in the Kolchak Night Stalker (1974 – 1975) series with Darren McGavin. Ruth McDevitt died (May 27, 1976) aged eighty, in Hollywood.

McDonald, Agnes – (1829 – 1906)
New Zealand nurse
Agnes Carmont was born at Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, the daughter of John Carmont and his wife Elizabeth Caven. Receiving medical training in her youth from her uncle in Glasgow, she was engaged as a companion to Mrs Clifford, of Flaxbourne, Marlborough, in New Zealand (1850). She was married (1854) to Hector McDonald, a whale trader and farmer, to whom she bore ten children. The couple managed a cattle and sheep station near Poroutawhao and the Ohau River, and for over a decade also managed a coach accomodation house and stables for travellers between Wanganui and Wellington. McDonald used her medical knowledge for the benefit of the local Maori population, notably during the influenza epidemics which devastated the region throughout the 1860’s, when she was credited with using iodine as an effective treatment for scrofula. Widowed in 1878, she later succeeded her son Hector Hugh McDonald as postmaster at Horowhenua (1883 – 1894). Agnes McDonald died (Nov 28, 1906) aged seventy-seven, at Opaki, near Masterton.

MacDonald, Anne Thompson – (1897 – 1993)
American activist for the blind
Anne MacDonald founded the Recording for the Blind organization (1948) which produced almost one hundred thousand books on tape for the benefit of the blind or students with learning disabilities, which was based in Princeton, New Jersey. She became president of the organization (1952) and was awarded an honorary doctorate (1988) from Yale University because of her impressive voluntary work. Anne MacDonald died (Oct 3, 1993) aged ninety-six, in Huntingdon, Long Island.

McDonald, Cornelia Peake – (1822 – 1909)
Southern American diarist
Cornelia Peake was born in Alexandria, Virginia, the daughter of Humphrey Peake, a wealthy plantation owner, and his wife Anne Linton Lane. She resided in Palmyra and Hannibal, prior to her marriage (1847) with Angus McDonald, a lawyer from Winchester in Virginia. Her husband left to join the Stonewall Brigade (1862), and Cornelia kept a diary to which she added reminiscences of the Civil War (March, 1862 – Aug, 1863), which she penned for her absent husband. Her private journal, with her own recollections, was later published in Nashville, Tennessee as A Diary with Reminiscences of the War and Refugee Life in the Shenandoah Valley, 1860 – 1865 (1934). Cornelia Peake died (March 11, 1909) aged eighty-four, at Louisville, Virginia.

MacDonald, Edith Marie Blossom   see   Rock, Blossom

MacDonald, Elizabeth – (1894 – 1992) 
American inventor
Elizabeth was the wife of Glenn MacDonald. Elizabeth MacDonald invented the powedered household cleanser, ‘Spic & Span’ during the Depression years, which was manufactured at Saginaw, in Michigan, and which grew to become a large-scale household cleansing agent. In 1945 the business was sold to the Proctor & Gamble Company. After her retirement (1978) she resided in Florida. Elizabeth McDonald died (May 11, 1992) aged ninety-nine, at Dunedin.

MacDonald, Flora – (1722 – 1790)
Scottish Jacobite heroine
Flora MacDonald was the daughter of Ranald Macdonald, a farmer of Milton, on the island of South Uist, in the Hebrides. Her father died during her infancy, and in 1735 she was formally adopted by Lady Clanranald, wife of the clan chief. Flora was residing at Benbecula in the Hebrides, when her assistance was sought by Prince Charles Edward Stuart (‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’), who had taken refuge there with his companion, Captain O’Neill, after the disastrous Battle of Culloden, which spelt the final defeat of Jacobite Rising of 1745. Agreeing to help, Flora managed to obtain a pass to the mainland for herself, one manservant, an Irish maid Betty Burke, and the boat’s crew of six men, with Prince Charles in disguise as Betty Burke. The party eventually landed at Portree and escaped to safety. However, popular gossip initiated by the boatmen hired for the enterprise brought suspicion upon Flora, and she was eventually arrested, spending some time in captivity aboard the troopships in Leith Roads, before being sent under guard to London, and imprisoned in the Tower there.
Her conditions were soon alleviated, and she was permitted to live outside the Tower under the guard of a gaoler. With the passing of the Act of Indemnity (1747) she was finally released. Flora married (1750) Allan Macdonald of Kingsburgh, on the island of Skye. It was there that Flora famously received Dr Samuel Johnson (1773). Very soon after this Flora and her husband finally immigrated to North Carolina, in America. Allan Macdonald served the British government there during the War of Independence, attaining the rank of a brigadier-general. He was taken prisoner and Flora returned to Scotland home to (1779). Her husband eventually attained his freedom and joined her there (1781). Flora Macdonald died (March 5, 1790) aged sixty-seven, at Kingsburgh.

MacDonald, Frances – (1873 – 1921)
Scottish painter and designer
Frances MacDonald was born in Glasgow. Together with her husband, Herbert McNair (1868 – 1955), her sister Margaret Mackintosh, and her brother-in-law, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Frances was one of the famous Glasgow ‘Group of Four’ artists, considered internationally to be the leading authorities of Art Noveau style. MacDonald’s own personal style utilized strong poetic themes, susually set in symbolic backgrounds.

Macdonald, Isabella Alden – (1841 – 1930)
American author and socialite
Born (Nov 3, 1841) in Rochester, New York Mrs Isabella Macdonald was the author of the novel Helen Lester (1866). Her personal recollections entitled Memories of Yesterday (1931) were published posthumously. Isabella Macdonald died (Aug 5, 1930) aged eighty-eight, at Paolo Alto in California.

MacDonald, Jeanette – (1903 – 1965)
American colotura soprano, concert vocalist and film actress
Born Jeanette Anna MacDonald (June 18, 1903) in Philadelphia, the daughter of a building contractor, she was the younger sister of actress Blossom Rock (Edith Macdonald). Macdonald was famous for her film partnership with Nelson Eddy (1901 – 1967) with whom she sang with in movies such as Naughty Marietta (1935) in which she played a French princess, Rose Marie (1936), Maytime (1937), The Girl of the Golden West (1938) and Sweethearts (1939). Jeanette MacDonald’s talent was discovered by Ernst Lubisch, and her first film role was in The Love Parade (1929) with Maurice Chevalier. She appeared as the soprano Mary Blake in San Francisco (1936), opposite Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy She was married (1937 – 1965) to the actor Gene Raymond (1908 – 1998). Her career slowed with the beginning of WW II though she travelled to entertain the troops. She returned to the stage (1943) and performed in operetta. Her later film credits included Love Me Tonight (1932), The Merry Widow (1934), Broadway Serenade (1939), Cairo (1942) and The Sun Comes Up (1949). Jeanette MacDonald died (Jan 14, 1965) aged sixty-one.

Macdonald, June Elizabeth Gostwycke – (1864 – 1922) 
Canadian poet and writer
June Macdonald was sister to the poet Charles G.D. Roberts. Educated in Fredericton and at the University of New Brunswick, she was later employed as a teacher at the School for the Blind in Halifax (1891). Late in life she was married to a cousin, but the match proved uncongenial, and she left him and returned to reside in Ottawa (1915). She left two collections of verse Poems (1885) and Northland Lyrics (1899).

Macdonald, Louisa Sophia – (1826 – 1857)
Anglo-Indian Sepoy rebellion victim
Louisa was the wife of Captain Donald Macdonald (1821 – 1857) of the 20th Regiment which was stationed at Meerut. With the eruption of the Indian mutiny there Captain Macdonald was murdered by his own troops (May 10, 1857). Mrs Macdonald disguised herself as an Indian woman and sought to escape the burning cantonment with her three small children. Her disguise was discovered and a crowd quickly collected. Louisa Macdonald was cut down and murdered by the mob, but during the confusion faithful servants managed to save the children and took them to safety. A memorial to Louisa and her husband remains in the Church of St John in Meerut.

MacDonald, Margaret     see also      Mackintosh, Margaret

MacDonald, Margaret - (1904 - 1993)
British courtier
Margaret MacDonald was born in Scotland, the daughter of a farmer. she was employed as an underburse in the household of the Duke and Duchess of York (later George VI and Queen Elizabeth). She was very close to their daughters Elizabeth (II) and Margaret, and was affectionately known as ' Bobo.' Miss MacDonald remained unmarried and devoted her life to serving Princess Elizabeth, and accompanied her and Prince Philip on their honeymoon (1947). When her charge became queen (1953) MacDonald became her personal dresser, organizing the queen's wardrobe and jewels. She always retained the affection of the royal family and was the only person outside the family to be permitted to address the queen by her childhood nickname ' Lilibet.' Margaret MacDonald died (Sept 22, 1993) aged eighty-nine, at Buckingham Palace in London.

MacDonald, Dame Margaret     see    Kidd, Dame Margaret Henderson

MacDonald, Margaret Ethel – (1870 – 1911)
British Labour pioneer
Margaret Ethel Gladstone was the daughter of John Hall Gladstone. She was educated privately at home and later attended Doreck College and King’s College, London. She was early influenced by the work of William Gladstone, but later became a member of the Independent Labour Party. Margaret Gladstone was married (1896) to the future politician Ramsay MacDonald (1866 – 1937), to whom she bore six children. With the foundation of the Labour Representative Committee (1900), which became the new Labour Party, Margaret MacDonald was appointed to chair the Women’s Labour League (1906).

McDonald, Marie – (1923 – 1965)
American actress and vocalist
Born Cora Marie Frye, in Burgin, Kentucky, she began her career as a model, then became a showgirl and a band singer, before finally becoming a Hollywood starlet in the early 1940’s, appearing in such films as It Started With Eve (1941), Standing Room Only (1944) and Tell It to the Judge (1949). Though her beauty earned her the popular appellation ‘the Body’ her seven marriages maintained the notorious gossip concerning her private life, and her career never excelled. Her last two appearances in The Geisha Boy (1958) and Promises!, Promises (1963) were no more memorable. Marie MacDonald committed suicide, aged only forty-two.

Macdonald of Earnscliffe, Agnes Bernard, Lady – (1836 – 1920)
British diplomatic figure and peeress
Susan Agnes Bernard was born (Aug 24, 1836) in Jamaica, the daughter of a prominent official. She resided in England before living in Canada with her mother. She became the second wife (1867) of Sir John Alexander Macdonald (1815 – 1891), who served twice as Prime Minister of Canada (1867 – 1873) and (1878 – 1891) and proved an admirable political and social wife, and wrote articles which were published in various magazines and newspapers. The couple had on only daughter who died unmarried. With the death of her husband Lady Macdonald was created a peeress in her own right as Baroness Macdonald of Earnscliffe in Ontario (1891) by Queen Victoria, in recognition of the public service given by her late husband. She went to live in England in 1896. Lady Macdonald died (Sept 5, 1920) aged eighty-four at Ottawa.

MacDougall, Coline Helen Elizabeth – (1904 – 1990)
Scottish noblewoman and clan chief
Coline MacDougall was born (Aug 17, 1904) the daughter of Colonel Alexander MacDougall of MacDougall, the twenty-ninth chief of the Clan MacDougall and his wife Colina Edith MacDougall. She attended St James’s School in west Malvern and served as a second officer with the WRNS (Women’s Royal Naval Service) during WW II (1941 – 1946). Coline was married (1949) to Leslie Grahame-Thomson, a member of the Royal Scottish Academy, but there were no children of the marriage. At her father’s death (1953) Mrs Grahame-Thomson succeeded his as the thirtieth Chief of the Clan MacDougall (1953 – 1990) and was known as Madam MacDougall of MacDougall. She and her husband then assumed the surname of MacDougall. Madam MacDougall resided at the family estate of Dunollie Castle at Oban in Argyllshire. She was widowed in 1974 and died (May 5, 1990).

MacDougall, Rella Gammon – (1906 – 1997)
American designer
Born Rella Gammon in Iowa, she was the daughter of an engineer. She attended Lindenwood College in St Charles, Missouri and worked as an assistant in an auto upholstery factory. She was married (1941) to Alan MacDougall (died 1971) and became a successful society hostess. Rella MacDougall established her own interior design organization MacDougall and Company with a friend, and then ran the company for twenty-five years (1965 – 1990). Mrs MacDougall used her interior design talents to raise funds for the Kips Bay Boys and the Girls Club Decorator Show House of which she was chairwoman. Rella MacDougall died (Nov 26, 1997) aged ninety-one, in Manhattan, New York.

MacDuff, Isabella – (c1281 – 1314)
Scottish political figure and heroine
Lady Isabella Macduff was the daughter of Duncan Macduff, earl of Fife and his wife Joan, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester. She was married (1297) to John Comyn, seventh earl of Buchan (1259 – 1308). Little is known of her apart from her brief foray into Scottish politics. Robert the Bruce became king of Scotland in defiance of Edward I of England (1305) whose cause was championed by Isabella’s own husband. The countess however, strongly adhered to the Scottish cause of the Bruce. Her family, the house of Macduff, had long claimed the right to crown the Scottish kings as an hereditary privilege, but Isabella’s brother, the earl of Fife, head of the clan, was absent in England, and her husband was Robert the Bruce’s bitter enemy. The countess stole away from her husband’s castle and hurried, with the best horse in his stables, to Scone, where she arrived just in time to place the crown on Bruce’s head, as the nearest available representative of the Macduff family. In 1306 she entered the household of the new queen, Elizabeth de Burgh, but was captured by the English soon afterwards. Edward caused the countess to be closely confined within a latticed cage in the turret of Berwick Castle. Lord Buchan was defeated and killed at the battle of Inverary on the Don River (1308). Lady Buchan was kept at Berwick until Edward II ordered that she be released for a milder custody within a religious house in the town (1310). She was finally released (1313) to the custody of Henry de Beaumont, nephew to her late husband, but died soon afterwards (before Aug, 1314), perhaps from the rigours of her years of imprisonment.

Macedonia – (fl. c520 – c530)
Greek patrician
Macedonia died aged twelve, and became the subject of verses preserved in the Anthologia Graeca, written by Paul the Silentiary, which recorded the grief of her sorrowing parents. Macedonia has been identified as the daughter of Paul himself, but this supposition remains unsupported by historical fact. Macedonia may have been the daughter of the poet Macedonius, who was an honorary consul, and who perhaps held Imperial office (c528 – 531).

McElheney, Jane – (1836 – 1874)
American actress and writer
Jane McElheney was born in Charleston, South Carolina. Her stage career was highly successful, and she received the popular epithet of ‘The Queen of Bohemia.’ She wote the novel Only a Woman’s Heart (1866) using the pseudonym ‘Ada Clare.’ Jane McElheney died (March 4, 1874) aged thirty-seven.

MacEwan, Gwendolyn – (1941 – 1987)
Canadian poet and author
Gwendolyn MacEwan was born in Toronto, Ontario, and was determined on a literary career from her school years. She quickly produced two pamphlets of verse The Drunken Clock and Selah (both 1961) which were followed by other collections of poems including A Breakfast for Barbarians (1966), The Armies of the Moon (1972), Magic Animals (1974), The T.E. Lawrence Poems and Earthlight (both 1982). MacEwan was awarded the Governor-general’s Award for Poetry for her work The Shadow-Maker (1969), and also for Afterworlds (1987) which was awarded posthumously. Her lifetime fascination with the ‘grey area’ between phantasy and reality is reflected in her poetry. She published two novels Julian the Magician (1963) and King of Egypt, King of Dreams (1971), and two collections of short stories Noman (1972) and Noman’s Land (1985). She adapted the Greek tragedy The Trojan Women by Euripides, for the modern stage (1978) and later published the translation (1981).

McFall, Frances Elizabeth    see    Grand, Sarah

MacFie, Lucy    see   Rothes, Lucy Noel Martha, Countess of

MacGibbon, Harriet – (1905 – 1987)
American stage, television and film actress
Harriet MacGibbon was born in Chicago, Illinois the daughter of a physician. She spent many years working in the theatre in New York, both as a talented and versatile actress and vocalist, and  as an accomplished musician, specialising with the piano and harp. MacGibbon entered television at its inception appearing in many popular shows such as the Armstrong Circle Theatre (1950), Hennessey (1959 – 1960), Dr Kildare (1962), Ben Casey (1964), Bewitched (1969) with Elizabeth Montgomery, The Mod Squad (1969), The Doris Day Show (1972) and Love, American Style (1971). Her talents on television were mainly confined to portrayals of snobbish, upper class ladies, and she is best remembered in the role of Margaret Drysdale in the ever popular series The Beverly Hillbillies (1962 – 1969) with Buddy Ebsen and Irene Ryan. Her last appearances were in the television movies Wacky Zoo of Morgan City (1970), The Judge and Jake Wyler (1972) and The Best Place to Be (1979). Harriet MacGibbon died (Feb 8, 1987) aged eighty-one, in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, California.

McGill, Helen – (1871 – 1947)
Canadian feminist and author
Helen McGill was born in Hamilton, Ontario, and attended the University of Trinity College, Toronto, before beginning her career as a journalist. Helen travelled to visit Japan and was married to a physician. McGill removed to California where she organized the running of two newspapers with help from her mother, The Searchlight and Society. After the death of her husband (1900) she remained established as a journalist in St Paul, Minnesota, where she became involved in the cause of suffragism. After her second marriage (1902) Helen McGill removed to Vancouver, where she established herself as a practising lawyer. Helen McGill served on the juvenile bench in British Columbia for two terms (1917 – 1929) and (1934 – 1945). She was a member of the International Council of Women and the International Association of Women Lawyers.

McGill, Moyna – (1895 – 1975)
Irish film and television actress
Born Charlotte Lillian McIldowie (Dec 10, 1895) in Belfast, she was the daughter of William McIldowie and his wife Cissie Mageean. As Moyna McGill she appeared on the stage before travelling to the USA. There she appeared in several silent films such as Nothing Else Matters (1920), Violet Grimshaw in Garryowen (1920), Should a Doctor Tell ? (1923) and played the title role in Miriam Rozella (1924). Her first husband (1919 – 1924) was the actor and playwright Reginald Denham, to whom she bore a daughter Isolde Denham (born 1921) later the first wife of Peter Ustinov. Her second husband was the film producer Edgar Isaac Lansbury, was the father of their famous actress daughter Angela Lansbury (born 1925) and film producer Bruce Lansbury.
For a period of two decades (1943 – 1964) McGill appeared in nearly two dozen films, appearing with her daughter Angela in The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945) as the duchess. Other credits included The Strange Affair of Uncle Harry (1945), Black Beauty (1946), Three Daring Daughters (1948), the Marchesa Dolce in Private Angelo (1951) and Les Miserables (1952). McGill made uncredited appearances in films such as Jane Eyre (1944), Frenchman’s Creek (1944), National Velvet (1944), The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964) and My Fair Lady (1964) with Rex Harrison and Audrey Hepburn, where she appeared as Lady Boxington. Moyna McGill continued with her stage career and appeared opposite such figures as Basil Rathbone, Gerald Du Maurier, John Gielgud and Herbert Marshall. McGill also worked in television and over a decade she appeared in several popular television series such as The Twilight Zone (1962), Mister Ed (1963), Dr Kildare (1963) and My Favorite Martian (1964). Moyna McGill died of cancer (Nov 25, 1975) aged seventy-nine, in Santa Monica, California.

McGinley, Phyllis Louise – (1905 – 1978)
American verse writer
Phyllis McGinley was born in Ontario, Oregon and became the wife of Charles Hayden. McGinley became popular due to her skilful use of light and humorous, entertaining verses. Her early collection included On the Contrary (1934), One More Manhattan (1937), Pocketful of Wry (1940) and Husbands Are Difficult (1941). However, she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry (1961) for her Times Three: Selected Verse from Three Decades (1960). Her work was highly regarded by W.H. Auden (1907 – 1973), and she also wrote books for children such as The Most Wonderful Doll in the World (1950), The Horse Who Had His Picture in the Paper (1951) and The Year Without a Santa Claus (1957).

McGinness, Lucy     see    Alngindabu

McGrath, Jane Louise – (1966 – 2008)
Anglo-Australian cancer campaigner
Born Jane Steele (May 4, 1966) in Paighnton, Devon, she worked as an airline attendant with Virgin Atlantic airways prior to her marriage (1999) with the famous Australian cricketer, Glenn McGrath, to whom she bore two children. Having already suffered from beast cancer, Jane McGrath was then diagnosed with bone (2003) and later brain cancer (2006). She established the McGrath Foundation (2002) to support women with breast cancer, and was and was appointed as a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) by Queen Elizabeth II (2006), for services to the community. As part of the International Women’s Day celebrations (March 8, 2009) Jane McGrath posthumously received the Special Recognition Award. Jane McGrath died (June 22, 2008) aged forty-two, at Cronulla, Sydney.

MacGregor, Ellen – (1906 – 1954)
American children’s writer
Ellen MacGregor was best known for her series of comic sciennce fiction stories which involved the extraordinary and amazing travels of a New England spinster Miss Lavinia Pickerell in Miss Pickerell Goes to Mars (1951) and other stories.

MacGregor, Gylla Constance Susan Rollo, Lady – (1898 – 1980)
British cultural figure
Born Gylla Rollo, she was the younger daughter of Hon. (Honourable) Eric Rollo (1861 – 1930) and his wife Constance Maud Hohler, the daughter of Henry Booth Hohler of Fawkham Manor, Kent. Gylla was married (1925) to Captain Sir Malcolm MacGregor (1873 – 1958) of MacGregor, fifth baronet, to whom she bore two children. Lady MacGregor and her elder sister Torfrida Henrietta Louisa Rollo were granted the rank and precedence as the daughters of a baron by King George VI (1946) after their brother John Eric Henry Rollo (1889 – 1947) succeeded as the twelfth Baron Rollo. Lady MacGregor was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland. She was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1948) by King George VI and was the recipient of the Swedish Order of Vasa (first class). Lady Gylla MacGregor died (Feb 1, 1980).

MacGregor, Janie – (fl. c1840 – c1880)
Anglo-Australian memoirist
Jane McGregor arrived in New South Wales from England as an immigrant with her husband. They resided on a sheep and cattle station at Clyde Hill where Janie’s husband worked as the overseer. On the station Mrs MacGregor acted as cook for all the employees but was shocked by the language and gambling indulged by the stockmen, and she and her husbanf both flatly refused to work on Sundays. Though initially troubled by interaction with the local Aborigines whom she regarded as shiftless, Mrs MacGregor later regretted that their lives had become blighted by the introduction of European alcohol. Janie MacGregor’s personal recollections of this period in her life were later recorded by her daughter as Report of an Australian life: the life of Janie MacGregor as told to her daughter Mary Jane Brown, and were published in the twentieth century in the work No Place for a Nervous Lady (1984) by Lucy Frost

McGrory, Mary – (1918 – 2004)
American newspaper columnist
Mary McGrory was born (Aug 22, 1918) in Boston, Massachusetts. She began her career as a journalist with the Boston Herald but later moved to The Washington Star (1947), where she was employed as a book reviewer. She covered the McCarthy hearings (1954) and was later awarded the Pulitzer Prize (1975) for her coverage of the infamous Watergate scandal involving President Richard M. Nixon. From 1981 she was affiliated with The Washington Post. Particularly known for her ‘take no prisoners’ style of direct reporting, politicians feared her. McGrory retired in 2003 after suffering a stroke. Mary McGrory died (April 21, 2004) aged eighty-five, in Washington, D.C.

McGuire, Judith White Brockenbrough – (1813 – after 1867)
Southern American diarist
Judith Brockenburgh was born in Richmond, Virginia, the daughter of William Brockenbrough, a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court. Judith Brockenbrough became the wife of Reverend John McGuire, principal of the Episcopalian High School, near Alexandria, and had two sons who served with the Confederate army. She kept a diary covering the part of the Civil war period (May, 1861 – May, 1865) which was published anonymously a few years later as the Diary of a Southern Refugee During the War, by a Lady of Virginia (1867).

Machado, Gilka – (1893 – 1980)
Brazilian poet
Gilka Machado was employed by the Rio Railway Company to support her family, but had begun writing poetry during childhood. Her published works included Cristais partidos (Broken Crystals) (1915), A revelacao dos perfumes (A Revelation of Perfumes) (1916), Estado de alma (Condition of the Soul) (1917) and Poesias (1915 – 1917) (Poems) (1918). Machado combined real literary talent with eroticism and her verses were attacked as being immoral by her contemporaries. Later critics recognized the value of her work, and Machado was awarded the prestigious Machado de Assis Prize from the Academia Brasileira de Letras (1979). Some of her later works included Meu glorioso pecado (My Glorious Soul) (1928) and Sublimacao (Sublimation) (1938).

Machecou, Jacqueline – (c1410 – c1460)
French mediaeval businesswoman
Jacqueline was the wife of Arnoulet Machecou, who ran a successful poultry business in Paris. With his death (c1438) Jacqueline administered the business until her death. Apart from this concern Jacqueline operated the ‘Golden Lion’ cookshop in the Saunerie. She appears in the tax records (1451 – 1453) as Jacquelot la Macherre.

Maches – (fl. c500 – c550)
Welsh solitary and saint
St Maches was the daughter of St Gwynllyw and sister to St Cattwg. She remained unmarried and apparently lived as a solitary in Monmouthshire, providing alms to travellers and those in need. She was murdered by a heathen Saxon who approached her under the guise of begging alms, and then stabbed her to death. She was revered as a martyr and the place of her death was afterwards variously called Merthyr Maches or Llanfaches.

Machiavella, Contessa   see    Bendidio, Lucrezia

Machna of Troppau – (1450 – 1508)
Polish duchess consort of Zator (1482 – 1490)
Princess Machna was the younger daughter of Nikolaus VI (1400 – 1452), Duke of Troppau and Jagerndorf, and his first wife, Margaret Clemm von Elguth. She was sister to Johann IV, Duke of Jagerndorf (1474 – 1483) and of Wenzel V (Wenceslas), Duke of Rynbik and Press (1461 – 1478). Princess Machna was married (1482) when aged over thirty years, to Kasimir (1450 – 1490), Duke of Zator in Silesia, whom she survived for nearly two decades as Dowager Duchess of Zator (1480 – 1508). Their only son Bolko (1489 – 1494) did not succeed his father on the ducal throne and died during childhood. Duchess Machna died (before July 25 in 1508).

McIldowie, Charlotte Lillian   see   McGill, Moyna

MacIntosh, Amelia – (1799 – 1857)
Anglo-Indian Sepoy Rebellion victim
Amelia was the wife of Charles MacIntosh (1793 – 1864), a wealthy British merchant of Kanpur in India, and had borne him several children. They had resided in India for some decades, but were placed in immediate danger with the outbreak of the Indian Mutinty in Kanpur. The family decided not to accompany General Wheeler and the other British residents to the safety of the encampment. Mrs MacIntosh who was in frail health was disguised as a native woman and was hidden in the house of her washerwoman, whilst her husband and one of her sons disguised themselves as Indians and hid beneath a bridge. The men were detected and hacked to pieces by sowars, whilst Mrs MacIntosh was also discovered in her hiding place. She was brought before Nana Sahib in Kanpur, and he ordered her to be publicly beheaded. Her body was then placed in a ditch with her head placed on her breast and left there to decompose.

McIntosh, Linda – (1894 – 1982) 
Australian educator
Linda McIntosh was the daughter of Edwin McIntosh. Graduating from Sydney Kindergarten College, she founded her own pre-school named ‘Dalcross’ in Pymble, North Sydney. Later she was employed as a teacher at the Methodist Mission Kindergarten in Lautoka in Fiji, and at the Mt Lavinia School for deaf and blind children in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Upon her return to Australia, Linda was appointed head mistress of the Church of England Girls’ Colege at orange in New South Wales, before founding and managing her own school ‘Loch Maree’ at Vaucluse, Sydney. Her tomb survives at St John’s cemetery, Gordon.

McIntosh, Maria Jane – (1803 – 1878)
American author
Maria Jane McIntosh was born in Sunbury, Georgia. She wrote adopting the pseudonym of ‘Aunt Kitty’ producing works such as Blind Alice (1841), Two Lives; or, To Seem and To Be (1846), and Aunt Kitty’s Tales (1847), amongst others. Three of her works were published anonymously Conquest and Self-Conquest (1843), Woman, an Enigma (1843), and Praise and Principle (1845). Maria Jane McIntosh died (Feb 25, 1878) aged seventy-four.

McIntyre, Margaret Edgeworth – (1886 – 1948)
Australian politician
Margaret Edgeworth David was the eldest child of the noted geologist and Antarctic explorer Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David (1858 – 1934) and his wife Caroline Martha Mallett. She became the wife of W.K. McIntyre, a mining engineer. Mrs McIntyre became the first woman to be elected to the Tasmanian Parliament. She was appointed OBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1947).

Mack, Amy Eleanor (1876 – 1939)
Australian naturalist and children’s author
Amy Mack was born in Hobart, Tasmania, the daughter of a Wesleyan minister. The younger sister of Louise Hamilton Mack, she was raised in Adelaide, South Australia and in Sydney, New South Wales, where she attended Sydney High School. Her works for children included Bushland Stories for Children (1910), Birdland Stories (1910) and Scribbling Sue and other stories (1913).

Mack, Louise Hamilton – (1874 – 1935)
Australian children’s author and journalist
Marie Louise Mack was born in Hobart, Tasmania, the daughter of a clergyman, and was sister to Amy Mack. Her earliest published works drew upon her own childhood experiences for inspiration, and included the trilogy Teens (1897), Girls Together (1898) and Teens Triumphant (1933). Mack later moved to London where she produced the very popular An Australian Girl in London (1902), which was followed by nine novels which included The Red Rose of Summer (1909) and The Music Makers (1914). She spent several years in Florence, Italy, where Mack edited the British language publication, the Italian Gazette (1904 – 1907). During WW I Mack worked as a war correspondent for the London Daily Mail newspaper. Louise Mack remained in Antwerp in Holland throughout the German occupation and wrote A Woman’s Experiences in the Great War (1915).

McKane, Kitty     see   Godfree, Kitty

Mackay, Helen – (1891 – 1965)
Scottish physician, paediatrician and medical researcher
Helen Mackay was born in Inverness, and attended Cheltenham Ladies’ College in London prior to studying to be a doctor at the London School of Medicine for Women (formerly the Royal Free Hospital). Mackay worked as a researcher in Vienna and at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, and was the Ernest Hart Memorial Research Scholar of the British Medical Association. After working as a paediatrician in Clapton and Hackney, Mackay became the assistant physician to the Infants Hospital in Westminster, and was later appointed as the resident physician and assistant pathologist at the Royal Free Hospital. Mackay wrote articles on various types of research which were published in medical journals and included Studies of Rickets in Vienna, 1919 – 1922, and Nutritional Anaemia in Infancy. Helen Mackay died (July 15, 1965).

Mackay, Jessie – (1864 – 1938)
New Zealand poet and journalist
Jessie Mackay was born in Rakaia Gorge in Canterbury, the child of Scottish emigrants. An energetic supporter of female suffrage and prohibition, she became the first truly significant New Zealand verse writer, producing collections such as The Spirit of the Rangatira (1889), From the Maori Sea (1908) and Vigil (1935).

Mackay, Mary     see    Corelli, Marie

McKean, Katharine Winthrop(1914 – 1997)
American tennis player
Katharine Winthrop was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, a descendant of John Winthrop, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She married Quincy Adams Shaw McKean, to whom she bore four sons. As a young woman Katharine won four national junior girls’ tennis titles, and five national women’s singels, in indoor singels and doubles. She was a doubles partner of Alice Marble at Wimbledon in 1936 and toured South American with Sarah Palfrey and Jack Kramer before WW II. Katharine Winthrop McKean died (Feb 12, 1997) aged eighty-two, at Hamilton, Massachusetts.

McKechnie, Dame Sheila – (1948 – 2004)
Scottish philanthropic director
Sheila McKechnie was born in Falkirk, Stirlingshire, and studied industrial relations at Edinburgh University. She was employed as a public safety officer and served with committees connected with the NHS (National Health Service). McKechnie was later appointed as the director of the homeless charity Shelter (1985) and became a public spokesperson for the homeless and unwanted. She was especially concerned with solving the problems of the young homeless, and getting them off the streets before such a life became the norm for them. Sheila McKechnie later became a member of the court of the Bank of England (1998) and was then elected as president of the EUCG (European Union Consumer Group) (2001). She assisted with the establishemtn of the FSA (Food Standards Agency). McKechnie was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1995) and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (2001) by Queen Elizabeth II, in public recognition of her valuable services to society.

Mackellar, Dorothea – (1885 – 1968)
Australian poet and novelist
Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar was born (July 1, 1885) at Point Piper in Sydney, the daughter of Sir Charles Kinnaird Mackellar and his wife Marion, the daughter of Thomas Buckland, and was raised within the confines of a wealthy family, being educated at home under the supervision of a governess. Mackellar was best known for the poem ‘My Country’ which was originally published in the London Spectator as ‘Core of My Heart’ (1908). The second verse of this poem begins with ‘I Love a Sunburnt Country, A Land of Sweeping Plains’ by which the poem, taught to succeeding generations of Australian schoolchildren, is more generally known. This was followed by the collection entitled The Closed Door (1911). She wrote several novels of little importance in conjunction with Ruth Bedford. She gave up writing due to ill-health (1926) and resided at Gunnedah in New South Wales. Dorothea Mackellar died (Jan 14, 1968) in Sydney, aged eighty-two. A collection of her verse was published posthumously as My Country and Other Poems (1982).

McKendry, Maxime de la Falaise     see    Falaise, Maxime de la

McKenna, Siobhan – (1923 – 1986)
Irish actress
Siobhan McKenna was born in Belfast and made her stage debut in Galway. She later joined the Abbey Theatre (1944), which performed leading roles successfully in both English and Gaelic. McKenna made her debut in London (1947), and New York (1955), becoming famous for her interpretations of charactres by William Shakespeare, Eugene O’Neill, and Bertolt Brecht, Anton Chekhov, and Bernard Shaw, amongst other leading playwrights. Despite her international repertoire, McKenna’s popularity was grounded in her performance of traditional Irish roles. During the latter part of the career she performed in the one-woman show entitled Here Are Ladies (1975).

Mackenzie, Anna Maria   see   Johnson, Anna Maria

Mackenzie, Georgina Muir    see   Sebright, Georgina Muir Mackenzie, Lady

Mackenzie, Helen – (1819 – after 1881)
Anglo-Indian author
Helen Douglas the elder daughter of Admiral Douglas of Malvern, she became the second wife (1843) of Lieutenant-General Colin Mackenzie (1806 – 1881), with whom she spent some years in India during the British Raj, before and after the Indian Mutiny (1857). She was the author of English Women in the Rebellion (1859). Helen Mackenzie survived her husband and wrote his biography Storms and Sunshine of a Soldier’s Life: Lt-Gen Colin Mackenzie 1825 – 1881 (2 vols.). She left her own memoirs Life in the Mission, the Camp and the Zenana (harem) (1872, 3 vols.).

Mackenzie, Helen Margaret – (1889 – 1966)
British painter, portraitist and designer
Helen Mackenzie was raised in Ladyhill, Elgin. She studied painting at the Elgin Academy and at the Royal College of Art. She was married (1915) to Herbert Ashwin Budd, but retained the use of her maiden name. Particularly known for her studies of figures, Mackenzie exhibited her work at the Royal Academy, and abroad in Canada, the USA, and New Zealand. Her best known works included Hyde Park in Summer and Victorian Family. Helen Mackenzie died (May 4, 1966) in London.

McKenzie, Marian – (c1848 – 1927)
British contralto vocalist and educator
Marian McKenzie was born at Plymouth, the daughter of a captain. Her vocal training was overseen by Samuel Weekes in Plymouth, and at the Royal Academy of Music under Alberto Randeggar, where she became a Parepa Rosa Scholar and a Westoreland Scholar. She became the wife of Richard Smith Williams. Having become a bronze, silver and gold medallist at the Royal Academy, Marian eventually became the principal contralto singer of the Handel and Bach Festivals, and was a prominent leading vocalist at the Leeds, Birmingham, Norwich and Chester Festivals, as well as the Welsh Eisteddfodd. She also performed with the Royal State concerts and at the viceregal court in Dublin. Marian McKenzie died (June 16, 1927) in London.

Mackie, Margaret Alison – (1910 – 1991)
Australian physician, obstetrician and medical officer
Mackie was born (Nov 6, 1910) in Armadale, Victoria, and attended the Presbyterian Ladies College in Melbourne. She then went on to study obstetrics and gynaecology at the University of Melbourne. Margaret’s first position was as the resident medical officer at the Royal Melbourne Hospital (1936), and became the first female medical superintendent officer of the Royal Women’s Hospital in Melbourne (1940 – 1945). There she later served for two decades (1949 – 1970) as the honorary outpatient obstetrician. Mackie was appointed as a fellow of the Royal College of Obstericians and Gynaecologists, and of the Australian College of Obstericians and Gynaecologists. In recognition of her work in this field she was created CMG (Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975).

McKillop, Mary Helen – (1842 – 1909)
Australian nun
Mary McKillop was born at Fitzroy in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of Scottish emigrants. She became a nun and co-founded the Society of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart in Penola, South Australia with Father Tenison-Woods (1866). The society eventually numbered one hundred and seventy schools and one hundred and sixty Josephite convents. Inter-diocesan rivalries caused Mother Mary to be excommunicated (1871), but she was re-instated by Pope Pius IX, who then officially aprroved the new order (1873), and confirmed her superior-general (1875). Mary Mackillop’s order was especially devoted to the care and education of children and the care of unmarried mothers. The cause for her beatification was introduced in 1975, and Mother Mackillop was finally beatified by Pope John Paul II (1995). When her canonisation was completed by Pope Benedict XVI she then became Australia’s first saint (2010) as St Mary of the Cross.

Mackin, Catherine – (1940 – 1982)
American journalist and telelvision reporter
Catherine Mackin was born in Baltimore, Maryland and attended the University of Maryland. For several years during the 1960’s she was employed as a correspondent for the Hearst newspapers in Washington. She became the first woman reporter to cover the floor of the Democratic and Republican National Conventions (1972) and when she later joined the ABC (American Broadcasting Companies) (1977) she later covered political events during popular television programs. Catherine Mackin died (Nov 20, 1982) aged forty-two in Baltimore, after a long illness.

McKinney, Louise – (1868 – 1933)
Canadian suffragette and politician
Louise McKinney was born in Franksville, Ontario. She was trained as a rural schoolteacher, and settled in Claresholm, Alberta after her marriage. McKinney joined the agricultural Non-partisan League (1916), which worked for the general ownership of flour mills for public benefit. She stood as a candidate for the League in the Alberta legislature (1917), becoming the first woman in the British Empire to become a member of any legislative body. Louise McKinney was a member of the Canadian Temperance Movement and joined the campaign for women’s suffrage.

McKinnon, Jill – (1952 – 2008)
Australian academic
Jill Frost was born in Barraba, New South Wales, the daughter of a farmer. She later attended school in Inverell and studied economics at the University of New England. Frost was employed as a bank official prior to her marriage (1976) with Stuart McKinnon. The couple spent several years in England, where Jill studied at the University of Bath in Somerset. After her return to Australia (1979) she joined the faculty of the Macquarie University (1979), where she eventually became an associate professor. McKinnon was one of the first women in Australia to become a doctor of philosophy of accounting, and was considered an expert conerning Japanese culture from the time of the samurai to the end of the twentieth century. She was the author of many research papers.

Mackinolty, Judy – (1931 – 2001)
Australian historian, educator and sportswoman
Judy Mackinolty was born in Melbourne, Victoria. She was the author of Sugar Bag Days – Sydney Workers and the Challenge of the 1930’s Depression (1972). Judy Mackinolty died in Sydney, New South Wales.

Mackintosh, Elizabeth     see     Tey, Josephine

Mackintosh, Margaret – (1865 – 1933)
British water colour painter and stained glass artist
Born Margaret MacDonald near Wolverhampton in Staffordshire, she was the sister to artist Frances MacDonald, the wife of artist Herbert McNair. She studied art at the Glasgow College of Art, and was married (1900) to the Scottish architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh. With her husband, sister, and brother-in-law, she formed the famous Glasgow ‘Group of Four,’ the leading exponents of the Art Noveau style in Scotland. Mackintosh exhibited her work widely in Europe, being awarded the Diploma of Honour at the Turin International Exhibition (1902) in Piedmont, Italy. Her best known work was the gesso panel, Oh ye, all ye that walk in Willowood (1902) which formed part of the decorative design for the Room de Luxe in the Willow Tearooms.

Macklin, Maria – (1732 – 1781)
Irish stage actress
Maria Macklin was the illegitimate daughter of the noted actor Charles Macklin. She was taught music and languages by her father, and was trained for the stage. Possessed of little beauty, she was nonetheless elegant and accomplished, and was especially popularly in ‘breeches’ roles. Macklin was especially remembered for playing Portia opposite her father’s Shylock, but her performances lacked warmth. Maria Macklin died estranged from her father.

McKnown, Bethia Pyatt Donaldson – (1798 – after 1865)
Southern American Civil War diarist
Bethia McKnown was a native of Missouri, and had sons fighting on opposite sides of the war, one of whom changed allegiance from the Confederacy to the Union. Excerpts from her surviving correspondence were published as The Civil War Letters of Bethia Pyatt Donaldson (1973). These letters provided a valuable insight into the damage inflicted within a Southern family by conflicting political beliefs.

McKown, Robin Clason – (c1925 – 1976)
American author and children’s writer
Robin Clason was born in Denver, Colorado. She attended the universities of Colorado and Illinois and was married to Dallas McKown. Robin McKown worked for several years in New York as a sales promoter for a publicist and also wrote columns concerning contemporary authors and their work and was employed as a radio scriptwriter. She later worked in New York on a volunteer basis for the widows and orphans of member of the French Resistance. Her published work included Painter of the Wild West – Frederic Remington (1959), Marie Curie (1959), She Lived for Science – Irene Joliot-Curie (1961), Eleanor Roosevelt’s World (1964), The Execution of Maximilian: A Hapsburg Emperor Meets Disaster in the New World (1973) and The Opium War in China, 1840 – 1842 (1974). Her works for children included Rakoto and the Drongo Bird (1966) and The Boy Who Woke Up in Madagascar (1967).

Mackworth, Lady    see    Rhondda, Margaret Haig Thomas, Viscountess

Macky, Constance      see     Jenkins, Constance

McLachlan, Jessie – (1834 – c1899)
Scottish suspected murderess
Jessie McLachlan was a servant in a Glasgow household, where a murder took place when the family was absent. The owner’s father was arrested on suspicion of murder, but he was released a week afterwards, and McLachlan was then charged with murder, convicted and sentenced to death (1862). McLachlan denied all knowledge of the crime, naming the homweowner’s father as the real murderer, but he then appeared as the chief prosecution witness. A petition against her conviction and sentence collected over fifty thousand signatures. A private enquiry set up by the parliament resulted in McLachlan being granted a pardon by Queen Victoria, on condition that she remained a prisoner. After serving fifteen years, she was released and permitted to immigrate to the USA, where she remained the rest of her life.

MacLachlan, Laurentia – (1866 – 1953)
British nun and literary figure
Margaret McLachlan was born at Coatbridge in Lanarkshire, Scotland. She became a Benedictine nun at the Abbey of Stanbrook (1884) and became Dame Laurentia McLachlan in religion. She was later elected as Abbess of Stanbrook a position she retained for over two decades until her death (1931 – 1957). Dame Laurentia became a specialist in mediaeval manuscripts and music and she received the Bene Merenti medal from Pope Pius XI (1934) in recognition of her contributions to church music. Dame Laurentia died aged eighty-seven at Stanbrook. Dame Laurentia corresponded with such literary figures as George Bernard Shaw and Sir Sydney cockerel and many of these letters have survived. This friendship was explored by Felicitas Corrigan in the work The Nun, the Infidel, and the Superman and by Hugh Whitemore in his book entitled The Best of Friends. The film version had Dame Wendy Hiller as Laurentia and Sir John Gielgud as Cockerell. Actress Patricia Routledge played Laurentia in a stage production of The Best of Friends at the Hampstead Theatre in London (2006).

McLagan, Kim – (1948 – 2006)
British model and businesswoman
Born Maryse Elizabeth Patricia Kerrigan at Leicester, she spent most of her childhood in Malaysia and in East Africa. During her early teenage years she removed back to Britain with her family. Kim became a hairdresser and was involved with modelling, establishing a successful career for herself in London. She became involved with the musician Keith Moon, drummer for the band The Who (1964) whom she married in 1966, and to whom she bore a daughter. The marriage foundered due to Moon’s excessive drinking, drug-taking and occasional violence and she eventually left Moon in 1973. They were later divorced (1975). Kim remarried to keyboard player Ian McLagan (1978) and the couple went to live in the USA. There she established her own company, and provided chauffeur service to celebrities as well and KM Skincare, her own cosmetics line. Her death was caused by a car accident.

McLanahan, Frances Lamarr – (1900 – 1970)
American pianist and music patron
Frances Lamarr Gurr was born in Macon, Georgia. She studied the piano under Joseph Maerz at the Wesleyan College and then travelled to Paris to complete her musical education. There she met and was married to Alexander McLanahan, an army pilot to whom she bore a son. Mrs McLanahan and her husband resided at the Chateau de Missery at the Cote d’Or in France where they received such distinguished visitors as the artists Augustus John and Rembrandt Peale who both painted her portrait. She was photographed by Cecil Beaton and the sculptors Stuart Benson and Gleb Derujinsky produced busts of her. She was the chairman and patron of such organizations as the Community Music Schools of New York, the Music Education League and the Little Orchestra Society. Mrs McLanahan also served the Les Anciens Eleves du Conservatoire de Paris and on the board of the Metropolitan Opera Guild. Mrs McLanahan died (Feb 26, 1970) aged sixty-nine.

McLaren, Agnes – (1837 – 1913) 
Scottish physician
Agnes McLaren was born in Edinburgh. Agnes was almost forty years old when she began to study medicine in Dublin and France, and she succeeded in becoming the first woman to graduate in medicine from the University of Montpellier (1878). Agnes McLaren established hr own private practive at Cannes but later converted to Roman Catholicism and joined the Dominican Order. Agnes McLaren founded the first Catholic medical mission in India, the hospital of St Catherine in Rawalpindi (1910), which was organised as a hospital for women, run by women, as the Islamic law required. She also campaigned for missionary priests and nuns to receive medical training.

McLaren, Dame Anne Laura Dorinthea – (1927 – 2007) 
Welsh developmental biologist, geneticist, immunologist and cancer researcher
Dame Anne McLaren was born (April 26, 1927) the daughter of the second Baron Aberconway, and his wife Christabel, the daughter of Sir Melville Macnaghten. She was married (1952) to Professor Donald Michie (1924 – 2007), to whom she bore three children. They were later amicably divorced. Anne McLaren studied zoology at Oxford University and then studied at the Royal Veterinary College in London. She worked later joined the Unit of Animal Genetics at the Agricultural Research Council in Edinburgh (1959). She was later appointed as director of the Mammalian Development Unit at the Medical Research Council (1974 – 1992). With her retirement she became a principal research associate at Cambridge. McLaren was best known for discovering and isolating of the embryonal carcinoma cell line, which proved invaluable in the study of carcinogenesis. Her published works included Mammalian Chimaeras (1976) and Gem Cells and Soma (1980). McLaren was made a fellow of the Royal Society (1975), and in public recognition of her valuable scientifi research, she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1993). She was also the first woman to serve as an officer of the Royal Society, when she was appointed as Foreign Secretary (1991). Dame Anne McLaren died as the result of a car accident, which also claimed the life of her former husband, whose own research into mammalian genetics had developed techniques that led to the establishment of the human IVF (in vitro fertilisation) program.

McLaren, Louise Leonard – (1885 – 1968)
American Labour leader
Born Louise Leonard in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania, she was the daughter of a lawyer and a schoolteacher. She was educated in Harrisburg and at Vassar College, and became a history teacher in New York. Leonard left teaching (1914) in order to become industrial secretary for the YWCA at Wilkes Barre in Pennsylvania. Six years later she was named as national industrial secretary (1920). She travelled extensively in order to improve the position of women in the industry. She founded the Southern Summer School for Women Workers, (1927 – 1942) which drew increasing support from organized labour. Leonard herself served as director and organizer for nearly two decades and later married (1930) an academic, Myron McLaren. Mrs McLaren resigned in 1944 and moved permanently to New York City, where she later served with the American Cancer Society and the Girl Scouts of America, as well as being employed with the American Labor Education Service (ALES). She retired in 1953. Louise Leonard McLaren died (Dec 16, 1968) aged eighty-three, in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.

McLaren, Rose Mary Primrose Paget, Lady – (1919 – 2005)
Brfitish society figure and beauty
Lady Rose Paget was born (July 21, 1919) the fourth daughter of the sixth Marquess of Angelesey and his wife Lady Marjorie Violet Manners, the daughter of the eighth Duke of Rutland. She was educated by governesses and later attended boarding school. She trained as a ballet dancer under Marie Rambert using the name of ‘Rose Bayley’ and made her stage debut in Swan Lake (1937) at Sadler’s Wells. Lady Rose was originally engaged to marry Valerian Wellesley, later the eight Duke of Wellington but twice broke their engagement and was married instead (1940) to the Hon. (Honourable) John McLaren, son of Lord Aberconway, to whom she bore two daughters. McLaren was an air pilot and with his death (1953) Lady Rose became associated with the centre of Bohemian life in Soho in London. She established the successful florist business known as Flower Services with a girlfriend and she was commissioned to decorate Pall Mall with roses for the wedding of Princess Margaret and Antony Armstrong-Jones (1960). Rose retired from London in 1975 and resided at her estate of Bodnant. Lady Rose McLaren died aged eighty-six.

McLauchlan, Madeline Margaret Nicholls – (1922 – 2004)
British educator
Madeline McLauchlan was the daughter of Robert McLauchlan of Birmingham and was educated at the King Edward VI Grammar School for Girls at Camp Hill and at the Royal Holloway College at the University of London. Determining upon a teaching career McLauchlan first appointment was as assistant mistress at the Shrewsbury High School (1944). She worked at Manchester High School (1952) and was appointed as headmistress of the Henrietta Barnett School (1958) where she also served as chairman of the Schoolboy and Schoolgirl Exchange Committee. McLauchlan then served two decades as the head of the North London Collegiate School (1965 – 1985). During her retirement she remained a member of the council of The Francis Holland Schools Trust and served as vice-chaorman of the National Youth Orchestra. Madeleine McLauchlan died (Jan 20, 2004) aged eighty-one, at Llanbedr, near Crickhowell in Powys, Wales.

McLaughlin, Louise – (1847 – 1939)
American artist and wood carver
Born Mary Louise McLaughlin she studied china painting and wood carving in Cincinnati. She was early influenced by the work of the French ceramicist Ernest Chaplet and by the style of Limoge porcelain. McLaughlin discovered the secret method of underglaze painting with Limoge, known as ‘faience.’ Her particluar styles became known as ‘Cincinnati Faience.’ Louise McLaughlin co-founded the Cincinnati Art Pottery Club (1879) with two other female painters Clara Newton and Laura Fry. Having abandoned her work with faience due to lack of suitable facilities, McLaughlin later returned (1895 – 1906) to this particular design, and produced the new decoration design which became popularly known as ‘American Faience.’

Maclean, Ida Smedley – (1877 – 1944)
Anglo-American biochemist
Ida Smedley was born (June 14, 1877) at Birmingham in Lancashire, the daughter of a chartered accountant. She attended school in Birmingham and then went to Newnham College, Cambridge (1896 – 1899). She was trained as a pianist. Ida Maclean served as chemistry instructor at Newnham (1903 – 1906) whilst she undertook research at the Davy-Faraday research laboratory of the Royal Institution. She then became the first woman to be appointed to the staff at Manchester University (1906). She later worked at the Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine with Sir Arthur Harden. She was married (1913) to Hugh Maclean (died 1957). Maclean received the Ellen Richards Prize by the American Association of University Women for research conducted by a woman. She was the author of the monogram The Metabolism of Fat (1943) and over two dozen of her papers were published in the Biochemical Journal (1920 – 1941). She served as president (1929 – 1935) of the British Federation of University Women. Ida Smedley Maclean died (March 2, 1944) aged sixty-six.

Maclean, Muriel Annette – (1895 – 1969)
Scottish Red Cross organizer
Born Hon. (Honourable) Muriel Annette Burns, she was the daughter of the third and last Baron Inverclyde, and became the wife (1918) of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander John Hew Maclean, of Ardgour to whom she bore several children. Widowed in 1930 she never remarried and devoted herself to civic affairs. Mrs Maclean served for thirty years as an active member of the Argyllshire County Council (1932 – 1961) and served as president of both the British Red Cross and of the Soldiers,’ Sailors,’ and Airmens’ Families Association (SSAFA). Her interest with the work of the Red Cross led to her becoming member of the Western Regionl Hospital Board (1948 – 1953) whilst she was prominent within the Agricultural Executive Committeee of North Argyll (1939 – 1947). Muriel Maclean died (Jan 29, 1969) aged seventy-three.

Maclean, Veronica Nell Fraser, Lady – (1920 – 2005)
Scottish public figure and author
Veronica Fraser was the daughter of the sixteenth Baron Lovat and was raised at Beaufort Castle in Inverness-shire. Educated at Cambridge she came out in society in 1938. She served with an ambulance unit in France with the outbreak of the war and then married firstly (1940) to Alan Phipps, to whim she bore two children before he was killed in action on the island of Leros (1943). Veronica was remarried to Sir Fitzroy Maclean of Dunconnel (1911 – 1996), a member of Stilring’s SAS, on whom the novelist Ian Fleming is said to have based the famous character of ‘James Bond.’ The couple resided in Lancashire (1946 – 1957) before moving to Scotland. Lady Maclean accompanied her husband on several of his undercover missions, including one to Turkey to determine the possible placement of British guerilla fighters. She was the author of Lady Maclean’s Cookbook, which included recipes from various Scottish notabilities. Lady Maclean died (Jan 5, 2005) aged eighty-four, at Strachur House, Loch Fyne, in Argyll.

Macleay, Fanny Leonora – (1793 – 1836)
Anglo-Australian letter writer
Fanny Macleay was the daughter of Alexander Macleay, the colonial secretary of New South Wales. A gifted pianist she accompanied her parents to Australia in 1826, and resided in Elizabeth Bay House. Fanny wrote a collection of letters to her brother, William Sharp Macleay, over the period of over three decades (1812 – 1836). Her correspondence was preserved in the Mitchell State library in Sydney, and were later published (1993). Fanny’s letters provide a straightforward account of colonial life and society in Sydney during the time of governors Darling and Bourke. Fanny was married when over forty to Thomas Cudbert Harington (1798 – 1863), five years her junior. Fanny Macleay died suddenly (June 25, 1836) several weeks after her wedding. A memorial was erected to her memory in the Church of St James in Sydney.

Maclehose, Agnes Craig – (1759 – 1841)
Scottish literary figure
Agnes Craig was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of a surgeon. She married a lawyer from Glasgow (1776) from whom she quickly seperated (1780). Agnes was introduced to the famous poet Robert Burns (1759 – 1796) at an Edinburgh social gathering (1787), and she is best remembered for the correspondence that she carried on with the poet under the name ‘Clarinda’ he replying as ‘Sylvander.’ Several of his works were dedicated to Agnes, including the touching farewell ‘Ae fond kiss, and then we sever.’ She later travelled to Jamaica to join her husband (1792).

Macleod, Banda Zelle – (1900 – c1943)
Dutch espionage agent
Banda Macleod was the legitimate daughter of Captain Macleod, a Scottish officer attached to the Dutch colonial army. Her mother was the famous dancer, Mata Hari (Margaretha Gertruida Zelle). She became involved in espionage like her mother before her, but did not achieve her mother’s level of notoriety. Banda Macleod disappeared during WW II.

Macleod, Elsie Milda – (1917 – 2009)
Australian political daughter and poet
Elsie Curtin was born in Perth, Western Australia, the daughter of the politician John Curtin (1885 – 1945) who served as Prime Minister of Australia during WW II, and his wife Elsie Needham. She published the volume of poems entitled Killed in Action and Other Verse (1944). Her first marriage with a dentist (1942) did not last and Elsie then remarried (1948) to Stanley Macleod, a medical auditor, to whom she bore a daughter. She remained long resident at the family home in cottesloe caring for various female relatives. She always remained fiercely protective of her late father’s reputation and was the last survivor of his children. During her last years she suffered from Alzheimer’s disease. Elsie Macleod died aged ninety-one, in Perth.

MacLeod, Mairi (Mary) – (1569 – 1674)
Scottish poet
Mairi MacLeod was the daughter of ‘Red’ Alistair and a connection of the clan MacLeod. She spent most of her life at Dunvegan on the Isle of Skye, where she served as wet-nurse to the young sons of the chief’s household. Mairi was once sentenced to a period of exile to Mull, as a punishment for composing songs in her native dialect of Gaelic that proved too politically favourable to her lord and patron. For this she was revered as the clan MacLeod’s particular poet. Only a handful of her works survive including A Complaint about Exile. Mairi MacLeod died aged one hundred and five years.

MacLeod, Margaretha Gertruida    see    Mata Hari

MacMahan, Anna Benneson – (1846 – 1919)
American author and editor
Anna MacMahan was born in Quincy, Illinois. She historical travel books which traced the travels of the two famous British poets With Shelley in Italy (1905) and With Byron in Italy (1906). MacMahan also wrote Shakespeare’s Christmas Gift to Queen Bess (1907) and edited several select collections of famous letters such as Best Letters of Horace Walpole (1890) and Best Letters of William Cowper (1893). Anna McMahan died (Nov, 1919) aged seventy-three.

MacMahon, Aline – (1899 – 1991)
American stage and film actress
A noted character actress who was particularly popular in films during the decade prior to WW II, she was born (May 3, 1899) in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, and attended Barnard College. Aline MacMahon performed with the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York before traveling to California to try her luck in Hollywood. She was best known for her roles in films like Five Star Final (1931), Golddiggers of 1933 (1933), Babbitt (1934) as Myra Babbitt, and Dragon Seed (1944) for which she received an Academy Award nomination. She continued to appear in films sporadically making appearances in The Eddie Cantor Story (1953), Cimarron (1960) and I Could Go on Singing (1963). Aline MacMahon died (Oct 12, 1991) aged ninety-four, in New York.

MacMahon, Pelagie Edmee Marie de Ricquet, Comtesse de – (1769 – 1819)
French Bourbon aristocrat
Madamoiselle Pelagie de Ricquet was born (Oct 12, 1769) in Paris, the daughter of Marie Jean Louis de Ricquet, and his wife Marie Charlotte Eugenie Bernard de Montessus de Rully. With the outbreak of the Revolution, Pelagie immigrated abroad to Belgium for safety. There she was married in Brussels (1792) to fellow exile Comte Maurice Francois de MacMahon (1754 – 1831), who was descended from an Irish family who went into exile with James II of England after his deposition (1688). Pelagie was the mother of Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon (1808 – 1893), born at the Chateau de Sully, near Autun in Burgundy, Marshal of France, who was later created first Duc de Magenta (1859), who served as President of the French Republic (1873 - 1879), and left descendants. The Comtesse de MacMahon died (Nov 28, 1819) aged fifty, at Sully.

McMath, Virginia     see   Rogers, Ginger

McMein, Neysa – (1888 – 1949)
American painter
Born Margery Edna McMein (Jan 24, 1888) in Quincy, Illinois, she studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and worked for a short time as an actress in New York. She adopted the name ‘Neysa’ and turned her talents to commercial art. She drew posters during WW I for the US and French governments and then illustrated the covers of McCall’s magazine (1923 – 1937). Neysa McMein did work for the Woman’s Home Companion and created the image of ‘Betty Crocker’ the ultimate American housewife. Famous for her portraits in oils and pastels, her sitters included two presidents, Warren G. Harding and Herbert Hoover, Dorothy Parker, Charlie Chaplin, Anne Morrow Lindbergh and Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Neysa McMein died (May 12, 1949) aged sixty-one in New York.

Macmillan, Chrystal – (1882 – 1937)
Scottish lawyer
Chrystal Macmillan was born in Edinburgh, attending secondary school at St Andrews, befire going on to study at Edinburgh University. She became one of the first female graduates from that institution, and then travelled abroad to Prussia in Germany, in order to study law in Berlin. Chrystal was called to the bar (1924) but eschewed practising in favour of propmoting feminist causes. Chrystal Macmillan became the first woman to address the House of Lords (1908) when she spoke for the need and right of women being able to serve the community, which she deemed their right after suitable education. Chrystal Macmillan was one of those who organized the International Women’s Congress at The Hague in Holland (1915), and was elected as leader of the Nation Union for Suffrage Society. Chrystal Macmillan served as secretary of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (1913 – 1923) and founded the Open Door Council (1929), which provided legal assistance for women and later stood unsuccessfully as a Liberal candidate (1935).

MacMillan, David    see    Eager, Mary Jane

MacMillan, Dorothy Evelyn Cavendish, Lady – (1900 – 1966)
British social and political figure
Lady Dorothy Cavendish was born (July 28, 1900) in London, the daughter of Victor Cavendish (1868 – 1938), ninth Duke of Devonshire, and his wife Evelyn, the daughter of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1845 – 1927), fifth Marquess of Lansdowne. She was raised in Lancashire and at Lismore Castle, Waterford, Ireland. Lady Dorothy became the wife (1920) of the future prime minister, Harold MacMillan (1894 – 1986) to whom she bore four children. Their eldest son, Maurice Victor, Viscount MacMillan (1921 – 1984), who predeceased his father, was the the father of the second Earl of Stockton. Lady MacMillan supported her husband’s political career and he soon became the Member of Parliament for Stockton-on-Tees (1924 – 1945). She later became involved in an affair with her husband’s friend, Robert Boothby (1900 – 1986), later Lord Boothby, which resulted in the birth of a child (1930). The affair continued for several years and was known in society. She wished for a divorce so she could marry Boothby, but both Harold and Boothby shied away from the scandal this act would entail. After her husband sufferred an illness Lady Dorothy campaigned publicly on his behalf, but her relationship with Boothby continued until he finally married her cousin Diana Cavendish (1935).
Lady Dorothy established magnificent gardens at Birch Grove House, which was opened to the public. She served on various organizations such as the Central Executive Committee of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and the Executive Committee of the East Sussex District Nursing Association. Lady Dorothy was appointed GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1964). Lady Dorothy MacMillan died (May 21, 1966) aged sixty-five, at Birch Grove House, Sussex. Her husband was created first Earl of Stockton after her death.

McMillan, Margaret – (1860 – 1931)
British educator and reformer
Margaret McMillan was the younger sister to Rachel McMillan. She was born in New York, USA, and raised with her sister near Inverness in Scotland. She was educated abroad in Germany and Switzerland. Margaret became actively involved with socialisim and with the women’s suffrage movement. She then became a member (1893) of the newly formed Independent Labour Party in London. She then oined the Bradford School Board in Lancashire, and worked tirelessly for the establishment of government medical inspections for students. With her sister in London she established the first school clinic (1908), and later an open air nursery school (1914). Margaret McMillan was the author of Education through the Imagination (1904). McMillan was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1917) and CH (Companion of Honour) (1930) by King George V in recognition of her valuable contribution to education.

McMillan, Rachel – (1859 – 1917)
British pioneer educator
Rachel McMillan was the elder sister of Margaret McMillan, she was born in New York, USA, and then returned to Scotland with her family and was raised with her sister in Inverness. She studied abroad at Frankfurt-am-Main in Germany, and at Lausanne in Switzerland. With her sister she fought tirelessly to establish better conditions for poor schoolchildren and for working women, after having herself run hostel for young working girls. She was trained as a council sanitary inspector and established the Rachel McMillan Open Air Nursey School (1914).  After her death her sister established the Rachel McMillan Training College for pre-school and kindergarten teachers in her memory (1930).

McMinn, Ursula     see     Jeans, Ursula

MacMurray, Lillita Louise   see    Grey, Lita

McMurray, Margaret – (c1675 – 1760)
Scottish notable
Margaret MacMurray was a native of Cultezeon, near Maybole, and was related to Quintin McMurray of Cultezeon (died 1752). Margaret is generally credited as having been one of the last native born speakers of the Gallwegian dialect of the Gaelic language in Carrick. She died at a great age.

Macnaghten, Anne Catherine – (1908 – 2000)
British concert pianist and violinist
Anne Macnaghten she studied under Jelly d’Aranyi at the Leipzig Conservatory in Saxony. She later formed an all female string quartet, with whom she performed in public concert and for radio broadcasts. Macnaghten was an active promoter of contemporary music, and worked with Iris Lemare to form the Macnaghten-Lemare Concert (1931), which showcased the works of such prominent musicians and composers as Elisabeth Lutyens, Benjamin Britten, Imogen Holst, Peter Maxwell-Davies, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. These annual premieres later developed into the New Macnaghten Concerts.

Macnaghten, Frances Martyn, Lady – (c1797 – 1878)
British captive in Afghanistan
Frances Martyn was a native of county Tyrone, Ireland, and was married firstly to Colonel McClintock of the Bengal army, and secondly (1823) to the noted diplomat Sir William Macnaghten.  Her second husband was murdered at Kabul, in Afghanistan (1841) by Afghan rebels, and Lady Macnaghten was amongst the group of British women and children taken prisoner (1841 – 1842) by Akbar Khan. Her companions included Lady Sale, wife of General Sir Robert Sale, and her daughter Emily Sturt. A lady of extravagant and rather selfish personality, Lady Macnaghten offerred her hand to Akbar Khan as a token of her forgiveness for his part in her husband’s brutal murder. This action and several other instances of her behaviour recorded in the memoirs of Lady Sale do not portray her in a sympathetic light. Upon being freed, Lady Macnaghten managed to salvage her husband’s remains, and arrange for them to be decently interred in Cacutta, India. She then returned to England, and made a grand society marriage, taking as her third and last husband, Thomas Taylour, Marquess of Headfort (1787 – 1870). Lady Headfort died (March 2, 1878) in London.

McNair, Barbara Joan – (1934 – 2007)
Black American actress and cabaret vocalist
Barbara McNair was born in Racine, Wisconsin, and sang in church from early childhood. She studied at the University of California in Los Angeles, and at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago, Illinois. She worked as a typist in New York before she appeared in the Broadway musical The Body Beautiful (1958). Other stage credits on Braodway included No Strings (1962), where she replaced Diahann Carroll in the lead role, and a revival of The Pyjama Game (1973). She visited Australia (1965) and made records for the Motown label. She then had her own television variety series The Barbara McNair Show (1969 – 1971). Barbara McNair appeared in a variety of popular television shows such as Dr Kildare, Hogan’s Heroes, and McMillan and Wife. She did a nude scene in the drama If He Hollers Let Him Go (1968) and then appeared as a nun with Mary Tyler Moore in Elvis Presley’s last film Change of Habit (1969). Her third and last husband, Frederick Manzie was a Mafia associate who was murdered (1972). Her career declined after this scandal though she remarried to a fourth husband, who survived her.

Macnamara, Dame Jean – (1899 – 1968)
Australian physician
Annie Jean Macnamara was born in Beechworth, Victoria, and attended Melbourne University. She began her career inmedicine working in local hospitals, which provoked her interest in infantile paralysis. Macnamara tested the newly developed immune serum, and worked with Elizabeth Kenny to introduce the first iron lung (artifical respirator) into Australia. She worked with Macfarlane Burnet (1899 – 1985) to develop the Salk vaccine, which was named in honour of the noted US virologist Jonas Salk. Because of her valuable contribution to medical research and treatment, Jean Macnamara was appointed DBE (Dame Commande of the British Empire) by King George V (1935). Dame Jean later used her particular research to introduce the rabbit disease myxamatosis, which was used to control the rempaging rabbit problem which bedevilled the wool industry and cost millions of pounds in profits annually.

Macnamara, Sophia Eliza Hare, Lady – (1835 – 1912)
British courtier
Lady Sophia Hare was the third daughter of William Hare (1801 – 1856), the second Earl of Listowel, and his wife Maria Augusta Windham, the widow of George Thomas Wyndham of Cromer Hall, Norfolk, and daughter of Vice-Admiral William Windham, of Felbrigg Hall, Norfolk. After her marriage (1854) to Arthur Macnamara, of Caddington Hall, Hertfordshire, Lady Sophia was appointed to serve at court as Lady-of-the-Bedhcamber (1871 – 1896) to Princess Louise, the Duchess of Argyll, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria, having had some prior connections with the court. She was well-liked and a letter from Lady Janey Campbell to lord Archibald Campbell records (March, 1875) that; ‘Lady Mac is here. She is as jolly as ever.’ She accompanied the princess and her husband to Canada when they took up their vice-regal duties there (1878), but ill-health eventually forced her to retire from the court. Several of her letters to the princess survive. She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Macnamara (1906 – 1912). Lady Macnamara died (Dec 8, 1912) aged sixty-seven. She left no children.

Macnamee, Rosina     see    Audley, Rosina Lois Veronica, Lady

McNeill, Florence Marian – (1885 – 1973)
Scottish writer, folk-lorist and historian
Florence McNeill was born in Saint Mary’s Holm, Orkney, and later attended university in Glasgow and in Edinburgh. McNeill was a firm supporter of the women’s suffrage movement, and served as secretary to the Association for Moral and Social Hygiene before working as a journalist in London, and abroad in Athens, Greece. After finally resettling in Scotland (1926) Florence was employed by the Scottish National Dictionary. Her best known work was The Scots Kitchen (1929), which included many popular traditional recipes, and her extremely detailed study of Scottish folk-lore entitled The Silver Bough (1957 – 1968), which was published in four volumes over a decade. In her later work, Hallowe’en (1970), McNeill made use of photography and illustrations to record ancient Scottish rituals and traditions.

McNaughton, Jane    see   Musgrave, Jane Lavinia

MacNicol, Bessie – (1869 – 1904) 
Scottish artist and portrait painter
Bessie MacNicol was born in Glasgow and studied at the School of Art there (1887 – 1892). She later travelled to Paris to continue her instruction at the Atelier of Colarossi. Bessie MacNicol established her own studio in Glasgow, and her style was influenced by the works of George Henry and James Guthrie, amongst others. Bessie was married to a physician, Alexander Frew, but her artisitc career was cut short by her death in childbirth.

Maconchy, Dame Elizabeth Violet – (1907 – 1994)
British composer
Elizabeth Maconchy was born (March 17, 1907) in Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, of Irish parentage. She was trained in London under Ralph Vaughan Williams at the Royal College of Music, and went to Prague, Bohemia for further study (1929 – 1930). Her suite, The Land was performed at the London Proms (1930). She was married (1930) to the author, William Richard Le Fanu, to whom she bore two daughters, one of whom was the noted composer Nicola Le Fanu (born 1947). Though she has composed in all genres, Elizabeth is best known for her chamber music, notably for string quartets. Besides seven operas, she has written orchestral works, piano pieces such as the Piano Concertino (1928) and choral and solo vocal pieces. Elizabeth Maconchy became the first woman to chair the Composers’ Guild of Great Britain (1959). Her best known works were her Symphony (1953) and the overture Proud Thames (1953), the carol cantata A Christmas Morning (1962), Heloise and Abelard (1978) and My Dark Heart (1981). Dame Elizabeth was awarded the Cobbett Medal (1960) for her chamber music, and appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1977) and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1987) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her vast and valuable contribution to music. Dame Elizabeth Maconchy died (Nov 11, 1994) aged eighty-seven.

Macphail, Agnes Campbell – (1890 – 1954)
Canadian suffragette and politician
Agnes Macphail was born in Grey County, Ontario. She was trained as aschoolteacher, and became involved with the women’s suffrage movement. Macphail was elected as the Member of Parliament to represent the United Farmers of Ontario, and served in the Canadian pariliament for two decades (1921 – 1940), being the first Canadian woman to enter parliament. She served two tenures in the Ontario legislature (1943 – 1945) and (1948 – 1951) and represented Canada abroad at the Assembly of the League of Nations.

MacPhail, Alexandrina Matilda – (1860 – 1946)
Scottish physician
Alexandrina MacPhail was born on the Isle of Skye. She studied medicine at the London School of Medicine for Women in London and successfully graduated (1887) before leaving England travelling to Madras in India. At Madras MacPhail established a medical dispensary to service poor women and children, and established a small hospital within her bungalow. This was eventually replaced by the fully functional Christina Rainy Hospital (1914). During WW I she served as chief medical officer with a unit sent to assist female Serbian refugees. In recognition of her valuable work MacPhail was elected to the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1930).

McPhail, Evelyn – (1930 – 1998)
American Republican Chairwoman
Evelyn McPhail resided in an orphanage during her childhood. Entering politics, she rose through the ranks and ultimately led the State Republican Party of Mississippi (1987 – 1993). Under her leadership, the Republicans managed to claim the state governorship for the first time in a century with the victory of Kirk Fordice over Ray Mabus (1991). Evelyn was appointed director of political education for the national party in 1993, and was elected chairwoman (1995), serving under Harley Barbour for a two year term.  Injured in a car accident (1997) she never fully recovered. Evelyn McPhail died (Nov 26, 1998) at Diamondhead, near Jackson, Mississippi.

Macphail, Katherine Stewart – (1888 – 1974)
Scottish paediatrician
Katherine Macphail was born at Coatbridge, Lanarkshire, and studied medicine in Glasgow. During WW I she served with a women’s hospital unit in Salonika, Greece and in Belgrade, Serbia. Mcphail established the Anglo-Yugoslav Children’s Hopsital in Belgrade (1919), and was superintendent of that organization until 1933. She then organized surgical unit for tuberculosis in Kamenica, along the Danube River. She fled Yugoslavia with the arrival of the Nazi troops but was interned in a prison camp by the Italian authorities before being permitted to return to her native Lanarkshire. She later returned to head the first medical relief unit sent to Yugoslavia by the Save the Children Fund (1944) and later retired to Scotland permanently (1947). Because of her devoted work amonsgt refugees Katherine Macphail was awarded the Russian Red Cross (1932).

McPherson, Aimee Elizabeth Semple – (1890 – 1944)
Canadian-American evangelist
Born Aimee Kennedy, near Ingersoll in Ontario, she was raised in a Salvation Army background. She was married to a Pentecostal preacher, Robert Semple and accompanied him to China to work as a missionary (1908 – 1910). With his death soon afterwards she returned to Canada with her infant daughter. Both successive marriages ended in divorce. Aimee McPherson was a glamorous and attractive figure, and set herself up as an evangelical preacher, Assisted by her mother she established the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in Los Angeles, California (1918), and the Angelus Temple in Los Angeles, which put great emphasis in faith-healing. Both establishments paid for and maintained by the donations of the faithfull. She used the radio for religious broadcasting and edited a religious magazine, amonsgt other activities, whilst her widowed mother acted as her business manager.
Aimee McPherson remained a figure of mystery after a lengthy and public courtcase which happened after a bizarre five-week disappearance (1926), which began with her supposed accidental death at the beach. She later surfaced and claimed to have been kidnapped but it appears that the whole episode was an elaborate ruse to cover an assignation with a married man. She was portrayed on film by actress Faye Dunaway in the television film The Disappearance of Aimee (1976), with Bette Davis as her mother Minnie Kennedy. Aimee McPherson later committed suicide, though some stated it was an accidental overdose, and was the author of several works such as In the Service of the King (1927) and Give Me My Own God (1936).

Macpherson, Annie – (1824 – 1904)
Scottish educator and missionary
Annie Macpherson was born in Campsie, near Milton in Stirlingshire, and was educated in Glasgow, and trained as a kindergarten teacher under the German specialist, Friedrich Frobel. Macpherson undertook evangelical work in Cambridgeshire before travelling to London, where she established an orphanage in Spitalfields (1864). Macpherson then founded Home Farm, which trained five hundred poor children in agricultural practices before relocating them all to Ontario and Quebec in Canada. Her published works included Canadian Homes for London Wanderers (1870) and The Little Matchbox Makers (1870).

McPherson, Emily Jackson, Lady – (1867 – 1929)
Australian political wife and philanthropist
Emily Jackson became the wife (1892) of Sir William Murray McPherson (1865 – 1932) who served as the Premier of Victoria. She bore him a son and two daughters. Lady McPherson was a lady of charitable inclination and assisted her husband with his well-known, but largely anonymous philanthropic endeavours. Sir William later donated twenty-five thousand pounds towards the building of the Emily McPherson School of Domestic Economy in Melbourne (1924), as his personal tribute to her.

Macpherson Mackay, Helen Marion – (1891 – 1965)
British physician
Helen Macpherson Mackay was the daughter of a civil servant in India. She was partly raised in Burma before being brought to England where she attended the Cheltenham Ladies’ College, and studied at the London School of Medicine for Women (later the Royal Free Hospital). Macpherson Mackay later studied abroad in Vienna, Austria (1919 – 1922) where she researched nutritional deficiencies which had been engendered by WW I. From this research grew her particular interest in the dietary problems which befell children. She later served as a member of the Medical Research Council and was a consultant paediatrician with the London County Council. Helen Macpherson Mackay was the first woman to be elected to a fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians of London (1934) and served as president of paediatrics with the Royal Society of Medicine (1944). She was the first female member of the British Paediatric Association (1945).

Macquarie, Elizabeth Henrietta – (1778 – 1835)
British traveller
Elizabeth was the wife of Lachlan Macquarie (1761 – 1824), the Scottish born colonial governor of New South Wales in Australia. She accompanied her husband out to Australia and was the first lady of the fledgling colony (1810 – 1821).

Macquoid, Katharine Sarah – (1824 – 1917)
British novelist and travel author
Katharine Thomas was born (Jan 26, 1824) in Kentish Town, the daughter of Thomas Thomas and his wife Phoebe Gadsden, and was married (1851) to Thomas Robert Macquoid to whom she bore two sons. Educated privately she travelled extensively throughout Britain and France. Her first short story appeared in the Welcome Guest periodical in 1859, and her last work, Molly Montague’s Love Story (novel) was published fifty years later (1911). Katharine Macquoid’s travel narratives included Pictures across the Channel (1872), Through Normandy (1874), Through Brittany (1877), Pictures and Legends from Normandy and Brittany (1878), In the Ardennes (1881), About Yorkshire (1883), In the Volcanic Eifel (1896), In Paris (1900) which was written jointly with her son Gilbert, and Pictures in Umbria (1905). Katharine’s popular novels included such works as A Bad Beginning (1862), Charlotte Burney (1867), Miriam’s Marriage (1872), Diane (1875), The Berkshire Lady (1879), Her Sailor Love (1883), Louisa (1885), Joan Wentworth (1886), Roger Ferron (1889), The Haunted Fountain (1890), Miss Evon of Eyoncourt (1892), His Last Card (1895), A Ward of the King (1898), A Village Chronicle (1905) and many others. Katharine Macquoid died (June 24, 1917) aged ninety-three, in London.

Macra (Magra) – (d. c303 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian martyr
Macra and her two companions Elenara and Sponsaria were brutally killed at Fimes, near Rheims in Gaul during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. The women were arrested by order of the Imperial agent Rictiovarus, and refused to recant their Christianity. All were killed, Macra being stretched over burning hot coals. Macra was venerated by the church as a martyr (Jan 6) and was considered the patron saint of the city of Fimes.

MacRae, Meredith – (1943 – 2000)
American film and telelvision actress
Meredith MacRae was born in Houston, Texas, the daughter of actor Gordon MacRae (1921 – 1986), ahd his first wife, the actress and comedienne Sheila Stephens MacRae. Macrae appeared together with her father in the film By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953). She is best remembered however, in the role of Billie Jo Bradley, one of the beautiful daughters of the Shady Rest hotel proprietor Kate Bradley in the popular television series Petticoat Junction (1966 – 1970). Her other film credits included Bikini Beach (1964), Sketches of a Strangler (1978) and Husbands, Wives, Money, and Murder (1986). Meredith MacRae died (July 15, 2000) at Manhattan Beach, California.

Macrina the Elder – (c270 – c340 AD) 
Greek Christian
Macrina the elder was born at Neocaesarea in Pontus, Asia Minor and was married to a wealthy Christian landowner. She was the grandmother of Macrina the Younger, Basil the Great (c329 – 379 AD), Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter of Sebaste. Macrina was devoted to the memory of St Gregory Thaumaturgus, and during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Galerius, the family fled to a remote part of Pontus where they remained for several years, only returning after the Imperial edict of 311 AD. Later some of their property was confiscated but Macrina regained these after her husband’s death. During her widowhood Macrina resided at her rural estate at Annesi on the Iris River, where she raised her grandson Basil the Great. Macrina is praised in the writings of her grandson and those of his sister, the younger Macrina. The church venerated her as a saint (Jan 14) and her name appears in the Roman Martyrology.

Macrina the Younger – (c328 – 379 AD) 
Greek Christian ascetic
Macrina the Younger was born at Caesarea in Cappodocia, Asia Minor, the eldest daughter of Basil, a Cappodocian patrician and his wife Emmelia. She was the granddaughter of Macrina the Elder, being sister to the saints Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter of Sebaste. Raised as a Christian, when her betrothed husband died before the wedding Macrina decided to remain unmarried and devoted her time to religious exercises and practical work with the poor. Over time she relieved her mother of many burdens, managing the family estates, and arranging suitable marriages for her four sisters. She helped to comfort her mother after the death of her brother Naukratius (357 AD) and assisted with the upbringing of her youngest brother, the posthumously born Peter of Sebaste. With the death of her mother (c370 AD), Macrina was appointed to rule over a convent of nuns that she had founded on her estates in Pontus. Macrina died shortly after her brother Basil, their brother Gregory of Nyssa being present at her deathbed. On her person after her death were found a cross and a ring which she always carried. St Gregory gave the cross to Vestina, one of Macrina’s nuns, but the ring, which was said to have contained a piece of the true cross, he kept for himself. The church venerated Macrina (July 19) and her name appears in the Roman Martyrology. Gregory left accounts of her life and personal conversations, whilst there remains a church dedicated to St Macrina at Hassakeni, a village in Cappodocia, where local tradition has it that she and ten of her nuns resided.

Macrone (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Macrone was arrested at Thessalonika in Greece, during the persecution instigated by the Emperor Diocletian. She refused to make the required sacrifice to the pagan gods, was condemned, and then beaten to death. The Martyrology of Salisbury records her feast day (March 15).

Mactaflede – (c595 – c653)
Carolingian abbess and saint
Mactaflede (Mactefledis) had remained unmarried and had taken vows of chastity, already possessing a considerable reputation for Christian piety and sanctity when she was chosen (c651) by St Romaric and St Amatus to preside as first abbess over the large double monastery that they had built at Habend in the Vosges mountains. Mactaflede ruled the abbey for two years before she died, being succeeded in office by Romaric’s daughter Gegoberga. The church venerated her memory (March 13).

Macy, Anne Mansfield Sullivan – (1866 – 1936)
American educator of the blind
Born Anne Sullivan in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts, illness deprived her of some of her sight during childhood and she later attended the Perkins Institute for the Blind in Boston, Pennsylvania. There she regained a measure of her sight after surgery. She learnt the manual alpahabet in order to be able to communicate with other disabled people. Sullivan was chosen to be the teacher (1887) for the famous Helen Keller, her successful method being to allow the child to understand objects through feeling them, rather than explanation. She later accompanied Keller to Radcliffe College and was married (1905) to the writer and critic John Macy. She was a firm advocate of the newly established American Foundation for the Blind. She was portrayed by actress Anne Bancroft in the film The Miracle Worker (1962).

Macy, Edith Dewing – (c1891 – 1967) 
American philanthropist
Edith Dewing was the wife of social welfare executive Edward Warren Macy. Devoted to the social welfare of young working women, she served as an official of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) of America from 1937, and was later elected YWCA President (1952 – 1955). Edith Macy later served as a consultant on religious resources to the National Urban League.

‘Madame’       see     Markiewicz, Constance Georgina Gore-Booth, Countess

Madame Royale      see     Angouleme, Marie Therese Charlotte, Duchesse d’

Madamoiselle, La Grande      see     Montpensier, Anne Marie Louise, Duchesse de

Madan, Judith(1702 – 1781)
British poet
Judith Cowper was the only daughter of Judge Spencer Cowper and his wife Pennington Goodere, and composed verse from her teens. She penned verses in memory of the dramatist John Hughes (1720) and verses she wrote to her brother were published in The Free-Thinker (1721). She also wrote Abelard and Eloise (1720) in response to Alexander Pope’s famous poem. Judith married (1723) Colonel Martin Madan (1700 – 1756), a member of parlaiment and equerry to Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, whom she addressed in verse as ‘Lysander.’ A friend and admirer of Pope and his work, Mrs Madan wrote ‘The Progress of Poetry,’ in which she surveyed the works of English poets from Chaucer to Pope, which she included in her work, The Flower-Piece (1731). Pope’s portion of their correspondence later appeared in Letters to a Lady (1769), to which Judith presumably gave her permission, though she is not actually identified. She bore nine children, and later came under the influence of Methodist leader John Wesley, and the Countess of Huntingdon (1749). From then on most of her verse took on a devotional theme. Her work was praised by John Duncombe in The Feminiad (1754) and featured in Poems by Eminent Ladies (1755). Some of her poems included ‘An Ode to Sleep’ (1725) and ‘To Lysander’ (1726), a verse penned to her husband on the first birthday of their son. Judith Madan was the mother of poet Maria Cowper (1726 – 1797).

Maddalena Visconti (Magdalena) – (1366 – 1404)
Italian-German duchess and ruler
Maddalena Visconti was the daughter of Bernarbo Visconti, Count of Milan in Lombardy, and his wife Beatrice (Regina) della Scala, the daughter of Mastino della Scala, Lord of Verona. Maddalena Visconti was married (1381) to Friedrich of Bavaria (1339 – 1393), Duke of Landshut, in one of the impressive marriages arranged by Count Bernarbo for his many daughters with the ruling dynasties of Europe. Of her sisters, Valentina was the queen of Cyprus, Taddaea was duchess of Wurttemburg, and Caterina was duchess of Milan, whilst Lucia was the wife of an English Plantagenet lord. Maddalena was the duchess consort of Landshut (1381 – 1393) and with her husband’s early death (1393) she ruled the small German principality as regent for their son Heinrich until he came of age (1401). Her descendants included the kings of Denmark, Sweden, and Poland, the Hohenzollern dynasty, the kings of Prussia, the dukes of Mantua, as well as the Holy Roman emperors of the Hapsburg dynasty. Duchess Maddalena died (July 17, 1404) aged about thirty-five. Together with a son who died in infancy, her children were,

Madeleine de Valois (1) – (1443 – 1495)
Princess consort of Viana in Navarre
Madeleine was born (Dec 1, 1443) the eighth daughter of Charles VII, King of France (1422 – 1461) and his wife Marie, the daughter of Louis II of Anjou, King of Naples. As an infant she was asked of her father (1445) by the English Duke Richard of York, on behalf of his eldest son Edward (IV). After an initial exchange of letters and envoys, King Charles agreed, but the neogtiations eventually foundered because the king would not agree to substitute Madeleine’s elder sister Jeanne instead. Her brother Louis XI later offerred Madeleine to Comte Gaston de Foix (1444 – 1470), Prince of Viana, the eldest son and heir of Gaston, Comte de Foix, and his wife Leonor of Aragon, Queen of Navarre (1479). Her husband died before his mother, so Madeleine never became queen consort of Navarre. With Leonor’s death however, she was appointed regent for her son, King Francois Phoebus (1466 – 1483). He died childless and she then ruled briefly for her daughter Catherine (1483 – 1516), who was married to Jean d’Albret. Princess Madeleine died (Jan 24, 1495) aged fifty-one, at Pamplona.

Madeleine de Valois (2) – (1520 – 1537)
Queen consort of Scotland (1537)
Madeleine de Valois was born (Aug 10, 1520) thethird daughter of Francois I, king of France (1515 – 1547), and his first wife, Claude d’Orleans, the daughter of King Louis XII (1498 – 1515). With the early death of their mother (1524), Madeleine and her younger sister Margeurite were educated in the household of their aunt, the queen of Navarre. Scottish ambassadors had vied for her hand as early as 1529, but King Francois had stated that she was too young to consider marriage. Frail, delicate, tall, and extremely beautiful, she became the first wife of James V, king of Scotland (1514 – 1542), the union being a romantic love match on both sides. James had come to the French court to marry Marie de Vendome, but broke off that marriage after meeting the lady, and finding her not to his liking. He met Princess Madeleine when she attended a hunt at Lyons in Burgundy, riding in a chariot because of her delicate consumptive condition. Despite the misigivings of her father, who feared the effects of the harsh Scottish climate, the couple were married (1537) in Paris, and Francois provided her with a dowry of one hundred thoudand crowns. Madeleine then travelled to her new kingdom with her husband, and the poet Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) was amongst her retinue. She was queen for barely two months, and according to Brantome found Scotland little to her liking, though she was herself greatly admired by her new subjects and courtiers alike. She was much mourned by her Scottish subjects, and her grief stricken husband alike. Queen Madeleine died (July 7, 1537) aged only sixteen, at Holyrood Palace.

Madeleva, Sister    see    Wolff, Mary Evaline

Madera, Jilma – (1915 – 2000)
Cuban sculptor
Jilma Madera was born (Sept 18, 1915) at La Victoria, Pinar del Rio and studied under Juan Jose Sicre at the San Alejandro Academy. She became best known for her sixty-foot statue of the Christ of Havana (1953), made of Carrara marble, which commission she was awarded by the government of President Fulgencio Batista. The statue was blessed in Rome by Pope Pius XII, where Madera had carved the huge work in almost seventy separate pieces. Her later works included the bust of Jose Marti (1853 – 1895), the Cuban writer and patriot, which adorned the Pico Turquino (1963). Jilma Madera died (Feb 21, 2000) aged eighty-four, in Havana.

Madison, Dolley Payne – (1768 – 1849)
American First Lady and society leader
Dolley Madison was wife to President James Madison (1809 – 1817). She was born Dorothea Payne in Guildford County, North Carolina. She was married firstly to John Todd (died 1793), to whom she bore two sons, of whom the younger died in infancy. Dolley Todd remarried (1794) to James Madison (1751 – 1836), a noted and powerful politician. Possessed of great beauty, vivacity and charm, when her husband was appointed Secretary of State (1801), Dolley became established as one of Washington’s most popular and endearing society hostesses. With the approach of the British troops (1814), Dolley refused to abandon the White House until there was no hope. She ordered the removal of the life-size portrait of President Washington from its golden frame, and taking the state documents and silver into her personal charge, fled by carriage, attended by faithful servants.

Madison, Eleanor Rose Conway – (1731 – 1829)
American colonial society leader
Eleanor Conway Madison was the mother to President James Madison (1809 – 1817), and mother-in-law to Dolley Payne Madison. Known as ‘Nelly’ to her husband, James Madison (1723 – 1801), of Orange County, Virginia, whom she survived three decades, she left twelve children of whom seven survived infancy,

Madison, Mae – (1914 – 2004)
American actress
Born Mariska Megayzi in New York, she was the daughter of Hungarian immigrants. Working from childhood as a dancer, she made her film debut in the silent movie The Play Girl (1926) and also appeared in Words and Music (1928).  In 1930 Mae joined Warner Brothers Studios, and made eight films alone in 1931. She played such roles as Olga Chekova in The Mad Genius (1931) opposite John Barrymore, and Ginger Malloy in The Big Stampede (1932) playing opposite John Wayne. Later the musical entrepreneur Busby Berkeley signed Mae up hor her lavish musical extravaganzas, and between 1931 – 1939 Mae had appeared in almost all of Berkeley’s productions, notably as Strawberry, the ice-skating waitress in Kid Millions (1934).

Madrigal, Margarita – (1912 – 1983)
Costa-Rican educator, linguist and author
Margarita Madrigal was born in Costa Rica, South America. She was proficient in several languages such as French, Russian and German, and came to the USA where she worked as a Spanish linguist and teacher in New York. She published many books on language learning and studies. Margarita Madrigal died (July 23, 1983) in Stamford, Connecticut.

Madrun (Madron) – (fl. c450 – c490 AD)
British saint
Madrun was the daughter of Vortimer and the granddaughter of the famous King Vortigern (c386 – c461 AD) and his first wife Maxima Severa, the daughter of Magnus Maximus the Roman emperor in Britain (383 – 388 AD). She was the niece of Bishop Faustus (c405 – 495 AD) and may have been a close relative of the historical King Arthur (Riocatus). Madrun was married to a Welsh prince named Ynyr Gwent and the couple produced two sons, Cedio who was a monk at the Abbey of Lindisfarne, and Cynheiddion, and a daughter Tegiwg, all of whom were later revered as Christian saints. Madrun and her personal maid together founded the church of Trawsfynydd in Merionethshire, where she was venerated as a saint by local tradition. Her well in Cornwall was traditionally visited by sick children on the first Sunday in May.

Madruyna – (c861 – 906)
Spanish abbess and saint
Madruyna had become a Benedictine nun at the abbey of San Pedro in Barcelona, Aragon, and was later elected abbess of that house. During a Moorish pirate raid on Barcelona the abbess was taken captive and taken to the island of Majorca. A merchant enabled her to escape her new master and make her way to his ship, but the scheme was detected and Madruyna was hidden aboard the ship in a sack of wool. Though the Moor stabbed at the bales and she was wounded three or four times, Madruyna managed to remain silent and thus saved her life and that of her rescuer, who returned her safely to Barcelona. In Barcelona she refused to take up her former office and died soon afterwards from the wounds she had earlier received. Madruyna was venerated as a saint (Sept 5).

Madsen, Aase    see    Massen, Osa

Maecia Faustina (Metia) – (fl. 225 – 241 AD)
Roman regent
Maecia Faustina was the daughter of the Emperor Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus), and his wife, Fabia Orestilla, the daughter of the consul Annius Severus, whose ancestors were related to the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD). Maecia was married (c223 AD) to the consul Junius Balbus, by whom she was mother to the future emperor Gordian III (225 – 241 AD). Her father and brother were elected and recognized as joint emperors by the Roman senate (238 AD), but they ruled briefly, her brother dying in battle, and her father committing suicide. When the two emperors, Balbinus and Pupienus Maximus were appointed as emperors, Maecia’s son was proclaimed Caesar. Three months afterwards, the two elder emperors were assasinated by the Praetorian Guard, perhaps at the instigation of Maecia, whose son, aged thirteen, became Gordian III. Maecia directed the affairs of state, being supported in this role by those who had earlier opposed the emperor Maximinus I Thrax. Policies of reform, both in the army, the economy, and with the frontiers of the empeor, but the regime remained unstable. With the appointment of the new Praetorian guard Timesitheus (241 AD), Maecia’s influence declined considerably, especially after Gordian’s marriage with his daughter Tranquillina. Maecia Faustina’s subsequent fate remains unknown.

Maelmuire – (c833 – 912)
Irish queen consort
Maelmuire was the daughter of Kenneth I Macalpin, King of Scotland. Maelmuire was married firstly to Run, King of the Britons at Strathclyde, and was by him the mother of Eocha (c850 – 889), who succeeded his uncle King Aedh (878). Her second marriage (c860) with Aedh Finnliath (c835 – 879), King of Ireland, produced three children. Maelmuire survived Aedh as Queen Dowager for almost thirty-five years (878 – 912). Apart from an unnamed daughter, who became the wife of Olaf the Young (died 874), King of Dublin, Queen Maelmuire bore Aedh two sons, Domhnall (c867 – 911), King of Ailech, who left descendants, and Niall Glundubh (Black-Knee) (c870 – 919), King of Ireland, who also left descendants.

Maesa      see    Julia Maesa

Maestri, Anna – (1924 – 1988)
Italian film actress
Anna Maestri was born (Jan 7, 1924) in Mantova (Mantua). She appeared in such films as Riso amaro (1949) and Toto Cerca Moglie (1950). Maestri appeared as Athena in the television movie Biblioteca di Studio Uno i Odissea (1964) and worked in television appearing in the popular serials Che fare ? (1979) and Buio nella valle (1984). Anna Maestri died (March 4, 1988) aged sixty-four.

Mafalda of Portugal – (1194 – 1256)
Queen consort of Castile (1215 – 1216)
Infanta Mafalda was the daughter of Sancho I o Pobledor, King of Portugal and his wife Dulcia of Aragon, Countess of Barcelona. Mafalda was married at Burgos (1215) to her cousin Enrique I (1204 – 1217), King of Castile (1214 – 1217) a decade her junior but there were no children. The following year (1216) Queen Mafalda and her youthful husband were forced to separate on the grounds of consanguinity, and the marriage was annulled. Queen Mafalda returned to the Portugese court at Coimbra and was given the title and lands of Senora de Arouca. The former queen founded a Cistercian convent at Arouca, where she became a nun. Queen Mafalda died (May 1, 1256) at Amarente, near Rio Tinto, and was buried at Arouca. Revered as a saint she was beatified by Pope Pius VI (1793).

Mafalda Maria Elisabetta Anna Romana – (1902 – 1944)
Italian princess of Savoy
Princess Mafalda was born (Nov 19, 1902) in Rome, the second daughter of Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy, King of Italy, and his wife Elena of Montenegro, the daughter of Nikolas I, King of Montenegro. She was always known as ‘little Muty’ by her fond mother. The princess chose the German prince Philip of Hesse-Kassel (1896 – 1980), a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, as her husband, a match which delighted her parents. The Vatican raised objections due to Philip being a Protestant prince but the wedding took place despite this. Mafalda became Philip’s first wife in a ceremony attended by the royal family at the Savoyard castle of Raccionigi (Sept 23, 1925). They had several children. Her husband succeeded his father Landgrave Friedrich Karl as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1940) and Mafalda became the Landgravine consort though the family was no longer sovereign rulers. During WW II Adolf Hitler referred to Landgravine Mafalda as the ‘trickiest bitch’ in the Savoyard royal family. The princess was captured by the Nazis ahd Goebbels gloated over her capture and boasted that she would be ‘taken into the school of hard knocks.’ Mafalda was sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp, where she resided in a special compound reserved for dignitaries. Princess Mafalda died there (Aug 27, 1944) aged forty-one, as the result of wounds she had received during an Allied air raid. Her children were,

Mafuta, Apollonia – (c1640 – 1706)
Kongolese Christian sect leader
Apollonia Mafuta was already an old woman when she claimed to have mystical visions and dreams concerning the Virgin Mary. She attracted many followers, and rejected and denounced all symbols of Christian worship (inksi), including crosses and religious medals. Mafuta’s cult represented a purification of Christianity which upset the established order. The Komgolese king, Pedro IV, ordered Mafuta to appear before him and questioned her, but then permitted her to go free, possibly due to the influence of his wife, Queen Hippolita. Mafuta’s religious crusade became indentified with that of Beatriz Kimpa Vita, who believed she had been reborn as St Anthony. Apollonia accompanied Kimpa Vita to Sao Salvador and established her own religious ministry there, alongside the cult of the so-called ‘Antonians.’ She took the name of ‘Old Simeon’ and dedicated three altars, to saints Isabel, Ursula, and Anne. The crown and the Catholic Church became alarmed at the spread of the new cult and sought to suppress it. Beatriz and Apollonia were arrested and imprisoned. Both were condemned to be burnt at the stake, but Apollonia’s enfeebled mental state was such that she was spared the flames, and remanded in custody where she died.

Magawly, Benedicta – (c1730 – 1799)
Irish-Italian courtier
Benedicta Magawly was the only daughter of Philip Henry Magawly, Count de Calry of Irish descent and his Italian wife Margherita d’Este, the daughter of Camillo d’Este, the last reigning Prince of Correggio. Her brother Henry died young and Benedicta was her father’s only heiress though the title of Count Magawly Cerati de Calry passed to a male cousin. Benedicta never married and was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to the Empress Maria Theresa (dame de l’ordre de Marie Therese) at the Imperial court in Vienna.

Magdalena of Silesia-Leignitz – (1427 – 1487)
Polish duchess consort
Princess Magdalena was the second daughter of Ludwig II, Duke of Silesia-Legnica-Brieg, and his second wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Freidrich I, Elector of Brandenburg, later the wife of Wenzel I, Duke of Silesia-Teschen. Magdalena was married (1443) to Nicholas I (1420 – 1476), Duke of Silesia-Oppeln, and was duchess consort of Opole (1443 – 1476). She survived her husband for two decades (1476 – 1497) as Dowager Duchess of Oppeln. Duchess Magdalena died (Sept 10, 1497) aged sixty. Her ten children were,

Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst – (1679 – 1740)
German princess and duchess consort
Princess Magdalena Augusta was born (Oct 13, 1679) the daughter of Karl Wilhelm (1652 – 1718), Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and his wife Sophia (1684 – 1724), the daughter of Augustus I, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. She was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 - 814) and of the earlier Merovingian kings. Magdalena Augusta was married (1696) to Friedrich II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, and was duchess consort of Saxe-Gotha for thirty-five years (1696 – 1732). With Friedrich’s death she was the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Gotha (1732 – 1740) during the early years of the reign of her son, Duke Friedrich II. She received Hanoverian ambassadors (1736) from England during the negotiations for the marriage of her daughter Augusta. Duchess Magdalena Augusta died (Oct 11, 1740) aged sixty. The duchess bore her husband a large family of nineteen children, of whom ten were either stillbirths or died in infancy. Through her daughter Augusta she was the maternal grandmother of George III of England (1760 – 1820) and was ancestress of the present British royal family, and many of the European royal dynasties. Her surviving nine children were,

Magdalena Euphemia of Munsterberg – (1479 – 1497)
Polish princess
Princess Magdalena Euphemia was the only daughter of Viktorin (1462 – 1500), Duke of Munsterberg, and his second wife Sophia, the daughter of Boleslav II, Duke of Teschen, of the Piast Dynasty. The princess was the younger full-sister of Bartholomew of Munsterberg (1474 – 1515), who inherited Rumburg and Skala. She never married and became a nun at the royal abbey of Treibnitz, founded by her ancestress, St Hedwig, Duchess of Silesia. Princess Magdalena Euphemia died (Aug 27, 1497) aged eighteen, at Treibnitz, and was buried in the convent chapel there.

Magdalena Juliana of the Palatine – (1686 – 1720)
German duchess consort of Holstein-Norburg (1704 – 1720)
Countess Magdalena Juliana was born (Feb 1, 1686) the daughter of Johann Karl, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Gelnhausen (1654 – 1704) and his first wife Sophia Amalia, the widow of Count Siegfried von Hohenzollern, and daughter of Friedrich, Count Palatine of the Rhine. Magdalena Juliana was married (1704) to Duke Joachim Friedrich of Holstein-Norburg-Ploen (1668 – 1722), as his first wife. Duchess Magdalena Juliana died (Nov 5, 1720) aged thirty-four. Her three surviving children were,

Magdalena Sophia of Saxony – (1617 – 1668)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Altenburg
Princess Magdalena Sophia was born (Dec 23, 1617) the third daughter of Johann George I, Elector of Saxony (1611 – 1656), and his second wife Magdalena Sybilla, the daughter of Albert Frederick of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia. Magdalena Sybilla was married firstly (1634) to Crown Prince Christian of Denmark (1603 – 1647), the eldest son and heir of King Christian IV. This marriage remained childless, and with Christian’s death, the Dowager Princess returned to Germany. There she was remarried secondly (1652) to Friedrich Wilhelm II (1603 – 1669), Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1639 – 1669) as his third wife, and was his duchess consort (1652 – 1669). Duchess Magdalena Sybilla died (Jan 1, 1668) aged fifty. Her two surviving children from her second marriage were, Princess Johanna Magdalena of Saxe-Altenburg (1656 – 1686) who became the wife of Johann Adolf I (1649 – 1697), Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (1680 – 1697) and left issue, and Friedrich Wilhelm III (1657 – 1669) who briefly succeeded his father as Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1669 – 1672) but died aged twelve.

Magdalena Sybilla of Bayreuth – (1612 – 1687)
German electress consort of Saxony (1656 – 1680)
Princess Magdalena Sybilla was born (Nov 7, 1612) the daughter of Christian Friedrich of Brandenburg, Margrave of Bayreuth, and his wife Maria of Prussia. Magdalena Sybilla was married (1638) to Johann George (1613 – 1680), electoral prince of Brandenburg, who later succeeded his father as elector (1656). She survived her husband as Electress Dowager of Saxony (1680 – 1687). Electress Magdalena Sybilla died (March 30, 1687) aged seventy-four. Her two surviving children were, Princess Erdmuthe Louisa of Saxony (1644 – 1670) who became the first wife of Christian Ernst (1644 – 1712), Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth but died childless, and Johann George III (1647 – 1691) who succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony (1680 – 1691) and left issue.

Magdalena Sybilla of Brandenburg – (1587 – 1659)
German electress consort of Saxony (1611 – 1656)
Princess Magdalena Sybilla was born (Jan 9, 1587) the daughter of Albert Friedrich of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia and his wife Maria Eleanore of Cleves. Magdalena Sybilla was married (1607) to the electoral prince Johann George I of Saxony, as his second wife. He succeeded his brother as elector in 1611. She survived her husband as Dowager Electress of Saxony (1656 – 1659). Electress Magdalena Sybilla died (Feb 22, 1659) aged seventy-one. Her seven surviving children were,

Magdalena Sybilla of Hesse – (1652 – 1712)
German duchess consort of Wurttemburg
Princess Magdalena Sybilla was born (April 28, 1652) the eldest daughter of Ludwig VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and his first wife Maria Elisabeth, the daughter of Friedrich III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Magdalena Sybilla became the wife (1673) of Wilhelm Ludwig (1647 – 1677), Duke of Wurttemburg, and was duchess consort (1673 – 1677). She retired from court to care for the education and upbringing of her children and was Dowager Duchess of Wurttemburg for over three decades (1677 – 1712). Duchess Magdalena Sybilla died (Aug 11, 1712) aged sixty. One daughter died in infancy and she left three surviving children,

Magdalena Sybilla of Holstein-Gottorp – (1631 – 1719)
German duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Gustrow
Princess Magdalena Sybilla was born (Nov 24, 1631) the second daughter of Friedrich III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, by his wife Maria Amalia Elisabeth of Saxony, the daughter of Elector Johann George I. Magdalena Sybilla was married (1654) to Gustav Adolf (1633 – 1695), Duke of Mecklenburg-Gustrow, and was duchess consort for forty years (1654 – 1695). She survived her husband for twenty-five years (1695 – 1719) as Dowager Duchess of Mecklenburg-Gustrow. Duchess Magdalena Sybilla died (Sept 22, 1719) aged eighty-seven. Her ten children were,

Magdalena Sybilla of Saxe-Weissenfels – (1648 – 1681)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Gotha
Princess Magdalena Sybilla was born (Sept 2, 1648) the eldest daughter of Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels and his first wife Anna Maria, the daughter of Adolf Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 - 814) and of the earlier Merovingian kings. Magdalena Sybilla was married (1669) to Prince Friedrich (1646 – 1691) of Saxe-Gotha, as his first wife. Her husband succeeded to the duchy of Saxe-Gotha as Duke Friedrich I (1675), and Magdalena Sybilla was duchess consort (1675 – 1681). Her granddaughter was Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the mother of George III, King of England, which made Magdalena Augusta the ancestress of most of the royal houses of Europe. Duchess Magdalena Sybilla died (Jan 7, 1681) aged thirty-two, her death caused by the rigours of childbirth. Apart from two daughters who died in infancy, the duchess left six children,

Magdalene of Como      see    Albruzzi, Maddalena d’

Magia – (c120 – before 83 BC)
Roman Republican matron
Magia was the daughter of Magius and his wife Dinaea, the widow of Aurius. She became the second wife of Statius Abbius Oppianius the elder, and was the mother of Oppianicus the younger the prosecutor in Cicero’s famous Pro Cluentio trial. Her husband later arranged the murder of Magia’s half-brother Marcus Aurius so that her own son would inherit the wealth of his maternal grandmother Dinaea. The details of the family feud are revealed in the Pro Cluentio trial of Cicero (66 BC). However Magia had died sometime prior to the unfolding of these tragic events.

Magnani, Anna – (1908 – 1973) 
Italian actress
Anna Magnani was born in Alexandria of illegitimate Egyptian-Italian parentage and was educated in Rome from 1913. There she studied acting at the Academy of Dramatic Art and at the Eleonora Duse school there before making her stage debut at the age of seventeen (1925). Magnani made her first film appearance in The Blind Woman of Sorrento (1934) and then married the movie director Goffredo Alesandrini who directed her appearance in the film Cavalleria (1936). They later seperated and the marriage was dissolved (1950). She received international acclaim and recognition of her talents with her appearance in Roberto Rossellini’s Rome, Open City (1945) and The Miracle (1950). Further success followed with her unusual interpretation of Jean Cocteau’s solo work La Voix Humaine. She was best remembered however, for her appearance in Bellissima (1954) which was filmed under the direction of Lucchino Visconti.
Magnani later made several films in Hollywood, California, including The Rose Tattoo (1955) produced by Daniel Mann, an adaption from Tennessee Williams Wild is the Wind (1957), produced by George Cukor, The Fugitive Kind (1959) by Sidney Lumet and her unforgettable performance as an ageing and dissillusioned tart in Mamma Roma (1962) produced by Pasolini. Other films followed such as Made in Italy (1967) and The Secret of Santa Vittoria (1969), but her last film appearance was the brief comic rebuke she makes to the director at the beginning of Federico Fellini’s classic film Roma (1972). During her last years she appeared in several television films produced by Italian director Alfredo Giannetti. Anna Magnani died of cancer (Sept 26, 1973) aged sixty-five.

Magnatrude – (fl. 581 – 590)
Merovingian landowner
Magnatrude was the wife of Baudegiselus, Bishop of Le Mans. Count Cuppa and his adherents tried to carry of her daughter by force, in order to marry her and inherit her family’s wealth, but Magnatrude and her servants successfully drove them off.

Magnentia – (fl. c430 – c450 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian saint
Magnentia was a friend and supporter of St Germanus (c378 – 448 AD), Bishop of Auxerre. When Germanus died in Ravenna, Magnentia and two other Christian ladies, Camilla and Palladia, escorted his remains home to Auxerre for internment. Magnentia later died at Sainte Magnence, near Avallon. The church venerated her as a saint (Nov 26) and she is listed in the Acta Sanctorum.

Magnia Urbica – (c256 – 285 AD) 
Roman Augusta
Magnia Urbica was the wife (c272 AD) of the emperor Carinus. Her husband ruled briefly as emperor (283 – 285 AD), before being murdered during a battle at the river Margus (Morava, near Belgrade). The prince Nigrinianus (c274 – 285 AD), who died as a child, and who was commemorated on the Roman coinage was probably her stepson. The empress was killed around the same time as her husband. Her memory, together with that of her father-in-law, the emperor Carus, her brother-in-law, Numerian, and her husband, were officially condemned, and their inscriptions were ordered to be erased. Magnia Urbica is attested by surviving coinage, notably a gold aureus issue in Rome (284 – 285 AD), the obverse of which portrays a bust of the empress with the legend MAGNIA URBICA AVG. The reverse side portrays a standing Venus holding an apple in one hand, whilst with her right hand she lifts her robe from her shoulder, and above the lgend VENERI VICTRICI. She was also honoured with inscriptions from the colonies of Julia Gemella Accitana in Spain, and Lambaesitanorum in Thamugandensis in Africa.

Magnus, Katie Emanuel, Lady – (1844 – 1924)
British verse writer and children’s author
Katie Emanuel was born (May 2, 1844), the daughter of E. Emmanuel, Justice of the Peace for Southsea, and was educated privately at home under the supervision of a governess. Katie was married (1870) to the Member of Parliament and educator Sir Philip Magnus (1842 – 1933) to whom she bore three children. She contributed a large number of prose works and verse to the Westminster Gazette including her Book of Verse, as well as contributing articles to the Spectator, the National Review and other popular magazines and periodicals. Most of her other written wroks were of a religious and moralistic nature, mainly priduced for the edification of small children and included Picture Stories from the Bible, Boys of the Bible, Little Miriam’s Bible and, Holiday Stories. Her more serious historical works included, First Makers of England, Outlines of Jewish History and Jewish Portraits. Lady Magnus died (March 2, 1924) aged seventy-nine, at Chilworth, Surrey.

Magoffin, Susan Shelby – (1827 – 1855)
American diarist
Susan Shelby Magoffin was an overland settler and kept a diary of her trip along the famous Santa Fe Trail. This was later edited and published as Down the Santa Fe Trail and into Mexico: The Diary of Susan Magoffin, 1846 – 1847 (1962). She died young.

Magra     see    Macra

Magri, Contessa     see   Warren, Lavinia Mercy

Maguire, Joan – (c1530 – 1600)
Irish notable
Joan Maguire was the daughter of Constantine Maguire (died 1538) and was related to the family of the ruling princes of Fermanagh. She became the wife of Matthew O’Neill (c1520 - 1558), Lord Dungannon, the illegitimate son of Conn O' Neill, the first Earl of Tyrone, and became the mother of Hugh O’Neill (1550 – 1616), the last King of Ulster and second Earl of Tyrone.

Mahadamba – (fl. c1250) 
Indian poet
Mahadamba was one of the earliest recorded female Maratha writers, and was the granddaughter of Vamancharya, the priest to the royal family. Widowed in her youth, Mahadeo of Devagin, king of Yadava, granted her five villages for her upkeep. She was a disciple of Chakravadhasa, the founder of the Mahanubhava cult. Mahadamba wrote lullabies for children, and poems concerning the life of Krishna.

Mahadeviyakka – (fl. c1150)
Indian poet
Mahadeviyakka was raised to worship Siva, and was married off to a local chieftain by her parents. She later abandoned her husband to wander as a mendicant religious poet and devotee of Siva. Mahadeviyakka became one of the most famous poets of the Hindu Vriasaivism movement, which denounced the classical forms and traditions. Her surviving verses were composed in Kannada, an ancient Dravidian literary language.

Mahd-i ‘Ulya – (c1535 – 1581)
Mazandaran queen consort
Mahd-i’Ulya was a member of the Qavami-Mar’ashi dynasty. She was married to Muhammad Khudabanda, Khan of Mazandaran as his chief consort. She was later displaced as queen (1565).

Mahfuz, Zaynab Ibrahim   see    Gamal, Samia

Mahidevran – (c1497 – c1549)
Ottoman sultana
Originally named Gubelhar, she was of Montenegrin origins. She became the first wife of Suleyman I the Great (1494 – 1566), Sultan of Turkey, taking the name Muslim name of Mahidevran. Sultana Mahidevran was mother to his Suleyman’s second son, Prince Mustafa Osman (1515 – 1553). With the death of his half-brother Prince Mahmut Osman (1522), Mustafa became the heir apparent to the throne, and Mahidevran received the titles of birinci kadin (first lady of the harem) and haseki (princess favourite). However, she was soon displaced in the sultan’s affections by her rival for the sultan’s favour, Roxelana, known in Turkish sources as Haseki Hurrem (Joyous One), who retained Suleyman’s affections until her death. Mahidevran was supplanted completely by Roxelana (1526), according to Pietro Bragadino, the Venetian envoy to Constantinople, “… her lord not concerning himself with her any more.” However, Mahidevran retained her preeminent position in the Sultan’s household until the two women came to physical blows, after which Mahidevran was formally banished to the Old Saray Palace and permament retirement (1531). When her son was appointed by his father to be governor of Magheria (1537), she accompanied his court there. Her son Mustafa, extremely popular with the Janissaries, was later murdered by his father, who watched him being strangled to death in his tent (1553).

Mahler, Alma Maria – (1879 – 1964) 
Austrian composer and author
Alma Schindler was the daughter of Jakob Anton Schindler, the famous landscape painter and was raised in Vienna. She studied music under Zemlinsky, and became an exceptionally talented pianist. She was married three times, firstly (1902) to the composer Gustav Mahler (1860 – 1911) to whom she bore two daughters, of whom the survivor Anna Mahler was briefly wife to the composer Ernst Renek. Alma was married secondly to the architect Walter Gropius (1883 – 1969), whom she divorced in order to marry the poet Franz Werfel (1890 – 1945) whith whom she had been conducting a liasion. A prominent figure in European artistic circles, she left an autobiography entitled Mein Leben (My Life) (1957).

Mahler, Anna Justina – (1904 – 1988)
Austrian sculptor
Anna Mahler was born in Vienna, the younger and only surviving child of the noted composer Gustave Mahler, and his wife, the pianist and composer Alma Schindler Mahler (later Werfel). Her only sister Maria Anna Mahler (1902 – 1906) died in early childhood. Her first husband (1923 – 1925) was the composer Ernst Krenek (1900 – 1991), from whom she was divorced, her second was the noted publisher, Szolnay, and her third was the conductor Fistoulari.

Mahony, Eliza Sarah – (1824 – 1914)
Australian colonial diarist
Eliza Reid was born in Ireland the daughter of a merchant shipowner. She emigrated from Ireland with her family (1838 – 1839) to Holdfast Bay in South Australia. The family was granted land along the Para River which grew into the town of Gawler. Her family suffered financial reverses and the family were forced to sell most of their lands and stock (1852). She became the wife of a physician named Mahony from Gawler and later penned a narrative account of her life in the colony entitled The First Settlers at Gawler which was published posthumously (1926 – 1927) by the Royal Georgraphical Society of Australasia.

Mahony, Marion    see    Griffin, Marion Lucy Mahony

Mah-Parvar Khanum – (c1549 – c1567)
Safavid queen
Mah-Parvar Khanum was the daughter of Abdullah Khan Ustajalu and his wife Pari Khanum I, and was sister to Shah Tahmasp I. She became the second wife (1565) of Mir Sultan-Murad, the Mazandaran ruler of Sari. She died young.

Maidalchini, Olimpia – (1594 – 1657)
Italian papal courtier
Olimpia Maidalchini was married Pamfilio Pamphili, the brother of Pope Innocent X (1644 – 1655) (Giambattista Pamphili).  Donna Olimpia, as she was generally known, had sponsored her brother-in-law’s bid for the papal throne using her own vast financial resources, and after his papal coronation she began to reap her rewards. Olimpia became the major political influence within the Vatican palace, controlling daily access to the pontiff, who consulted her first in all things. Arrogant and overbearing, she was hated as much for her imperious manner as for her rapacious greed. She deserted Innocent on his deathbed so she could loot the Vatican treasures. Upon hearing of plans to bring her to trial for the illegal appropriation of church property, Olimpia fled Rome. Olimpia Maidalchini died at Orvieto.

Maier, Ulrike – (1967 – 1994)
Austrian skiing champion
Ulrike Maier was born (Oct 22, 1967) at Rauris. Having trained from early childhood maier quickly achieved champion status. She was twice awarded the Super-G medal at the World Alpine Ski Championships (1989) and (1991) and was awarded the bronze slalom medal in the 1991 championships. During her short career she won an impressive total of five World Cup race victories. Ulrike Maier was killed in a skiing accident (Jan 29, 1994) aged only twenty-six, whilst competing in a race at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Germany in which she broke her neck.

Maignelais, Antoinette de – (1434 – 1474)
French courtier
Antoinette de Maignelais was the daughter of Jean II, Seigneur de Maignelay, and his wife Marie de Jouy. She was related to Agnes Sorel, the mistress of Louis XI of France (1461 – 1483). She was married (1450) to Andre, Baron de Villequier and seigneur de Montresor, of Guerche in Touraine (died 1470), whom she survived. This marriage was arranged by King Charles who provided Antoinette with a generous dowry and pension. During the lifetime of her husband Antoinette became the mistress of Charles VII during his old age, and is said to have procured young girls to enter his bed. The king built the Chateau de Guerche especially for her. She was on terms of friendship with the Dauphin (Louis XI), then living in exile in Burgundy, and she corresponded with him, keeping him informed of important developments at the court. Prior to the king’s death (1461), Antoinette became the mistress of Francois II, Duke of Brittany (died 1488), who had her created Dame de Chalet and de Maignelais. She died at the Breton court. Antoinette de Maignelais bore the duke five children, three of whom died young or in infancy, Francois I de Bretagne (1462 – after 1494), Comte de Vertus, who left descendants, and Francoise de Bretagne (1473 – 1498), who died young and unmarried and was known as ‘la petite Dame.’

Maillard, Marie Therese – (1766 – 1818)
French stage actress
Born Marie Therese Davoux she became a star of the Paris Opera prior to the Revolution. An extremely successful performer her career survived the upheavals of the Revolution and lasted for three decades. Her pastel portrait by Ducreux has survived.

Maillart, Ella Kini – (1903 – 1997)
Swiss traveller and writer
Ella Maillart was born in Geneva the daughter of a furrier and his Danish wife and was raised in Geneva and later at Creux-de-Genthod. Always an avid sportswoman, she represented Switzerland at the Paris Olympics (1924) in the single-handed sailing competition. She was later appointed captain of the Swiss Ladies Hockey Team (1931) and represented Switzerland as a champion skier (1931 – 1934). A woman of many interests and talents, she taught in Wales, was employed as a sales secretary, and worked as an archaeologist in Crete. She briefly appeared in films in Berlin in Prussia (1930) then studied film production in Russia. Her journey across Russian Turkestan included trekking across the Caucasus Mountains. She left two written accounts of her trip entitled Turkestan Solo and Among Russian Youth: From Moscow to the Caucasus (both 1932).
Soon afterwards Maillart was employed as a journalist with the French newspaper Le Petit Parisien and was sent to Mongolia to cover the Japanese invasion. She returned to the west via Peking (now Beijing), Tibet, and Kashmir with fellow journalist Peter Fleming, a correspondent for The Times of London (1935). She left an account of this adventure which was released in English as Forbidden Journey (1937). Maillart continued to travel and worked extensively throughout the east, notably in Afghanistan and Iran and spent several of the war years sequestered within an Indian ashram. Famous as one of the first Europeans to venture into Nepal (1949), this trip formed the basis of her work The Land of the Sherpas (1955). During her later years she resided in her native Switzerland and worked as a travel guide, though she still made trips to Tibet (1987) and Goa (1994). She remained unmarried. Ella Maillart died (March 27, 1997) aged ninety-four, at her chateau at Chandolin, in the Swiss Alps.

Maille, Aliette de Rohan-Chabot, Marquise de – (1896 – 1972)
French historian and author
Aliette de Rohan-Chabot was born (Jan 3, 1896) the daughter of Marie Charles Gerald de Rohan-Chabot (1870 – 1964), Duc de Ravese and his wife Cecile Aubry-Vitet (1875 – 1934). She was married (1917) to Jacquelin de Maille de La Tour-Landry, Marquis de Maille and became the Marquise de Maille (1917 – 1918). Her husband was killed in action (July 27, 1918) during WW I the following year and there were no children. She never remarried and remained the Dowager Marquise de Maille for over five decades (1918 – 1972). Madame de Maille produced a history of the ancient Abbey of Jouarre near Paris, which had been established during the Merovingian period entitled Les Cryptes de Jouarre (1971) which was published in Paris. Madame de Maille died (Nov 19, 1972) aged seventy-six.

Maille, Jeanne de – (1332 – 1414)
French Franciscan nun and saint
Jeanne de Maille was born at Roche-Saint-Quentin, in Touraine, the daughter of Hardouin VI, Baron de Maille, and his wife Jeanne de Montbazon. She married (c1347) Robert, Baron de Sille, whom she is reputed to have saved from drowning when they were both children. For religious reasons the couple agreed to live a life of celibacy. Her father and husband were both captured by the English at the battle of Poitiers (1356) and Jeanne sold her jewellery in order to obtain the ransom money. Husband and wife lived a life of great religious austerity, but with Robert’s death (1362), the Sille family drove Jeanne from the family home, blaming her for the depletion of the estate because she had encouraged her husband to ransom other prisoners of war.
Jeanne returned to her mother’s house at Luynes and refused several marriage offers, turning over all her remaining possessions to the Carthusians of Liget, thus alienating her family, who then disowned her. She became a Franciscan tertiary, becoming so impoverished that she was forced to beg for food and lodging, before finally becoming an anchorite at Planche-de-Vaux, where she restored a chapel. Jeanne de Maille later removed to Tours (1389), where she died twenty-five years later (March 28, 1414), famed for her mystical gifts of prophecy and religious piety. Venerated from the time of her death, her cult was approved in 1871, and her feast observed by the Friars Minor (Nov 6).

Mailly, Louise Julie de Mailly-Nesle, Comtesse de – (1710 – 1751)
French courtier and mistress to Louis XV
Louise de Mailly-Nesle was born in Paris, the daughter of Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle, being the eldest of the three Mailly sisters who would ultimately succeed each other as mistress and favourite to the king. She married (1726) her cousin, Louis Alexandre, Comte de Mailly (1694 – 1743), which union remained childless. Although the king had paid the comtesse marked attentions from 1732, she did not become his official titular mistress till six years later (1738). Though not a recognized by the court of Versailles as a great beauty, the comtesse was famous for her kindly disposition. Though she refrained from using her position and influence to enrich herself or her family, the comtesse did have some influence in politics, being the patron of Charles Fouquet, Duc de Belle-Isle. Eventually she was supplanted her her sister, the duchesse de Chateauroux, and was forced to resided away from the court at Versailles. The comtesse retired to a house in Paris, where she lived quietly for the remaineder of her life. She was beloved by the poor of the city because of her charitable contributions, especially as she was known to be only modestly provided for. Two pastel portraits of the comtesse have survived, one by Maurice Quentin de La Tour (1704 – 1788) and Jean Marc Nattier (1685 – 1766). Madame de Mailly was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole. Madame de Mailly appears in the historical novel Louis the Wellbeloved (1959) by Jean Plaidy.

Main, John    see   Parsons, Elsie

Main, Marjorie – (1890 – 1975)
American character actress and comedienne
Mary Tomlinson was born (Feb 24, 1890) in Acton, Indiana, the daughter of a clergyman. She early desired a career on stage and trained with a local stock company adopting the stage name of ‘Marjorie Main’ in order to spare her family any embarrassment. She became performing in vaudeville and made her stage debut on Broadway (1916). Main became a creditable character performer prior to becoming involved in films making her debut in Take a Chance (1933). Her other film credits included appearances in films such as Dead End (1937) in which she played the mother of Humphrey Bogart, Stella Dallas (1937) with Barbara Stanwyck, The Women (1939) in which she appeared as Lucy in a star-studded female cast, A Woman’s Face (1941) with Joan Crawford, Heaven Can Wait (1943), and the musical Meet Me in St Louis (1944).
Marjorie Main received and Academy Award nomination for her role in The Egg and I (1947) and became a popular leading lady in various comic films opposite Wallace Beery (1885 – 1949). However she was best known for her role as Ma Kettle in the popular comic series of nine films opposite Percy Kilbride (1888 – 1964) such as Ma and Pa Kettle (1949) and Ma and Pa Kettle Go to Town (1950). Her later credits included appearances in The Belle of New York (1952), Rose Marie (1954) and Friendly Persuasion (1956). Marjorie Main retired after her last film The Kettles on Old Macdonald’s Farm (1957).

Maine, Anne Louise Benedicte de Bourbon-Conde, Duchesse du – (1676 – 1753)
French salonniere and political intriguer
Princesse Anne Louise de Bourbon-Cone was born (Nov 8, 1676) the daughter of Henry Jules de Bourbon, Prince de Conde and Duc d’Enghien and his wife Anne Henriette, Countess Palatine of the Rhine, the daughter of Prince Edward of Bohemia. She was married (1692) to Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Duc du Maine (1670 – 1736) the son of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Despite the fact of that she retained the stature of a girl of ten years, the duchesse produced seven children including Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Prince de Dombes (1700 – 1755) and Charles de Bourbon, Comte d’Eu (1701 – 1775).The duchesse du Maine studied under her husband’s former tutor, the mathematician, poet, and Hellenist Nicolas de Malezieu. She loved the theatre and was herself a talented actress, often taking leading roles in plays produced by Malazieu, and she set up her own impressive court at the Chateau de Sceaux, which her husband purchased for her (1699). There were held many brilliant social and literary festivities, and she corresponded with Voltaire for several decades. The Abbe Genest provided a detail account of her entertainments in his Divertissements de Sceaux (1712).
When the Regent d’Orleans passed a decree which deprived her husband of his rank of Prince of the Blood (1717) the duchesse devoted her energy to conspiracies aimed at removing him from office (1718). She rented a house in the rue Saint-Honore in Paris, where she intrigued with the Cardinal de Polignac, the Abbe Brigault, the Comte de Laval and Madame de Staal-Delaunay to conspire to gain the French throne for Philip V of Spain. The Abbe Portocarrero acted as intermediary between them and the Spanish ambassador, Antonio di Cellamare. The plot was betrayed and the Duc du Maine, protesting his innocence of these activities was removed to the fortress of Doullons. The duchesse herself was then arrested (Dec, 1718). The Regent offered free pardon to those who confessed their involvement. The duchesse’s own confession exonerated her husband, but such was his anger that he refused to see her for six months after their release. Widowed in 1736, the Duchesse du Maine spent the remained of her days entertaining at Sceaux and visiting foreign courts. The Dowager Duchesse du Maine died (Jan 23, 1753) aged seventy-six, in Paris.

Maine, Vicomtesse Constance de    see    Fitzroy, Constance

Maintenon, Francoise Marie d’Aubigne, Marquise de – (1635 – 1719)
French courtier and letter writer
The second and morganatic wife of King Louis XIV (1638 – 1715), Francoise d’Aubigne was the granddaughter of the famous Huguenot leader Theodore Agrippa d’Aubigne (1552 – 1630), Francoise was born near the prison of Niort (Nov 27, 1635), where her father Jean Constant d’Aubigne was interned, and where she was raised by her financially harassed mother Jeanne de Cardilhac. When her father died in Martinique, she returned to France with her mother.Later she converted to Roman Catholicism, and was married (1652) to the crippled poet Paul Scarron. The marriage remained childless, she acting more as a nurse than a wife. With Scarron’s death (1660) his pension from the queen mother, Anne of Austria, was continued to Francoise, and even increased, finally providing her with some measure of financial security. Francoise. Later becoming friendly with the king’s mistress, the Marquise de Montespan, it was she who persuaded King Louis to continue Mme Scarron’s pension after the death of Queen Anne (1666). Later Mme Scarron was appointed governess to the children of La Montespan and the king (1669), of whom the duc Du Maine would always remain her favourite.
Several years later, with the king’s help (1674) Francoise bought the estate of Maintenon, which was raised to a marquisate (1678) and by which title she was then officially known. Soon after these events Francoise became the king’s mistress, and supplanted her former benefactor, Madame de Montespan. Her influence with the king, and her strong religious convictions made the last years of Queen Marie Therese much easier, and relations between the royal couple improved markedly. The secret marriage of Mme de Maintenon and the king is now thought to have taken place in secret very soon after the death of the queen (1683). Accused of wielding great influence over Louis XIV, she was blamed for the bloody persecution of the Protestants after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). However, viewed on the whole, Mme de Maintenon’s political influence was a moderating and prudent one. Her social influence was always exercised on the side of decency and morality. She founded a home for impoverished noblewomen, the Maison Royal de Saint-Louis at Saint-Cyr, endowed by Louis XIV (1686) with funds of the Abbey of St Denis, to which she retired after Louis’s death (1715). Madame de Maintenon died (April 15, 1719) aged eighty-three, at St Cyr, having being treated with great courtesy and respect by the Regent, Philippe II d’Orleans. Though there were originally over eighty volumes of Madame de Maintenon’s letters and personal correspondence, only four thousand letters remain today. Most of her intimate correspondence, including that with King Louis, has been lost. There has never been a complete edition of her correspondence published, and the one published in the eighteenth century in nine volumes is not authentic. She wrote Conversations et proverbs which was intended as an instruction dialogue for the pupils at Saint-Cyr.

Mainvielle-Fodor, Josephine     see    Fodor-Mainvielle, Josephine

Mairet, Ethel – (1872 – 1952)
British handloom weaver
Ethel was born in Barnstaple Cross, near Exeter in Devon. Mairet was the name of her second husband. Having resided abroad in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) for severl years, after her return to England (1906) she worked with Charles Robert Ashbee, the noted designer and architect, and with the Guild of Hanicrafts. Ethel Mairet established her famous weaving workshop ‘Gospels’ at Ditchling in Sussex.

Maitland, Agnes Catherine – (1850 – 1906)
British writer and educator
Agnes Maitland was born in Hyde Park in London, the daughter of a merchant. She was raised at Liverpool in Lancashire, and was educated at home by a governess. Agnes studied cookery at the Domestic Science Training School in Liverpool (1880 – 1885) and was then appointed as principal of Somerville Hall, Oxford (1889 – 1906), where she became an administrator of some considerable talent. Apart from educational novels written for young girls, Maitland’s published works included The Afternoon Tea Book (1887) and The Rudiments of Cookery: a Manual for use in Schools and Homes.

Maitland, Julia Charlotte – (fl. c1830 – 1843)
British letter writer
As a young woman, she sailed by sea from England to visit India, and wrote letters home describing both the voyage and the country. Her correspondence entitled Letters from Madras, during the Years 1836 – 1839 styled‘ by a lady’ were published in London several years after her return (1843).

Majeroni, Giulia – (1840 – 1891)
Italian-Australian actress
Giulia Majeroni was born in Bergamo, Italy and was the niece of the famous soprano Adelaide Ristori. She became a creditable and successful actress and was best remembered for playing Queen Elizabeth I. Majeroni later travelled to Australia where she performed to great acclaim at various venues in New South Wales. Giulia Majeroni died (Oct 20, 1891) aged fifty-one, in Sydney and was interred in Waverley Cemetery.

Major, Kathleen – (1906 – 2001)
British historian and educator
Kathleen Major was the daughter of a farmer. She served as the librarian (1935 – 1945) of St Hilda’s College at Oxford and was later appointed as principal of that college (1955 – 1965). She was then appointed to a special chair in mediaeval history at Nottingham University (1966 – 1971). Major completed (1973) the seven volues of the Registrum Antiquissimum begun by Canon C.W. Foster in 1916, with the assistance of the noted mediaeval historian Frank Murray Stenton. Major served as the honorary vice-president of the Royal Historical Society and was elected a fellow of the British Academy (1977). Kathleen Major died aged ninety-four.

Majumdar, Leela – (1908 – 2007)
Indian children’s writer and educator
Leela Ray Choudhuri was born (Feb 26, 1908) in Kolkata, West Bengal and was raised in Sillong and educated by the nuns of Loreto. She studied English at the University of Calcutta and was married (1933) to Sudhir Kumar Majumdar. Leela achieved fame as the author of works for children, becoming a pioneer in the field of children’s literature. Leela Majumdar became a teacher at a school for girls in Darjeeling and at the Asutosh College in Calcutta, before working as a producer with All India Radio. She wrote articles for the Sandesh publication until 1994. Majumdar published over one hundred and twenty books and translated several other works including Jonathon Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels into Bengali. For her work Holde Pakhir Palok Majumdar received the Bengali state prize for children’s literature. Leela Majumdar died (April 5, 2007) aged ninety-nine, at Kolkata.

Makare     see     Maatkare

Makarova-Shevchenko, Vera Vasilievna – (1892 – 1965)
Russian mezzo-soprano
Born Vera Shevchenko in Moscow (Aug 25, 1892), she was the pupil of soprano Varvara Zarudnaia at the Moscow Conservatory. She had an impressive two decade career (1918 – 1941) as a soloist with the Bolshoi Ballet. Vera Makarova-Shevchenko died in Moscow.

Makeba, Miriam – (1932 – 2008)
South African vocalist and civil rights activist
Zensi Miriam Makeba was born (March 4, 1932) in Prospect, near Johannesburg, her father being a member of the Xhosa tribe. She attended a Methodist school in Pretoria. Miriam first began performing in the Sophiatown section of Johannesburg, before apartheid forced the removel of all black residents. She then worked with the famous jazz trumpeter Hugh Maskela, who went on to become her husband. She toured with the Manhattan Brothers in Congo and Rhodesia from 1954, and achieved international fame when she appeared in the anti-apartheid documentary Come Back, Africa (1959). The following year the South African government revoked her passport, and refused Makeba re-entry into the country, a situation which lasted three decades. Miriam Makeba had an extraordinary career which lasted all her life, and she performed with such famous vocalists as, Nina Simone and Harry Belafonte, and performed before the US President John F. Kennedy (1963), and Nelson Mandela. The first African woman to receive a Grammy Award, Makeba was popularly known as ‘Mama Africa’ and ‘The Empress of African Song.’ She was a prominent supporter of the anti-apartheid movement, and the Black Panther leader Stokeley Carmichael became her husband (1968 – 1978). She was the recipient of the Dag Hammarskjold peace prize (1986). Miriam Makeba died (Nov 10, 2008) aged seventy-six, at Castel Volturno, near Caserta, Italy.

Makeda      see     Bilqis

Makin, Bathsua – (1608 – 1675)
English feminist, educator and writer
Bathsua Pell was born in Southwick, Sussex, the sister of John Pell, the famous mathematician and royal ambassador. During the Civil war years Mrs Makin tutored the daughters of Charles I, notably Princess Elizabeth, whom she instructed in foreign languages, including Hebrew, and in mathematics, and she corresponded with the Dutch scholar Anna von Schuurmann. With the end of Cromwell’s regime, Mrs Makin ran a school at Tottenham High Cross. An early advocate of proper education for women, she is best remembered for her Essay to Revive the Ancient Education of Gentlewomen (1673).

Maksagak, Helen Mamayaok – (1931 – 2009)
Native Canadian politician
Helen was born (April 15, 1931) a member of the Inuit tribe. She became involved with State politics and was appointed as the deputy commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1992 – 1994) and later as commissioner (1995 – 1999). Maksagak became the first woman and the first Inuk to be appointed to this position. She was then appointed to serve as the first commissioner of the recently formed Nunavut Territory (1999 – 2000). In recognition of her achievement she was appointed a member of the Order of Canada (2002). Helen Maksagak died (Jan 23, 2009) aged seventy-seven.

Maksimovic, Desanka – (1898 – 1993)
Serbian lyric poet and academic
Maksimovic was born (May 16, 1898) at Rabrovica, near Valjevo, the daughter of a teacher. Raised in Brankovina, she later studied philosophy at the University of Belgrade. She was married but had no children. Maksimovic was employed for three decades as a professor of the Serbian language (1923 – 1953), and was a lecturer in the first female school (gymnasium) to be established in Belgrade. She recorded the vile Nazi atrocities committed in her country with the poem ‘Krvava bajka’ (A Bloody Fairy Tale), published after the German defeat. Of her many works perhaps the most important was the cycle Trazim pomilovanje (I Seek Clemency), a historical dialogue. A friend of such contemporary poets as Branko Copic and Milos Crnjanski, her verses dealt with the themes of love and patriotism. She received several literary awards and was elected as an honorary citizen of Valjevo, with a statue put up to her honour. She was elected as a member of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences (1959). Desanka Maksimovic died (Feb 11, 1993) aged ninety-five, in Belgrade.

Malatendi, Maria – (Jan 9 – Jan 13, 1514)
Italian freak infant
Maria Malatendi was born to poor parents outside the walls of the city of Bologna. Hideously deformed, with three eyes and no nose, the child lived only four days. Popularly known as the ‘Monster of Bologna’ the child was thought by papal authorities to be a portent of disaster.

Malatesta, Elisabetta di – (c1420 – 1477)
Italian nun and saint
Elisabetta di Malatesta was born in Pesaro, the daughter of Conte Galeazzo di Malatesta and his wife Battista de Montefeltro. She was married (c1444) to Pietro Gentile Varani, Count of Camerino in Umbria. With her mother, Elisabetta built, financed and patronised the abbey of Corpo di Cristo in Pesaro, and appointed Felicia da Meda, a woman noted for her religious piety, as the first abbess of that house. With the death of her husband Elisabetta became a nun. Elisabetta di Malatesta died in Urbino and was revered as a saint after her death (July 22). Her granddaughter Camilla Varani (Baptista) was also revered as a saint.

Malatesta, Parasina di – (1400 – 1425)
Italian tragedy figure
Parasina Malatesta was the daughter of Malatesta Malatesta, of Rimini. She became the second wife (1418) of Niccolo III, Marquis d’ Este, to whom she bore three daughters. Her stepson Ugo d’Este fell passionately in love with her and the two became lovers (1424). According to the story their guilt was betrayed when the marquis caught a glimpse of the couple’s faces in a mirror. Imprisoned that night within the castle of Ferrara, the following day, Parasina then pregnant, was forced to witness her lover’s execution. She died in a cell of the palace dungeons (March, 1425), after giving birth to a daughter, Isotta, rumoured to have been Ugo’s, though gossip  stated that she had either been secretly poisoned or slowly starved to death. Her tragic story was recalled in the poem entitled Parasina, written by Lord Byron. Her daughter Isotta was, rather curiously, recognized by Niccolo as his own child, and later married Stefano Frangipani.

Malbrock, Camille    see   Sabie, Camille

Malcolm, Clementina Elphinstone, Lady – (c1787 – 1830)
British journal writer
Clementina Elphinstone was the eldest daughter of Hon. (Honourable) William Fullarton Elphinstone, a director of the East India Company and the elder brother of Lord Keith. She was married (Jan, 1809) to Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm (1768 – 1838). She and her husband attended the imprisoned French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte on the Island of St Helena in the Atlantic. Lady Malcolm’s private journal was edited sixty years after her death by Sir Arthur Wilson and was published in London as A Diary of St Helena: The Journal of Lady Malcolm, Containing the Conversations of Napoleon with Sir Pulteney Malcolm (1899).

Malcolm, Emilie Monson – (c1829 – 1905)
New Zealand writer
Emilie Wilton was born in England, the daughter of an army colonel. She was married (1848) to Neill Malcolm, a London barrister. They immigrated to New Zealand with their infant daughter aboard the Victory and arrived in Auckland (1851). From 1858 Emilie resided with her family at the estate and cattle ranch at Rosalie Bay, Great Barrier Island, where her husband provided assistance running the estate for the wealthy Barstow family. The Malcolm family endured great hardships and Emilie bore her husband over a dozen children including the noted painter Fanny Osborne. Despite this the beauty of the coutryside greatly impressed Mrs Malcolm. They bought their own eighty acre farm in 1867 after considerable petitions had been ignored by the authorities. Emilie and her husband resided together on this peroperty until 1897 when they removed to a cottage at Waiwera on the mainland. Widowed in 1898 she published the memoir entitled My Own Story (1904) and died (June 10, 1905) at Avondale in Auckland.

Malesmains, Eleanor de    see   Vitre, Eleanor de

Malet, Elgiva (Aelfgifu) – (c1015 – after 1086)
Anglo-Norman aristocrat
Elgiva Malet was the sister of William Malet (died 1071), seigneur of Graville in Normandy. Her brother Durand Malet was the ancestor of the Lincolnshire branch of the Malet family in England. Elgiva was married to Aelfgar (c1005 – 1062), the powerful Earl of Mercia, and became the stepdaughter-in-law to Earl Leofric and the famous Lady Godiva (Godgifu). Elgiva was the mother of at least three important children, including the Saxon earls Edwin of Mercia (c1033 – 1071) and Morkar of Northumbria (c1035 – after 1087). Her daughter Aldgyth (Alditha) became the second wife of Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king (1066). The countess survived her husband for well over twenty-years and was still living when the Domesday Book was promulgated (1086).

Malet, Lucas – (1852 – 1931)
British novelist
Born Mary St Leger Kingsley (June 4, 1852), at Eversley Rectory, Hampshire, she was the daughter of the novelist Charles Kingsley. She was educated at the Slade School and at the University College, in London, and was married (1876) to William Harrison, rector of Clovelly. With her husband’s death (1897) she finally settled in London, and was finally converted to Roman Catholicism (1902), which influence can be detected in her less daring works written after this date. All her novels were written under the pseudonym of ‘Lucas Malet.’ Her powerful story The Wages of Sin (1891) attracted great attention, whilst her later work the History if Sir Richard Calmady (1901) was greeted with even greater acclaim and success. Other of her works include Mrs Lorimer (1882), Colonel Enderby’s Wife (1885), On the Far Horizon (1906), The Tall Villa (1920), The Survivors (1923) and The Days of Want (1926).

Malet de Graville, Anne – (c1490 – after 1543)
French poet
Anne Malet de Graville was born at the chateau de Marcoussis, near Paris, the daughter of Admiral Malet de Graville, councillor to Louis XII (1498 – 1515). Anne was married (1509) to her cousin Pierre de Balsac, and attended the court of Francois I as lady-in-waiting to his first wife, Claude d’Orleans. She wrote the lengthy poem Palemon et Arcita (1521), which was based on Boccaccio’s Teseida. Anne also rewrote Alain Chartier’s famous poem La Belle Dame sans Merci (The Beautiful Lady Without Mercy).

Malibran, Maria Felicia – (1808 – 1836)
Spanish mezzo-soprano
Maria Felicia Garcia was born in Paris (March 24, 1808), the daughter of the famous tenor Manuel Garcia (1775 – 1832), and was sister to the noted soprano Pauline Viardot-Garcia. Maria possessed a soprano voice of unusual beauty and phenomenal range, and this talent was carefully and rather ruthlessly cultivated by her father. Having performed with her father and sister in New York until 1827, she appeared in Othello, The Barber of Seville, Romeo and Juliet, and Tancred, amongst others operas. Malibran performed in Paris and London until 1832, and then appeared intermittently in Italy, where she experienced her most triumphant operatic successes. Maria Felicia was divorced from her much older first husband, the French banker Malibran, of New York (1835), and she then remarried to her lover, Charles Auguste de Beriot (1802 – 1870), the famous Belgian violinist and composer, to whom she had borne a son. She was especially noted for her performances of roles written by Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini. Maria’s early death (Sept 23, 1836) at Manchester, in Lancashire, England, was the result of a riding accident in which she was thrown and dragged from her horse.

Malika-i-Jahan – (fl. c1270 – 1296)
Indian queen
Malika-i-Jahan was the wife of Jal-ud-din Firuz, Sultan of Delhi, and their daughter was the wife of Ala-ud-din Khilji. Her husband was murdered in 1296, and Malika tried to place her son Rukn-ud-Din on the throne, despite the claims of his elder half-brother Arkali Khan. Her plot was uncovered and the queen and her son were forced to flee to Multan in July, 1296. A strong and domineering woman, her son-in-law accepted the post of governor of Kara, near Allahabad to remove himself from her pernicious influence.

Malinche – (c1501 – c1527)
Mexican Indian guide
Malintzin, known as Malinche, was born at Paynala Coatzocoalcos, and was amongst the group of women given to the conquistador Hernando Cortes by the Tabascan Indians (1519). She took the name Marina upon converting to Roman Catholicism. Malinche became the mistress of Cortes and her work as a guide and interpreter were of vital importance to his campaign of conquest, as she was fluent in both the coastal Mayan dialect and the interior Nahuatl language. She bore Cortes a son Martin, and was then married to a soldier named Juan de Jaramillo. The old claim that Malinche lived until the early 1550’s has been proved false, and it is now known that Malinche died young before reaching the age of thirty. Mexican history remains ambivalent towards her.

Malinowski, Elsie Rosaline – (1891 – 1935)
Australian writer
Elsie Masson was the daughter of Sir David Orme Masson and his wife Mary Struthers, the daughter of Sir John Struthers. She was the sister of Lady Marnie (Flora Marjorie) Bassett the writer, and was married to the noted anthropologist Bronislav Malinowski. She was remembered as the author of An Untamed Territory (1915).

Malla, Maria de – (fl. c1260 – c1295)
Spanish merchant
Maria was the wife of Pere de Malla of Barcelona in Aragon, a shipping merchant who specialized in commodities such as pepper, silk and oil. Pere’s death prior to 1280 Maria took over the running of his business. She encouraged trade with the Byzantines and North Africa, even sending her own sons to these regions to negotiate trading operations.

Mallet, Marie – (1862 – 1934)
British courtier and diarist
Marie Adeane was born at Babraham, near Cambrdige, the daughter of Henry Adeane (died 1870), a Member of Parliament, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Yorke, the daughter of the fourth Earl of Hardwicke. Her godmother was the Duchess of Grafton. At her father’s death, her mother remarried to Lord Michael Biddulph. Like her mother before her, Marie served at court (1887 – 1901) as lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria. She became the wife (1891) of Sir Bernard Mallet (died 1932), a royal official, and left memoirs of her life at court until the queen’s death (1901). This and her personal correspondence was edited and published by her son, Sir Victor Mallet, a godson of Queen Victoria as, Life with Queen Victoria: Marie Mallet’s Letters from Court 1887 – 1901 (1968). During the latter part of her life Lady Mallet served as a Poor Law Guardian for Chelsea in London, as well as being active in various philanthropic organizations. She supported the Amateur Art Exhibition in London, and retained her links with members of the royal family, most notably Queen Mary. Marie Mallet died (March 5, 1934).

Mallet, Matilde – (1872 – 1964)
South American-Anglo civic leader and writer
Mathilde de Obarrio was born (March 13, 1872) at Guayaquil in Ecuador, the daughter of Don Gabriel de Obarrio Perez de Ochoa Ponce de Leon and his wife Dona Rita de Vallarino. Mathilde was educated in Manhattan in New York and at the Convent of the Sacred Heart in the Rue de Varennes in Paris. She became the wife (1892) of the British dilpmat Sir Claude Coventry Mallet and became Lady Mallet. She bore her husband two children. Mathilde Mallet founded the Red Cross in Panama (1917) and was a generous public benefactor to the city of Panama. She instituted the anti-tuberculosis campaign and the Panamanian government issued stamps with Lady Mallet’s portrait, the proceeds of which helped fund her campaign. She established the Lady Mallet Panama Room and the Costa Rica Reading Room at the Star and Garter Hospital at Richmond in Surrey, England.
During WW I. She established centres for the British Red Cross in various Southern American countries including Ecuador and Columbia, and later introduced the Girl Guide Movement to Uruguay (1922). Lady Mallet was appointed as the permanent delegate for Panama to the Ligue des Societes de la Croix Rouge (Red Cross) in Geneva (1946) and was appointed as the attaché to the Panama Legation in London (1947). She received many honours for her tireless work including the Medaille de la reine Elisabeth of Belgium (1918), the British Red Cross for War Work (1922), the Order of Vasco Nunez de Balboa of Panama (1930), and the Panama Red Cross Medal of Merit (1953). Her published work included Sketches of Spanish Colonial Life in Panama (1915) and works providing details of the Mallet family which were published in Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries (1932). Lady Mallet died (Oct 17, 1964) aged ninety-two, at Taunton in Somerset.

Mallett, Jane – (1899 – 1984)
Canadian stage and film actress
Born Jean Dawson Keenleyside (April 17, 1899) in London, Ontario, she worked with CBC Radio from the 1940’s and performed with the Shaw Festival of Canada and the Stratford Festival of Canada. The Jane Mallett Theatre was named in her honour at the St Lawrence Centre in Toronto. She appeared in the film Love at First Sight (1977) with Dan Aykroyd. Jane Mallett died (April 14, 1984) aged eighty-five.

Malling, Mathilda Ingrid – (1864 – 1942)
Swedish novelist and dramatist
Born Mathilda Kruse in southern Sweden, she became one of the first women in Sweden to study at the University of Lund. Mathilda Malling published two works using the pseudonym ‘Stella Kleve,’ the novel Berta Funke (1885) and the novella entitled ‘Pyrrahussegrar’ (Pyrrhic Victories) (1886) which causes a national outcry because of her perceived immorality in using female eroticism as the basis of her themes. Her second novel Alice Brandt (1888) proved to less controversial. Mathilda Kruse was later married (1890) to a Danish businessman named Malling, and then resided in Copenhagen for several years. Her first historical novel En roman om forste konsuln (A Romance of the First Consul) (1894) was published anonymously, and was followed by Skyttes pa Munkeboda (The Skyttes of Munkeboda) (1897). Mathilda Malling died (March 21, 1942) aged seventy-eight, in Copenhagen.

Mallinger, Mathilde – (1847 – 1920)
Croatian soprano
Born Mathilde Lichtenegger (Feb 17, 1847) at Agram, she studied singing at the Prague Conservatory in Bohemia and in Vienna, and made her operatic debut at Munich in Bavaria (1866). Mallinger created the role of Eva in the opera Meistersinger and was later a teacher of singing at the Prague Conservatory. Mathilda was later married (1890) to the Baron Schimmelpfennig. Madame Mallinger died (April 19, 1920) aged seventy-three, in Berlin, Prussia.

Mallon, Mary – (1869 – 1938)
Irish-American typhoid carrier
Mary Mallon was born in Ireland and popularly known as ‘Typhoid Mary’ after she was first recognized as a carrier of the feared typhoid bacteria during an epidemic that spread through Oyster Bay, New York (1904), where she had been employed by a wealthy family as their cook. Mallon herself remained immune to the disease, and her movements were painstakingly traced by government authorities as she continued to practice her trade and unwittingly spread the contagion. Finally found working in a house in Park Avenue, New York, she was forcibly incarcerated for three years (1907 – 1910) at the Riverside Hospital on North Brother Island in the East River, in New York, being eventually released on the proviso that she did not return to her former employment. Rediscovered working as a cook in a sanitorium in New Jersey, during another outbreak (1914), Mallon was again forcibly detained, and remained sequestered in her own house on North Brother Island until her death. Mary Mallon died (Nov 11, 1938).

Mallory, Mary Alice Shutes – (1849 – 1939)
American frontier settler
Mary Shutes travelled with her family by wagon from Ohio to Iowa, at the age of thirteen, and kept a diary during the trip (May – June, 1862). This was later published as Eight Hundred Miles in Thirty-Six Days by Covered Wagons: 1862 from Wyandott County Ohio to Carroll County Iowa (1967).

Mallowan, Agatha Miller, Lady      see      Christie, Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa

Malmesbury, Harriet Amyand, Countess of – (1761 – 1830)
British traveller and letter writer
Harriet Amyand was the daughter of Sir Geoge Amyand, and his wife Anna Maria Korteen, of Hamburg, Germany. She was married (1777) to the diplomat James Harris (1746 – 1820) who later became first baron (1788) and then first earl of Malmesbury (1800). Lord and Lady Malmesbury toured Italy (1791 – 1792). She travelled to Coblentz where her husband and his former secretary, the man of letters, George Ellis, joined her. She visited Vicenza, Padua, Venice, Rome, Florence, Milan, Loreto, and Turin. She left a series of lively letters addressed to her sister, Lady Elliot. Lady Malmesbury enjoyed the Italian theatre and was entertained by the British colony in Naples. There she was received at the court of Ferdinando I and Queen Maria Carolina, and met Lady Hamilton whose Attitudes she admired. In Rome she took a course on the appreciation of ancient antiquities with Lady Carnegie and she was entertained by the Princess di Carignano. Widowed in 1820, she survived her husband a decade. Lady Malmesbury died (Aug 20, 1830) aged sixty-nine, in London.

Malone, Annie    see    Turnbo-Malone, Annie Minerva

Malotaral – (fl. c700 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Malotaral was the wife of King Atlanersa, one of the pharoahs of the XXVth Dynasty (721 – 656 BC), who ruled in the Kush region of the Sudan. Queen Malotaral was buried at Nuri, where her tomb was later discovered and excavated. Her name was recovered on ushabti figures and a heart scarab, and surviving inscriptions gave her the titles of ‘King’s Wife’ and ‘King’s Mother.’ The identity of her son remains conjectural, but he may have been King Senkamisken.

Malraux, Clara – (1897 – 1982)
French author
Born Clara Goldschmidt of Jewish birth, she was married (as his first wife) Andre Malraux (1901 – 1976) the famous author and Minister of Culture (1958 – 1969) under President de Gaulle. They were eventually divorced in 1946. During WW II Clara was actively involved in the organisation of networks to shelter German Jews who were kept supported in hiding from the Nazi regime. Clara and Malraux then travelled extensively in Spain, Italy, and central Europe, after the war. Later, when Malraux was later arrested in Cambodia for attempting to steal state artifacts, it was through Clara’s exhaustive efforts that he was finally released. She left memoirs entitled When We Were 20 (1967).

Malsed, Helen Hernick – (1910 – 1998)
American toy manufacturer
Helen Malsed was born in Cincinnati, and was the originator of the ‘Slinky Dog’ and ‘Slinky Train.’ Helen Hernick Malsed died (Nov 13, 1998) aged eighty-eight, in Seattle, Washington.

Maltby, Peggy – (1899 – 1984)
Anglo-Australian painter
Born Agnes Newberry Orchard (Jan 17, 1899) in England, she immigrated to Victoria in Australia with her husband George Maltby (1924). During the Depression Peg Maltby assisted the family financially with her artistic talents and became a member of the Victorian Arstists’ Society, which exhibited her popular fairy paintings. Maltby produced dozens of books for children as well as nursery rhymes but was best known for Peg’s Fairy Book (1946).

Malte, Audrey – (c1530 – before 1559)
English Tudor gentlewoman
Audrey or Etheldreda Malte was the illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). Her mother was Joan Dingley or Dyngley, a royal laundress who afterwards married a man named Robson. Audrey is sometimes referred to by her mother’s name of Dingley in the sources. The king’s tailor, John Malte, acknowledged Audrey as his own illegitimate child on behalf of the king, who was then involved with Anne Boleyn. Henry later granted the girl generous lands as her dowry when she married (1547) shortly after her father’s death, to John Harrington (1525 – 1582), of Kelston, near Bath in Somerset, as his first wife. Living in 1555 she was childless and had died sometime prior to 1559 when Harrington (later Sir John) had remarried to Isabella Markham. Her husband retained a considerable amount of Audrey’s estate after her death.

Malten, Therese – (1855 – 1930)
German soprano
Therese Malten was born (June 21, 1855) in Insterburg, East Prussia. Trained by Gustav Eduard Engel and Kahle in Berlin, she made her stage debut at Dresden, Saxony (1873) in Pamina, and created the role of Kundry in the opera Parsifal at Bayreuth (1882). Therese was permanently engaged at the Saxon court as a chamber vocalist for the royal family and their court for two decades (1898 – 1918). Therese Malten died (Jan 2, 1930) aged seventy-four, at Dresden.

Malthake – (c45 – 4 BC)
Judaean queen mother
Malthake was born in Samaria, Palestine, and became one of the lesser wives (c25 BC) of the Idumean ruler, Herod I the Great. Her children included Herod Archelaus (c20 BC – 18 AD), ethnarch of Judaea, who married twice and left children, Herod II Antipas (c18 BC – 39 AD), King of Judaea, who married twice and died childless, and a daughter Olympias, who married her cousin Joseph, the grandson of Antipater of Idumaea, and left issue. Her son Archelaus was raised to the throne after Herod’s death (4 BC), whereupon she was accorded the rank of queen mother at his court, but the people revolted against his rule. Archelaus then travelled to Rome to plead his case before Augustus, and was accompanied by Malthake and her younger son, Antipas. Before Augustus could decide the succession question, Malthake died of a fever.

Maltravers, Lady Margaret   see   Woodville, Margaret (1)

Maltzahn, Catherine de – (c1735 – after 1810)
German courtier
Baroness Catherine von Maltzahn was the sister of Count Joachim Karl von Maltzahn (1733 – 1817), the Prussian minister to England. She remained unmarried and became a Protestant canoness. She was for many years the lady-in-waiting of the Countess of Albany, the wife of the Young Pretender.

Mamaea     see     Julia Mamaea

MaMakhabane – (c1900 – 1949)
African queen consort
MaMakhabane was the daughter of Malapo, chief of the Leribe tribe, and was the granddaughter to Moshoeshoe I the Great, King of Lesotho. She was married (c1915) to Boshoane (1895 – 1940), the principal chief of the Matse’ekheng tribe, and became the mother of the next principal chief Makhabane II (born 1922). As queen mother she became involved in a conspiracy and was executed (Aug, 1949).

MaMohato – (c1795 – 1834)
African queen (1829 – 1834)
MaMohato was the daughter of Seephephe, a Bafokeng chief, and his wife Makoai. She was married (c1810) to Mosheshoe I, the great paramount chief of the Lesotho (c1786 – 1870) and was the mother of the paramount chief Letsie I (c1811 – 1891). She died at Thaba-Bosiu, and was buried there.

‘Mamohato Bereng Seesio – (1941 – 2003)
Queen consort and regent of Lesotho
Princess Tabita ‘Masentle Lerotholi Mojela was born (April 28, 1941). She became the wife of King Moshoshoe II of Lesotho and was the mother of King Letsie III. She served as regent of the kingdom on three separate occasions (1970), (1990), and (1996). Queen‘Mamohato Bereng Seesio died (Sept 6, 2003) aged sixty-two.

Mamoshina, Glafira Adolfovna    see    Galina, G.A.

Manahan, Anna Anderson    see    Schanzkowska, Franziska

Manahan, Anna Maria – (1924 – 2009)
Irish stage, film and television actress
Manahan was born (Oct 18, 1924) in County Waterford. She trained for the stage under such directors as Hilton Edwards and was married to the stage director Colm O’Kelly. There were no children. She appeared in the role of Serafina in the first Irish production of The Rose Tattoo by Tennessee Williams (1957), and she and the other cast members achieved media publicity when they were arrested by police for being allegedly in possession of a condom on stage. Manahan worked in theatres throughout Europe, Australia and the USA. Anna Manahan worked in television and appeared in the famous serial programs The Riordans and Me Mammy, and appeared in the title role of the comedy series Leave it to Mrs O’Brien. Anna received an Antoinette Perry Award (Tony) for her characterization of Mag in Martin McDonagh’s The Beauty Queen of Leenane and the dramatist John B. Keane wrote the play Big Maggie especially for her. Manahan received the Gold Medal of the Eire Society of Boston (1984) and was granted the freedom of the city of Waterford (2002) in recognition of her lifetime achievement as an actress. Anna Manahan died (March 8, 2009) aged eighty-four.

Manan Janterer Asfaw      see      Menen (2)

Manan Liben-Amdie     see    Menen (1)

Manarko   see   Bustinza y Ozerin, Rosa

Mana-Zucca – (1885 – 1981)
American composer, vocalist and pianist
Born Gizella Augusta Zuckermann in New York, she studied piano under Alexander Lambert in New York, and received more training in Europe. She toured successfully as a pianist, and also performed in light opera, having composed concertos for orchestras, chamber music, and a large number of highly popular songs, which were performed by many leading singers of the 1920’s and 1930’s. She wrote memoirs of her European travels. Mana-Zucca died at Miami Beach, Florida.

Mance, Jeanne – (1606 – 1673)
French-Canadian hospital founder and religious patron
With the early deaths if her parents, she assisted with the raising of her nine brothers and sisters. With the aid of the Catholic Church amd private donors, Jeanne established a Catholic hospice, the Hotel Dieu, in Montreal (1644), organized and run by the Sisters of Joseph.

Manche, Marie Luise    see   Felseneck, Marie von

Manchester, Isabella Montagu, Duchess of – (1705 – 1786)
British Hanoverian courtier
Lady Isabella Montagu was the daughter of John, second Duke of Montagu (1688 – 1749), and his wife Lady Mary Churchill, the youngest daughter of the famous general John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and his wife Sarah Jennings, the favourite of Queen Anne. Considered a great beauty, she was married firstly to William Montagu, second Duke of Manchester (1700 – 1739), and secondly to (1743) Edward Hussey, Lord Beaulieu (1720 – 1802). Charles Hanbury-Williams wrote his coarse Ode to commemorate her second marriage, and the duchess was mentioned in the correspondence of the antiquarian Horace Walpole. The Duchess died (Dec 20, 1786) aged eighty-one, in Dover Street, London.

Manchester, Louisa, Duchess of   see   Devonshire, Louisa von Alten, Duchess of

Mancini, Eva Cattermole    see    Cattermole Mancini, Eva

Mancini, Hieronima – (1614 – 1656)
Italian patrician
Born Hieronima Mazzarini, she was sister to Margherita Martinozzi and Cleria Mazzarini, and to Cardinal Jules Mazarin, regent of France for Louis XIV. She was married to Lorenzo Mancini, and was the mother of Laura, Marie, Olympe, Hortense, and Marie Anne Mancini. Hieronima Mancini died in Rome.

Mancini, Hortense – (1646 – 1699) 
Italian courtier and royal mistress
Hortensia Mancini was born (June 6, 1646) in Rome, Italy, and was the younger sister of Laura, Marie, Olympe and Marie Anne Mancini, who all went to the French court at the behest of their powerful uncle, Cardinal Mazarin. He arranged for her marriage (1661) to Armand Charles de La Porte, Marquis de La Meilleraye (1632 – 1713), who assumed the title of Duc de Mazarin, in Hortense’s right. Her hand had been sought by Charles II of England, Alfonso of Portugal, and the Duke of Savoy amongst other royal suitors. Hortense bore her husband four children, but his religious mania became so increasingly bizarre that she finally seperated from him (1666).  Hortense travelled to England where she became celebrated for her beauty in London, at the court of Charles II, whose mistress she was for a period. She also established a literary salon in London, where she entertained Charles de St Evremonde. Her memoirs, which appeared in 1675, have been attributed to the historical novelist, the Abbe de Saint-Real. Hortense remained in England for the rest of her life, and was granted a pension by Charles II, which was continued by his brother James II. She resided firstly in Kensington Square, but later removed to Chelsea, near London. Hortense Mancini died (July 16, 1699) aged fifty-four, at Chelsea.

Mancini, Laure    see    Mercoeur, Duchesse de

Mancini, Marie – (1639 – 1715)
Italian-French beauty and courtier
Maria Mancini was born in Paris daughter of Lorenzo Mancini and his wife Hieronyma Mazzarini, the sister to the powerful Cardinal Julues Mazarin, she was the younger sister of the Duchesse de Mercoeur and the elder sister to Hortense Mancini, the Duchesse de Bouillon, and the Comtesse de Soissons. After her arrival at the French court Marie was briefly the mistress to Louis XIV, and Mazarin unsuccessfully intrigued to marry them. She was later married instead (1661) to the Italian Prince Lorenzo Onofrio di Colonna, the Constable of Naples. She later left her husband and returned to France, where she unsuccessfully atempted to regain access to the court at Versailles. She then travelled to the Netherlands and to Spain, where she spent some time resident in a convent in Madrid. The court historian, the Duc de Saint-Simon described Marie in his Memoires as; ‘the wildest and the best of the Mazarinettes.’ Marie Mancini died (May 11, 1715) in Pisa, Italy.

Mancini, Marie Anne    see    Bouillon, Duchesse de

Mancini, Olympia     see    Soissons, Comtesse de

Mandane of Media – (c605 – after 559 BC)
Persian queen consort
Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, King of Media and his wife Aryenis, the daughter of Alyattes, King of Lydia. Mandane was married to Cambyses I, King of Persia, whom she survived. She became the mother of King Cyrus II the Great (c585 – 530 BC), who succeeded his father in 559 BC. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that it was prophesied that Mandane would bear a child to Cambyses who would inherit the world. This legend maintained that when Cyrus was born a Median nobleman named Harpagus was entrusted with the unwelcome task of killing the infant, on the orders of Mandane's father Astyages. Instead Harpagus delivered the child to a herdman Mithridates and his wife, who instead of exposing him in the wild, raised him as their own son. When he was ten years old Cyrus was brought before King Astyages for some minor offence. Astyages recognized the child as his grandson, dragged the truth from the herdsman and took grisly vengeance upon Harpagus for his deceit. The king returned Cyrus unharmed to his parents in Persia, who had long given him up for dead. Another tradition recorded by Ktesias of Cridus in the fifth century BC, mistakenly called Mandane as the wife of Cyrus instead of his mother.

Mandane of Persia – (fl. 519 – after 480 BC)
Achaemenid princess
The daughter of King Darius I, the identity of her mother remains unrecorded. She was named for her ancestress Mandane of Media, the wife of Cambyses I and mother of Cyrus the Great. The identity of her husband remains unknown, but mandane did have two sons old enough to participate in the famous sea battle of Salamis (480 BC), where they both perished. Their fate and relationship to the king was recorded by the historian Diodorus Siculus.

Mandelbaum, Harriet – (1912 – 1992) 
American activist for disabled children
Originally a member of the United States Joint Commission on Mental Health for Children, Harriet Mandelbaum went on the lecture circuit around the country before founding the League for Emotionally Disturbed Children (1951) which promoted educational and therapeutic facilities to deal with these problems. This organization evolved into the National Organization for Mentally Ill Children (1955), with Harriet as its first president. She worked for many years in Brooklyn, New York with both adults and children at the League Treatment Center and School. Harriet Mandelbaum died in Brooklyn of a cerebral haemorrhage.

Mandelstam, Nadezhda Yakovlevna – (1899 – 1980)
Russian writer, memoirist and essayist
Born Nadezhda Khazina at Saratov on the Volga River, she was educated at home by governesses and later studied art with Alexandra Exter in Kiev. Khazina was married (1921) to the poet Osip Mandelstam, with whom she worked in Moscow as a translator. Nadezhda and her husband were later arrested for satirizing Josef Stalin (1934), and spent several years in exile in Voronezh. Osip later died in a prison camp (1938). Nadezhda wrote wrote the collection of verse The Goldfinch and Other Poems (1973), and her famous memoirs, Vospominaniia (Hope Against Hope) (1970). Nadezhda Mandelstam died (Dec 29, 1980) aged eighty-one, in Moscow.

Manderscheid, Josina von – (1537 – 1579)
German nun
Josina von Manderscheid was the second daughter of Gerhard, Count von Manderscheid-Gerolstein, and his wife Countess Franziska von Montfort-Bregenz, the daughter of George II, Count von Montfort-Bregenz. Josina remained unmarried and was dedicated to the church. She later served as abbess of the medieval abbey of Thorn (1578 – 1579).

Manechilde – (fl. c450 – c470 AD) 
Gallo-Roman saint
Manechilde (Menehaud) was born in Perthois, the daughter of the patrician Sigmarius. Veiled as a nun by Alpin, Bishop of Chalons, she dedicated herself to ministering to the poor, and accompanied her father on his visits to Chateau-sur-Aistre, in order to tend to the sick in thatplace. With the death of her parents, Manechilde became a hermitess at Bienville. On the Cote-a-Vignes is a spring said to have been miraculously produced by the saint, in order to quench the thirst of the people who came to visit her in large numbers when she was at her cell on the side of the mountain. Manechilde died at Bienville and was honoured by the church as a saint (Oct 14).

Manefrure       see      Maathorneferure

Maneva, Slavka - (1934 - 2010)
Greek writer and poet
Slavka Maneva was born (Feb 2, 1934) at Skopje in Macedonia, and studied literature at the university there. She then worked as a teacher of the Macedonian language, and published children's books such as The Singing Bird, The Magic Elevator, The Singing Rainbow and The House of the Rainbow. Her book Pillow of Stars (1996) won the Vanco Nikolevski Award. Slavka Maneva died (Jan 8, 2010) aged seventy-five.

Mangguji – (c1575 – 1636)
Chinese Manchu princess
Princess Mangguji was the daughter of T’ien-ming, Emperor of Manchuria, and his wife Gundai. She was cousin to the first Manchurian emperor of China, Shunzhih (1644 – 1661). Mangguji was married firstly (1601) to Prince Uldai of the Hada clan. She was later remarried secondly (1628) to Sodnom Dureng, the leader of the Monggoi Aukhan Mongols. Princess Mangguji was put to death at the command of the Emperor Tai T’sung Wn Hunag Ti, because of her invovlement in a court conspiracy. She was later accorded the posthumous name of Mangguji Ko Ko.

Mangy, Katherine – (1677 – 1747)
British silversmith
Her surname is sometimes given as Mangie or Mangey, and she was the daughter of the Hull silversmith John Mangy and his wife Katherine. With the death of her father, Katherine continued to run the business with her widowed mother. With her death, the younger Katherine continued the business with her surviving brother, and resided in Church Lane. Insurance papers survive which provide details of her household goods, utensils, and stock (1740).

Mania – (c440 – c400 BC) 
Persian ruler
Mania was the wife of Zenis, a Dardanian who ruled parts of Aeolis. Her husband died sometime after 414 BC, and Mania, through the placement of magnificent gifts, was granted her husband’s territories by the satrap Pharnabazus, and convinced him that she was her late husband’s equal in strength to rule. Noted for the promptness with which she paid her tribute, Mania captured and added the coastal towns of Larisa, Hamatitus, and Colonae to the principality, with the aid of Greek mercenaries, watching the battles from her own war chariot. She accompanied Pharnabazus on his expeditions against the Mysians and Pisidians, who had been leading continual raids on the royal lands, and was even given the honour of providing the satrap with valued counsel.
However, when she reached the age of forty, Mania was murdered by her son-in-law, Meidias, who also killed her seventeen year old son, and seized her treasure cities of Scepsis and Gergis. The other cities refused to accept the usurper, and when Meidias presented gifts to Pharnabazus, they were indignantly rejected, and he was warned that vengeance would be taken for Mania’s murder. Thus, in 399 BC, all of Mania’s cities received the deliverance of Dercylidas of Sparta, sent by Pharnabazus, and at Gergis, where Meidias had taken refuge he compelled him to open the city to him. The former mercenaries of Mania were then taken into the service of Dercylidas, who used Mania’s recovered treasure to keep them paid.

Manifold, Agnes Gwendolen Grimwade, Lady - (1899 - 1980)
Australian civic leader and philanthropist
Agnes Grimwade was the daughter of Harold Grimwade, of Marathon in Frankston, Victoria. She became the wife (1923) of the pastoralist Thomas Chester Manifold (1897 - 1979), to whom she bore three children, the family residing at the estate of Tallindert.
Thomas Manifold was later knighted (1953) by Queen Elizabeth II, and in the following year Sir Thomas and Lady Agnes entertained the queen and Prince Philip at the races in Flemington, Victoria (1954). Lady Manifold endowed the Winifred Grimwade Library at the Camperdown High School (1965) and presented the Lady Manifold Perpetual Trophy to the district pony clubs. Lady Agnes and her husband organized a grand society ball at Tallindert (1966) for the benefit of the Asthma Foundation. Both Agnes and her husband were lifetime patrons of racing in Victoria, and were jointly honoured by the Camperdown Racing club (1975). She briefly survived Sir Thomas as the Dowager Lady Manifold (1979 - 1980). Lady Agnes died (Oct 14, 1980) aged eighty-one.

Manigault, Ann   see    Mannigault, Ann Ashby

Manina, Maria    see   Fletcher, Maria

Manley, Carmen – (1931 – 1975)
Jamaican writer, actress, and television and radio broadcaster
Carmen Manley was born in Panama, South America of Jamaican parents. She resided for some time in England and wrote scripts for television and radio. Manley was the author of children’s stories, which were illustrated by Winnie Risden and wrote, The Land of Wood and Water (1961), which was illustrated by fellow Anglo-Jamaican critic and sculptor Edna Manley. Carmen Manley produced a collection of short stories entitled, The Isle of Springs (1968), and received several wards from the Jamaican Festival Competition for plays such as Chi Chi Bad’s Love (1967) and My Father’s Keeper (1967) amongst others.

Manley, Mary de La Riviere – (1663 – 1724)
British author
Mary de La Riviere Manley was born in Jersey (April 7, 1663), the daughter of Sir Roger Manley, governor of the Channel Islands. She was trapped into marriage with her cousin, the member for Parliament for Truro, John Manley, who quickly deserted her, leaving Mary to take up literary work as a means of survival. Her earliest works were two plays The Lost Lover and The Royal Mischief (both 1696) which unfortunately did not prove successful. Mary wrote her own biography under the title of The Adventures of Rivella, of the History of the Author of Atlantis by ‘Sir Charles Lovemore’ (1714). However, her most famous work was her political chronicle, disguised as romantic fiction the Secret Memoirs ….of Several Persons of Quality (1709) (also called The New Atlantis), a daring and scandalous volume, said to originate ‘from the New Atlantis, an island in the Mediterranean ’ which was written by her to expose the private vices of several court ministers, who, through the efforts of Lord Harley, Lord Bolingbroke, and Jonathon Swift, were ultimately driven from office. Though quickly arrested for libel (autumn, 1709), Mary was eventually discharged from the Queen’s Bench (Feb, 1710). In 1711 Mary succeeded Jonathon Swift as editor of the The Examiner, thus becoming the first recorded professional female journalist. Her later works included the tragedy Lucius (1717), The Power of Love, in Seven Novels (1720) and A Stage Coach Journey to Exeter (1725), published posthumously.

Manlia Daedalia     see     Daedalia, Manlia

Manlia Scantilla – (c145 – 193 AD)
Roman Augusta
Manlia Scantilla was the wife of Didius Julianus, who bought the Imperial throne after the assasination of Pertinax (193 AD), according to tradition, at the urging of Manlia and her daughter, Didia Clara, who coveted Imperial rank and privileges, which were accorded them (Aug 29) of that year. Manlia and her daughter survived Julianus’s death, he being beheaded at the order of Septimius Severus, and were permitted to retire into obscurity, losing their Imperial titles. She died a few weeks afterwards, survived by her daughter. The surviving coinage does not flatter her.

Mann, Cathleen Sabine – (1896 – 1959)
British painter
Cathleen Mann was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the daughter of noted Scottish portrait painter Harrington Mann. She studied art under her father and Dame Ethel Walker, and also studied at the Slade School in London and in Paris. Cathleen was married firstly (1926 – 1946) to the eleventh Marquess of Queensberry, from whom she was divorced, and secondly to J.R. Follett. Mann is best remembered for her studies of children and landscape paintings, though she also experimented with abstract works and sculpture. She suffered much from bouts of nervous exhaustion and ultimately committed suicide.

Mann, Erika – (1905 – 1969)
German writer, journalist, actress and lecturer
Erika Mann was the daughter of the noted novelist and critic, Thomas Mann (1875 – 1955). Erika was sister to the novelist and dramatist Klaus Mann (1906 – 1949) and the historian Golo Mann (1909 – 1994). She was married firstly to the famous German actor and director, Gustaf Grundgens (1899 – 1963) and then became the wife of Anglo-American author W.H. Auden (1907 – 1973).

Mann, Pamelia – (1810 – 1880)
American brothel keeper and adventuress
Pamelia was born in Tennessee, the daughter of a farmer. She ran away from home and began work in a waterfront brothel in New York (1826). Tall and dark-haired but of masculine appearance, she was possessed of a violent nature. She later moved to New Orleans in Louisiana where she established her own bordello. After shooting dead a client beating up one of her girls Mann fled by schooner to Galveston in Texas (1832). Mann lived quietly in Harrisburg and bore several children but later served in the force led by General Sam Houston when they destroyed the Mexican forces of President Santa Anna at San Jacinto (1836). Pamelia soon opened several brothels in Houston which were of considerable opulence and style. She controlled various police, officials and politicians, and used bribery, blackmail and all forms of corruption. Eventually the townspeople of Houston turned against Mann and burned her bordello to the ground (1844), humiliated and whipped her girls, and forced them to leave town. Pamelia turned whatever assets she could for cash and left for New York. Mann later lost her entire fortune speculating during the gold rush in California. She was forced to return to prostitution and served prison terms for minor offences. Old and drunk she survived on the charity and kindness of young prostitutes. Pamela Mann died aged seventy-two, in San Francisco.

Mannering, Julia   see   Bingham, Madeleine

Manners, Lady Bridget – (1572 – 1604)
English Tudor courtier
Lady Bridget Manners was the elder daughter of John Manners, fourth Earl of Rutland (1587 – 1588) and his wife Elizabeth Charlton. She was raised in the household of her stepgrandmother Bridget Hussey, Countess of Bedford, but recieved an indifferent education. As an unmarried girl she attended the court of Queen Elizabeth I whom she served as maid-of-honour. She attained the queen’s favour but as the queen was always reluctant to part with the ladies whom she became particularly attached the Countess of Rutland arranged a marriage for Bridget behind the queen’s back, fearing that if she asked permission, as was proper, Elizabeth would only refuse her consent. Bridget was then married (1594) to Robert Tyrwhitt (died 1617) of Kettleby in Lincolnshire. On learning of this marriage Queen Elizabeth became so incensed that she ordered Tyrwhitt’s arrest and kept him in prison for three months before finally relenting and accepting the marriage. Lady Bridget died (July 10, 1604). Bridget was the mother of William Tyrwhitt of Kettleby (1595 – 1642) who left issue. Her descendants included the family of Hunloke, baronets (extinct 1878) and Philip Charles Sidney (1800 – 1851) who was married to Lady Augusta Fitzclarence, the natural daughter of King William IV (1830 – 1837) and the actress Dorothea Jordan, and left descendants.

Manners, Catherine    see   Stepney, Catherine Pollock, Lady

Manners, Eleanor De Ros, Lady    see   De Ros, Eleanor

Mannes, Marya – (1904 – 1990)
American journalist, novelist and poet
Marya was born Maria von Heimburg Mannes (Nov 14, 1904) in New York, the daughter of the musicians David Mannes and his wife Clara Damrosch. Educated privately by her parents and by a governess Marya travelled abroad in Europe and wrote articles for such magazines as Theatre Arts, International Studio and Harper’s Bazaar. Marya Mannes died (Sept 13, 1990) aged eighty-five, in San Francisco, California.

Mannigault, Ann Ashby – (1703 – 1782)
American colonial diarist
A married woman, portions of the last twenty-five years of her private journal, which covered the Revolutionary period, were later published as Extracts from the Journal of Mrs Ann Mannigault, 1754 – 1781, in the South Carolina Historical amd Genealogical Magazine (1919 – 1920).

Mannigault, Margaret Izard – (1768 – 1824)
American traveller and letter writer
Mrs Mannigault corresponded with Madame Gabrielle Du Pont, the wife of the French diplomat Victor Du Pont. Parts of this correspondence were edited and published by Betty Bright Low in the twentieth century as Of Muslims and Merveilleuses: Excerpts from the Letters of Josephine Du Pont and Margaret Mannigault (1974).

Mannin, Ethel Edith – (1900 – 1984) 
British novelist and travel writer
Ethel Mannin was born in London to Irish parents. She was well edcuated and travelled wideley in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Ethel Mannin became a member of the women’s suffrage movement and joined the Independent Labour Party. Mannin produced over three dozen novels, of which the best known were Venetian Blinds (1914) set in working class London during the Great War, and Red Rose (1941), which was based upon the life of the famous anarchist Emma Goldman ‘Red Emma.’ She also published Women and the Revolution (1938) and the travel-logue A Lance For the Arabs (1963).

Manning, Eleanor – (1906 – 1988)
Australian servicewoman
Eleanor was born (March 21, 1906) in Sydney, New south Wales, the daughter of Sir Henry Manning. She joined the WANS (Women’s Australian National Services) and became the most senior officer of the Australian Women’s Army Service (AWAS) in NSW. She was responsible for the recruitment and early training of all AWAS enlistees in NSW. Manning was later appointed as the commanding officer of the Australian Women’s Services Officers’ School in Darley, Victoria. Having served as the Chief Coimmissioner of the Girl Guides in Australia (1955 – 1963) her service was recognized when she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1959). Eleanor Manning died (Nov 21, 1986) aged eighty-two.

Manning, Emily Matilda – (1845 – 1890)
Australian journalist and poet
Emily Manning was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of the politician, Sir William Manning, and his wife Emily Wise, and was educated privately at her father’s estate, Wallaroy, at Edgecliff, Sydney. In her youth Emily exchanged verses with David Scott Mitchell, the future public benefactor. She travelled to London, meeting the novelist George Eliot, Lord Tennyson, and others, and began a career in journalism with periodicals such as Monthly Packet of Evening Readings for juvenile girls, and Golden Hours. Upon her return to Sydney, Emily adopted the pen name ‘Australie’ and wrote articles for the Town and Country Journal, the Sydney Morning Herald, and the Sydney Mail. Emily married (1873) Henry Heron, of Sydney, a solicitor, to whom she bore six children, and also produced a volume of verse The Balance of Pain and other Poems (1877) published under the name ‘Australie.’ Emily Matilda Manning died at Blandville.

Manning, Irene – (1912 – 2004)
American stage, film, and television actress and vocalist
Born Inez Harvuot (July 17, 1912) in Ohio, Cincinnati, as Irene Manning she was best known for playing the singer Fay Templeton in the classic film Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942) opposite James Cagney. She later devoted more time to her musical career appeared on stage on Broadway and worked in the London theatre where she appeared in such musicals as DuBarry Was a Lady and Serenade. Manning also worked in British television and hosted her own program on BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) television entitled An American in England. She returned to the USA in 1951. Irene Manning died (May 28, 2004) aged ninety-one, at San Carlos in California.

Manning, Dame Leah – (1886 – 1977)
British politician
Born Elizabeth Leah Perrett in Rockford, Illinois, USA, and returned to England with her family as a child. She attended local secondary schools in London, and then trained as a teacher at Homerton College, Cambridge. She was married (1914) to William Manning. Leah Manning joined the Labour Party and then stood for election as a member of parliament. She twice served in the Labour government (1929 – 1931) and (1945 – 1950). A fervent trade union supporter, Manning also fully supported the Republican cause during the Spanish Civil War (1936 – 1939). In recognition of her valuable contribution to politics she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1966). Dame Leah Manning was the author of memoirs What I Saw in Spain (1933) and her autobiography A Life for Education (1970).

Manning, Olivia Mary – (1908 – 1980)
British novelist and literary journalist
Olivia Manning was born at Portsmouth, in Hampshire, the daughter of a naval officer. She was resided in Ireland and attended art school in London. She was married (1939) to Reggie Smith, a British Council lecturer, whom she accompanied to Bucharest in Romania. With the advent of WW II, the Mannings fled to Greece, where they were forced to evacuate from Athens to Egypt, and thence to Jerusalem, where she was the press assistant and with the British Council (1941 – 1945) before returning to London after the war (1946). An enormously prolific writer, Olivia Manning was best known for her Balkan trilogy The Great Fortune (1960), The Spoilt City (1962), and Friends and Heroes (1965), and her Levant Trilogy The Danger Tree (1977), The Battle Lost and Won (1978) and The Sum of Things (1980), which all formed part of her large narrative work Fortunes of War. Manning was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1976) in recognition of her valuable contribution to literature and public service. Olivia Manning died in London.

Manolieu, Lia – (1932 – 1998)
Romanian athlete
Lia Manolieu was the daughter of an academic. She was well educated and was fluent in several languages, including English, French and Russian. She was employed as an electrical engineer, and married the discus thrower Aurel Noicu, to whom she bore five children. During her lengthy sporting career as a discus thrower, Lia was a finalist in every Olympic Games over a two decade period (1952 – 1972). In 1968 at Mexico City, she won gold (191 – 2), being then the oldest woman to win an Olympic title in track and field. In 1972 she made the longest throw of her career (203 – 7). Lia Manolieu died in Bucharest of a heart attack.

Manos, Aspasia – (1896 – 1972)
Greek royal
Born (Sept 4, 1896) she was the daughter of Colonel Ptros Manos, the noted general. Called ‘exquisitely beautiful,’ Aspasia was noticed by the young King Alexandros I (1893 – 1920) but refused to become his mistress. Alexandros then wished to marry her. His father Konstantine I was not unsympathetic but made alexandros promise that he would not marry Aspasia until after the end of WW I. Despite the king’s assent Queen Sophia remained implacably opposed to the marriage. Aspasia became the morganatic wife of King Alexandros I (Nov, 1919) and was created by royal decree HRH Princess Aspasia of Greece. Alexander died from blood poisoning after being bitten by his pet monkey. Aspasia was the mother of a posthumous only child, Alexandra of Greece, who became the queen of Peter II, King of Yugoslavia and left issue. Her daughter was made her father’s legal heir (Oct 12, 1922) though she did not receive any rights in regard to the throne. When King Konstantine I was assassinated (1923) Aspasia and her daughter fled with the royal family to Rome. Aspasia never remarried and was styled the Dowager Princess of Greece for over five decades (1920 – 1972). With the restoration of the monarchy (Nov, 1935) Aspasia returned to Greece. When the monarchy fell for the last time (1967) the princess retired to her private estate without any trouble from the new Greek authorities. Princess Aspasia died (Aug 7, 1972) aged seventy-five.

Manrique, Elvira – (fl. 1501 – 1505)
Spanish courtier
Born Elvira Manuel de Villena Suarez de Figueroa, Dona Elvira Manrique was the daughter of Juan Manuel de Villena Fonseca, Senor de Belmonte de campos and his wife Aldonza Suarez de Figueroa. She was sister of the diplomat Juan Manuel, ambassador to the Netherlands. She became the wife of the diplomat Pedro Manrique. Dona Elvira was chosen by Queen Isabella of Castile to be the duenna of her youngest daughter, Catharine of Aragon, and accompanied her to England, as the head of her household, for her marriage with Prince Arthur, the eldest son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (1501). Her son Inigo Manrique was appointed as mater of the pages in Catherine's household. Dona Elvira bore the titles of First Lady of Honour and First Lady of the Bedchamber. Her husband served the Infanta as Lord Chamberlain.
With the death of the prince (1502), Dona Elvira became the head of Princess Catharine’s household at Durham House, and accompanied her to court on her occasional visits there. She became a person of great influence in Catharine’s household, but became involved in international intrigues. She supported the ambassador De Ayala, against Dr du Puebla, who had arranged the English marriage, and with the death of Queen Isabella (1504), became involved with her brother, in plotting with Queen Juana of Castile, and her husband Philip, against King Ferdinand of Aragon. Letters passed between England and Flanders, but the scheme was uncovered by du Puebla, and Dona Elvira’s duplicity was revealed to Catharine. Dona Elvira was dismissed from the household of the princess, and retired to live with her brother in Flanders. In the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) with Keith Michell, Elvira was portrayed by actress Sally Travers.

Mansell, Mary    see   Farren, Mary

Mansfeldt, Maria Anna von – (1682 – 1724)
German heiress
Countess Maria Anna von Mansfeldt was born (Oct 16, 1682) the daughter of Heinrich Friedrich, Count von Mansfeldt and Prince of Fondi, and his wife Marie d’Aspremont. Maria Anna was married three times, firstly to Wilhelm Florentin of Salm-Dhaun (1670 – 1707), Count von Hoogestraeten, secondly to Karl Colonna von Vols, and thirdly to Johann Siegfried von Auersperg. Countess Maria Anna died (Jan 16, 1724) aged forty-one.

Mansfield, Katherine – (1888 – 1923) 
New Zealand author and poet
Katherine Beauchamp was born in Wellington, the daughter of a successful businessman, Harold Beauchamp, and spent most of her childhood at Thorndon and Karori in New Zealand. She was the cousin of author Mary Annette Beauchamp, Countess von Arnim (1866 – 1941). Determined upon a literary career, she attended Queen’s College in London (1903 – 1906) where she studied music. She married and left her first husband, George Bowden, in a period of only three weeks. When she became pregnant she was installed by her mother in a hotel in Bavaria, but miscarried. These experiences helped produce her first published work In a German Pension (1911). Several years later (1918) she was married to the literary critic, John Middleton Murry (1889 – 1957), with whom she had been in a relationship since 1912, and was associated with the publication of the literary review Rhthymn. D.H. Lawrence in his work Women in Love (1921) portrayed the couple as ‘Gudrun’ and ‘Gerald.’
Her brilliant talent and acute critical powers in the short story genre are stunningly revealed in her first major work Prelude (1917) and by her work Bliss, and other stories (1920) collection, and in her frequent contributions to The Athenaeum publication, which was edited by Murry. The Garden Party, and other stories (1922) shortly followed. Compared to the Russian writer Anton Chekhov, she aroused the jealousy of Virginia Woolf. However her budding career was sadly cut short, when she died (Jan 9, 1923) at Fontainebleau, Paris, after a long struggle with tuberculosis. Further of Katherine Mansfield’s works were published posthumously including The Doves’ Nest and Other Stories (1923) a collection of short stories, and Something Childish and Other Stories (1924) a selection of tales, and in 1927 the Journal of Katherine Mansfield (1914 – 1922) was published.

Mansur, Ina – (1910 – 1988)
American scientist and author
Born Ina Babb (Jan 5, 1910) in Peru, Maine, she was the daughter of a farmer. She attended Boston University, and was married (1930) to a teacher, Lawrence Cutler Mansur. Ina Mansur joined the radar research staff at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge (1941 – 1945), where she worked as a microwave scientist after the war. She was the appointed historian of the town of Bedford in Massachusetts, was a columnist for the local periodical, and was the author of A New England Church, 1730 – 1834 (1974). With her husband she co-wrote A Pictorial History of Bedford, Massachusetts, 1729 to Modern Times (1992) which was published after her death. Mansur was a member of several important societies such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the New England Genealogical Society, and the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. Ina Mansur died (Nov 20, 1988) aged seventy-eight.

Mant, Alicia Catherine – (1788 – 1869)
British children’s writer
Alicia Mant was the daughter of a clergyman, and married a rector with whom she resided in Bath, Somerset. She wrote moral tales for the edification of children, such as The Canary Bird (1817) and the children’s novel The Cottage in the Chalk-Pit (1822).

Manto – (fl. c1300 BC)
Greek prophetess
Manto was daughter to the famous seer and soothsayer Tiresias. She resided within the city of Thebes with her father and was trained by him as a seeress. When the city was threatened by the Epigoni most of the Theban population fled but Manto remained behind in the city with her father. They were taken prisoner by the conquerors, and were then sent to Delphi to be consecrated to the god Apollo. Tiresias died of exhaustion along the way but Manto survived. Manto became the wife of Rhacius, a native of Argos and resided with him at Claros. By him she was the mother of Mopsus, seer of the oracle of Apollo at Delphi and the founder of the city of Colophon. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus recorded in the first century BC that Manto composed oracles, and it is thought that the famous poet Homer borrowed some of his ideas for the Illiad and the Odyssey from her poetic verses.

Manton, Irene – (1904 – 1988) 
British botanist and cytologist
Irene Manton was born in London, and was the younger sister of Sidnie Manton. She studied botany and natural history at Cambridge University, and travelled abroad in order to study cytology in Sweden. With her return from Scandinavia Manton accepted the position of assistant reader at Manchester University in Lancashire, where she remained over sixteen years (1929 – 1946). After this she became professor of Botany at the University of Leeds in Yorkshire, where she conducted research into plankton with the noted phycologist Mary Parke (1908 – 1989). Irene Manton was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society (1961) several years before her eventual retirement (1969). Irene Manton died (May 31, 1988).

Manton, Sidnie Milana – (1902 – 1979)
British zoologist
Sidnie Manton was born in London, and was the elder sister of Irene Manton. She attended Girton College at Cambridge where she was later appointed as director of the Studies in Natural Science (1935 – 1942). She later removed to King’s College, London as a lecturer, and then as a reader in zoology (1949 – 1960). Sidnie Manton conducted detailed and exhaustive studies into arthropods, and made detailed and valuable discoveries in the general field of invertebrate science, and particularly in the field of phylum research. She was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society (1948) and was awarded the Linnaean Gold Medal (1963). She was the author of Arthropods (1977) and was the co-author of Practical Vertebrate Morphology (1930).

Mantovana, Diana    see    Ghisi, Diana Scultori

Mantu, Lucia – (1888 – 1971) 
Romanian novelist and translator
Born in Iasi as Cornelia Nadejde, she was an educator in the natural sciences and translator from Russian into Romanian. Adopting the literary name of Lucia Mantu, she produced two volumes of short stories Miniaturi (Miniatures) in 1923, and Instantanee (Snapshots) in 1945, an endearing record of the street life of Iasi. Her novel Cucoana Olimpia (Madam Olimpia) (1924) dealt with the restrictions imposed upon a provincial housewife. Her last work Umbre Chinezesti: Romane in fragmente (Chinese Shadows, Fragment Novels) was published in 1930. Lucia Mantu died in Bucharest.

Manuel, Elionor   see   Villena, Isabel Leonora de

Manus, Rosa – (1880 – 1942)
Dutch feminist and women’s rights campaigner
Rosa Manus was born into a bourgeouis family in Amsterdam. She became involved in the women’s suffrage campaign from her youth, and then travelled to South America to work for the same cause with Carrie Chapman Catt. She organized the Internation Women’s Congress held at Istanbul in Turkey (1935). With the invasion of Holland by the Nazis she was arrested and confined (1940) within the infamous concentration camp at Auschwitz, where she died.

Manziarly, Constanze – (1920 – 1945)
German dietician
Constanza Manziarly was born in Innsbruck, Austria, and trained as a dietician, though she had originally been intent upon a teaching career. Constanze was appointed dietician to the Zabel sanitarium in Bischofswiesen (1943), but a year later she entered the household of Nazi Reich leader Adolf Hitler, as his personal dietician and cook. Constanze remained with him until the end, and committed suicide in Berlin by ingesting prussic acid (May 2, 1945).

Manziarly, Marcelle de – (1899 – 1989) 
French composer, pianist and conductor
Marcelle de Manziarly studied music and was trained under Nadia Boulanger and Felix Weingartner. She taught and performed in both Paris and America, and often appeared as conductor and pianist performing her own works. These included the chamber opera La Femme en fleche, piano concertos, chamber music, choral works and popular songs.

Manzini, Gianna – (1896 – 1974)
Italian novelist
Gianna Manzini was born in Pistoia, the daughter of an anarchist, who was later exiled and participated in the Spanish Civil War Gianna successfully studied modern literature at the University of Florence. Her first published work was the lyric novel Tempo innamorato (1928) (Time of Love) which revealed the author’s detailed insights into the complexity of human emotions. She remained unmarried. Manzini herself preferred to write short stories, and they received much critical acclaim during the author’s lifetime, and she herself was considered a specialist of psychological analysis. These stories included works such as Incontro col falco (1929) (Encounter with the Falcon), Un filo di brezza (1936) (A Slight Breeze), Venti racconti (1941) (Twenty Stories), and Forte come un leone (1944) (Strong as a Lion). Her later works include the novels Il valzer del diavalo (1953) (The Devil’s Waltz), La sparviera (1956) (The Sparrow), and the autobiographical work Ritratto in piedi (1971) (Standing Portrait). Gianna Manzini died in Rome.

Manzolini, Anne – (1716 – 1774)
Italian anatomist
Born Anna Morandi, she became the wife of an anatomist employed by the University of Bologna, to whom she bore six children. Due to her own interest in anatomy, she became her husband’s assistant, and thus learnt first hand regarding the human body. She also produced wax models representing the stages of growth of the human foetus and how it was nourished by the mother’s body. During her husband’s illnesses, Manzolini was permitted to give lectures at the university, and when he died she was given a professorship (1760). Anna Manzolini was later offerred the chair of anatomy at the University of Milan in Lombardy, and elected a member of the Italian, British and Russian Royal Societies. Her own private collection was preserved at the University of Bologna.

Mao-Tse-Tung, Madame      see    Jiang Qing

Mapp, Sarah – (c1685 – 1737)
British healer and bone-setter
Sarah Mapp was born in Hindon, Wiltshire, and was taught the art of bone-setting by her father. She established herself as a wandering practitioner of her craft under the name of ‘Crazy Sally,’ and the citizens of Epsom were so impressed with her talent that paid a subscription for her to settle in that town for a year (1736). She was married to a footman named Hill Mapp, who absconded with her money. Sarah Mapp continued to practice in Epsom, whilst on a weekly basis she plied her craft in London. Her reputation was much enhanced when she cured the niece of Sir Hans Sloane of a dislocated shoulder. William Hogarth depicted Mapp in his satirical work Consultation of Physicians. She died a poverty stricken alcoholic.

Mar, Annabella Murray, Countess of – (c1540 – 1603)
Scottish courtier
Annabella Murray was the daughter of Sir William Murray, of Tullibardine, and his wife Katherine, the daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell, of Glenorchy. Annabella was married (c1556) to John Erskine (died 1572), the first Earl of Mar, and was the mother of John Erskine (1562 – 1634), who succeeded his father as second Earl of Mar (1572 – 1634). Lady Mar was styled ‘a verray Jessabell’ by the reformer John Knox, due mainly because of her loyalty to Mary Stuart and her son. The countess was rewarded for her loyalty by being appointed as governess to the young James VI, which position she retained until 1578. Annabella and her son, Lord Mar, later became involved in a plot against the young king, though the details of her own involvement remain unknown. The countess was accused of having conspired to bring about the king’s death, and she was ordered to leave Stirling, whilst her house there was seized by the king’s command (1584). Later in the same year her son forfeited his estates to the crown, but the countess was spared due her former pupil’s affection for her. This affection does not appear to have been misplaced, and perhaps indicated her innocence in the entire affair, and King James later appointed his old governess to superintend the care of his own elder children, Henry Frederick and Elizabeth, before he succeeded to the throne of England. Lady Annabella survived her husband three decades as the Dowager Countess of Mar (1572 – 1603) and her correspondence survives. Her eldest daughter Lady Mary Erskine (1557 – 1575) was the first wife of Archibald Douglas (1555 – 1588), the eighth Earl of Angus, but died childless. Lady Mar died (Feb, 1603) aged in her early sixties.

Mar, Frances Pierrepoint, Countess of – (1692 – 1761)
British Hanoverian society figure
Lady Frances Pierrepoint was the daughter of Evelyn Pierrpoint, Duke of Kingston and sister to Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu. Lady Frances became the wife of the Scottish peer, John Erskine, twenty-third Earl of Mar (1675 – 1732). The countess became increasingly mentally unstable, and was eventually legally declared to be a lunatic (1730). She survived three decades in this condition as Dowager Countess of Mar (1732 – 1761). Lady Mar died (March 4, 1761) aged sixty-eight.

Mar, Mary Stewart, Countess of – (c1575 – 1644)
Scottish letter writer and traveller
Lady Mary Stewart was the second daughter of Esme Stuart (1542 – 1583), the first Duke of Lennox and his French wife Katherine de Balsac d’Entragues. She became the second wife (1592) of John Erskine (1562 – 1634), the twenty-third Earl of Mar and became the Countess of Mar (1592 – 1634). She bore her husband many children. A woman of strong character a contemporary remarked that ‘she basked all her life in the beams of Royalty with a pension from the Crown, and yet cultivated the Kirk, and handed out her whelps to bark and bite in favour of the Solemn League of Covenant.’ Mary’s private letters and her will have been preserved and she survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Mar (1634 – 1644). The countess died (May 11, 1644). Her children included,

Mara, Gertrud Elisabeth – (1749 – 1833) 
German soprano
Gertrud was born at Kassel, in Hesse, nee’ Schmeling. Possessed of an amazing soprano range, she studied early under Paradisi, and until 1784 she peerformed mainly in Prussia, being appointed to the court of Frederick the Great. Gertrud travelled to London, where she appeared with great success, and sang the role of Cleopatra in George Frederic Handel’s Giulio Cesare. Gertrud also sang in concerts until 1802 when she returned to Germany, and continued for many years as a vocal teacher. Her marriage (1773 – 1799) with the cellist Mara ultimately ended in divorce. Gertrud Mara died at Reval.

Maracci, Carmelita – (1911 – 1987)
Uruguayan-American dancer, educator and innovator
Carmelita Maracci was born in Montevideo, and appeared in two films Three Caballeros (1944) and Limelight (1952) with Charles Chaplin. Carmelita Maracci died (July 26, 1987) in Hollywood, California.

Marbais, Bertha de – (c1190 – 1247)
Flemish nun and saint
Bertha de Marbais was originally a Cisterican nun in Aquiria before being appointed as the first abbess (1227) of Marquette (Marchet), near Lille, which house had been established by Countess Jeanne of Flanders. Bertha de Marbais was venerated as a saint (July 18).

Marboeuf, Henriette Francoise Michel, Marquise de – (1737 – 1793)
French aristocrat and Revoutionary victim
Henriette Michel was the daughter of Gabriel Michel of Nantes in Brittany, an official of the East India Company. Her sister Gabrielle Augustine Michel became the wife (1762) of Francois Gaston, Marquis and Duc de Levis (died 1787) and left issue. Henriette became the wife (1757) of Jacques Auger, Marquis de Marboeuf, the nephew of Louis Charles Rene, Comte de Marboeuf (1712 – 1786), Governor of Corsica, a member of the court of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. The marquise was the owner of an impressive house in the Rue St Honore in Paris, which possessed extensive gardens, and the Rue Marbeouf takes its name from the marquise's former residence. She also owned the Chateau de Champs-sur-Marne et de la ferme de Gournay. Her husband died prior to the upheavals of the revolution, so the marquise did not emigrate and remained in France to oversee the administration of her estates. During the build up to Robespierre’s terror, the marquise was arrested on the ridiculous charge that her herds of dairy cows were being kept to provision the Austrian army. The Marquise de Marbeouf was condemned by the revolutionary tribunal and was guillotined in Paris on the same day (Feb 5, 1794).

Marbourg, Dolores   see   Bacon, Mary Schell

Marcatrude – (c548 – 575) 
Merovingian queen consort
Marcatrude was the daughter of Magnacharius, a Frankish dux in the service of Guntram, King of Burgundy (c537 – 593). Marcatrude replaced the royal concubine Veneranda in Guntram’s affections, and he married her (565). Queen Marcatrude was much hated by contemporary chroniclers, including Gregory of Tours, who referred to her as a witch and a harlot. When she eventually bore the king a son, she became jealous of her stepson Gundobad (the son of Veneranda), and is supposed to have caused his death by poison. The death of her own son shortly afterwards was seen as divine judgement.  Soon after this the king became infatuated by the queen’s own maid Austrechilde, in whose favour he repudiated Marcatrude in 575. When her two brothers took the king to task for his treatment of her, Guntram had them put to death, and Marcatrude died of grief soon afterwards.

Marcella – (c328 – 410 AD)
Roman Christian nun
Marcella was the daughter of a consular family, the daughter of Albina. Left a childless widow in her youth, she refused to consider marriage to the wealthy senator, Neratius Cerealis. Marcella decided to commit the remainder of her life to the practice of the Christian religion, and was the first of the great ladies of Rome to accept the brown habit of a nun, hence her appellation ‘the First Nun.’
Marcella resided with her mother in their palace on the Aventine Hill, which is supposed to have been the original site of the present church of St Sabina. St Jerome was a guest there (382 AD) when he was summoned to Rome by Pope Damasus. It was there that he was first introduced to Paula, and her daughter, Eustochium. She is said to have influence Pope Anastasius into condemning the doctrines of Origen.
Despite the urgings of Paula and Eustochium, Marcella remained in Rome. She was still there, aged over eighty, when the barbarian Goths invaded the city (410 AD). Soldiers seeking plunder invaded her house, and beat and cruelly tormented the old woman, to make her reveal the treasure they refused to believe that she did not have. The arrival of more soldiers, these much more respectful, saved Marcella and her household from further injury or molestation, and they were escorted to the safety of the church of St Paul, by order of King Alaric. There, worn out by her mistreatment, Marcella died the next day. The church revered her as a saint (Jan 31). Eleven of Jerome’s letters are addressed to her, and she is mentioned in many of his other writings. His work ad Principiam virginem de vita sanctae Marcellae was written soon after her death.

Marcella, Minicia   see   Minicia Marcella

Marcella, Vipsania – (27 BC – c2 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Vipsania Marcella was the only daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his second wife Claudia Marcella Maior, the niece of Emperor Augustus. Marcella was married (c14 BC) to the noted general and politician, Publius Quinctilius Varus (c50 BC – 9 AD), consul (13 BC), as his second wife. Any children they had died in infancy, and Marcella died prior to (c3 AD) when Varus remarried to his last wife, Claudia Pulchra. The historian Tacitus makes no specific mention of Vipsania Marcella in his Annales but hints that she may have been poisoned by Livia, the wife of Augustus. There remains no proof of this, apart from Tacitus’ desire to blacken Livia’s name.

Marcella Maior, Claudia – (c43 BC – after 9 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Claudia Marcella Maior was the elder daughter of Claudius Marcellus, and his wife, Octavia Minor, later the wife of Mark Antony. She was niece to the emperor Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). She was sister to Claudia Marcella Minor. Marcella Maior was married firstly to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 – 12 BC), the friend and general of Augustus. She bore him at least three daughters, including Vipsania Marcella (27 BC – c2 AD), the second wife of Publius Quinctilius Varus, and was stepmother to Vipsania Agrippina, the first and favourite wife of Tiberius. Agrippa divorced her (21 BC), in order to make a more politically advantageous marriage with Julia Maior, the widowed daughter of Augustus. Marcella was married secondly to Iullus Antonius (43 – 2 BC), her stepbrother, by whom she had a son, Lucius Antonius, who was later banished to Massilia by Augustus, where he died (25 AD). Their daughter Antonia was the ancestress of Junius Blaesus. The figure of Iullus and Marcella, wearing a veil, are depicted on the Ara Pacis (9 AD), but nothing further is recorded of her life. Her husband was later executed for his involvement with Julia Maior (2 BC).

Marcella Minor, Claudia – (39 BC – before 10 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Claudia Marcella Minor was the younger daughter of Claudius Marcellus, and his wife, Octavia Minor, later the wife of Mark Antony. She was niece to the emperor Augustus. She was sister to Claudia Marcella Maior. Her successive marriages have long been a point of confusion, but research by modern scholars appears to have unravelled some of the mystery. She was married firstly (c25 BC), probably to M. Appuleius Sextus, consul 20 BC, who died soon after his consulship. By her second marriage, to M. Valerius Messalla Appianus, consul 12 BC, Marcella left two children, M. Valerius Messalla Barbatus, father to the empress Messallina, infamous wife of Claudius I, and Claudia Pulchra (12 BC – 26 AD), third wife of Publius Quinctilius Varus, the famous general. Appianus died in the year of his consulship, and Marcella married thirdly to Paullus Aemilius Lepidus, censor (22 BC), as his second wife. Their son, Paullus Aemilius Regillus (c11 BC – c20 AD) is attested by an inscription from Saguntum.

Marcello-Mocenigo, Loredana – (c1516 – 1572)
Dogaressa of Venice (1570 – 1572)
Loredana Marcello was the daughter of Giovanni Alvise Marcello, a wealthy patrician, and she became the wife (1533) of Doge Alvise Mocenigo (1570 –1577). Classically educated and an accomplished letter writer, the dogaressa was greatly interested in botanical research, and the gardens of the Marcello Palace in Venice were filled with exotic plants gathered for her from around the world by Venetian agents. All her writing, poems, and translations have now been lost. The dogaressa died of the plague in Venice, aged about fifty-six (Dec 12, 1572). She was dressed in the habit of a nun before being interred in the church of San Giovanni and San Paolo. Ottaviano Moggi wrote her funeral panegyric Oratio in funeralibus Laurae Moccenicae and the Italian historian Francesco Amaden recorded details of her personal character in his Archivio privato de’ Marcelli.

Marcet, Jane – (1769 – 1858) 
Swiss-Anglo scientific writer and civil administrator
Born Jane Haldimand in Switzerland, Jane studied art in London under Sir Joshua Reynolds and Sir Thomas Lawrence, and became the wife (1799) of Alexander Marcet, a Swiss scientist and academic. Her own career as a writer grew from her personal annoyance at not being able to comprehend her husband’s lectures at the university. Her own conduction of scientific experiements so that she understood the correct processes, led to her writing scientific instruction manuals for women and children, which were presented in a conversational style. Her first work Conversations on Chemistry, intended more especially for the Female Sex (1806) went through fifteen further printings in both Britain and the USA, where such textbooks had been previously unobtainable. The famous scientist and discoverer Michael Faraday credited Marcet’s work with establishing his own interest in the field of electrochemistry. Marcet’s best known work was Conversations on Political Economy (1816), which was praised by Macaulay and Conversations on Natural Philosophy (1819), which was written sepcifically for young children. Later works included Conversations on Vegetable Physiology (1829) and Conversations on the History of England (1842).

March, Christian de Seton, Countess of    see   Seton, Christian de

March, Eleanor de Holland, Countess of   see   Holland, Eleanor de

March, Elspeth – (1911 – 1999)
British film and television actress
Elspeth March was born (Msarch 5, 1911) in London. She trained as a stage actress and then appeared in films and television. March appeared as Miriam, the mother of Nazarius, who is killed during the great fire of Rome in the classic film Quo Vadis? (1951), though she often played aristocratic ladies in films such as Lady Hetherington in A Dandy in Aspic (1968) and was Mrs Summersthwaite in the remake of Goodbye Mr Chips (1969). Miss March portrayed the historical Irish pirate Grace O’Malley in an episode of the television series The Adventures of Sir Francis Drake (1962), and appeared in several television series such as The Good Companions (1980), Let There Be Love (1982 – 1983) and Tales of the Unexpected (1983). She appeared as the unpleasant Edythe Van Hopper in the telemovie remake of Rebecca (1979) and played Lady Blanche in The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes (1993). Elspeth March died (May 5, 1999) aged eighty-eight.

March, Mary Ann     see    Gabriel, Mary Ann Virginia

Marchamley, Margaret Clara Johnstone, Lady – (1890 – 1974)
British peeress (1925 – 1949)
Margaret Johnstone was the younger daughter of Thomas Scott Johnstone, of Glenmark, Waipara, New Zealand. Margaret became the wife (1911) of Hon. (Honourable) William Tattersall Whiteley (1886 – 1949) who later succeeded his father as second Baron Marchamley of Hawkstone (1925). The Hon. Mrs Whiteley then became the Baroness Marchamley. Lady Margaret survived her husband for over two decades as the Dowager Baroness Marchamley (1949 – 1974), during which time she resided at Whetcombe, near South Brent in Devon, Cornwall. Her children were,

Marchand, Nancy – (1928 – 2000)
American actress
Nancy Marchand was born (June 19, 1928) in Buffalo, New York, and studied acting and theatre at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Nancy made her stage debut in 1946, specializing in the works of George Bernard Shaw, Shakespeare, and Anton Chekhov, and worked on Broadway, regional theatre, television, and film. Marchand was married to the actor Paul Sparer (died 1999). Though long known for her portrayal of great aristocratic ladies including Lady Bracknell in The Importance of Being Earnest, Marchand was best remembered for her role of Margaret Pynchon in the television series Lou Grant (1979 – 1982), for which she won four Emmy Awards, and as the Mafia matriarch Livia in the popular series The Sopranos (1999 – 2000). She also made many character appearances in films. Nancy Marchand died (June 18, 2000) aged seventy-one, at Stratford, Connecticut.

Marchant, Bessie – (1862 – 1941)
British juvenile writer
Bessie Marchant produced many popular novels for juvenile girls over a period of five decades from the 1890’s such as Held at Ransom (1900) and Three Girls on a Ranch (1901). Part of their appeal was the freedom allowed the heroines by Marchant, who portrayed them as brave and intrepid characters.

Marchell – (fl. c540 – c580)
Welsh saint
Marchell was the daughter of Arwystli Gloff, himself venerated as a Christian saint, and his wife, Twynwedd. Four of her brothers were also revered as saints by the early Celtic church. Marchell, sometimes called Marcella, founded the church of Ystrad Marchell, in Montgomeryshire, where the abbey of Strata Marcella was later established.

Marchena, Emanuella Hawkins, Duquesa de – (1915 – 2003)
Spanish grandee
Born Marie Emma Hawkins (Dec 5, 1915) in Manila, the Philippines, she was the daughter of Francisco de Borbon y Borbon, Duque de Marchena, and his wife, the Infanta Cristina of Spain. Emanuella Hawkins was married (1935) to John George Walford, who succeeded his mother as Duque de Marchena (1981). Duchess Emanuella died (Jan 1, 2003) aged eighty-seven.

Marchesi, Blanche – (1863 – 1940) 
French soprano
Blanche Marchesi was born (April 4, 1863) in Paris, the daughter of Salvatore Marchesi and his wife Mathilde Grauman. She was married to Andre, Baron Caccamisi, to whom she bore four children. Despite early training as a violinist, Blanche studied singing with Arthur Nikisch in Germany and Edouard Colonne in Paris, and then from 1881 with her famous mother, who also instructed the Australian soprano Nellie Melba. Making her debut in London in 1896, the wonderful reception she received there encouraged Blanche to make England her home. She appeared as Brunnhilde in Die Walkure in Prague in 1900, and her other famous roles included Elisabeth in Tannhauser (1902), Elsa in Lohengrin, Leonora in Il travatore, and Santuzza in Cavalleria rusticana. Blanche made two concert tours of America in 1899 and in 1909, and established herself as a highly regarded vocal trainer in London. She published her memoirs Singer’s Pilgrimage (1923) and retired in 1938. Blanche Marchesi died Dec 15, 1940) aged seventy-seven, in London.

Marchesi, Mathilde – (1826 – 1913)
German soprano and vocal teacher
Born Mathilde Graumann (March 26, 1826) at Frankfort-am-Main, she was married (1852) to Salvatore Marchesi, Cavaliere de Castrone (1817 – 1908), later Marchese della Rajata, to whom she bore four children, of whom only Blanche Marchesi, the famous soprano (above) reached maturity. The pupil of Otto Nicolai at Vienna and of Manuel Garcia in Paris, Mathilde made her singing debut in 1844, and performed publicly till 1849, when she began her long and impressive career as a vocal trainer and educator. This career earned her a wide reputation at the conservatories of Cologne and Vienne, as well as London and Paris. Her pupils included Emma Calve, Emma Eames, Dame Nellie Melba, Emma Nevada, Etelka Gerster and Gabrielle Kraus. Mathilde wrote various volumes on the technique of singing, as well as a volume of autobiography, Marchesi and Music (1897), enlarged from the original edition, Aus meinem Leben which had been published in Dusseldorf (1887). With her husband’s death she completely retired from public life. Mathilde Marchesi died (Nov 17, 1913) in London, England.

Marchisio, Barbara – (1834 – 1919)
Italian soprano and operatic performer
Barbara Marchisio was born (Dec 12, 1834) in Turin, Piedmont. Barbara performed with enormous success in Paris and in London, and usually performed with her younger sister Carlotta Marchisio (1836 – 1872), whom she survived for five decades. Barbara Marchisio died (April 19, 1919) aged eighty-four, at Mirra, near Venice.

Marckenstein, Baroness von    see   Valli, Alida

Marcia (1) – (c159 – 193 AD)
Roman Imperial concubine
Marcia Aurelia Ceionia Demetrias was the daughter to the Imperial freedman, Marcus Aurelius Sabinianus Euhodius, procurator to empress Faustina II. Afthe death of Faustina (175 AD), the emperor Marcus Aurelius formed a liasion with Marcia. With his death (180 AD), she became concubine to the emperor’s cousin, Ummidius Quadratus. With Quadratus’s death after involvement in a conspiracy against Emperor Commodus (182 AD), Marcia re-entered the Imperial palace, and became concubine to the emperor, whom Lampridius records as being passionately attached to her. She is believed to have had a hand in the downfall of empress Crispina (187 AD). With the death of Cleander (189 AD), Marcia acquired immense influence over Commodus, which she shared with the prefect of the guard, Q. Aemilius Laetus, and the emperor’s chamberlain, Eclectus.
The emperor’s excesses increased, despite the best efforts of Marcia and her supporters to curb them. She finally approached senator Pertinax, persuading him to join a conspiracy to remove Commodus, and gain the Imperial crown for himself, when the group accidentally found their names on a group execution order, written in the emperor’s own hand. He was then poisoned and strangled in his bath by a slave ((Dec 31, 192 AD). However, with the assassination of Pertinax three months afterwards (March, 193 AD), Marcia and Laetus were put to death by Didius Julianus, who wished to honour the memory of Commodus. Marcia is though to have been a Christian, or at least, to have used herpower to protect members of the sect from Imperial persecution. She was depicted as an Amazon on a survivng bronze medallion of Commodus.

Marcia (2) – (fl. c550?)
Roman patrician and religious benefactor
Marcia was a noble Roman widow who was recorded in the Narratio de eadificatione Sanctae Sophiae as having sent the Emperor Justinian eight columns for the Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople. These columns had formed part of her marriage portion and were supposedly once part of the Emperor Aurelian’s famous temple of the Sun. The story has been considered legendary and Marcia was perhaps fictitious.

Marcia Furnilla – (c40 – c78 AD)
Roman patrician
Marcia Furnilla was the daughter of Quintus Marcius Barea Sura, and his wife Antonia Furnilla. Her sister Marcia married M. Ulpius Traianus, and became mother to the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD). Marcia Furnilla was married (64 AD) to Flavius Titus (39 – 81 AD), the elder son of the future emperor Vespasian, whom he later succeeded as Emperor Titus (79 – 81 AD). Their only daughter, Flavia, born around 65 AD, died in infancy. Furnilla was stepmother to Julia Sabina. The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen, Denmark, had a body portrait of Marcia Furnilla as Venus, atopped by her head, complete with Flavian coiffure. This would seem to indicate her as a beauty of the period. Later divorced by Titus, because of the involvement of her uncle Marcius Barea Soranus, in a conspiracy against Emperor Nero, she did not survive to see Titus become emperor.

Marciana, Ulpia Traiana – (c45 – 112 AD)
Roman Augusta (105 - 112 AD)
Ulpia Traiana Marciana was the daughter of consul Marcus Ulpius Traianus and his wife Marcia Barea Sura, the daughter of Quintus Marcius Barea Sura and his wife Antonia Furnilla. Marciana was elder sister of the Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 AD) and was married (c61 AD) to Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinous (c43 - 78 AD), the son of Gaius Salonius Matidius who was censor (48 AD). Matidius Patruinous served as a praetorian senator during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian (69 - 79 AD), and was also perhaps appointed as governor of Upper Germany. Marciana was the mother of Matidia Salonina, the wife of Mindius and then Lucius Vibius. Matidia Salonina was in turn the mother of Vibia Sabina, who became the wife of the Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD). Marciana was a much respected figure, greatly admired by her brother and her contemporaries. The historian Pliny the Younger spoke of the closeness of Marciana to her brother the emperor and his wife Plotina in his Panegyricus observing, ' She is your sister, and she never forgets the fact. Her qualities are your qualities: sincerity, openness, candour.'
Trajan named two settlements after his sister, Colonia Ulpia Marciana Traiana and Marcianapolis in Lower Moesia. Though Marciana at first refused the honorary title of Augusta at the beginning of Trajan's reign, she ahd accepted by 105 AD, when Plotina was also accorded that rank. Empress Marciana died (Aug 29, 112 AD) aged about sixty-seven. She was consecrated and deified by her brother's order. The Emperor Hadrian erected a temple in Rome to his mother-in-law Matidia (119 AD) which later commemorated both mother and daughter together. A surviving gold aureus inted in Rome (112 AD) depicted on the obverse the bust of Marciana and the legend DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA. The reverse of this coin bears the legend CONSECRATIO and depicts an eagle with wings spread, perched on a bar. A dedication to Marciana has been found at Perge in Pamphylia, situated near the gate of that town, and it believed to have been one of a group dedicated to the family of Trajan and to the Emperor Nerva (96 - 98 AD).

Marcia Severa Otacilia      see   Otacilia, Marcia Severa

Marcoveifa – (c543 – 566)
Merovingian queen
Marcoveifa was of lowly birth, being the daughter of a wool-worker attached to the royal household. She became the mistress and then the third wife (c565) of King Charibert I of Paris (520 – 567) after he had repudiated her sister Merofleda. Her marriage did not last, and with her early, unlamented death, she was replaced as queen by Theudichilde. Queen Marcoveifa was stepmother to Bertha of Paris, the wife of Aethelbert II, King of Kent.

Marenholz-Bulow, Bertha von – (1816 – 1893) 
German biographer and child educator
Born a baroness, Berha von Marenholz-Bulow was a woman of impressive intellectual attainments, and was much influenced by the kindergarten teaching method instituted by the German educational reformer friederich Wilhelm Froebel, whom she met in 1849. Bertha von Marenholz-Bulow assisted with the spread of Froebel’s teaching ideas and techniques outside Germany, and brought them to the notice of educators in England, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. In 1860 she managed to persuade the Prussian government to remove their previous ban on Froebel’s methods. Bertha was the author of Recollections of Friederich Froebel (1877) the only lifelike portrait of Froebel available to the present day.

Marescala, Duchess di    see   Smythe, Penelope

Maretskaia, Vera Petrovna – (1906 – 1978)
Russian film actress and painter
Vera Maretskaia was born (July 1, 1906) in Moscow, and studied acting at the Evgenii Vakhtangov Theatre School, and graduated in 1924.Originally employed at the Vakhtangov Theatre, where she appeared in her first film Zakroishchik Iz Torzhka (1925) under Iulian Zavadski. Vera worked for four years at a theatre in Rostov-on-Don (1936 – 1940), before joining the Mossovet Theatre in Moscow. Best remembered for her role in Dom Na Trubnoi (1928), produced by B. Barnet. She played the title role in M. Donskoi’s new version of Mother (1956).

Marfa of Russia    see    Martha Alexievna

Margaret    see also    Margarethe, Margeurite, Margherita

Margaret I of Denmark    see   Margarethe I

Margaret ‘the Maid’ – (1283 – 1290)    
Queen regnant of Scotland (1286 – 1290)
Margaret was born (before April 9, 1283) at Tonsberg,  the only child of Erik II, king of Norway and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Alexander III of Scotland. With the death of her grandfather Alexander III of Scotland (1286), Margaret was the only direct survivor of the ancient Scottish royal line and she was proclaimed as queen at the age of three. Margaret was later betrothed to her English cousin Edward of Caernarvon (II), the son and heir of Edward I (1289), her maternal uncle. However, the little queen died aged seven, aboard ship (cSept 26, 1290) during her journey from Norway to the Orkney Islands. A woman imposter falsely claiming to be the ‘real’ Margaret was burnt at the stake at Bergen several a decade later (1301).

Margaret Aetheling – (c1048 – 1093)        
Queen consort of Scotland (1069 – 1093)
Margaret was born in Hungary, the daughter of Prince Edward the Exile, the son of the Anglo-Saxon king Edmund II Ironside. Her mother Agatha was the daughter of Luidolf of Brunswick, Margrave of Friesland. Her father died within weeks of the family’s arrival in England (1057). With the advent of the Norman Conquest, Margaret fled from Northumberland to Scotland (1067), with her mother, sister Christina, and their young brother, Edgar the Aetheling, accompanied by several loyal Anglo-Saxon noblemen, led by Merleswegen. Learned and pious, she became the second wife of the widowed king Malcolm III Canmore (1031 – 1093) at Dunfermline (1069). She was the mother of several sons, including kings, Edmund (1094 – 1097), Edgar (1093 – 1107), Alexander I (1107 – 1124), and David I (1124 – 1153), and two daughters, Matilda (originally called Edith), the first wife of Henry I of England, and Mary, wife of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne.
Queen Margaret was an especial patron of the Benedictine order, and installed monks at Dunfermline. Her confessor and biographer, Turgot, records the famous story of the queen feeding nine orphans every morning with her own spoon. She herself washed the feet of the poor, practiced abstinence to the injury of her health, and ransomed English captives. Margaret established a guesthouse built on either side of the Firth of Forth, at Queensferry, and arranged for free passage for pilgrims. She donated the town of Balchristie to the Culdees of Lochleven, and is said to have had the monastery of Iona rebuilt. Queen Margaret died (Nov 16, 1093) four days after hearing of the deaths in battle of her husband and their eldest son Edward, Prince of Cumbria. She was buried before the high altar in Dunfermline Abbey, but her remains were later translated to the Escorial Palace in Madrid, Spain, her head being interred within the Jesuit College of Douai, in Flanders. Canonized by Pope Innocent VI (1250), Margaret was the only royal saint of Scotland.

Margaret Asbjornsdotter – (fl. c1076 – 1080)
Queen consort of Denmark
Margaret Asbjornsdotter was the daughter of Asbjorn Estrithsson, Jarl (earl) in England. Her paternal grandmother, Estrith Sweinsdotter, was half-sister to King Knud II (Canute) of Denmark and England. Margaret was married (c1076) to her kinsman, Harald IV (c1036 – 1080), King of Denmark, whom she survived as Queen Dowager. Her marriage was childless, and after Harald’s death the queen retired into political obscurity.

Margaret de Bourbon – (c1211 – 1256)
Queen consort of Navarre (1234 – 1253)
Margaret was the daughter of Archambaud IX the Great, Seigneur de Bourbon, and his first wife Guigone de Forez. Her stepmother was Beatrice de Montlucon, the daughter of Archambaud V, Seigneur de Montlucon. Margaret became the wife (1232) of Theobald of Blois-Chartres (1201 – 1253), who became king of Navarre as Theobald IV (1234 – 1253). Margaret survived Theobald as Queen Dowager of Navarre (1253 – 1256). Queen Margaret died (April 12, 1256) aged about forty-five, at Provins, Brie. She was the mother of Theobald II (1237 - 1270), King of Navarre (1253 - 1270) who died without issue, and of his brother and successor Henry I (1240 - 1274), King of Navarre (1270 - 1274). Through Henry Queen Margaret was the maternal grandmother of Isabella of Valois, the wife of Edward II and mother of Edward III of England. Queen Margaret's second son Pierre (Peter) (born 1238) died in infancy. Of her three daughters, Margaret of Navarre (1244 - 1310) became the wife of Duke Frederick III of Lorraine (1238 - 1303) and left issue, whilst Beatrice of Navarre (1245 - 1295) became the second wife of Hugh IV (1212 - 1272), Duke of Burgundy and left descendants.

Margaret of Alsace – (1152 – 1194)
French heiress
Margaret was the daughter of Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders and his second wife Sibylla of Anjou, the daughter of Fulk IV of Anjou, King of Jerusalem. She was married firstly to Raoul IV the Leperous (1145 – 1167), Count of Vermandois, the nephew of Eleanor of Aquitaine, and was left a childless widow at fifteen. She then became the wife of Baldwin V (1150 – 1195), Count of Flanders (Baldwin VIII of Hainault) and left issue and was the mother of Baldwin IX of Hainault (1171 – 1205), the Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1204 – 1205) and of Henry of Flanders (1174 – 1216) who succeeded his brother as emperor. Countess Margaret died (Dec 27, 1194) aged forty-two.

Margaret of Angouleme     see    Margeurite d’Angouleme

Margaret of Anjou    see also   Margaret of Naples

Margaret of Anjou – (1430 – 1482)
Queen consort of England (1445 – 1471)
Margaret was born (March 23, 1430) at Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine, the younger daughter of Rene I of Anjou, King of Naples, and his first wife Isabella, the daughter of Charles II, Duke of Lorraine. From 1435 – 1442 she was educated at the court of her paternal grandmother, Queen Yolande of Naples. Projected matches with Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Count Charles of Nevers did not eventuate, and Margaret was married (1445) to Henry VI of England (1421 – 1471), and, owing chiefly to his weak intellect, and intermittent spells of lunacy, she was the virtual regent of England, becoming deeply involved in political life. This made her an extremely unpopular figure, both at court, and with the commons, and when England lost the dukedom of Normandy to the French (1449), she was blamed. She founded Queen’s College, at Cambridge (1448).
During the Wars of the Roses, Queen Margaret became the leader figure of the Lancastrian cause, though her husband remained the symbolic figurehead. Committed to the struggle, she fought tenaciously for twenty years trying to ensure the succession of her son Edward (1453 – 1471). She was defeated by the Yorkists at the battle of Tewkesbury (1471) and her son was brutally slain in her prescence. Kept a prisoner in the Tower of London, and then attached to the household of the Yorkist queen Elizabeth Woodville, the wife of Edward IV, she was finally ransomed by Louis XI of France after the Treaty of Picquigny (1475). Margaret was later permitted to retire to France (1476). Queen Margaret died in poverty (Aug 25, 1482) aged fifty-two, at the Chateau de Dampierre, near Saumur in Anjou. She was interred with her father in the Cathedral of St Maurice at Angers.

Margaret of Antioch (1) – (d. c303 AD)
Greek Christian virgin martyr
Margaret was said to have been the daughter of a pagan priest of Antioch in Syria. Expelled from home because of her adoption of the Christian faith, Margaret worked as a shepherdess. She was admired by, and rejected the attentions of, the Roman prefect of Antioch, Olybrius. In revenge he gave her over to the Imperial authorities and she was subjected to frightfully fantastic tortures, including being swallowed by Satan in the form of a dragon, and then vomited out because the cross she wore irritated the throat of the beast. Other attempts to kill her supposedly failed and many in the crowd became converted. Eventually Margaret and all of her adherents were beheaded. Perhaps because of the story of the dragon, Margaret was often invoked by women during childbirth. Margaret of Antioch’s cult (July 20) was extremely popular in the Middle Ages, though she is now viewed as almost certainly fictitious.

Margaret of Antioch (2) - (1244 - 1308)
Countess of Tyre
Margaret was the only daughter and second child of Prince Henry of Antioch and his wife Isabella of Lusignan, the daughter of King Hugh I of Cyprus. Margaret was the sister of King Hugh III. In order to heal the breach between the government of Acre and Philip of Montfort, Montfort agreed that Margaret should marry his elder son Jean of Montfort (c1240 - 1283), Count of Tyre and Lord of Toron. Margaret was then renowned as the most beautiful princess of her day, and was twenty-five years old. Pope Clement IV granted the necessary dispensation (Sept, 1268) and the couple were married the following year (1269), soon after her brother's accession to the throne. The marriage remained childless, and it was recorded that Margaret lost her beauty later in life and became considerably overweight. With the death of Count Jean (Nov 27, 1283) the city of Tyre remained for a period under Margaret's direct rule. Early in 1285 the countess managed to gain a truce with the Muslim sultan Qalawun, and prevented him from attacking the city. She remained in effectual rule of Tyre until early 1291, when she handed the city over to her nephew Amalric of Cyprus, who soon lost it within a few months to the muslim forces, for good. After resigning from the government Countess Margaret retired to the court of her nephew Henry II of Cyprus, and later became a nun. Margaret of Antioch died (Jan 30, 1308) aged sixty-four.

Margaret of Austria (1) – (1416 – 1486)     
Electress consort of Saxony
Margaret was the eldest daughter of Ernest I of Austria, Duke of Styria and his second wife Zimburga, daughter of Ziemovit IV, Duke of Masovia. She married (1431) Frederick II, Elector of Saxony (1412 – 1464), to whom she bore eight children. Through her sons, the electors Ernest (1441 – 1486) and Albert (1443 – 1500), Margaret was ancestress of the royal house of Saxony, the kings of Prussia, emperors of Germany, and the kings and queens of Greece and the Netherlands. Other descendants were found within the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, which included the kings of Portugal, Belgium, and Bulgaria, and Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria.

Margaret of Austria (2) – (1480 – 1531)            
Duchess consort of Savoy and Regent of the Netherlands
Margaret was born (Jan 10, 1480) in Brussels, being the only daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I (1493 – 1519), and his first wife Marie, the only child and heiress of Charles the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy (1467 – 1477). Possessed of beauty, intelligence, and highly cultured, her first husband, Infante Juan, Prince of the Asturias, the only son and heir of Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, left her a childless widow within a few months, and Margaret was then remarried (1501) to Duke Philibert I of Savoy. This marriage, though congenial to both parties remained childess, and Margaret was soon left a widow (1504). Margaret never remarried and was appointed by her father to be Regent in the Netherlands (1507 – 1515) and guardian of her nephew, the future emperor Charles V. When Charles succeeded as emperor he re-appointed his aunt as regent (1519). The duchess favoured strong ties with Henry VIII of England, whose second wife Anne Boleyn was educated in her household at Mechelen, and made use of taxation as a means of expanding her familys’ possessions, which included the Flemish province of Frisia (1524). With Louise of Savoy, mother of Francois I of France, Margaret conducted the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), popularly known as the ‘Ladies’ Peace.’ Her speeches and written works were all published posthumously by Jean Le Maire under the title Couronne Margeuritique (1549). Duchess Margaret died (Nov 30, 1530) aged fifty, at Mechelen.

Margaret of Babenberg – (1205 – 1267)          
Queen consort of Bohemia (1253 – 1260)
Margaret was the elder daughter of Leopold V, Duke of Austria, and his second wife Theodora Angela, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus. Margaret married firstly (1225, at Nuremburg) Henry of Hohenstaufen (1211 – 1242), King of Germany from 1220, the eldest son of emperor Frederick II, and she was crowned queen at Verdun (March, 1227). Despite the birth of two sons, the marriage was unhappy, and Henry considered divorcing Margaret. However this move had important and far reaching political implications and the emperor refused his consent. With Henry’s death, which was possibly suicide, Queen Margaret then retired to Vienna. Her two sons, Friedrich (born 1227) and Heinrich (born 1229) both died childless in 1251.
With the death of her childless brother Frederick II of Austria in 1246, Ottokar II of Moravia (1233 – 1278) was recognized as duke of Austria, and married Margaret, now the sole Babenberg heiress, who was nearly thirty years his senior (Vienna, 1251). Ottokar became king of Bohemia (Sept, 1253). In 1254 Bela IV of Hungary attempted to occupy both Styria and Austria, the queen’s inheritance, but, by papal dispensation he obtained some Styrian concessions at the peace of Buda in the same year. King Ottokar later won back Styria and a portion of Margaret’s Austrian inheritance, which the Hunyadi clan had disputed with him, by the great victory over Bela at the battle of Kressenbruh (1260). The same year Ottokar divorced Margaret in order to remarry and beget a male heir. Queen Margaret retired to Vienna and died (Oct 29, 1267) aged sixty-two, at Krumau am Kamp in Lower Austria.

Margaret of Bohemia – (1189 – 1213)
Queen consort of Denmark (1205 – 1213)
Born Princess Dragomira of Bohemia, she was the daughter of King Ottokar I, and his first wife Adelaide of Meissen, the daughter of Otto the Rich, Margrave of Meissen. She became the second wife of Valdemar II (1170 – 1241), King of Denmark, and her new subjects called her Margaret, but derived the nickname ‘Dagmar’ (maiden of the day) from her original name. Blonde-haired and very popular with her Danish subjects, her early death was greatly lamented. According to tradition, when she was asked to confess her sins on her deathed, the queen could only ask forgiveness for braiding her hair with ribbons before attending mass. Her only son, Prince Valdemar (1209 – 1231) predeceased his father. Queen Margaret died (May 24, 1213) aged twenty-four.

Margaret of Burgundy (Margeurite) – (1290 – 1315)         
Queen consort of Navarre (1305 – 1314)
Margaret was the daughter of Duke Robert II of Burgundy and his wife Agnes, the youngest daughter of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270). She was married (1305) to her cousin, the future Louis X (1289 – 1316), who inherited the kingdom of Navarre at the death of his mother, Jeanne I (1305). Young and frivolous, she became inveigled in romantic affairs, and involved both of her equally young sisters-in-law, Jeanne, the wife of the future Philip V, and Blanche, wife to the future Charles IV. Two knights, Philippe and Gautier s’Aunoy, brothers, were arrested on the orders of Philip IV, Margaret’s father-in-law (1314), and under torture they confessed to being the lovers of Queen Margaret and his sister-in-law Blanche of Burgundy. Jeanne for having had knowledge of the two women’s infidelities and failing to inform the king, whilst Queen Margaret and Blanche were arrested, and, after being told of their lovers’ confessions, themselves confessed to the charges against them. This confession cast serious doubt upon the parentage of Margaret’s daughter, Jeanne II of Navarre (1311 – 1349), a doubt which was never really eradicated. Margaret’s marriage was annulled and she was imprisoned within the fortress of Chateau-Gaillard, where she died of cold, misery, and neglect aged twenty-five (Aug 14, 1315). She was commonly believed to have been starved to death on the orders of her former husband. Margaret was interred within the Church of the Greyfriars (Cordeliers) at Vernon.

Margaret of Denmark   see also    Estrith Sveinsdotter

Margaret of Denmark – (1456 – 1486)        
Queen consort of Scotland (1471 – 1486)
Margaret was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, and his wife Dorothea, the daughter of Johann III, Elector of Brandenburg. Princess Margaret travelled by sea to Scotland, where she became the wife (1469) of King James III (1451 – 1488) at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh. She was the mother of James IV (1473 – 1514), James Stuart (1476 – 1504), Duke of Ross, who died unmarried, and John Stuart (1479 – 1503), Earl of Mar, who likewise died unmarried and childless. Queen Margaret had received the Orkney and Shetland Islands as her dowry, and her marriage formally reunited these back to the Scottish crown. Famous for her gentle and retiring nature, her early death (July 14, 1486) at Stirling Castle, at the age of twenty-nine was much lamented by both the king and his subjects. The queen was interred at Cambuskenneth Abbey in Fifeshire.

Margaret of Durazzo – (1347 – 1412)            
Queen consort of Naples (1382 – 1386)
Margaret was the daughter of Charles, Prince of Durazzo, and his wife Maria of Calabria, the sister of Joanna I, Queen of Naples. She was married (Feb, 1369) to her fist cousin, Charles III, King of Naples and Hungary (1345 – 1386) to whom she bore two children, King Ladislas I (1376 – 1414) who died without issue, and Queen Joanna II (1371 – 1435). When Charles had agreed to marry Margaret, pressure had been successfully brought to bear upon her family to cede the counties of Anjou and Maine to him. This arrangement provided for the heirs of Charles to inherit, and not those of Margaret, except insofar as she had children by Charles. With her husband’s early death, Queen Margaret ruled Naples as regent for their son Ladislas (Feb, 1386 to May, 1390).

Margaret of England    see    Margaret Plantagenet

Margaret of France – (1282 – 1318)        
Queen consort of England (1299 – 1307)
Princess Margeurite Capet was born in Paris, the younger daughter of King Philip III (1270 – 1285) and his second wife Marie of Brabant, the daughter of Henry V, Duke of Brabant. She was married (1299) to Edward I of England, forty years her senior, as his second wife, at Canterbury Cathedral, in Kent. Margaret bore him two sons, and a daughter Eleanor (born 1306) who died in infancy. Margaret accompanied Edward on his Scottish campaign. With the king’s death (1307), she was treated with considerable kindness by her stepson Edward II. Queen Margaret chose not to remarry and retired to Marlborough Castle, in Wiltshire, where she died (Feb 14, 1318). She was buried at Greyfriars Church, in Newgate, London, which she had built. Several of her letters survive.

Margaret of Geneva – (c1180 – 1257)                   
Countess consort of Savoy
Margaret was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, and his second wife Beatrice de Faucigny. Sometimes erroneously called Beatrice or Nicole, she married (May, 1195) Tommaso I, Count of Savoy (1177 – 1233) to whom she bore a large family of sixteen children. She was the mother of Savoyard counts Amadeo IV (1233 – 1253), Tommaso II (1253 – 1259), and Philip I (1259 – 1285), and her younger son Boniface was Archbishop of Canterbury in England from (1241 – 1270). Her eldest daughter Beatrice became the wife of Raymond Berenger V, Count of Provence, and thus Margaret was the maternal grandmother of Margaret, wife of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270), and of Eleanor, the wife of Henry III, King of England (1216 – 1272).
Apart from being famous for her beauty and accomplishments, which facts are recorded in the works of Matthew Paris, Margaret was an important heiress, and had been sought as a bride by Tommaso as a means of consolidating his scattered fiefs on the Lombard plain and the Helvetian Alps, and thus extending his political influence over these important regions. Determined to retain a cohesive state, five of Margaret and Tommaso’s younger sons were forced to take up careers in the church, though within the boundaries of the Savoyard sphere of political influence, notably at Valence, Vienne and Lyon in the Rhone valley, at Nantua and Belley towards the east, and at Geneva and Lausanne in the Pays de Vaux. Margaret survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Savoy for almost twenty-five years (1233 - 1257). Margaret died (April 13, 1257) aged in her late seventies, years, at Pierre Chatel, Hautcombe.

Margaret of Hainault (1) – (1202 – 1280)
Countess regnant of Flanders
Margaret was born (June 2, 1202) the younger daughter and coheiress of Baldwin IX of Hainault, the Latin Emperor of Constantinople. With the death of her childless sister Jeanne of Hainault Margaret succeeded as Countess of Flanders (1244). She married firstly to Bouchard (c1180 – 1244) Seigneur d’Avesnes to whom she bore a son Johann I of Hainault (1218 – 1257) who left descendants. Through Johann Countess Margaret was the ancestor of Philippa of Hainault (1311 – 1369), the wife of Edward III of England (1327 – 1377). Her second marriage with Wilhelm II, Count of Dampierre produced a son Guy who succeeded his mother as Count of Flanders (1280). Countess Margaret died (Feb 10, 1280) aged seventy-seven.

Margaret of Hainault (2) – (1310 – 1356)
Holy Roman empress (1324 – 1347)
Margaret was the daughter of William III, Count of Hainault and his wife Jeanne de Valois, the daughter of Charles I, Count de Valois and the paternal granddaughter of Philip III, King of France. Her younger sister was Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377). Margaret became the second wife (1324) of the Emperor Ludwig IV (1282 – 1347) and bore him ten children including William V of Hainault (1326 - 1389) and Albert I of Holland (1328 - 1404), who became count of Hainault and Holland when his brother became too insane to rule (1358). Of her daughters, Anna of Bavaria (1326 - 1351) became a nun at the Abbey of Fontenelle, residing with her maternal grandmother Jeanne de Valois, and Beatrix of Bavaria (1344 - 1359) became the wife of Erik XII (1339 - 1359), King of Sweden.
When her brother Count William IV of Hainault died without male issue (1345) the emperor granted Margaret the imperial fiefs of Holland, Hainault and Zeeland, which remained free of church interedicts. With her husband’s death Margaret became the Dowager Empress (1347 – 1356) and she transferred power over her dominions to her son eldest William. This caused personal and dynastic disagreements which grew into the destructive feud of the ' Hocks, ' being the nobility who supported the empress's cause, and the ' Kabbeljaws,' the newer nobility who supported William. Finally, by virtue of a political agreement (1354) the Empress Margaret retained Hainault for her lifetime whilst her son ruled Holland, Zeeland and Friesland. During her widowhood the empress mother resided at Valenciennes in Hainault, where the chronicler Jean Froissart joined her household. Before her death he was sent by Margaret to serve her sister Queen Philippa in England. The Empress Margaret died (June 23, 1356) at Le Quesnoy, and was interred at Fuerstenfeld, near Munich.

Margaret of Hungary (Margit) – (1242 – 1270)           
Princess and virgin saint
Margaret was the daughter of King Bela IV and his wife Maria Laskarina, the daughter of Theodore Laskaris, emperor of Nikaea. Placed with the Dominican nuns at Vesszprem at the age of three (1245), Ottokar II of Bohemia vainly tried to gain her hand, but she refused to consider leaving her convent life. She was professed a nun at the age of twelve (1254) in a convent built by her parents on an island in the Danube, near Buda. Margaret was famous for her extreme ascetism, and insisted on performing the most menial and unpleasant tasks in the convent. She professed her sympathy for the poor by denying herself cleanliness and sleep, and occupied herself with the most painful mortifications. Surviving eye-witness depositions support the traditons of Margaret’s desire for austere religious penances. Indeed there survives such a mass of concurrent testimony that the veracity of the accounts cannot be doubted. Margaret died (Jan 18, 1270), worn out by her austerities, at the early age of twenty-seven. Though she was worshipped as a saint from the time of her death her cult as a beata was confirmed only five hundred years later (1789). Finally canonized (1943), her feast was observed on Jan 23.

Margaret of Louvain – (c989 – after 1015)
Flemish noblewoman
Margaret was the only daughter of Lambert I the Bearded, Count of Louvain (973 – 1015), and his wife Gerberga of Lorraine, the granddaughter of Louis IV, King of France (936 – 954). She was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814) and of Alfred, the Anglo-Saxon king of Wessex in England (871 – 899). Margaret became the wife (c1005) of Baldwin III (c981 – c1007), Seigneur de Crequy, the son of Seigneur Ramelin II and his wife Alice d’Oisy. Through her daughter, Anne de Crequy, the wife of Guerin, Seigneur de Craon, Margaret was the ancestress of the seigneurs de Vitre and their descendants.

Margaret of Lusignan – (c1361 – c1400)
Princess of Cyprus
Princess Margaret was the second daughter of Peter I, King of Cyprus and his second wife Eleonor of Aragon. Margaret was betrothed by proxy at Milan in Lombardy (April 2, 1376) to Carlo Visconti (died 1391) the illegitimate son of Count Bernarbo Visconti of Milan. At the same time her brother Peter II was betrothed to Carlo’s legitimate half-sister Valentina. The idea behind this double alliance was to unite Milan, Venice and Cyprus against their common enemy the Genoese for a period of four years. The marriage treaties were concluded in Venice (Nov 14, 1377) and it was agreed that Venice would conduct Valentina to Cyprus, free of charge, and would return to Milan with Princess Margaret for her marriage with Carlo.
For some unknown reason the marriage between Margaret and Carlo was dropped and in 1383 Pedro IV of Aragon begged Pope Urban VI not to grant any dispensation that might be asked for Margaret’s marriage, unless it had the approval of her mother Queen Eleanor. Soon afterwards Margaret’s uncle King James of Cyprus allowed her to marry her first cousin James (died 1405), Count of Tripoli, the son of John of Cyprus, Prince of Antioch. Margaret bore her husband several children and died aged around forty. Her sons were John of Lusignan (c1388 – 1414) who succeeded his father as Count of Tripoli but died unmarried, and Peter of Lusignan (died after 1456) who succeeded John as Count of Tripoli (1414) and left issue. Margaret’s daughters Eschiva and Eleanor of Lusignan appear to have died unmarried.

Margaret of Naples – (1273 – 1299)
Italian-French princess
Princess Margaret was the eldest daughter of Charles II of Anjou, King of Naples and his wife Maria of Hungary. Margaret of Naples became the first wife (1290) of Charles I (1270 – 1325), Count of Valois, the younger son of King Philip III (1270 – 1285) and was Countess of Valois (1290 – 1299). Margaret died (Dec 31, 1299) aged twenty-five. One of her daughters died in infancy. Her five surviving children were,

Margaret of Orkney – (c1115 – after 1156)
Scottish mediaeval heiress
Margaret was married firstly (c1133) to Madach, Earl of Atholl, the nephew of Malcolm III, King of Scotland (1059 – 1093). Her second husband was the Scandinavian jarl Erland Ugni (died 1156), Earl of Orkney, whom she survived.

Margaret of Parma – (1522 – 1586)     
Austrian Hapsburg duchess and ruler
Margaret was born (July, 1522) at Pamele in Oudenarde, the illegitimate daughter of the Emperor Charles V (1519 - 1555) and his mistress Johanna van der Gheenst, and was half-sister to Philip II of Spain. She married firstly (1536) Alessandro de Medici (1511 – 1537), and secondly (1538) Ottavio Farnese (1526 – 1586), Duke of Parma from 1556, by whom she was the mother of Duke Alessandro Farnese (1545 – 1592). Margaret was appointed regent of the Netherlands (1559 – 1567) by her brother King Philip, and vainly attempted to win the nobility over to the Imperial side. Nevertheless, she proved herself an able and masterful ruler. A staunch Catholic, Margaret successfully suppressed a Calvinist revolt (1567), by raising a considerable force of German mercenaries. However, shocked by Philip’s atrocious attack on the Lutherans, a move she felt to be foolish and unnecessarily cruel, the duchess abdicated as governor-general and was replaced by the repressive Duke of Alba. When her son Alesandro became governor of the Netherlands (1578 – 1586), ruling for his uncle Philip II, Margaret returned to Holland with him, and for awhile headed the civil administration (1580 – 1583). Margaret of Parma died (Jan 18, 1586) at Ortona, Italy, aged sixty-three, and was buried in Rome.

Margaret of Valois    see also    Margeurite de Valois

Margaret of York – (1446 – 1503)
Duchess consort of Burgundy
Margaret was born (May 3, 1446) at Fotheringhay Castle, in Northamptonshire, the daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, and his wife Cecily, daughter of Ralph Neville, earl of Westmoreland. She was sister to the Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III, and became the third wife (1468) of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. The marriage, though happy, remained childless. The marriage cemented the political alliance between Burgundy and the House of York. When Edward was driven from the English throne (1470), Charles granted him refuge in the Netherlands, and provided him with enough assistance as to enable his restoration (1471). Margaret was stepmother to Marie of Burgundy, the great heiress who married the future emperor Maximilian I (1477). Widowed at the battle of Nancy (Jan, 1477), apart from a three month visit to England (1480), where she was credited with introducing the order of the Observant Franciscans, Margaret remained in the Netherlands for the rest of her life. She resided mainly at her dower palace at Malines, where she possessed vast estates, and she completely adopted the country of her marriage, never desiring to remarry.
From the time of Henry Tudor’s accession (1485) to the English throne as Henry VII until her own death, Margaret continually plotted against him, and he caused part of her dowry, granted by Edward IV, to be confiscated in retaliation. Her court became a haven for disappointed Yorkists. She encouraged the pretensions of the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be her dead nephews, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, not because she believed their claims, but because she believed it would unsettle Henry’s hold on the throne. This earned her the popular epithet of ‘aunt of all the pretenders.’ Finally Margaret was forced to make a formal apology to Henry (1498). Duchess Margaret stood godmother to the future emperor Charles V (1500), the great-grandson of her late husband. Margaret of York died (Nov 28, 1503) at Mechelin, and was interred within the Church of the Grey Friars (Cordeliers) there.

Margaret Plantagenet (1) – (1240 – 1275)         
Queen consort of Scotland
Margaret was born at Windsor Castle, in Berkshire, the eldest daughter of Henry III, King of England and his wife Eleanor, the daughter of Ramon Berengar V, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. Margaret was married (1251) at York to Alexander III of Scotland, as his first wife. The couple had three children. Their two sons, Alexander and David, died childless, whilst their only daughter Margaret (1261 – 1283) married Eric II, king of Norway and was the mother of Margaret the Maid, Queen of Scotland (1286 – 1290). Queen Margaret’s married life in Scotland was unhappy, as she was viewed with distrust as an English agent by the young Alexander’s guardians. An English physician sent to care for her by her parents (1255), expressed his indignation at the conditions under which the young couple were kept. Matters improved considerably when the king came of age. Queen Margaret died (Feb 27, 1275) aged thirty-four, at Cupar Castle, and was interred in Dunfermline Abbey in Fifeshire.

Margaret Plantagenet (2) – (1346 – 1361)
English princess
Margaret was born (July 20, 1346) at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, the fifth daughter of King Edward III (1327 – 1377) and his wife Philippa, the daughter of William III, count of Hainault. Charles of Blois, her father’s cative, eventually agreed that his eldest son should be betrothed to Princess Margaret, as the price of his freedom (1349), together with an enormous ransom, providing the pope would supply the necessary dispensation. This plan came to nothing, and after remonstrances from the Earl of Derby, on behalf of the youthful duke of Brittany, the enemy of Blois, Edward rejected the suggestions. Margaret was married (1359) at Reading Abbey, Berkshire, to John Hastings (1347 – 1375), second Earl of Pembroke. There were no children. Princess Margaret died (after Oct 1, 1361) aged fifteen. She was buried in Abbey Abbey, Oxon, together with her elder sister Mary, Duchess of Brittany.

Margaret Stuart – (1424 – 1445)
Princess of Scotland and verse writer
Princess Margaret Stuart was the eldest daughter of King James I and his English queen, Lady Joan Beaufort, the great-granddaughter of King Edward III (1327 - 1377). Charles VII of France wished to strengthen Scotland's alliance with France and sent an embassy to Scotland (April, 1428) to request Margaret's hand for his son the Dauphin Louis (1423 - 1483) (the future Louis XI (1461 – 1483). This treaty was signed by Charles at Chinon (Oct 30, 1428) with the stipulation that if the Dauphin should died before the marriage was consummated, Margaret would then marry Charles' next surviving son. The marriage was delayed due to the Jeanne d'Arc episode and the princess finally embarked from Dumbarton for France (March, 1436), Margaret taking a tearful farewell from her father King James. The king was so overcome that he cut the ceremony short and left. Margaret was married (June 25, 1436) at Rheims Cathedral, near Paris, in the prescence of King Charles and the court. The new Dauphine had brought with her from Scotland a retinue of about one hundred and forty young people as attendants, most of whom were sent back to Scotland after the wedding.
The marriage proved to be unhappy and there were no children. Louis despised Margaret, though she was treated well by King Charles and with kindness by her mother-in-law Marie of Anjou. The Dauphine sought consolation in poetry and surrounded herself with a group of ladies who possessed similar tastes as herself. She regarded herself as the pupil of the poet Alain Chartier, and once publicly kissed him as he lay sleeping on a bench, saying that it was not the man she was kissing but the mouth which had produced so many witty and virtuous sayings. The Dauphine danced publicly with the Queen of Naples (June, 1445) and the Duchess of Burgundy reproached Louis for his neglect of his wife. Jamet de Tillay spread malicious reports that Margaret had committed adultery, and this, together with her husband's continuing indifference, led to depression and a subsequent decline in her health. The Dauphine accompanied King Charles on a pilgrimage to a local shrine but caught a chill. On her deathbed she strongly defended herself against the false charge of adultery. Margaret died (Aug 10, 1445) aged twenty-one. She was buried firstly in the Cathedral of Chalons but Louis caused her to be reinterred within the Church of St Laon at Thouars (1446). Charles VII ordered an enquiry into Margaret's death and had Tillay examined but no charges were laid.

Margaret Tudor – (1489 – 1541)      
Queen consort of Scotland (1502 – 1513)
Margaret was born (Nov 28, 1489) at Westminster Palace in London, the eldest daughter of Henry VII, King of England and his wife Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. She was married (1502) to King James IV of Scotland, but the union did little to repair relations between the two countries, and James was killed fighting the English at the Battle of Flodden (1513). During the infancy of James V, the queen was left as regent, and was a person of political significance importance. However, as Margaret’s allegiance shifted between the pro-English and pro-French parties, her real power remained insignificant. Her ill-advised second marriage with Archibald Douglas (1488 – 1557), sixth Earl of Douglas (1514) revealed openly her pro-English sympathies, and Margaret was removed from the regency and replaced by her first husband’s kinsman, John Stuart, Duke of Albany, leader of the pro-French party. Margaret later divorced Douglas (1527) and then remarried thirdly (1528) to Henry Stewart (c1497 – 1552), Lord Methven. When her son came of age (1528) she and Methven became his advisers, but when it was revealed that she had betrayed state secrets to her brother Henry VIII (1534), the queen mother was forced to retire from politics. Queen Margaret died (Nov 24, 1541) aged sixty-one, at Methven Castle, Perthshire. She was interred in the Carthusian Abbey of St John in Perth.
Margaret Tudor was the subject of the historical romance The Thistle and The Rose (1965) by novelist Jean Plaidy. She was portrayed on the screen by actress Gabrielle Anwar in the Showtime television series The Tudors (2007 - 2010) with Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII, but in this fictional portrayal Margaret was an amalgam of herself and her younger sister Mary Tudor. In this series Margaret is married instead firstly to the elderly King Manoel I of Portugal (who was in fact still married to Catharine of Aragon's sister Maria), and then becomes the wife of Charles Brandon, played by Henry Cavill, who was actually the second husband of Margaret's sister Mary, whose first and elderly husband was actually Louis XII of France (1498 - 1515).

Margareta Leijonhufvud – (1514 – 1551)
Queen consort of Sweden (1536 – 1551)
Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud was born (Jan 1, 1514) at Ekeberg, the daughter of Erik Abrahamsson Leijonhufvud pa Loholmen, the Governor of Vastergotland (West Gothland) and his wife Ebba Eriksdotter Vasa. She was married (1536) at Uppsala to Gustavus I Eriksson (1496 – 1560), King of Sweden (1523 – 1560) and became his second queen consort. Queen Margareta died (Aug 26, 1551) aged thirty-six, at Tynneslo, having never properly recovered from the birth of her youngest child. Her children were,

Margareta of Montferrat – (1510 – 1566)          
Italian religious founder
Margareta was the daughter of Guglielmo XI, Marquis of Montferrat, and his French wife, Anne d’Alencon. With the deaths of her brother Bonifacio V (1530) and her elder sister Maria (1531) Margareta became the heiress of the marquisate of Montferrat. She married (1532) Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (1500 – 1540) to whom she bore seven children including Guglielmo Gonzaga (William), Duke of Mantua (1550 – 1587) and Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Rethel and Nevers (1539 – 1595). An extremely religious and pious woman, in 1537, at her especial request, Pope Paul III sent papal commissioners to Ravenna, to make enquiries concerning miracles atrributed to the Margaret and Gentile Giusti, with a view to their canonization. These two women had founded, together with Father Jerome Maluselli, the Order of the Good Jesus, which followed the rule of St Augustine. The pope approved, and due to the especial interest and support of the duchess, the princes of the house of Gonzaga protected and aided the newly established order. Nevertheless, despite this fact, the order was eventually supressed in 1651, little over one hundred and twenty years later, as it by then then had only eleven members.

Margareta of Waldeck – (1533 – 1554)
German countess and courtier
Countess Margareta was born (May 22, 1533), the second daughter of Philip IV, Count of Waldeck-Wildungen and his first wife Margaret, the daughter of Edzard II, Count of East Friesland. Her mother died young. Blonde haired and well educated, Margareta was sent to the Imperial court of Karldenburg in Brussels by the Emperor Charles V, to serve as a lady-in-waiting (1551 – 1553) to his daughter Maria, the wife of Maximilian II of Austria. She had been summoned at the age of fifteen, but her father had refused, possibly due to her ill-health, but with the intervention of Landgrave Philip of Hesse, Margareta was permitted to travel to Brussels and take up her position at the court. Her letters to her father survive in the family archive at Castle Arolsen, as does her will. She attracted the attentions of Philip II of Spain and Count Lamoral of Egmond, who dedicated his portrait to her. Both men gave her lavish gifts of jewels and clothes, and Prince Philip’s attentions became more marked. However such a marriage did not suit Imperial politics, and soon afterwards Margareta died (March 16, 1554) aged twenty-one. Despite her beauty, Margareta suffered continuously from ill-health. Her death has been thought suspicious, and her physical decline suggests arsenic poisoning, probably administered during one of her frequent periods of bad health. She was interred in Brussels. The famous fairy tale Snow White (1795) (English translation 1823), by the Brothers Grimm, is said to have been based on Margareta’s life.

Margaret Beatrice Feodora – (1872 – 1954)
Princess of Prussia
Princess Margaret was born (April 22, 1872) at the Neue Palais near Potsdam, the fourth and youngest daughter of Emperor Friedrich III (1888) and his wife Victoria, Princess Royal of England, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. She was the younger sister to Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918) and with her elder sisters Victoria and Sophia suffered much because of their brother’s insensitive treatment of their widowed mother. Known as ‘Mossy’ within the family she possessed little beauty but a placid and pleasing temperament. She was proposed by Queen Victoria as a bride for her grandson Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (1889) but the prince showed no enthusiasm for the suggestion, being already enamoured of the Catholic princess Helene d' Orleans. Tsar Alexander III of Russia attempted to negotiate a marriage between his son Nicholas (II) and Margaret (1892), but Nicholas refused to consider the match, and Margaret refused to convert to the Russian Orthodox faith.
Princess Margaret was married intead in Berlin (1893) to Landgrave Friedrich Karl of Hesse-Kassel (1868 – 1940) becoming the Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel. The marriage proved a happy and contented one and Margaret bore her husband six sons including two sets of twins. She and her husband visited England for obsequies of Queen Victoria (1901) and for the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902). Friedrich Wilhelm was the brother of the last sovereign ruler Landgrave Alexander Friedrich (1888 – 1925). When his brother married morganatically and renounced his rights as head of the family Landgrave Friedrich Wilhelm assumed the position of Head of the Electoral House of Hesse (1925 – 1940) with Margaret as his official consort. Margaret survived her husband as the Dowager Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel (1940 – 1954). Princess Margaret died (Jan 22, 1954) aged eighty-one, at Schonberg bei Kronberg in Taunus. She was buried at Potsdam. Her children were,

Margaretha of Berg – (1364 – 1442)
German duchess consort
Margaretha of Berg was the daughter Wilhelm II, Duke of Julich and Berg and his wife Anna of Bavaria, Countess Palatine. She became the second wife (1379) of Otto I the Strong (1340 – 1394), Duke of Brunswick-Gottingen and became his duchess consort (1379 – 1394). She bore Otto four children. Margaretha survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Brunswick-Gottingen for almost five decades (1394 – 1442). Duchess Margaretha died (July 18, 1442) aged seventy-eight. The duchess was interred within the Church of Hardregson. Her tomb originally rested in the choir before the altar. It was later removed and placed in a corner of the church (1768). The monument was a splendid one and presented the image of Duchess Margaretha. The tomb was covered in linen and her effigy rested upon a blue cushion. The colour of her garments was blue and white. The coat of arms at her feet contained three golden spurs upon a red field. The inscription upon the border was in red and gold but much damaged so that the entire inscription was not legible. That which could be deciphered read Anno Domini MCCCCXLII – OTTOLIS MARGARETHA in die – anima requiescat. Her children were,

Margarethe I – (1353 – 1412)
Queen regnant of Denmark
Margarethe was born in Soborg, Denmark, the daughter of King Valdemar V, and his wife Hedwig of Schleswig, the daughter of Eric II, Duke of Schleswig. She was married (1363) to Haakon VI, King of Norway (1339 – 1380), to whom she bore an only son Olav (1370). With the death of her father without any male heirs (1375), the Danish nobles offered Margarethe the crown in trust for her son then aged five years, for whom she ruled as regent. With her husband Haakon’s death (1380), Margarethe became regent of Norway as well, thus attaining the unification of the two countries that would last over four hundred and thirty years till 1814. Olav died suddenly aged only seventeen (1387), leaving Margarethe as sole ruler (‘sovereign lady’) in Denmark and Norway. In 1388, the Swedish nobility, affronted by their elected German king, Albert of Mecklenburg, offered Margarethe his crown. The queen then invaded Sweden, captured and imprisoned Albert, and was proclaimed ruler of Sweden. She then adopted (1389) her seven year old nephew, Erik of Pomerania (1382 – 1459) as her successor to the three Scandinavian kingdoms. In 1395 the Hanseatic League organized the release of Albert from captivity, after he promised to make a payment of 60, 000 marks by 1398. The ransom was never received, and in Sept, 1398, Margarethe received the city of Stockholm, though she granted the Hanseatic League certain concessions. In 1397 Margarethe affected the Union of Kalmar, which maintained that the three kingdoms should remain for ever under one ruler, whilst each retained its separate laws, and together could present a united front against the threat of dominance by the German Hanseatic League. Erik was crowned king of the triple monarchy as Erik VIII, but Queen Margarethe retained all power in her own hands until her death. Queen Margarethe ruled through court officials, acting as superior clerk. She also recovered all landed property in Denmark and Sweden which had become alienated from the crown, and reformed the currency. In foreign policy, the queen maintained neutrality, but spared no pains recovering lost Danish territory. Queen Margarethe I died suddenly (Oct 28, 1412) aboard her ship in Flensburg harbour.

Margarethe Francoise Louise Marie Helene – (1895 – 1992)
Princess of Denmark
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Margarethe was born (Sept 7, 1895) at Bernstorff, the only daughter of Prince Valdemar of Denmark (1858 – 1939) and his wife Princess Marie Amelie d’Orleans, the daughter of Robert d’Orleans (1840 – 1910), Duc de Chatres. She was the paternal granddaughter of Christian IX, King of Denmark and his wife Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Margarethe was the niece of Queen Alexandra, the wife of Edward VII, King of England and of the Russian empress Marie Feodorovna, wife of Tsar Alexander III. Princess Margarethe was married (1921) in Copenhagen to the Catholic Italian Prince Rene of Bourbon-Parma (1894 – 1962) a maternal kinsman of her Roman Catholic mother. He was a younger son of Duke Roberto I of Parma and younger brother of the last Holy Roman empress Zita of Bourbon-Parma, the wife of Emperor Karl I. She bore her husband four children. The princess and her family resided mainly in France until the advent of WW II when they fled into exile to escape capture at the ahnds of the Nazis and managed to reach Spain. From there they travelled to Portugal and finally fled to the USA. After the war the family was able to return to Germany and sometimes resided with Margarethe’s family in Denmark. Margarethe survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Princess Rene of Bourbon-Parma (1962 – 1992) and died (Sept 18, 1992) the day after her ninety-seventh birthday, at Brodrehoj, near Copenhagen. Her children were,

Margarethe Sophia Louisa Ingeborg – (1899 – 1977)
Princess of Sweden and Norway
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Margarethe was born (June 25, 1899) in Stockholm, the daughter of Prince Karl of Sweden, Duke of Vastergotland, and his wife Princess Ingeborg of Denmark. Margaretha was married (1919) in Stockholm, to Prince Axel of Denmark (1888 – 1964), the grandson of Christian IX, King of Denmark (1863 – 1906), whom she survived as Princess Dowager of Sweden  (1964 – 1977). Princess Margarethe died (Jan 4, 1977) aged seventy-seven, at Gentoft. Her sons were,

Margaret Rose – (1930 – 2002)      
Princess of Great Britain and Ireland
Princess Margaret was born (Aug 21, 1930) at Glamis Castle in Angus, Scotland, the younger daughter of King George VI (1936 – 1952) and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyons, the daughter of Claude, thirteenth Earl of Strathmore. She was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and was the first member of the ruling royal house to be born in Scotland in over three centuries. Extremely attractive and elegant, she was refused permission (1955) to marry the divorcee Group Captain Peter Townshend, amidst much media publicity and hype, though the decision was publicly said to have been her own, due to her loyalty to her sister the Queen, whose position of head of the Church of England, would have been damaged if such a marriage had been permitted. Five years afterwards the princess was married (1960) to Antony Armstrong-Jones (born 1930), the noted photographer, who was created Earl of Snowdon, and bore him two children. Margaret’s marriage eventually disintegrated, and ended in divorce (1978), and she never remarried. Always prominent in society, the princess was the patron of several important organizations such as the Royal Ballet and the Guide Association. Known for her lack of sympathy towards Princess Diana, whose behaviour she found unfathomable, she suffered a stroke several months before her death and was confined to a wheelchair.

Margaret Sambiria – (1231 – 1282)       
Queen consort of Denmark
Margaret Sambiria was the eldest daughter of Sambor II, Duke of Pomerelia and his wife Matilda, the daughter of Henry Borwin I, Prince of Mecklenburg-Rostock. She was married (1248) to Christopher I, King of Denmark and was the mother of five children, of whom the eldest was Erik V (1249 – 1286). Prior to her husband’s death (1259), the queen had allied herself with the clergy against him, during the dispute between the crown and archbishop Jacon Erlandsen, but at his Christopher’s death (1259), she ruled as regent for her son Erik until 1264, though the period was also confused by strife between the crown and the clergy. Margaret and Erik were captured by the forces of Erik of Schleswig-Holstein (July, 1261), but were released after the intervention of the papacy, of foreign powers led by Duke Albert of Brunswick, and of  the queen’s aged father, Duke Sambor, on their behalf. Her son granted her the fiefs of Estonia and Virumaa (1266). A capable and politically able woman, she was renowned as an excellent horsewoman. Her daughter Matilda of Denmark (1250 – 1311) became the wife of Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg. Margaret Sambiria died aged fifty-one (Dec, 1282) at Rostock, and was interred within the Cistercian church at Doberan in Mecklenburg, Germany.

Margarita de Prades – (1395 – 1451)      
Queen consort of Aragon (1409 – 1410)
Margarita was the daughter of Pedro de Prades, Baron de Entenza and his wife, Juana de Cabrera. She was brought up in the household of Maria de Luna, the first wife of Martin I, King of Aragon. Martin married Margarita (1409) but his death soon afterwards left her a childless widow. During her widowhood she formed a liasion with Don Juan de Vilaregut, whom she secretly married, and to whom she bore a son. The marriage was kept secret so that the queen dowager would not forfeit her dower rights. By 1424 she became a nun at Valdoncellos, and was abbess of Bonrepos before her death, when she was interred in the Abbey of Santa Creus.

Margetts, Mary – (c1810 – 1886)         
British painter
Mary Margetts was probably a native of London. She painted mainly still-life of fruit using water colours. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the New Water Colour Society, which inducted her as a member.

Margeurita of Naples – (fl. 1394 – 1414)
Italian physician
Margeurita studied medicine at the University of Salerno and also wrote poetic verse. She became a fully licensed eye specialist at Frankfurt-am-Main in Germany (1394). Margeurita later attended the court as physician to the royal family (1414).

Margeurite d’Angouleme – (1492 – 1549)         
Queen consort of Navarre
Margeurite was born at Angouleme (April 11, 1492), the only daughter of Charles de Valois, Comte d’Angouleme, and his wife Louise of Savoy, and was sister to King Francois I (1515 – 1547). Plans to marry her to Henry VIII of England and Gaston de Foix came to naught, and Margeurite eventually married firstly (1509), Charles IV, Duc de Alencon (1489 – 1525), and secondly (1527) Henry II d’Albret, King of Navarre (1503 – 1555). To her second husband she bore an only daughter Jeanne III d’Albret (1528 – 1572) who was in turn the mother of Henry IV, first king of the Bourbon dynasty (1589 – 1792). Much influenced by the humanist teachings of the Dutch Erasmus, and the religious reformers of the Meaux circle, Margeurite was greatly interested in Renissance learning. Though she remained a Roman Catholic herself, she professed sympathy with the views of Martin Luther. She encouraged learning, and the arts in all forms, and was a patron of the poet Clement Marot, considered a heretic by the Catholic Church, who addressed her as ‘corps feminin, coeur d’homme et tete d’ange.’ She was also the patron of such disciplinary reformers of the church such as Francois Rabelais, Bonaventire des Periers and Etienne Dolet, and accepted the religious views of Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples and Guillaume Briconnet.
Queen Margeurite wrote two long devotional poems Le Miroir de l’ame Pecheresse (The Mirror of a Sinner’s Soul) (1531) and Les Margeurites de la Margeurite des princesses (The Daisies of Princess Margeurite) (1547). She also produced dramas, the secular poem La Coche (The Coach), and Chansons religieuses (Religious Songs). However, she is best remembered for her celebrated Heptameron (1559) which was a popular collection of seventy-two stories modelled on the Decameron of Boccacio. Already estranged from her husband, eleven years her junior, whose interests she did not share, the death of her brother (1547) affected Margeurite deeply, and she devoted the rest of her life to mysticism and writing verse. Queen Margeurite died (Dec 21, 1549) aged fifty-eight, at Odos-en-Bigorre. She was interred in the Cathedral of Lescar. She was portrayed by actress Sara James in season one of the Showtime television series The Tudors (2007) with Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII.

Margeurite de Bourgogne     see     Margaret of Burgundy

Margeurite de Valois (1) – (1523 – 1574)         
French princess and literary patron
Princess Margeurite was the daughter of Francis I, King of France, and his first wife Claude d’Orleans, daughter of Louis XII, King of France. Margeurite was the sister to Henry II (1547 – 1559) and aunt of Francois II, Charles IX, and Henry III. With the death of Jane Seymour (1537) Margeurite was tentatively suggested as a possible fourth wife for Henry VIII of England, but was quickly disqualified because of her youth. She remained unmarried for another two decades and was eventually married (1559) to Emanuele Philiberto, Duke of Savoy, who had unsuccessfully sued for the hand of Princess Elizabeth Tudor. Renowned for her beauty, as well as her gallantries, she was the patroness of scholars and writers. She was the mother of Carlo I Emmanuele (1562 – 1630), Duke of Savoy and left descendants including the Princesse de Lamballe, the favourite of Marie Antoinette.

Margeurite de Valois (2) – (1553 – 1615)          
Queen consort of Navarre and France
Margeurite was the youngest daughter of King Henry II (1547 – 1559) and his wife, the Italian Catherine de Medici. Beautiful, cultured, and sexually profligate, she was sister to three kings, Francois II (1559 – 1560), Charles IX (1560 – 1574), and Henry III (1574 – 1589). Frightened of her enigmatic mother, to whom she was her least favourite child Margeurite was forced to marry Henry of Navarre, son and heir of Queen Jeanne III. The marriage took place during the infamous St Bartholomew’s Day slaughter (1572), which had been preceeded by the death of Margeurite’s mother-in-law, the Protestant Jeanne, reputedly with poison provided by her own mother, Queen Catherine. The union remained childless. When Henry succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV (1589 – 1610) Margeurite was queen consort for a decade. The marriage was eventually dissolved by the pope (1599) son that Henry could remarry to Margeurite’s Italian kinswoman, Marie de Medici, in order to begat and heir, which was later accomplished with the birth of Louis XIII (1601). Queen Margeurite, long popularly known to her countrymen as ‘Le Reine Margot,’ was famous for her succession of lovers, a habit she retained long past middle age and the loss of her former entrancing beauty. She remained on excellent terms with her former husband and with his new wife, and always remained a prominent personage at the court. Her Memoires (1628) were published posthumously.

Margeurittes, Julie de – (1814 – 1866)               
Anglo-American author
Julie was born in London, England, the daughter of a physician, and married the Comte de Margeurittes, who had been exiled from France with the rise of the Second Republic. When recalled by Napoleon III, the Comte abandoned Julie and their daughter Noemie, and she obtained a divorce, remarrying to George G. Foster, a publisher of New York. Widowed in 1850, necessity decreed that Julie should support herself by her writing and being possessed of some vocal talent, she performed in the opera La Gazza Ladra in New York (1852). She repeated this performance in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but, despite her talent, she retired from the stage in order to remain in Philadelphia, taking up the position of drama critic at the Sunday Transcript. Her third marriage was with Samuel J. Rea, a journalist. Her written works were The Ins and Outs of Paris (1855), Italy and the War of 1859 (1859) and Parisian Pickings, or Paris in all States and Stations (1860). Julie de Margeurittes died in Philadelphia.

Margherita Maria Teresa Giovanna – (1851 – 1926)                 
Queen consort of Italy (1878 – 1900)
Princess Margherita was born at Turin, in Piedmont, the daughter of Ferdinand of Savoy, Duke of Genoa, and his wife Elisabeth of Saxony. She was married (1868) to her cousin, Umberto I (1844 – 1900) who succeeded his father Vittorio Emanuele II as king (1878). Their only child was King Vittorio Emanuele III (1869 – 1947). The couple were crowned in Rome (1879) and then made several state visits, including one to Queen Victoria in England. Known for her patriotism, Queen Margherita corresponded with Prime Minister Mario Minghetti, and charmed former Republican stalwarts such as Carducci, Francesco Crispi, and Baron Giovanni Nicatera. Tall and fair-haired, and a recognized leader of fashion, whose toilettes were copied assiduously, Margherita’s tastes were artistic, literary, and musical, and she remained a prominent patron of the composer Giuseppe Verdi. Though she never won the affection of her husband, the queen was able to dominate him, and she used this influence to make the monarchy a powerful ally in the politics of the conservative right. She stood by Crispi (1897), passionately supporting his ‘Africanism’ and doctrines of martial law. Her husband was assassinated in 1900. During World War I, the queen mother enthusiastically supported the uprising of Benito Mussolini. Queen Margherita died (Jan 4, 1926) at Bordighera, and was interred in the Pantheon.

Margherita Maria Teresa Henrietta – (1847 – 1893)
Titular Queen consort of Spain (1887 – 1893) and Duquesa de Madrid
Princess Margherita of Parma was born (Jan 1, 1847) at Lucca, the daughter of Carlo III, Duke of Parma (1849 – 1854) and his wife Louise of Bourbon-Berry, the granddaughter of Charles X, King of France (1824 – 1830). She was raised at Zurich in Switzerland and in a palazzo in Venice With the death of their mother (1864) Margherita and her siblings were then adopted by their uncle the Comte de chambord and his wife. Gentle and possessed of great beauty and a sweet temperament the princess was married (1867) at Frohsdorf in Austria to the Infante Carlos (1848 – 1909) Duque of Madrid, the son of the Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne, as his first wife, the wedding being attended by the Emperor Franz Josef.
With the death of his father Duque Carlos was known by the supporters of the Carlist cause as King Carlos VII of Spain, and Margerita became the titular queen consort. Her enormous dowry enabled her husband to buy arms and munitions with which to form an army in an attempt to regain the Spanish throne and resulted in the capture of Navarre (1869). They established their court in exile in Paris and Margherita was revered by the Spanish people and during his attempt to regain Bilbao she established herself at Pau in Navarre where she organized a military hospital whilst her concern for the wounded earned her the popular epithetof the ‘Angel of La Caridad.’ Despite being welcomed with great magnificence in Estella as the ‘de facto King and Queen of Navarre’ the Carlist cause eventually failed when Alfonso XII was recognized as King of Spain by the government and papacy. Duque Carlo was forced to flee into exile but Margherita and her children were permitted to join him without hindrance of any kind and returned to Paris. Her husband’s political activities later caused the family to be expelled from France (1881) and Margherita then separated from Carlo and retired with her children to her own estates at Viareggio in Italy. Duquesa Margherita died (Jan 29, 1893) aged forty-six, at Viareggio. Her children were,

Margit     see    Margaret of Hungary

Margo – (1917 – 1985)
Mexican film actress and dancer
Born Maria Margeurita Guadelupe Boldao Castilla y O’Donnell, she trained as a child under Eduardo Cansino, the father of actress Rita Hayworth. Margo performed as a dancer with the band of Xavier Cugat (1900 – 1990) and then appeared in films. Her movie credits included Crime Without Passion (1934), Lost Horizon (1937), The Leopard Man (1943) and I’ll Cry Tomorrow (1955). She was married to actor Eddie Albert (1906 – 2006), remembered for his role as Oliver Douglas in the popular television series Greenacres (1965 – 1971) and was the mother of actor Edward Albert (born 1951).

Margolin, Janet – (1943 – 1993)
American film actress
Janet Margolin was born (July 25, 1943) in New York. She attended the New York School of the Performing Arts and made her stage debut on Broadway in Daughter of Silence (1961) after which she made her film debut in David and Lisa (1962) in which she played a mentally disturbed girl for which role she received great acclaim. Margolin became a leading film actress during the 1960’s and 1970’s.
Her film credits included The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), Nevada Smith (1966), Enter Laughing (1967), Take the Money and Run (1970), Annie Hall (1977), Last Embrace (1979) and Ghostbusters II (1989). She also appeared in several television films such as The Last Child (1971), Pray for the Wildcats (1974) and Murder in Peyton Place (1977).

Maria        see also      Marie, Mary

Maria – (fl. c500 – 532)
Byzantine patrician
Maria was the wife of Flavius Hypatius, consul (500) and magister militum of the East (516 – 518) and (527 – 529). Procopius of Caesarea in his chronicle de bello Persico recorded that during the Nika rebellion in Constantinople (532) when the populace proclaimed Hypatius as emperor and carried him off to crown, that Maria attempted to rescue him. When the rebellion was dispersed the Emperor Justinian ahd Hypatius executed but later restored his estates to Lady Maria and her children, who had been permitted to inter Hypatius within the Church of St Maura.

Maria the Copt    see   Qibtiyya, Maria

Maria, Flavia – (c385 – c407 AD)                   
Roman Augusta (398 – c407 AD)
Flavia Maria was the elder daughter of Flavius Stilicho, and his wife Serena, the niece of the Emperor Theodosius I the Great (379 – 395 AD). Her father had first desired to marry Maria to Prince Arcadius (later emperor), but was thwarted in his ambition by his rival Eutropius, who arranged Arcadius’ marriage with Eudoxia, the daughter of Bauto instead. Maria was then married in Milan (398 AD) to her other cousin, the emperor Honorius (384 – 423 AD) as his first wife. The marriage was celebrated by the poet Claudian who referred to the young empress as promissa virgo in his work, Epithalamium de Nuptis Honorii Augusti. However, these hopes were never fulfilled as the Empress Maria died childless.

Maria I Francisca – (1734 – 1816)
Queen regnant of Portugal (1777 – 1816)
Infanta Maria Francisca was born in Lisbon, the eldest daughter of King Joseph I and his wife Maria Anna Victoria, the daughter of Philip V, King of Spain. With her father’s accession (1750) she was accorded the title of princess of Brazil (1750 – 1777). She was married to her uncle (1760), the Infante Pedro (1717 – 1786), who was styled king-consort as Pedro III, after Maria Francisca’s accession, and the couple had seven children. Her prosperous and peaceful reign followed the dictatorial administration of the marques de Pombal, part of whose handiwork the queen repudiated by restoring the Jesuits and making peace with Spain by the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777) after an agreement to map the common frontier in South America. The Royal Academy of Sciences, the Royal Academy of Military Fortifications, and the Royal Observatory were all created during her reign, and Maria Francisca instituted the Lisbon ‘casa pia’ for the education of orphans and destitute children.  
Profoundly religious, the queen’s mental state had never been good, and with the deaths of her husband (1786) and their eldest son Joseph (1788) her mind became unbalanced. News of the excesses of the French revolution (1792) so shatterred her condition, that her son Joao (V) (1767 – 1826) was appointed as prince regent for the duration of his mother’s illness. Her condition was later declared incurable (1799) and in 1807 the advancing Napoleonic forces precipitated the removal of the entire royal family to safety in Brazil. Joao remained regent till her death (March 20, 1816).  Her remains were returned to Portugal (1821) and reinterred in the Basilica of Estrela in Lisbon.

Maria II da Gloria – (1819 – 1853)
Queen regnant of Portugal (1834 – 1853)
Infanta Maria da Gloria was born (April 4, 1819) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the daughter of the Emperor Pedro II, who was also king of Portugal as Pedro IV. Her mother was the Hasburg archduchess Leopoldina, Pedro’s first wife. Maria II was proclaimed queen of Portugal with the death of her grandfather, Joao IV (1826), as her father renounced the Portugese throne in her favour. Her succession was contested by her paternal uncle, Dom Miguel (1828) and the child queen was forced to seek safety in England, and was then taken to Brazil. The ensuing Civil War conducted by the Liberals and the Absolutists ended Maria II being reinstated as monarch at the age of fifteen, after the death of her father (1834).
Increasingly frustrated by the powerful leftist government, the young queen attempted to initiate a political coup in 1836, and her insistence upon the acceptance of the conservative Saldanha as prime minister ultimately led to Civil war (1846 – 1847). Despite being forced to abdicate, the combined powers of the British and Spanish successfully enforced the Peace of Gramido (1847), which saw the queen retain the throne until her death. Queen Maria was married firstly to Augustus de Beauharnais (1810 – 1835), Duke of Leuchtenberg, whose death left her a childless widow, and secondly to Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1816 – 1885) a close relative of Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901). Queen Maria left several children by Ferdinand, who was crowned the title of king-consort, and died from the effects of childbirth (Nov 15, 1853) at the early age of thirty-three, in Lisbon. Maria II da Gloria’s sons included Ling Pedro V (1853- 1861) who died childless, Ling Luis I (1861 – 1889) who left descendants, and the Infante Augustino (1847 – 1889) who died without issue. Her daughters included the Infanta Maria Anna (1843 – 1884), the wife of Prince George of Saxony (later King George I), and the Infanta Antonia (1845 – 1913) the wife of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and mother of Ferdinand I, King of Romania.

Maria Alexandrovna – (1824 – 1880)
Russian Tsarina (1855 - 1880)
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Rhine was born (Aug 8, 1824) in Darmstadt, the daughter and youngest child of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and his wife Wilhelmina of Baden. Her parents had resided apart for some time and Maria’s real father was reputedly Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy, the lover of the Grand Duchess. This fact appears to have been common knowledge at the Hessian court, and though known by her future husband it made no difference to his desire to marry her. Maria was married to the Russian Tsarevich Alexander (1818 – 1881), the son of Tsar Nicholas I. She converted to the Russian Orthodox faith and took the name of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna. With the death of Nicholas (1855) her husband became Tsar Alexander II and they were crowned in Moscow. Her children included Tsar Alexander III (1845 – 1894) and the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna who became the wife of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria. The Imperial couple later lived almost separate lives and the Tsarina suffered much from ill-health. The Tsar’s affair with the young Catherine Dolgorukaya caused the empress great personal pain and was the cause of enormous rifts within the Imperial family. The Mariinsky Theatre and city of Mariehamm in aland were both named in her honour. Empress Maria died (June 8, 1880) in St Petersburg. Her portrait (1857) by Franz Xaver Winterhalter is preserved within the Hermitage Museum.

Maria Alexievna – (1660 – 1723)
Russian Romanov grand duchess
Grand Duchess Maria Alexievna was born (Jan, 1660) the sixth daughter of Tsar Alexis (1645 – 1676), and his first wife Maria Ilyanovna, the daughter of Ilya Miloslavsky. She was sister to Tsarina Sophia and half-sister to Tsar Peter II the Great (1696 – 1725). Maria supported her nephew, the Tsarevich Alexei against his father. With Alexei’s downfall and death, Peter ordered Maria and her sister-in-law Eudoxia (his former wife and Alexei’s mother) to be arrested and questioned. The tsar ordered Maria to be confined within the fortress of Schlusselburg for her part in the conspiracy, and she remained there for three years (1718 – 1721). She was later released and returned to her palace in St Petersburg. Grand Duchess Maria died (March 31, 1723) aged sixty-three, in St Petersburg.

Maria Argyra – (c986 – 1005)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Princess Maria Argyra was the daughter of Prince Marinus Argyrus and was cousin to the emperors Basil II and Constantine IX. Her marriage (1004) with Giovanni Orseolo (985 – 1005), the youthful Doge of Venice was one of great political significance for Venice. Maria, her husband, and their infant son all died on the plague, and were interred within the Church of St Zaccaria in Venice. Peter Damian criticized the Greek customs which she introduced to the Venetian court which he decried as overly luxuriousness.

Maria Arpad – (c997 – 1026)
Hungarian princess
Princess Maria Arpad was the younger daughter of Duke Geza and his second wife Adelaide of Poland, the widow of his brother Michael. She was half-sister to St Stephen I, the first King of Hungary (1000 – 1038). Maria was married (c1013) to Otto Orseolo, Doge of Venice (992 – 1031) and is called Grimelda in some sources. Through Maria her elder son Pietro Orseolo (c1014 – 1059) succeeded his cousin Samuel Chaba as king of Hungary (1046), whilst her daughter Favila Orseolo (c1017 – 1071) became the wife of margrave Adalbert I of Austria.

Maria Brankova – (1466 – 1495)
Princess of Serbia
Maria was the daughter of Stephen Brankovic, King of Raska and his wife Angelina Arianiti. She became the second wife of Bonifacio IV, Marquis of Montferrato. She survived her husband as the Dowager Marchesa of Montferrat (1494 – 1495) and was the mother of the marquises Guglielmo XI (1486 – 1518) and Giovanni Giorgi (1488 – 1533). Princess Maria ruled as regent for her eldest son and died (Aug 27, 1495).

Maria de Molina – (1263 – 1321)
Queen consort of Castile (1284 – 1296)
Maria Alfonsa de Molina was the daughter of the Infante Alfonso of Castile (1203 – 1272), Seigneur of Molina and Mesa and his third wife Mayora Alfonsez de Tellez, Dame de Montealegre y Tiedra, the daughter of Alfonso Tellez de Meneses. Maria was the paternal granddaughter of Alfonso IX, King of Leon and was married (1281) at Toledo to Sancho IV el Bravo (1258 – 1296), King of Castile whom she survived as Queen Dowager (1296 – 1321). She ruled for several years (1296 – 1304) as regent for her son Ferdinando IV (1285 – 1312). Queen Maria died (June 1, 1321) at Valladolid. Her children were,

Maria d’Enghien – (1367 – 1446)
Queen consort of Naples (1406 – 1414)
The daughter of Jean d’Enghien, Conte di Castro and his wife Sanchia de Baux, Maria was the great-niece of Walter VI of Brienne, the tutlar Duke of Athens who was killed at the battle of Poitiers (1356). With the deaths of her father (1380) and brother Pierre d’Enghien (1384) Maria became their heir and was acknowledged as countess of Lecce and Brienne, and titular Duchess of Athens (1384) together with her first husband Raimondo del Balzo Orsini, Conte de Nola to whom she bore three children. Countess Maria was possessed with both beauty and an adventurous nature and was much loved by Raimondo. During his abscences fighting in the papal service she raised her children at Lecce and Copertino. With Raimondo’s death Maria was forced to marry King Ladislas of Naples (1406) by which she also became the titular queen consort of Sicily, Jerusalem and Hungary. This marriage remained childless and with the king’s death his sister Giovanna II caused Queen Maria to be imprisoned. With her subsequent release the queen mother retired to Lecce with the children of her first marriage and resided quietly as Queen Dowager. Queen Maria died (May 9, 1446) aged seventy-eight. Her children were,

Maria Feodorovna – (1759 – 1828)
Russian Tsarina
Marie Feodorovna was born (Oct 25, 1759) in Stettin, Silesia, Poland, the daughter of Friedrich, Duke of Wurttemburg. She was named Sophia Dorothea until her marriage (1776) with the Russian tsarevitch Paul (1754 – 1801), the son and heir of the empress Catherine II. She had been originally betrothed to the future Grand Duke Louis I of Hesse-Darmstadt, but Frederick the Great forced Louis to stand down in favour of the Russian prince, a much more politically advantageous match. She converted to Russian Orthodoxy and assumed the Russian name of Maria Feodorovna, becoming the mother of the future tsars Alexander I (1801 – 1825) and Nicholas I (1825 – 1855).
With her husband she travelled extensively throughout Western Europe (1781 – 1782) remaining incognito as the Comte and Comtesse du Nord, though everywhere they were accorded the courtesies due to their Imperial rank. During Paul’s short reign she was faced with rivalry for her husband’s affections after he began a liasion with her lady-in-waiting, Catherine Nelidova. On receiving news of her husband’s deposition (1801) the empress collapsed into hysterics. There were those that supported the call for the empress to assume the Imperial crown, as her late mother-in-law had done, but this was overruled in favour of her son Alexander. During her widowhood the Empress Maria organized and directed the Smolny Institute for the education of women, and financed it heavily from her own private income. She founded the Mariinski School for as a home and educational facility for orphan girls, and left a private diary entitled La Philosophie des femmes (The Philosophy of Women). Empress Maria Pavlovna died (Nov 5, 1828) aged sixty-nine, at Pavlosk.

Maria Heraklia – (c573 – c640)
Byzantine princess
Maria was the daughter of Heraklius, the Greek exarch of Africa and his wife Epiphania. She was the elder sister to the Emperor Heraklius I (610 – 641). Maria was married twice, firstly to the nobleman Martinus, which union produced a daughter Martina (597 – 642) who later became the ill-fated wife of her maternal uncle (614). This union was a dynastic measure but was regarded by the Greek Church as incestuous. Maria’s second marriage with the patrician Eutropius produced a son named Stephnanus who was given by the emperor as a hostage to the Avars (622) and was eventually ransomed by Princess Maria over a decade afterwards (c635). She appears to have died prior to the death of the Emperor Heraklius. The known facts of Maria’s life were recorded in the Brevarium of the chronicler Nikephorus. Michael the Syrian in his Chronicle asserted that Martina was the daughter of Maria’s younger brother Theodosius, but this is an error.

Maria Nemyanovica – (c1116 – after 1190)
Serbian princess
Maria Nemyanovica was the daughter of Stephen Urosh, King of Serbia. She was married (1132) to the German prince Konrad II of Znaim (c1103 – 1161), the grandson of Duke Konrad I of Bohemia (1091 – 1092). Maria was princess consort of Znaim for three decades (1132 – 1161) and was still living as dowager princess three decades afterwards (1190). Her daughter Helena of Znaim (c1147 – c1206) became the wife (c1163) of Duke Kasimir II of Poland (1138 – 1194) by whom she left issue.

Maria of Amnia – (c770 – after 823)
Byzantine Augusta
Maria was the granddaughter of Philaretus, a wealthy landowner of Amnia in Paphlagonia. She was chosen as one of the twelve girls (788) from all over the empire as a prospective bride for the young Emperor Constantine VI (770 – 804) by his mother Empress Irene. Irene chose Maria for her son and the marriage took place immediately (Nov, 788) and Maria was proclaimed as Augusta. She bore him two daughters the princesses Irene and Euphrosyne Porphyrogennita but no male heir. The emperor soon tired of Empress Maria, resenting her as the choice of his mother who was reluctant to hand over power to him. In order to retain her influence Irene encouraged Constantine in his amour with one of her ladies-in-waiting Theodote and sanctioned his divorce from Maria (795). The empress was then sent from court to the convent on the Island of Prinkipos with her two daughters. She was then professed as a nun. Her elder daughter Irene died unmarried at Prinkipos and when the emperor Michael II married her younger daughter Euphrosyne (821) Abbot Theodore of Studion denounced this marriage with a princess who had already been professed a nun. He wrote to Maria at Prinkipos exhorting her not to leave her convent and live with her daughter in the Imperial palace. The former empress was still living at Prinkipos (823) and died sometime afterwards. She was buried in the monastery of St Euphrosyne in Constantinople.

Maria of Aragon (1)(1299 – 1316)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Maria was the daughter of James II (Jaime), King of Aragon, and his first wife Blanche of Anjou. Maria became the wife of the Infante Pedro of Castile (1290 – 1319), a younger son of Sancho IV, King of Castile. Their daughter Blanca of Castile (1315 – 1375) was the first wife of Pedro I, King of Portugal, who divorced her. Infanta Maria died aged sixteen, at the royal convent of Sijena.

Maria of Aragon (2) – (1403 – 1445)
Queen consort of Castile (1420 – 1445)
Infanta Maria of Aragon was the eldest daughter of Ferdinando I el de Antequera, King of Aragon and Sicily and his wife Leonor Urraca of Castile, Condesa de Alburquerque. She was married at Avila (1420) to Juan II (1405 – 1454), King of Castile (1406 – 1454) as his first wife. Due to her husband’s extra-marital affairs the marriage was not a particularly happy one, and Maria’s son and heir was born in the house of a friend in Vallodolid rather than in the royal palace, with brother the Infante Juan of Aragon (Juan II) being present during her confinement. Despite the pleadings of Infante Juan Queen Maria and her husband remained virtually separated, though the chronicler Marciana recorded that nevertheless the queen held magnificent court and evenr ecieved Castilian ambassadors and envoys.
Queen Maria and her brother arranged for the marriage of her son Enrique to Juan’s daughter Blanche of Aragon. Maria personally received the princess and her mother and was present at the wedding which was held at Briviesca (Sept, 1440). Queen Maria died (Jan, 1445) aged forty-one, at Villecastin, near El Espinar at the same time her sister Queen Leonor of Portugal died. There was much mystery connected with these deaths which occurred almost simultaneously. The symptoms were identical, violent headaches, severe body pain, and instant death. Poison and plague were suggested, and the queen’s hated enemy, her husband’s favourite Alvaro de Luna, Duke de Trujillo, fell under suspicion of having caused the deaths of the two sisters, though nothing was ever proved. King Juan did not attend his wife’s funeral in Toledo. Her children were,

Maria of Aragon (3) – (1482 – 1517)
Queen consort of Portugal (1500 – 1517)
Infanta Maria of Aragon was born (June 29, 1482) at Cordoba, the third daughter of Ferdinand V, King of Aragon (1479 – 1516) and his first wife Isabella I, Queen of Castile (1474 – 1504). Her twin brother was stillborn. Maria and her younger sister Catalina (Catharine of Aragon) were raised mainly st the palaces of Coimbra, Alhambra and Tordesillas, and received an excellent education from the humanist Juan Luis de Vives, though this education was somewhat negated by an intense and narrow religious education instilled by Queen Isabella. She was present with her parents and sisters at the famous siege of Granada (1492). An attractive but quiet and placid tempered girl, King Federigo IV of Naples (1496 – 1504) sent envoys to the court of Castile to negotiate for the marriage of his son Ferdinand of Aragon (1488 – 1550), Duke of Calabria with Infanta Maria (1500). During these negotiations Maria was residing at the Alcazar Palace and at the same time the envoys of Henry VII of England were negotiating for the marriage of his eldest son Prince Arthur to Maria’s younger sister Catalina. The treaties for the Neapolitan marriage fell through due to the political intervention of the French, and before the end of that year at Alcacer-de-Sal (Oct 3, 1500) Maria became the second wife of her widowed brother-in-law Manuel I (1469 – 1521), King of Portugal (1495 – 1521) and she was crowned in Lisbon, Estramadura as queen consort. Manuel’s first wife Isabella of Aragon and been Maria’s eldest sister and a dispensation was necessary due to their closeness in consanguinity and to permit the union of the king with his dead wife’s sister. As queen of Portugal Maria remained popular due to her sweet and kindly temperament and because she did not interfere in politics, devoting herself instead to her children and to religious and philanthropic activities. Queen Maria died (March 7, 1517) aged thirty-four in Lisbon and was interred at Belem. She appears as a character in the historical novel Daughters of Spain (1961) written by British novelist Jean Plaidy. Her children were,

Maria of Armenia    see   Rita of Armenia

Maria of Austria – (1531 – 1581)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria was born in Prague, Bohemia (May 15, 1531), the third daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (1555 – 1564) and his wife Anna of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia. She was sister to the Emperor Maximilian II (1564 – 1576) and first cousin to Philip II, King of Spain. Maria became duchess consort of the Flemish dukedom of Cleves (1546 – 1581), when she was married (1546) to Duke Wilhelm V (1516 – 1592) in an arranged political alliance. Duchess Maria was mentioned in the will of her sister-in-law Anne of Cleves (1557), the former wife of Henry VIII of England, and received a bequest of jewellery. Duchess Maria died (Dec 11, 1581) aged fifty, at Hambach, Germany. Her six children were,

Maria of Bavaria – (1551 – 1608)
German-Hapsburg archduchess
Princess Maria of Bavaria was born (March 21, 1551) in Munich, the daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (1550 – 1579) and his wife the Archduchess Anna of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I (1555 – 1564). Maria was niece to the Emperor Maximilian II (1564 – 1576) and was married at Weimar in Saxony (1571) to her mother’s kinsman Archduke Karl of Inner Austria (1540 – 1590) the marriage being a reaffirmation of the dynastic links already in place between the Bavarian and Hapsburg families. Archduchess Maria bore her husband a large family of fifteen children and survived him as the Dowager Archduchess of Inner Austria (1590 – 1608). HIH (Her Imperial Highness) the Archduchess Maria died (April 29, 1608) at Gratz in Styria, aged fifty-seven. Her children were,

Maria of Brabant – (1226 – 1256)
German duchess and saint
Maria was the daughter of Heinrich II the Magnanimous, Duke of Brabant (1235 – 1248) and his first wife Maria of Swabia, the daughter of Philip of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia and King of Germany. She became the first wife (1254) of Ludwig II the Severe (1229 – 1294), Duke of Bavaria and became his duchess consort. They had no children. Her very dramatic death at the age of twenty-nine (Jan 18, 1256) was caused by a tragic misunderstanding. During Duke Ludwig’s abscence on a military campaign the Duchess resided at Donauwerth Castle on the banks of the Danube River in the company of her sister Elisabeth of Bavaria, the widow of Conrad IV of Germany. The duchess one day sent two letters, one addressed to her husband, and the other to her kinsman Count Ruchon von Wittelsbach. The messenger delivering the letters was illiterate and gave them to the wrong addressee with disastrous results. Duke Ludwig, mistakenly believing his wife guilty of adultery, killed her messenger with his sword and returned immediately to Donauwerth. Such was his anger that he killed his steward when the man came to greet him, and then rushed to his wife’s apartments. The first person he met was her lady-in-waiting Helice von Brennenburg, whom he believed to be Maria’s accomplice, and he picked the poor woman up and threw her from the battlements of the castle.
Despite the intervention of his sister Queen Elisabeth for her innocent sister-in-law, Ludwig refused to be placated and the duchess was taken immediately and beheaded. Only then did the duke realize his terrible mistake. He caused Maria to be interred with great honour in the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Donauwerth, and then made a pilgrimage to Rome to seek absolvement from his crime by Pope Alexander IV. Ludwig then established an order of Bernardine monks. The famous hagiographic legend concerning St Genevieve of Brabant which was written by Matthew Emich, Bishop of Mayence (1472) was an extension of the tragic story of Maria of Brabant. Maria of Brabant was listed amongst the saints in the Bavaria Sancta and the Acta Sanctorum (Dec 31) though her veneration was never authorized by Rome.

Maria of Bulgaria (1) – (c1040 – c1105)
Princess and Byzantine Imperial mother-in-law
Maria was the daughter of Trajan, the Tsar of western Bulgaria, and was the granddaughter of Ivan Vladislav, Tsar of Bulgaria (1015 – 1018), and niece to Tsar Preslan II. Her Greek mother was the great-niece of the Byzantine emperor Johannes I Tzimisces (969 – 976). Sometime prior to 1060 Maria became the wife of the Byzantine prince and patrician Andronikos Dukas (c1036 – 1077), the nephew of the Emperor Constantine X Dukas. Her husband bore the Greek office and title of protovestiarios and Maria bore the female equivalent of protovestiaria. Princess Maria was a woman of considerable wealth and much of her income was derived from her family estates in the region of Lake Ochrida. Her six children included Irene Dukaina (1066 – 1127) the wife of the Emperor Alexius I Komnenus (1081 – 1118). Maria was the maternal grandmother of the historian Anna Komnena, and her beauty and admirable qualities of mind were noted by Anna in her Alexiad. Some years after the death of her husband Maria became a nun taking the religious name of Xene.

Maria of Bulgaria (2) – (c1190 – after 1216)
Latin empress consort of Constantinople (1209 – 1216)
Princess Maria was the daughter of Tsar Kalojan of Bulgaria and of a Kuman princess. She became the third wife (1209) of Henry of Flanders (1174 – 1216) the Latin emperor of Constantinople (1205 – 1216) after the death in childbirth of Agnes of Montferrat. The marriage remained childless and Empress Maria survived Henry as Dowager Empress. No details of her widowhood have been recorded and despite her youth, she certainly did not remarry. She either entered a convent or returned to her native Bulgaria.

Maria of Carinthia – (c765 – c810)
Carolingian religious patron
Maria was the wife of Count Tuitian whom she assissted with the introduction of Chrisitanity to Carinthia. They were particularly active in destroying pagan idols at Milstadt on the Drave. Maria and Tuitian jointly founded the Benedictine church and abbey where they were interred. The church revered the couple as saints and honoured them together (Feb 5).

Maria of Gaza – (c460 AD – before 536)
Egyptian patrician
Maria of Gaza was a nobly born matron of considerable wealth and rank. The identity of her husband remains unknown but by him she was the mother of four sons including Marcianus (c480 AD – c540), Bishop of Gaza, Anastasius, Bishop of Eleutheropolis, and two others, both unnamed, one of whom was the governor of Palestine, and the other a lawyer. Maria had also borne her husband four daughters, all of whom lived to be suitably married. Maria was mentioned in the Orationes of the rhetor Choricius of Gaza who recorded that she was prominent in charitable and philanthropic causes. She died in old age her son Bishop Marcianus at her bedside. Her funeral oration was composed by Choricius.

Maria of Germanicia – (c696 – 757)
Byzantine Augusta (718 – 741)
Maria was a native of the province of Germanicia, and became the second wife (c705) of Leo, the important military strategos of Anatolia and Armenia, of the Isaurian dynasty, who was proclaimed emperor as Leo III (717 – 741) after the deposition of Theodosius III. Maria was brought to Constantinople as empress consort, and was officially proclaimed Augusta (Aug 25, 718), the day her son Constantine was baptized by Patriarch Germanus I in Constantinople, and was crowned several months later (Dec 25, 718). Maria bore Leo a total of five known children, including Constantine V (718 – 775) who succeeded his father as emperor (741 – 775). She survived her husband for sixteen years as Empress Dowager (741 – 757).

Maria of Julich-Berg – (1491 – 1543)
Flemish dynastic heiress
Princess Maria of Julich and Berg was born (Aug 3, 1491) at Julich, the only child and heiress of Wilhelm X, Duke of Julich and Berg (1475 – 1511) and his wife Princess Sibylla of Brandenburg (1467 – 1524), the daughter of Albert Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg. She was married (1510) to her kinsman Prince Johann (1490 – 1539), the son and heir of Duke Johann II of Cleves. Maria was a direct descendant of Wilhelm V, Duke of Julich and Berg (1357 – 1361) and his wife Johanna of Hainault (Jeanne), the younger sister of Queen Philippa, the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377). With the death of her father soon afterwards (1511) Maria inherited the duchies of Julich, Berg and Ravenstein which were held by her husband Johann and administered by him in her right. With the death of Duke Johann II (1521) her husband became the reigning duke of Cleves as Johann III and Maria became the duchess consort (1521 – 1539). With the death of her widowed mother Duchess Sibylla of Julich (1524) Maria inherited the remainder of the family estates which had been held by her mother as her dower.
Cleves firmly embraced the Reformation of Martin Luther and the duchess attended to the education of her daughters Sibylla, Anna and Amalia. Maria’s eldest proved to be a natural scholar and became a great beauty who her mother loved to refer too as ‘a true daughter of the Reformation.’ Her two younger daughters Anna and Amalia appear to have had no learned inclinations, and were proficient only in their only language and customs and with needlework. Despite this in the years following the marriage of her eldest daughter (1527), references made in letters from the English ambassadors to home would seem to indicate that Princess Anna, who would later become the ill-fated fourth wife of Henry VIII (1540), was the Duchess’s favourite daughter. Henry VIII’s commissioner Nicholas Wotton reported in a letter to the king that ‘As for the education of my said ladye, she hath from her childhood been like as the Lady Sybille was till she was married, and the Lady Amelye hath been, and now is brought up by the Lady Duchess her mother, and in manner never from her elbow, the Lady Duchess being a very wise lady, and one that very straightly looketh to her children. All the gentlemen of the court, and other that I have asked, report her to be of so very lowly and gentle conditions, by which she hath so much won her mother’s favour, that she is very loth to suffer her to depart from her.’
It would seem that with the death of her husband (1539) and the accession to the ducal throne of her son Duke Wilhelm V of Cleves, who was unmarried, the Dowager Duchess Maria, assisted by her second daughter Anna, organized the running of the duke’s palaces and establishments in Dusseldorf and Duren. She and her son were patrons of the painter Lucas Cranach and received the English court painter Hans Holbein at their court. Maria and William then organized the entertainments in Dusseldorf held to celebrate her daughter Anna’s departure to England soon afterwards. Several of Anna’s letters to her brother Duke Wilhelm have survived, and presumably the queen corresponded with her mother, though these letters have not suvived. Duchess Maria lived to see her daughter divorced six months later, but then confortably settled for life. As her son Wilhelm died not get married until after her death, the Dowager Duchess Maria and her youngest daughter Amalia remained the first ladies of the ducal court at Schwanenberg. Duchess Maria died (Aug 29, 1543) aged fifty-two, at Schwanenberg Castle in Dusseldorf. Her duchies of Julich, Berg and Ravenstein then passed to her son Wilhelm. Duchess Maria appears as a character in several historical novels concerning her famous daughter Anne such as My Lady of Cleves (1946) by Margaret Campbell Barnes, Anne of Cleves (1972) by Julia Hamilton, and The Boleyn Inheritance (2007) by Philippa Gregory. In Gregory’s novel the duchess is portrayed as a domineering and unpleasant woman, though this portrayal has no basis in historical fact, the meagre evidence available all pointing instead to a close relationship between Maria and her daughter. Her children were,

Maria of Montferrat - (1191 - 1212)
Queen of Jerusalem (1205 - 1212)
Maria was born at Tyre, the daughter of the famous crusader Marquis Conrad of Montferrat and his wife Queen Isabella I, the daughter of Amalric I, King of Jerusalem. She was betrothed in infancy (1194) to Guy, the son of Amalric of Lusignan, King of Cyprus, but this arrangment ended when the prince died, and Amalric remarried himself to her own mother Isabella (1198). With the death of her stepfather King Amalric II of Lusignan (1205), her mother's half-brother John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut, ruled as regent until her Isabella's death (1206). Then aged only fourteen Maria succeeded as queen regnant of Jerusalem, but was the titular ruler only, and her kingdom much diminished. She was popularly known as Maria la Marquise in reference to her father. Philip II of France designated Jean of Brienne, considerably her senior, to be Queen Maria's husband. Having raised loans from Philip and Pope Innocent III, Jean arrived at Acre in Palestine (Sept 13, 1210) and married her on the following day. The couple were then crowned in Jerusalem (Oct 3). Queen Maria died young, aged only twenty, whereupon King Jean ruled as regent for their daughter Isabella II (more commonly called Yolande) who later became the second wife of the Emperor Friedrich II (1194 - 1250).

Maria of Montpellier – (1182 – 1219)
Queen consort of Aragon (1204 – 1213)
Maria was the daughter and heiress of Guillaume, Count of Montpellier in the Languedoc in France, and his first wife the Byzantine princess Eudocia Komena. Her mother was repudiated by her father and retired to the convent of Aniane. He then took a Spanish mistress Agnes de Castilla who bore him sons. Count Guillaume attempted to have Maria’s half-brothers made his heirs but because of his irregular second marriage, the church considered them to be illegitimate and Maria as the rightful heiress of her father. Maria was married firstly (1192) to Vicomte Barral of Marseilles who died soon afterwards (Dec 13, 1192). She survived Barral as the Dowager Vicomtesse of Marseilles (1192 – 1197) until she was remarried, at the age of fifteen (Dec, 1197) to Comte Bernard de Cominges (died 1201) to whom she bore several daughters. She survived him as the Dowager Comtesse de Cominges (1201 – 1204) and then remarried thirdly (1204) to Pedro II (1174 – 1213) the King of Aragon. Queen Maria was the mother of two children by Pedro, a daughter the Infanta Sanchia Perez of Aragon and Jaime I El Conquistador (the Conqueror) (1208 – 1276) who succeeded his father as King in 1213. The marriage proved unhappy and Queen Maria left Spain and travelled to Rome, where she was provided with a palace by Pope Innocent. She survived her husband as the Dowager Queen of Aragon (1213 – 1219) but never returned to Spain. Queen Maria died in Rome with a reputation for religious sanctity.

Maria of Navarre – (1331 – 1347)
Queen consort of Aragon (1338 – 1347)
Infanta Maria was the daughter of Philip III d’Evreux (1301 – 1343), King of Navarre, and his wife Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre, the daughter of Louis X the Strong, King of France (1314 – 1316). She was married (1338) at Alagon, to Pedro IV (1319 – 1387), King of Aragon, as his first wife, and bore him several daughters. Queen Maria died (April 29, 1347) aged only sixteen, at Valencia. She was interred within the Abbey of San Vicente there.

Maria of Persia     see     Meryem

Maria of Portugal (1) – (1227 – 1235)
Infanta Maria was the only surviving child of Ferdinand of Portugal, Count of Flanders and his wife Countess Jeanne of Flanders. Maria was the heiress of the counties of Flanders and Hainault. With her father’s death (1233) Louis IX of France demanded that she be sent to Paris to be educated but in reality so that she she could be used as a marriage pawn. She was betrothed (1235) to Robert Capet (later Robert I of Artois), the son of the king, but died soon after her betrothal aged only eight years.

Maria of Portugal (2) – (1264 – 1304)
Infanta Maria was born (Nov 21, 1264) at Coimbra, the second daughter of Alfonso III, King of Portugal (1248 – 1279) and his second wife Beatriz of Castile. She never married and became a nun in childhood at the convent of Donas Conegas de Sao Jao (Lady Canons of St John) where she remained for the rest of her life. Infanta Maria died (June 6, 1304) aged thirty-nine, in Coimbra.

Maria of Portugal (3) – (1313 – 1357)
Queen consort of Castile
Infanta Maria was the daughter of Alfonso IV, King of Portugal and his wife Beatrice, the daughter of Sancho IV, King of Castile. She married (1328) Alfonso XI the Just, King of Castile (1311 – 1350) and was the mother of King Pedro I the Cruel (1334 – 1369). Despite the birth of a son and heir, Queen Maria was eclipsed at court by the family of her powerful rival, the king’s mistress, Leonor de Guzman. With Alfonso’s death (1350), King Pedro caused Leonor to be murdered to avenge Queen Maria’s years of humiliation. Finally, the queen mother returned to her father’s court in Lisbon, where her scandalous and disorderly love-life is said to have caused her father to have her poisoned at Evora (Jan 18, 1357), to safeguard the honour of the royal house.

Maria of Portugal (4) – (1521 – 1577)
Infanta Maria was born (June 18, 1521) in Lisbon, Estramadura, the only surviving child of King Manuel I of Portugal, and his third wife Eleanore of Austria, sister of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1519 – 1555). Her father died when she was an infant and her mother remarried to Francois I, King of France. Maria remained behind in Lisbon to be raised at the court there. She always remained on excellent terms with her mother Queen Eleanor, being her only child, and some of their letters have survived. Infanta Maria was well educated and attained a reputation as a patron of literature and the arts. Infanta Maria was never married, though various prospective alliances were put forward, including the possibility that she might become the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England. However, this idea was never really taken seriously. Infanta Maria died (Oct 10, 1577) aged fifty-six, in Lisbon. She was interred in the Chapel of Our Lady of Luz.

Maria of Savoy    see    Maria Francesca Anna Romana

Maria of Saxony – (1827 – 1857)
German princess
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Maria was born (Jan 22, 1827) in Dresden, the eldest daughter of King Johann I (1854 – 1873) and his wife Amalia, the daughter of Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, and was christened Maria Augusta Frederica Carolina Ludovica Amalia Maximiliana Franziska Nepomucena Xavier. She bore the additional title of Duchess of Saxony. She was sister to the kings, Albert I (1873 – 1902) and George I (1902 – 1904). She remained unmarried. Princess Maria of Saxony died (Oct 30, 1857) aged thirty, in Dresden.

Maria of Sicily – (1363 – 1401)
Queen regnant of Sicily (1377 – 1401)
Maria was the daughter of Federigo IV, King of Sicily (1355 – 1377). With her father’s death Maria succeeded as queen, but ruled in name only. She was later abducted from Catania Castle and forced to marry (1390) her cousin, the Infante Martin of Aragon, the son of King Pedro IV, who succeeded to the Sicilian throne as King Martin I (1392). Maria’s powerful Aragonese relatives contrived to take over control of the kingdom of Sicily. Maria’s only son died young (1402) and she herself died soon afterwards. King Martin ruled as king until his death (1409).

Maria Adelaide of Austria – (1822 – 1855)
Queen consort of Sardinia (1848 - 1855)
HIH (Her Imperial Highness) the Archduchess Adelaide Franziska Maria Rainieria Elisabeth Clotilde, known as Maria Adelaide was born (June 3, 1822) in Milan, Lombardy, the daughter a Hapsburg archduke, and granddaughter of the emperor Francis II (1792 – 1835). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia. Maria Adelaide became the first wife at Stupinigi, near Turin (1842) of her first cousin, Vittorio Emanuele II (1820 - 1878), King of Sardinia (later king of Italy), and was the mother of seven children including Clotilde of Savoy, the wife of louis Napoleon de Bonaparte, Umberto I (1844 – 1900) who succeeded his father as King of Italy (1878 – 1900), and Maria Pia of Savoy, queen consort of Luis I, King of Portugal. Queen Maria Adelaide died at Turin in Piedmont (Jan 20, 1855) aged thirty-two. Her marriage had been unhappy due to her husband’s liasion with his mistress Rosa Vercellana, whom he married morganatically after her death.

Maria Adelaide Xaviera Borbonia – (1794 – 1802)
Princess of Savoy
Princess Maria Adelaide was born (Oct 1, 1794) at Turin in Piedmont, the second daughter of Vittorio Emanuele I of Savoy, King of Sardinia (1802 – 1821) and his wife Maria teresa of Austria-Este, the daughter of the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena, the son of the Empress Maria Theresa. She bore the additional title of Princess of Sardinia but died during childhood (March 9, 1802) aged only seven years, at Naples. She was interred within the Cathedral of Superga.

Maria Amalia Christina Franziska Xaveria Flora Walburga – (1724 – 1760)
Queen consort of Spain (1759 – 1760)
Duchess Maria Amalia of Saxony was born in Dresden, Saxony (Nov 24, 1724), the daughter of Friedrich August II, Elector of Saxony (Augustus III of Poland) and his wife Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Joseph I (1705 – 1711). She was married (1738) to Carlos of Spain (1716 – 1788), King of Naples, the half-brother of Ferdinando VI of Spain and became the queen consort of Naples (1738 – 1759). The marriage had taken place by proxy at Dresden (May 9, 1738) and the new quee then travelled to the Neapolitan court where she and Carlos were married in person at Gaeta a month later (June 19). When Carlos succeeded Ferdinando as Carlos III of Spain (1759) Maria Amalia then became the queen consort of Spain. Flaxen-haired but not considered to be a beauty, the queen was responsible for the introduction of the famous Meissen china into Spain. Her portrait has survived. Queen Maria Amalia died (Sept 27, 1760) aged thirty-five, at Buen Retiro, near Madrid. Her children included Carlos IV (1748 – 1819), King of Spain (1788 – 1808) who was deposed by Napoleon and left descendants, and Ferdinando I (1751 – 1825), King of Naples (1759 – 1816) who left many descendants. Her daughter the Infanta Maria Luisa (1745 – 1792) became the wife of the Emperor Leopold II (1790 – 1792).

Maria Anna of Bavaria-Neuberg - (1669 - 1740)
Queen consort of Spain (1689 - 1700)
Princess Maria Anna was born (Oct 28, 1669), the daughter of Philip Wilhelm, Elector Palatine of Neuberg in Bavaria, and his second wife Elisabeth Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her sister Eleanora Magdalena was the second wife of the Emperor Leopold I. Her father chose Maria Anna to become the second wife of the childless and recently widowed Carlos II (1661 - 1700), King of Spain. Tall and angular in appearance, and possessed of moderate beauty, the choice of the new queen was evidence to the rest of Europe that henceforward Spain would be firmly united with the Germanic interests against Louis XIV of France. As she was travelling to Spain, Maria Anna received very rich gifts of jewels from Carlos, and also from her mother-in-law, the Dowager Queen Mariana Victoria. At Flushing, William III of England provided the princess with an escort from the English fleet under Admiral Russell. She reached Alcazar in April, 1690, and Maria Anna and Carlos were then married at Vallodolid (May 4) following.
A woman of strong political aspirations, Queen Maria Anna worked with her mother-in-law, to bring about the dismissal of Carlos's first minister Oropesa. when contradicted the queen suffered from severe hysterical attacks, and everyone, from her husband down, went in fear of saying anything which might displease her. The British Lord Harcourt wrote : " The Queen has conquered such a dimension on the spirit of her husband that it may be said that she alone reigns as sovereign of Spain. " She quickly placed herself at the head of the anti-French party at the Spanish court, and was determined that the successor of her childless husband, should be the emperor's grandson, the young Prince of Bavaria. A court cabal which included Count Benevente, a secret tool of the French, the Archbishop of Portocarrero and the king's confessor, caused Queen Maria Anna to be banished from the court (1693). Veiled accusations of witchcraft were brought against her in an effort to undermine her position, but Maria Anna gradually reasserted her power of Carlos, who finally aceded to her demands in favour of the Bavarian prince, and the Peace of Ryswick was signed (1697). With the death of the Bavarian prince (1699) the queen plotted to gain the Spanish throne for the Archduke charles, who promised marriage if he proved successful.
Despite her plotting, the throne went to Philip of Anjou (Philip V), grandson of Louis XIV (1700), though the Queen Dowager headed the provincial government until Philip's arrival from France (1701). She then became Queen Dowager of Spain (1700 - 1740) and was politely permitted to retire to Toledo, with a large dower and pension. Despite this, when her nephew Charles tried to capture Spain (1706), Queen Maria Anna welcomed him into Toledo as king. This proved short-lived, and two months later, two hundred horsemen under the Duque de Osuna, arrested the queen and carried her over the frontier to Bayonne. There she resided in retirement until the death of Louis XIV (1715), when she was permitted to return to Spain. She was granted the stately Morisco Palace at Guadaljara as her residence, and lived there in affluence and dignity until her death (July 16, 1740) aged seventy. Queen Maria Anna was the heroine of Victor Hugo's work Ruy Blas (1838), and she was reputed to have been the mother of the famous occult figure the Comte de Saint-Germain (1706 - 1784), born through a liasion with a Portugese Jew.

Maria Anna Ferdinanda Josepha Charlotte Johanna – (1770 – 1809)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria Anna was born (April 21, 1770) in Vienna, the second daughter of the Emperor Leopold II (1790 – 1792) and his wife Maria Luisa, the daughter of Carlos III (1716 – 1788), King of Spain. The archduchess was granddaughter of the Empress Maria Theresa, niece to the Emperor Joseph (1765 – 1790), and niece to Queen Marie Antoinette of France. Her eldest brother was the emperor Franz II (1792 – 1835). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. The archduchess never married and became a nun (1789) at the Theresian convent in Prague, Bohemia, founded by her aunt, the Archduchess Marianne, daughter of Maria Theresa. She succeeded her aunt as abbess of that house (1789 – 1809). Archduchess Maria Anna died (Oct 1, 1809) aged thirty-nine, in Prague. She was interred in the Church of the Capuchins in Vienna.

Maria Anna Josepha Antonia Johanna – (1738 – 1789)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria Anna was born (Oct 6, 1738) at Schonbrunn Castle, Vienna, the second daughter of the Emperor Franz I (1745 – 1765) and his wife the Empress Maria Theresa, the eldest daughter of Emperor Karl VI (1711 – 1740). The archduchess bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. She was elder sister to the emperors Joseph II (1765 – 1790) and Leopold II (1790 – 1792). The archduchess never married and was known in the family as ‘Marianne.’ She sufferred from ill-health and became a nun, serving as abbess (1766 – 1789) of the Theresian convent in Prague. She was succeeded in her religious office by her niece, Archduchess Maria Anna, sister of Emperor Franz II. Archduchess Marianne died (Nov 19, 1789) aged fifty-one, in Vienna. She was interred in the Church of the Capuchins there.

Maria Anna Victoria – (1718 – 1781)
Queen consort of Portugal (1750 – 1777)
Infanta Maria Anna was born (March 31, 1718) in Madrid, Spain, the daughter of King Philip V, and his second wife Elisabeth Farnese, the daughter of Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary prince of Parma. She was sister to the Spanish kings Luis I, Ferdinand VI and Carlos III. Originally betrothed to Louis XV of France (1722), the marriage contract was celebrated on the frontier island of Bidasoa (Jan 9, 1722) when the Infanta was only three years old. An auto-de-fate (buring of heretics) had been organized to celebrate the negotiated marriage.
The Infanta and her retinue then travelled to Versailles, where she was to be raised and education in preparation for her marriage with Louis XV when she reached marriageable age. However this dynastic union was destroyed by the ambitions of the courtiers who surrounded the youthful king. Eventually the projected marriage was broken off and the Infanta and her household was unceremoniously returned to the Spanish court when the Duc de Bourbon and Madame de Prie arranged for King Louis to marry the Polish princess Marie Lesczynska instead (1727). This treatment of a Spanish infanta causes an international breach that took decades to mend.
Infanta Maria Anna was married instead (1729) to Crown Prince Joseph of Portugal, the son and heir of King Joao V, and became the Crown Princess (1728 – 1750). The marriage took place by proxy in Madrid (Dec 27, 1728), after which Maria Anna and her escort travelled to Portugal where she was married to Joseph in persobn at Elvas (Jan 19, 1729). When Joseph succeeded his father as King Joseph I (1750) Maria Anna became the queen consort of Portugal. She survived her husband as the Dowager Queen of Portugal (1777 – 1781) and was the mother of Queen Maria I Francisca (1777 – 1816) and six other children. Queen Maria Anna died (Jan 15, 1781) aged sixty-two, in Lisbon. She appears as a character in the historical romance Louis the Wellbeloved (1959) by Jean Plaidy.

Maria Annunciata Isabella Filomena Sabasia – (1843 – 1871)
Princess of Naples
Princess Maria Annunciata was born (March 24, 1843) at Caserta, the eldest daughter and fourth child of Ferdinand II, King of Naples (1830 – 1859) and his second wife the Archduchess Maria Theresia Isabella of Austria, the daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig, Duke of Teschen and the granddaughter of Emperor Leopold II (1790 – 1792). She became the second wife of the Hapsburg archduke Karl Ludwig (1833 – 1896) the younger brother of the Emperor Franz Josef I (1848 – 1916). The proxy marriage took place in Rome (Oct 16, 1862) after which the princess travelled to Venice where the couple were married in person a week afterwards (Oct 21). Archduchess Maria Annunciata bore Karl Ludwig four children. She never recovered from the birth of her last child (1870) and died (May 4, 1871) aged twenty-eight, in Vienna. She was interred in the Church of the Capuchins there. Her children were,

Maria Antoinetta of Naples – (1784 – 1806)
Spanish Crown Princess of the Asturias
Princess Maria Antoinetta Teresa Amalia Giovanna Battista Francesca Gaetana Maria Anna Lucia of Naples was born (dec 14, 1784) at Caserta, the daughter of Ferdinando I, King of Naples and his wife Maria Carolina, the daughter of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa. She was niece to the French queen Marie Antoinette and cousin to the Empress Marie Louise, the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte. She became the first wife (1802) of her first cousin the Spanish crown princess Joseph (1784 – 1833, later King as Ferdinando VII), the son of Carlos IV of Spain. The marriage had been conducted by proxy at Naples (Aug 16, 1802) and this ceremony was performed a second time in person at Barcelona a month afterwards (Oct 6). The marriage was not a success and the princess remained childless. The Crown Princess died (May 21, 1806) aged twenty-one, at the Castle of Aranjuez, not without rumours of poisoning.

Maria Antonia of Austria – (1899 – 1977)
Hapsburg archduchess
HIH (Her Imperial Highness) the Archduchess Maria Antonia Roberta Blanka Leopoldina Beatrix Margarita Caroline Josepha Michaela Ignatia Aurelia of Austria was born (July 13, 1899) at Zagreb, the daughter of Leopold Salvator, Archduke of Austria-Tuscany, and his wife Blanca de Bourbon, the daughter of Charles, Duque de Madrid. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. The archduchess was married firstly (1924) in Barcelona, Spain, to Ramon Orlandis y de Villalonga (1896 – 1936) to whom she bore five children. Maria Antonia remarried secondly (1942) in Montevideo, Uruguay, to Luis Perez y Sucre (1899 – 1957). This marriage remained childless. Archduchess Maria Antonia died (Oct 22, 1977) aged seventy-eight, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, South America. Her children from her first marriage were,

Maria Antonia of Bourbon-Parma – (1895 – 1977)
Italian princess
Princess Maria Antonia was born at Schwarzau (Nov 7, 1895), the daughter of Roberto I, Grand Duke of Parma (1854 – 1907) and his second wife, Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal. She was the sister-in-law of the Hapsburg Emperor Karl I (1916 – 1922). She never married and took religious vows as a nun, becoming Mother Martha Antonia of the Order of St Cecilia. Princess Maria Antonia died (Oct 19, 1977) aged eighty-one, at Solesmes.

Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria – (1724 – 1780) 
Saxon electress, composer and author
Archduchess Maria Antonia Walpurgis was born at Nymphenburg Castle, in Munich, the daughter of Charles VII of Bavaria, the Holy Roman emperor, and his wife Maria Amalia, daughter to the emperor Joseph I. She married (1747) Friedrich Christian, elector of Saxony (1722 – 1763), to whom she bore right children including the Saxon kings Friedrich August I (1750 – 1827) and Anton I (1755 – 1836). Having received early musical training in Munich under Giovanni Ferrandini and Giovanni Porta, the electress was a generous patron of the arts. She herself became an accomplished and trained musician, receiving instruction under Niccolo Porpora and Nikolaus Hasse in Dresden. She became a member of the Academy of Arcadians in Rome under the pseudonym ‘Ermelinda Talea Pastorella Arcada’ (ETPA). Maria Antonia composed and produced two Italian operas to accompnay her own librettos Il Ttrionfo della Fedelta (1754) and Talestri, regina delle amazoni (1760) besides producing the texts of oratorios for Hasse and Giovanni Alberto Ristori. Electress Maria Antonia Walpurgis died (April 23, 1780) in Dresden.

Maria Augusta of Anhalt – (1898 – 1983)
German princess
Maria Augusta was born (June 10, 1898) at Ballenstadt Castle, Anhalt, the second daughter of Eduard I, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1918), and his wife Louise Charlotte, the daughter of Maurice of Saxe-Altenburg, Duke of Saxony. Princess Maria Augusta was married (1916) in Berlin, to Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia (1890 – 1920), the sixth and youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918). Their only child was Prince Franz Josef of Prussia (1916 – 1975) who was married three times and left children. Prince Joachim committed suicide (July 18, 1920) at the Villa Liegois in Berlin. The young widowed princess later remarried (1926) to the Austrian nobleman, Johannes Michael, Baron von Loen (born 1902) from whom she was later divorced (1935). There were no children of this marriage. The princess never remarried. Princess Maria Augusta died (May 22, 1983) aged eighty-four, at Essen. She sold the title of prince of Anhalt to the eighth husband of Hollywood actress Zsa Zsa Gabor, who was thus legally able to style himself ‘Prince Friedrich von Anhalt.’

Maria Barbara of Portugal – (1711 – 1758)
Queen consort of Spain (1746 – 1758)
Born Infanta Maria Maddalena Josepha Teresa Barbara (Dec 4, 1711) at Lisbon, Estramadura, she was the daughter of Joao V, King of Portugal and his wife Maria Anna, the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I. She married (1729) Ferdinand VI of Spain (1713 – 1759), but their marriage remained childless. Though possessed of a good figure, she was not a beauty, and her quiet, retiring, and dignified nature won the princess the love of her new family, and eventually, the entire affection of her husband. Fond of music and dancing, Maria Barbara became an avid patron of artists and scholars, both Spanish and foreign. With her husband’s accession (1746) the queen became a strong influence at the Spanish court, though she and the king much preferred the quiet life. It was largely due to both Ferdinand and Maria Barbara that Spain remained aloof during the War of Independence, when both Britain and France sought to draw Spain into the quarrel. The queen was the guiding influence behind many of the reforms which proved invaluable in the internal administration of the kingdom, having as her ally, the able Marquis de la Enenda, former prime minister of Philip V, who greatly respected and admired her political capabilities. Queen Maria Barbara died (Aug 27, 1758) aged forty-six, at Aranjuez Castle, near Madrid, to the utter grief of her husband who survived her only one year.

Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina – (1792 – 1840)
Italian princess of Savoy and titular queen
Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy was born (Dec 6, 1792)  in Turin, Piedmont, the eldest daughter of Vittorio Emmanuel I of Savoy, King of Sardinia (1802 – 1821) and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, the daughter of Ferdinando of Austria, Duke of Modena. She was the great-granddaughter of the Emperor Franz I (1745 - 1765) and of the Empress Maria Theresa. Maria Beatrice was married (1812) at the Cathedral of Cagliari in Sardinia, to her uncle Francesco IV, Duke of Modena – (1779 – 1846) after having received a dispensation for this union from Pope Pius VII. With the death of her father (Jan, 1824), the duchess succeeded as the Roman Catholic Jacobite heiress to the thrones of England, France and Ireland as Mary III (1824 – 1840) and as Queen of Scotland as Mary II (1824 - 1840), though she herself made no attempt to pursue this inheritance. The duchess died (Sept 15, 1840) aged forty-seven, from a heart ailment at the Villa Cattajo, and was interred at the church of San Vincenzo, Modena. Her portrait by Adeodato Malatesta survives. Of her four children her elder son Duke Francesco V (1819 – 1876) of Modena left no surviving issue, whilst her elder daughter Therese of Modena (1817 – 1886) who was married to Henry V (1820 – 1883), titular Bourbon King of France, known as the Comte de Chambord, who also died childless.

Maria Carolina of Austria – (1752 – 1814)
Queen consort of Naples (1788 – 1814)
Archduchess Maria Carolina was born (Aug 13, 1752) at the Schonbrunn Palace, in Vienna, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and his wife the empress Maria Theresa. She was the elder sister of the French queen Marie Antoinette. She was married (1768) to Ferdinando I, King of Naples (1751 – 1825), to whom she bore seventeen children. The king fell completely under her political influence, and Maria Carolina was able to free him from the control of the leader of the pro-Spanish policy at the court of Naples, Bernardo Tannucci, after a bitter political struggle (1776). The queen appointed her own lover, the British naval officer Sir John Acton, as the prime minister, and joined an Austrian-British coalition against the French. She schemed with Lady Emma Hamilton, wife of the British ambassador Sir William Hamilton, to involve Britain in a war with France to restore the Bourbon dynasty there.
During the uprising that led to the brief Parthenopean republic (1798 – 1799) the queen was forced with the royal family to the comparative safety of Sicily, aboard Lord Nelson’s ship, the Vanguard. Her young son Alberto dying during the horrendous voyage. The rescue of the family had been directed and organized by Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton, who personally oversaw the collection of the queen’s clothing and valuables from the Palazzo Sessa. Forced to flee to Sicily a second time when the French invaded Naples under Napoleon (1806), Queen Maria Carolina was exiled to Austria on the orders of Napoleon, and her son Francesco I (1777 – 1830) was installed as regent. Her nephew the emperor Francis II granted her Castle Hetzendorf, near Schonbrunn for her retirement. Queen Maria Carolina died (Sept 8, 1814) at Hetzendorf, and was interred within the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

Maria Caroline Ernestine Antonia Johanna – (1740 – 1741)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria Caroline was born (Jan 12, 1740) at Schonbrunn Castle, Vienna, the third daughter of the Emperor Franz I (1745 – 1765) and his wife the Empress Maria Theresa, the daughter of Emperor Karl VI (1711 – 1740). Maria Caroline held the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. She was the elder sister to emperors Joseph II (1765 – 1790) and Leopold II (1790 – 1792). Archduchess Maria Caroline died (Jan 25, 1741) aged one year, in Vienna. She was interred in the Church of the Capuchins in Vienna.

Maria Caterina Farnese – (1615 – 1646)
Italian duchess
Maria Caterina Farnese was born (Feb 18, 1615) in Parma, the daughter of Ranuccio I Farnese (1569 – 1622), Duke of Parma and Plaisance and his wife Margarita Aldobrandini, the daughter of Giovanni Francesco Aldobrandini (1545 – 1601), Prince di Carpineto. Princess Maria Caterina was married (1631) to Francesco I d’Este (1610 – 1658), Duke of Modena, and was duchess consort of Modena (1631 – 1646). The duchess was the mother of his heir Alfonso II d’Este (1658 – 1662), Duke of Modena (1658 – 1662). The duchess was the paternal grandmother of Mary Beatrice d’Este, the second wife of James II, King of England (1685 – 1688) and ancestress of James Edward Francis, the Old Pretender and of Bonnie Prince Charlie. Duchess Maria Caterina died (July 25, 1646) aged thirty-one, at Sassuolo, near Modena.

Maria Christina of Naples – (1806 – 1878)
Queen consort and regent of Spain
Princess Maria Christina was the daughter of Francisco I, king of Naples and the Two Sicilies, and she became the fourth wife of Ferdinand VII, King of Spain (1819 – 1833).  With his early death Queen Maria Christina became queen regent in the name of thei three year old daughter, Isabella II (1830 – 1904). Her younger daughter, the Infanta Luisa Fernanda (1832 – 1897) was married to the Bourbon prince, Antoine, Duc de Montpensier, a younger son of the French king Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848). The proclamation of Isabella as queen, led to a revolt led by her husband’s uncle, Don Carlos, who maintained that he was the next male heir and organized the Carlist war in an attempt to gain the Spanish throne for himself and his line. The queen mother was forced by political necessity to grant a constitution (1836), but was later forced to flee the country into exile in France (1840). She later returned (1843) and became involved in the dynastic intrigues with King Louis Philippe concerning the marriages of her daughters.The revolution of 1854 forced Queen Maria Christina into exile in France where she resided for a decade. She returned in 1864, but with the revolution that removed her daughter Isabella from power (1868), the queen mother retired permanently to France.

Maria Christina Albertina Carolina Margaretha Xaviera – (1770 – 1851)
Princess of Saxony
Princess Maria was born (Dec 7, 1770) in Dresden, the only child of Prince Karl of Saxony (1733 – 1796), Duke of Courland, and his wife, Princess Franziska Corvina-Krasinska. She was the granddaughter of Friedrich Augustus II of Saxony, King of Poland. Maria was married firstly (1797) at Turin, Piedmont, to Carlo Emanuele of Savoy (1770 – 1800), the reigning prince of Carignano (1780 – 1800) and was briefly princess consort of Carignano (1797 – 1800). Maria was Dowager Princess of Carignano for over five decades (1800 – 1851). She later remarried (1816) in Paris, as his first wife, to Jules Maximilien Thibaut, Prince de Montleart (1787 – 1865) nearly two decades her junior. Princess Maria died (Nov 24, 1851) aged eighty, in Paris. She bore her first husband two children,

Maria Christina Carolina Giuseppina Gaetana Elisa – (1812 – 1836)
Queen consort of Naples (1832 – 1836)
Princess Maria Christina of Savoy was born (Nov 14, 1812) at Cagliari in Sardinia, the sixth and youngest daughter of Vittorio Emanuele I (1759 – 1824), King of Sardinia and his wife the Hapsburg Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, the daughter of the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena. She was the maternal great-granddaughter of the Empress Maria Theresa and the great-niece to Marie Antoinette, Queen of France. Her elder sister Maria Anna of Savoy became the wife of the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand (1835 – 1848). Possessed of a naturally pious nature the princess visited Rome (1828) where she made pilgrimages to each of the large basilicas. She walked on foot, heavily veiled and carried a coronet on her head. She deeply desired to become a nun but her family forced her to put aside her won desires and consent to a suitable dynastic union. She was then married at Voltri (1832) to Ferdinando II (1810 – 1859), King of Naples (1830 – 1859) as his first wife.
This marriage did much to raise the hopes of the liberal Neapolitan middle classes. The new queen won the love and respect of her Neapolitan subjects due to her quiet and gentle nature. She even reformed the manners of some of her husband’s rather uncouth courtiers and Franceso quickly came to love and respect Maria Christina. Despite her undoubted religious piety the queen was noprude, and when Francesco had some members of the court to supper and a card game afterwards, the queen would sit quietly embroidering, pretending not to hear their swearing and never reproached them for it. Queen Maria Christina died (Jan 31, 1836) aged only twenty-three, at Caserta, two weeks after bearing a surviving male heir. She was interred within the Franciscan convent of Santa Clara in Naples. Maria Christina was declared venerable by Pope Pius IX (1859) and the cause for her beatification was opened. The Congregation of Rites confirmed her sanctity and the Pope confirmed this judgement (1866). Maria Christina was the mother of Francesco II (1836 – 1894) who succeeded his father as King of Naples (1859 – 1860) but lost his throne when Italy became united under the House of Savoy (1860). He was married to Maria Sophia of Bavaria but their only daughter died in infancy.

Maria Elisabeth Amalia Antonia Josepha Gabriela Johanna Agatha – (1737 – 1740)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria Elisabeth was born (Feb 5, 1737) at Schonbrunn Castle, Vienna, the eldest daughter of the Emperor Franz I (1745 – 1765) and his wife the Empress Maria Theresa, the eldest daughter and heiress of the Emperor Karl VI (1711 – 1740). She was the eldest sister of the emperors Joseph II (1765 – 1790) and Leopold II (1790 – 1792), and bore the additional titles of Princess Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth died (June 7, 1740) aged three years, at Laxenburg Castle. She was interred within the Church of the Capuchins in Vienna.

Maria Elisabeth Josepha Johanna Antonia    see    Elisabeth of Austria (5)

Maria Elvira of Sicily    see   Elvira of Hauteville

Maria Ernestine Franziska of Ostfriesland – (1687 – 1758)
German ruler
Countess Maria Ernestine of Ostfriesland (East Friesland) was born (Aug, 1687) the posthumous daughter and heiress of Count Ferdinand Maximilian of Ostfriesland, and his wife Countess Johannetta Franziska von Manderscheid. Her uncle Franz Adolf ruled as regent until 1690 and left the county to her by bequest. The Bishops of Munster and Paderborn were appointed by the Emperor Leopold I as her guardians but she was raised at Dusseldorf by her mother and her stepfather Count Arnold Moritz von Bentheim-Steinfurt. Maria Ernestine was married to Count Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz and resided in Austria, bearing him thirteen children. The countess was the sovereign ruler of the counties of East Friesland and Rietberg for almost seventy years (1690 – 1758) but left the administration of her dominions in the hands of her husband and later of her son Count Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz (1711 – 1794).

Maria Eugenie Ignacia Augustina    see   Eugenie

Maria Felicita of Savoy – (1730 – 1801)
Italian princess
Princess Maria Felicita was born (March 19, 1730) at Turin in Piedmont, the third and youngest daughter of Carlo Emanuele III of Savoy, King of Sardinia (1730 – 1773) and his second wife Polissena Cristina of Hesse-Rheinsfelds-Rothenburg, the daughter of Ernst Leopold, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinsfelds-Rothenburg. She was the sister of Vittorio Amadeo III, King of Sardinia (1773 – 1796) and remained unmarried. Princess Maria Felicita died (May 13, 1801) aged seventy-one, in Rome. She was buried firstly in the Church of Santi Apostoli in Rome but her remains were later transferred to the Cathedral of Superga (1847) where she was reinterred with her relatives.

Maria Francesca Anna Romana – (1914 – 2001)
Princess of Italy
Princess Maria of Savoy was born in Rome (Dec 26, 1914), the youngest daughter of King Vittorio Emmanuele II (1900 – 1946), and his wife Elena, the daughter of Nicholas I, King of Montenegro. She was the youngest sister of King Umberto II (1946) and became the wife (1939) of Prince Louis (Luigi) of Bourbon-Parma (1899 – 1967) brother to the Austrian empress Zita, to whom she bore four children. Princess Maria held the Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was a Dame of the Star Cross Order. She survived her husband for over three decades (1967 – 2001) as the Dowager Princess Louis of Bourbon-Parma. Princess Maria died (Dec 4, 2001) aged eighty-six, at Mandelieu in France. Her funeral was held at the Cathedral of Notre Dame des Pins at Cannes.

Maria Francisca de Asis – (1800 – 1834)
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta Maria Francisca was born (April 22, 1800) at Queluz, the third daughter of Joao VI, King of Portugal, and his wife Carlotta Joaquina, the daughter of Carlos IV, King of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma. Her maternal grandmother was the granddaughter of Louis XV, King of France (1715 – 1774). Raven-haired, plump, and possessed of a commanding, masculine manner, the Infanta became the first wife (1816) of her cousin Infante Carlos (1788 – 1855), Conde de Molina, to whom she bore children. The condesa was possessed of a deep and energetic interest in Spanish politics, which was combined with an acute political acumen, and an ambitious nature. She wished to see her husband succeed his childless brother, King Ferdinand VII on the throne of Spain, and the king’s fourth marriage to Maria Christina of Austria (1829) was a severe blow to the princess’s ambitions in this quarter.
With the birth of the future Isabella II (1830) King Ferdinand invoked the Pragmatic Sanction, which permitted a female to succeed to the throne. Infanta Maria Francisca constantly urged her husband to oppose this change in the law, which had thwarted him of the throne. The Infanta and her husband accompanied the royal family to the palace of La Granja (1832). With them was her widowed elder sister Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira, who would later become Carlos’s second wife. The continued dynastic intriguing conducted by this cabal ended with Ferdinando politely offerring them permission to visit the court of Portugal, where Dom Miguel (I) provided the prince and princesses an establishment at Sintra (July, 1833). Despite their exile they continued to receive Carlist sympathisers, but with the outbreak of the first Carlist War (1834), the young Maria II was proclaimed Queen of Portugal, and the condesa, her husband, sister, Dom Miguel, and Bishop of Leon, amongst others, were forced to flee from the city of Lisbon. The family were taken aboard the British warship Donegal, and travelled to exile in England (May, 1834). They resided at Gloucester Lodge, Brompton. Several months later the Conde escaped back to Spain to promote the Carlist cause from Onate, but the condesa remained with her family at Alverstoke, near Portsmouth, despite rumours that she was to join him there. Infanta Maria Francisca died (Sept 11, 1834) aged thirty-four, at Alverstoke Rectory, near Gosport, Hantshire, commending her sons to the care of her sister, Infanta Maria Teresa. She was interred at Gosport Chapel amidst impressive ceremonial, but five decades later (1888) her remains were translated to Spain, where she was interred with her husband Carlos in the Cathedral of San Giusto at Trieste. The inscription on her tomb calls her the wife of ‘Carlos V, King of Spain.’ Her children were,

Maria Frederica Charlotte of Hesse – (1804 – 1888)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Meiningen (1825 – 1866)
Princess Maria was born (Sept 6, 1804) at Hanau, Hesse, the daughter of Wilhelm II, Elector of Hesse-Kassel, and his first wife Augusta, the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia (1786 – 1797). She was the maternal great-niece of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786). Maria of Hesse was married (1825) at Kassel, to Bernard II (1800 – 1882), the reigning Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and was duchess consort for four decades. She gave up this rank when her husband abdicated (1866) in favour of their son George. With Bernard’s death Maria was the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen (1882 – 1888). Duchess Maria died (Jan 4, 1888) aged eighty-three, at Meiningen, Thuringia. Her children were,

Maria Gabriella, Sister    see   Sagheddu, Maria

Maria Giovanna Battista of Nemours – (1644 – 1724)
French-Italian duchess consort
Princess Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours was born (April 11, 1644) in Paris, the daughter of Charles Amadeus de Savoie (1624 – 1652), Duc de Nemours in France, and his wife Princesse Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendome, the daughter of Cesar de Bourbon, Duc de Vendome, and the granddaughter of Henry IV, King of France (1589 – 1610). Her younger sister Maria Francisca of Savoy was the wife of two successive kings of Portugal, the brothers Alfonso VI (deposed because of insanity) and Pedro II, and the sister-in-law of Catharine of Braganza, the wife of Charles II, King of England. Princess Marie Jeanne was originally intended as the bride of Duke Charles V of Lorraine but this dynastic match never eventuated. Instead the princess was married (1665) to Carlo Emanuele II (1634 – 1675), Duke of Savoy as his second wife. His first wife had been Marie Jeanne’s kinswoman Francisca de Bourbon-Orleans, the niece of Louis XIII of France who had died childless.
This second marriage between the two dynasties was to reaffirm that close political alliance between Savoy and France. The Italians called the new duchess Maria Giovanna Battista and she bore her husband but one child and heir Vittorio Amadeo II (1666 – 1732), later King of Sicily (1713 – 1718) and then King of Sardinia (1718 – 1730). The duchess was heiress of the ancient county of Geneva and was the last sovereign countess. Geneva was formally united to Savoy at her death. With the duke’s early death Duchess Maria Giovanna Battista ruled Savoy as regent for her young son (1675 – 1684) and was known by the title of ‘Madama Reale’ which had been born by her mother-in-law Christina de Bourbon, daughter of Henry IV and wife of Duke Vittorio Amadeo I of Savoy. A woman of great power and energy the duchess had attempted unsuccessfully to gain the throne of Portugal for her son, but when he led a revolt against her in Piedmont, in resentment at her attempts to retain her position as regent, she was forced to relinquish control of the government when her son came of age (1684) and survived for another forty years having been the Dowager Duchess of Savoy for five decades (1675 – 1724). Duchess Maria Giovanna Battista died (March 15, 1724) aged seventy-nine, in Paris.

Maria Henrietta Franziska of Hohenzollern    see   Walhain, Comtesse de

Maria Immaculata of Austria – (1878 – 1968)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Maria Immaculata was born (Sept 3, 1878) in Baden, Germany, the daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator, and his wife Maria Immaculata of Naples. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. The archduchess was married in Vienna (1900) to Duke Robert of Wurtemburg (1873 – 1947). There were no children and Maria Immaculata survived her husband for two decades as Dowager Duchess of Wurttemburg (1947 – 1968). Duchess Maria Immaculata died (Nov 25, 1968) aged ninety, at Castle Altshausen.

Maria Josefa of Braganza (Marie Jose) – (1857 – 1943)
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta Marie Josefa was born (March 19, 1857) at Bronnbach, Austria, the daughter of Infante Miguel of Braganza who was briefly King of Portugal as Miguel I, and his wife Adelaide of Lowenstein-Wertheim-Rosenborg. She became the second wife (1874) of Karl Theodor (1831 – 1909), Duke in Bavaria, brother-in-law to the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef. The couple had many children including Marie Gabrielle the wife of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria. Maria Josefa survived her husband for over three decades as Dowager Duchess of Bavaria (1909 – 1943). Duchess Maria Josefa died (March 11, 1943) aged eighty-five, in Vienna.

Maria Josepha of Austria – (1699 – 1757)
Queen consort of Poland (1732 – 1757)
Archduchess Maria Josepha was born in Vienna (Dec 8, 1699) the elder daughter of the Hapsburg emperor Joseph I (1705 – 1711) and his wife Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg, rhe daughter of Johann Freidrich, Duke of Hanover. Extremely small of stature she became the wife of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (1696 – 1763), king of Poland, to whom she bore a large family of children. Through her daughter Marie Josephe she was the grandmother of Louis XVI, King of France (1774 – 1793). During the Prussian invasion of Saxony the queen was roughly manhandled in the palace at Dresden by Prussian soldiers. Queen Maria Josepha died (Nov 17, 1757) aged fifty-seven, at Dresden.

Maria Josepha Antonia Walburga Felicitas Regula – (1739 – 1767)
Holy Roman empress consort (1765 – 1767)
Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria was born (March 30, 1739) in Munich, the daughter of Karl VII, Elector of Bavaria and the Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Joseph I (1705 – 1711). The empress Maria Theresa arranged for Maria Josepha to become the second wife of her widowed son Emperor Joseph II (1765 – 1790). The marriage took place at the Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna. There were no children. Unattractive and possessed of a timid and withdrawn disposition Empress Maria Josepha never managed to gain the affections of her husband who pointedly ignored her, as did the Imperial court. Joseph even went so far as to partition their apartments so that he would not have to see her in private. When she became ill with smallpox the Empress Maria Theresa became consumed with guilt and remorse for the unhappy woman and nursed her devotedly, at the risk of her own health. Empress Maria Josepha died (May 28, 1767) aged twenty-eight, in Vienna.

Maria de La Paz – (1862 – 1946)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Maria de La Paz Juana Amalia Adalberta Franciska de Paula Juan Bautista Isabel Francisca de Asis was born (June 23, 1862) in Madrid, the daughter of Queen Isabella II and her consort Prince Francisco de Assis. She married (1883) Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria (1859 – 1949). Their eldest son Prince Ferdinand (1884 – 1958) married as his first wife his first cousin the Infanta Maria Teresa, the daughter of King Alfonso XII and received the rank and title of Infante of Spain (1905). The princess left memoirs entitled Through Four Revolutions, 1862 – 1933 (1933) which were compiled from her private diaries and correspondence by her son Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1886 – 1970). She left first-hand accounts of the Spanish Revolution (1868), the French Revolution of 1870, the German revolution (1918), and the last Spanish Revolution (1931). Her son Adalbert was married to the Countess Augusta von Seefried auf Buttenheim (1899 – 1978) and left issue, whilst her daughter Princess Maria del Pilar of Bavaria (1891 – 1987) remained unmarried. Infanta Maria de La Paz died (Dec 4, 1946) aged eighty-four, at Nymphenburg Castle, in Munich, Bavaria.

Maria Ludovica Beatrix Antonia Josepha Johanna – (1787 – 1816)
Holy Roman empress
Archduchess Maria Ludovica was born (Dec 14, 1787) at Monza, in Lombardy, Italy, the daughter of Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena and his wife Maria Beatrice d’Este. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia. She became the third wife (1808) of the Emperor Francis II (1792 – 1835). Being Italian by birth, the empress was enthusiastically a German patriot by adoption, and in 1809 she supported Count Stadion and Baron Balducci in their advocacy of war with France. Secret enquiries by the chancellor Prince Metternich threw suspicion upon the the empress’s motives, and her intercepted letters revealed that she was involved in a liasion with her brother-in-law, Archduke Joseph. The result of these scandalous revelations was that the empress’s anti-Metternich cabal at court was completely and effectively destroyed. The empress travelled to Verona in Italy because of her declining health, and died there (April 7, 1816) aged twenty-eight, of rheumatic fever, being interred in the Capuchin Church in Vienna. She had remained childless.

Maria Luisa of Spain – (1745 – 1792)
Holy Roman empress (1790 – 1792)
Infanta Maria Luisa was born (Nov 24, 1745) in Naples, the daughter of Carlos III (1716 – 1788), King of Spain and his wife Maria Amalia of Saxony, the daughter of Augustus III of Saxony, King of Poland and his wife the Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Joseph I (1705 – 1711). Maria Luisa was married at Innsbruck (Aug 5, 1765) to Archduke Leopold (1747 – 1792), a younger son of the Empress Maria Theresa, who had begun negotiations for this dynastic and political alliance several years earlier (1762). The Infanta sailed with her suite and attendants from Cartagena to Genoa in Italy, where a brilliant Austrian delegation met her at Bozen and then accompanied her to Innsbruck, where the Imperial family had gathered for the wedding, though the sudden death of the Emperor Franz I, her father-in-law, cast a pall over the ceremonies. Leopold then received the title of Grand Duke of Tuscany from his elder brother Joseph, and Maria Luisa became the Grand duchess consort of Tuscany (1765 – 1790). Maria Luisa accompanied her sister-in-law Maria Carolina to the Austrian border (1768) where her husband Ferdinand of Naples received her officially as his bride.
Grand Duchess Maria Luisa and Leopold had a large family of sixteen children including the Emperor Franz II and left many descendants. With the death of Empress Maria Theresa, the Emperor Joseph, though married twice, left no surviving child, so Leopold and Maria Luisa became the Crown Prince and Crown Princess (1780 – 1790). With the death of his elder brother the Emperor Joseph II (1790) without surviving issue, Leopold was elected as Holy Roman emperor and they were crowned with impressive solemnity in Vienna. The empress took no significant part in politics or affairs of state, devoting herself entirely to her large family of children. Empress Maria Luisa died (May 15, 1792) aged forty-six, in Vienna, and was interred within the Capuchin church there. Her children were,

Maria Luisa Giuseppina Antoinetta – (1782 – 1824)
Queen consort and regent of Etruria (1801 – 1807)
The Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain was born (July 6, 1782) at San Ildefonso, the daughter of Carlos IV, King of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma, the daughter of Duke Philip of Parma and Piacenza and the granddaughter of Louis XV, King of France (1715 – 1774). Maria Luisa was married (1795) at san Ildefonso to Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Parma, the eldest son of Ferdinando III, Duke of Parma. He was granted the kingdom of Etruria in Tuscany by the Emperor Napoleon I (1801) and Maria Luisa became queen consort (1801 – 1803). With the death of her husband (1803) Queen Maria Luisa ruled as regent (1803 – 1807) for their son Carlos (1803 – 1871). She lost the kingdom to Napoleon in 1807 and the royal family retired to live between Madrid, Parma and Nice. The queen mother later attempted to flee to England (1811) but was apprended by the Imperial authorities and was confined to a convent in Rome where she remained until the fall of Napoleon (1814) when she was released. Maria Luisa was granted the dukedom of Lucca by the Congress of Vienna (1814). Queen Maria Luisa died (March 13, 1824) aged forty-one, in Rome.

Maria Luisa Teresa of Parma – (1751 – 1819)
Queen consort of Spain
Princess Maria Luisa was born (Dec 9, 1751) in Parma, the daughter of Duke Philip, and his wife Louise Elisabeth, the eldest daughter of Louis XV, King of France. She married (1766) her cousin Carlos, Prince of the Asturias (1748 – 1819), who succeeded his father as Carlos IV (1788) an to whom she bore fourteen children, including Ferdinando VII (1784 – 1833), Maria Theresa, the wife of the emperor Francis II, and Carlotta Joaquina, the wife of Joao VI, King of Portugal. Thoroughly unprepossessing in appearance, the queen became devotedly and scandalously attached to her husband’s favourite, Manuel Godoy, who is rumoured to have fathered several of her younger children. Two elderly statesmen, Count Aranda and Count Floridablanca were dismissed from their posts (1792) and Godoy installed in their place, at the queen’s wish. Godoy’s influence became wideley resented and the queen’s unpopularity grew more and more pronounced. Even her son Ferdinando, under the influence of his tutor Juan Escoiquez, turned bitterly against her. With the approach of the Napoleonic army, the Spanish court removed to Aranjuez (1808), where King Carlos abdicated in favour of Ferdinando. With the establishment of Joseph Bonaparte as king, the royal family lived in exile at the Chateau de Compeigne, in Paris, and at Marseilles. In 1812 the family and their small court removed to Rome. Queen Maria Luisa died there (Jan 2, 1819), her husband following her three weeks later (Jan 20). Her portrait by Goya bears out the tradition of her ugly and inelegant appearance.

Maria Manuela of Portugal - (1527 - 1545)
Spanish Princess of the Asturias
Infanta Maria Manuela was born (Oct 15, 1527) in Lisbon, estramadura, the daughter of Joao III, King of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Austria, sister of the Emperor Charles V (1519 - 1555). Her marriage at Salamanca (1543) with her first cousin Philip of Spain, Prince of the Asturias (later Philip II) was arranged by Charles V, the appropriate papal dispensation having been obtained. Her father provided her with a dowry of 150,000 ducats in Spain, and an equivalent amount in bills of exchange from Antwerp. The wedding was celebrated by the Archbishop of Toledo, the Duke and Duchess of Alba being present as sponsors. The young couple then visited their joint grandmother Queen Juana, at the Castle of Tordesillas, to obtain her blessing, but had to endure a terrible scene with the insane old lady before their departure. Princess Maria Manuela was an attractive young woman, and the match was politically popular in Spain. When she became pregnant her husband brought her to Vallodolid for the birth. The princess gave birth to a son and heir, Carlos (July 8), and then died of exhaustion (July 12, 1545) aged seventeen. She was said to have died in consequence of eating a lemon too soon after her delivery. Her son Don Carlos (1545 - 1568) became deranged and is said to have been murdered at his father's instigation. Maria Manuela was later reinterred with the monastery of the Escorial Palace in Madrid (1574). Maria Manuela appears as a character in the historical novel The Spanish Bridegroom (1954) by Jean Plaidy.

Mariam Artsruni (Maria) – (c1000 – after 1072)
Queen consort of Georgia
Mariam was the daughter of Sennacherib John Artsruni, King of Vaspurakan. She became the second wife (c1016) of Giorgi I (996 – 1027), King of Abhkhazeti in Georgia, and was the mother of King Bagrat IV (1018 – 1072), whom she survived. Her granddaughter Maria of Alania became the wife successively of the Byzantine emperors Michael VII Dukas (1071 – 1078) and Nikephorus III (1078 – 1081).

Maria Megala Komnena – (1328 – 1408)
Byzantine princess of Trebizond
Maria was the daughter of Basilius Komnenus, Emperor of Trebizond and his concubine Irene of Trebizond whom he later married. She became the wife of Fahreddin Kutlubeg, Khan of the Aqqoyunlu.

Mariamne I – (54 – 29 BC) 
Queen consort of Judaea
Mariamne I was the daughter of King Alexander and his wife Alexandra of Hasmonea, daughter of the high-priest king, John Hyrcanus II. She became the second wife (37 BC) of King Herod I, to whom she bore two sons, Alexander and Aristobulos, both of whom left issue. The marriage was a tempestuous affair and Mariamne regarded Herod and his family as usurpers and non-royal, and treated her husband with calculated disdain and pride. Josephus recalls that the queen ‘…. treated her husband imperiously enough because she saw that he was so fond of her as to be enslaved by her.’ Finally she accused Herod of the murder of her father and of her brother, Aristobulos III (36 BC), whom he had caused to be drowned, and refused to share his bed any longer. Herod’s family spread rumours of a conspiracy and members of the queen’s household denouced her under torture. After a mockery of a trial in the fortress of Antonia, Queen Mariamne was executed, facing her death with calmness and dignity. Herod was filled with the greatest remorse for this crime until the end of his life, though he would later have their two sons executed (6 BC) on trumped up charges of treason.

Mariamne II – (c40 – after 5 BC)
Queen consort of Judaea
Mariamne II was born in Jerusalem, the daughter of Simon, a priestlt citizen, and the granddaughter of Boethius of Alexandria. Reputed to be one of the most beautiful women of her day, Herod the Great fell in love with her, but her family were not of high enough rank. Herod solved this by making Simon the high-priest and then married (23 BC) Mariamne as his third legal wife and queen. The Mariamne Tower in Herod’s palace in Jerusalem is thought to have been named for her. Her son Herod Philip (c21 BC – 34 AD), later became tetrarch and was married to the infamous Herodias, herself a granddaughter of Herod the Great. Queen Mariamne was divorced by Herod, after a marriage of almost twenty years, after she had been implicated in a plot to poison her husband’s brother, Prince Pheroras. Her son was struck from the succession and her father deprived of his priesthood.

Mariamne III – (c5 BC – c41 AD)
Judaean queen consort of Chalcis
Mariamne III was the daughter of Prince Josephus and his wife Olympias, the daughter of King Herod I the Great. Mariamne was married (c10 AD) to Herod (c15 BC – 48 AD), King of Chalcis in Palestine, as his first wife, and was the mother of Aristobulos (c13 – 92 AD), king of Lesser Armenia. Her daughter-in-law was the infamous Salome, who obtained the head of John the Baptist.

Mariamne, Julia – (34 - after 66 BC)
Herodian princess
Julia Mariamne was the second daughter f Herod Agrippa II, King of Judaea (37 – 44 AD) and his wife Kypros, also a member of the Herodian royal house. She was the younger sster to King Herod Agrippa II and to Queen Julia Berenice, the famous mistress of the Emperor Titus (79 – 81 AD). Her younger sister Drusilla, Queen of Emesa was later married to the Roman procurator Antonius Felix. She was married (52 AD) to the Greek patrician Helcias to whom she bore several children. Mariamne was living in 66 AD but her date of death remains unknown.

Maria Pavlovna – (1786 – 1859)
Romanov grand duchess
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna was born in St Petersburg (Feb 4, 1786), the daughter of Tsar Paul I (1796 – 1801) and his wife Maria Feodorovna (formerly Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemburg). She was married (1804) in St Petersburg to Karl Friedrich (1783 – 1853), Grand duke of Saxe-Weimar (1828 – 1853) in Saxony, to whom she bore children. Maria Pavlovna was the patron of the famous composer Franz Liszt, and established a noted literary salon at her court. She was portrayed on the screen by noted British actress Martita Hunt. Maria survived her husband as Dowager Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (1853 – 1859). Her daughter Augusta of Saxe-Weimar was wife to the German emperor Wilhelm I, mother of the Emperor Friedrich III, and grandmother of Kaiser Wilhelm II. Maria Pavlovna died at Belvedere Castle, near Weimar (June 23, 1859) aged seventy-three.

Maria Pia of Savoy – (1847 – 1911)
Queen consort of Portugal
Princess Maria Pia of Savoy was born at Turin in Piedmont, the daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, King of Italy, and his first wife Maria Adelaide, the daughter of the Austrian archduke Rainer. She was married in Turin (1862) to King Luis I of Portugal (1838 – 1889) and the eldest of their five sons was King Carlos I (1863 – 1908). Elegant and haughty, Queen Maria Pia was unpopular because of her extravagance and absolutist ideals. She deplored her husband’s religious policies and the suppression of the monks, and brought up her sons strictly, exhorting them to ignore their father’s bad example towards the church. The queen also opposed the Duque de Saldanha, who had organized the brief uprising in 1870, and was involved in his political removal to England in an honorary diplomatic post. During the reign of her son Carlos, the queen mother had little impact upon political affairs, though her expenditure remained prodigious. With the overthrow of her grandson Manoel II in 1910, Maria Pia briefly accompanied the family into exile in England, before returning to the Italian court at Turin. Queen Maria Pia died (July 5, 1911) at Stupinigi, near Turin.

Maria Prophetissima (Miriam) – (fl. c50 – c100 AD)
Alexandrian alchemist
Maria Prophetissima devoted herself to researching the process by which she could change base metals into gold. She appears to have been learned in the Gnostic sciences, and worshipped the earth mother goddess Isis. Within this religious sect she became the prophet ‘Miriam, the sister of Moses.’ The Latin writers named her Maria Prophetissima. Maria’s written works researched the premise that all metals contained male and female elements, and likened the process of chemical production to sexual reproduction. Apart from her surviving writings, Maria designed several scientific apparatii such as the water bath, which evolved into the modern ‘bain-marie.’

Maria Qupthiya    see   Qibtiyya, Maria

Maria Sophia Frederica of Hesse-Kassel – (1767 – 1852)
Queen consort of Denmark and Norway (1808 – 1839)
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Maria of Hesse was born (Oct 28, 1767) at Hanau, the daughter of Friedrich III, Landgrave of Hesse-Hessel and his wife Princess Louise of Denmark, the daughter of King Frederik V of Denmark (1746 – 1766). Maria was married (1790) at Gottorp in Holstein to her first cousin the Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark (1768 – 1839) and was the Crown Princess (1790 – 1808). When her husband succeeded his insane father Christian VII upon the throne as King Frederik VI (1808) Maria became his queen consort. She survived her husband as the Queen Dowager of Denmark (1839 – 1852). Queen Maria died (March 22, 1852) aged eighty-four, at the Amalienborg Castle in Copenhagen. Her eight children were,

Maria Teresa Cybo – (1725 – 1790)
Italian duchess consort of Modena (1780 – 1790)
Donna Maria Teresa Cybo was born (June 29, 1725) at Novellara, the heiress of the important duchies of Massa and Carrara. Maria Teresa was married (1741) to Duke Ercole III d’Este of Modena. Their daughter Beatrice was later married to Archduke Ferdinand, the son of the empress Maria Theresa, and left many children. Duchess Maria Teresa died (Dec 25, 1790) aged sixty-five, at Reggio.

Maria Teresa Ferdinanda Felicia Gaetana Pia – (1803 – 1879)
Princess of Savoy and Sardinia
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy was born (Sept 19, 1803) in Rome, the fifth daughter of Vittorio Emanuele I of Savoy, King of Sardinia and his wife the Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena. She was a twin with her sister Princess Maria Anna of Savoy (1803 – 1884) later the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (1835 – 1848) and they were the great-granddaughters of the Empress Maria Theresa. Princess Maria Teresa was married (1820) to Carlo II (1799 – 1883), Duke of Parma and became Duchess consort of Parma (1820 – 1849). Duke Charles was the former Luigi II, King of Etruria who had been deposed as a child by Napoleon I. she stepped down from this position when Duke Carlo abdicated (1849) in favour of their son Carlo III (1823 – 1854). Thereafter the royal couple were known as the Conte and Contessa di Villafranca and retired to private life. The former Duchess Maria Teresa died three decades later (July 16, 1879) aged seventy-five, at San Martino.

Maria Teresa Giovanna Giuseppina – (1773 – 1832)
Queen consort of Sardinia (1802 – 1821)
The Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, Princess of Modena was born (Nov 1, 1773) at Milan in Lombardy, the eldest daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena and his wife Maria Beatrice d’Este. She was the paternal granddaughter of the Empress Maria Theresa and was niece to the emperors Joseph II (1765 – 1790) and Leopold II (1790 – 1792). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia. Following a proxy marriage ceremony the Archduchess was married at Turin in Piedmont (1789) to Vittorio Emanuele I of Savoy (1759 – 1824), Duke of Aosta and became the Duchess of Aosta. When Vittorio Emanuele succeeded his father Carlo Emanuele IV as King of Sardinia the duchess became queen consort. When her husband later abdicated the throne in favour of his brother Carlo Felice (1821) Queen Maria Teresa ceased to be queen consort though she retained her royal titles and styles. Maria Teresa survived her husband as the Queen Dowager of Sardinia (1824 – 1832). The queen died (March 29, 1832) aged fifty-eight, at Genoa. Her children were,

Maria Teresa Isabel Eugenia Patrocinio Diega – (1882 – 1912)
Infanta of Spain
The Infanta Maria Teresa was born (Nov 12, 1882) in Madrid, the younger daughter of King Alfonso XII (1874 – 1885) and his second wife Maria Christina of Austria, the daughter of the Hapsburg Archduke Karl Ferdinand. She was the sister of King Alfonso XIII (1886 – 1931) and was married (1906) to Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria (1884 – 1958) who was granted the rank and styles of Infante of Spain, as did their children. The Infanta died (Sept 23, 1912) aged twenty-nine, in Madrid, a week after the birth of her last child. Her children were,

Maria Theresa, Empress    see    Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina

Maria Theresa Carolina Josephine – (1772 – 1807)
Holy Roman Empress (1792 – 1807)
Princess Maria Theresa of Naples was born (June 6, 1772) at Naples, the daughter of Ferdinando I, King of Naples and his wife the Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria, daughter of the Empress Maria Theresa. She was married by proxy in Naples (Aug 15, 1790) to Crown Prince Franz of Austria (1768 – 1835), son of the Emperor Leopold II (1790 – 1792). The princess then travelled to Vienna with a large retinue where they were married in person (Sept 19). She became empress consort when Franz succeeded his father on the Imperial throne as Emperor Franz II. When her first child Princess Marie Louise was born (1791) Queen Maria Carolina wrote Maria Theresa a congratulatory letter on being ‘so sensible and brave when your time came upon you, for uncontrolled groans do not help pain and cause those present sorrow and disgust. One must put up with the evil for the pleasure of being a mother.’ These words proved to be prophetic. Maria Theresa was crowned in Vienna with her husband (1793) but her life was given over to exacting court ceremonials and an unbroken series of pregnancies. The Empress Maria Theresa died (April 13, 1807) aged thirty-four, in Vienna, from the rigours of childbirth. She was buried in the Church of the Capuchins. Apart from several miscarriages she left twelve children,

Maria Theresa Henrietta Dorothea – (1849 – 1919)
Queen consort of Bavaria (1913 – 1918)
Archduchess Maria Theresa was born at Brunn, Austria, the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, and his wife Elisabeth of Austria, who remarried to the Archduke Ferdinand. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. Maria Theresa was married (1868) King Ludwig III. She succeeded her uncle, Francesco V d’Este, Duke of Modena (1875) as heiress-general of the Royal House of Stuart, and was recognized by the Jacobites as Queen Mary IV of Great Britain. Queen Maria Theresa died (Feb 3, 1919) aged sixty-nine, at Castle Wildenort.

Maria Theresa Isabella of Austria – (1816 – 1867)
Queen consort of Naples (1837 – 1859)
HIH (Her Imperial Highness) the Archduchess Maria Theresa was born (July 13, 1816) in Vienna, the daughter of the Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, Duke of Teschen (1822 – 1847) and his wife Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg and was a descendant of George I, King of Great Britain (1714 – 1727). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia. Maria Theresa became the second wife of Ferdinando II (1810 – 1859), King of Naples (1830 – 1859) and became his queen consort. The marriage had taken place firstly by proxy at Trieste (Jan 9, 1837) and then the new queen travelled to meet Ferdinando in Naples where they were married in person (Jan 27). Queen Maria Theresa bore her husband a large family of children and attained some influence over the king, though she exercised no overt political power. She survived her husband as the Queen Dowager of Naples (1859 – 1867) and saw the deposition of her stepson Francesco II (1859 – 1860) and of the reigning royal house after the Unification of Italy (1860). Queen Maria Theresa died (Aug 8, 1867) aged fifty-one, at Albano, Italy, a week before the death of her youngest son Prince Gennaro. Her twelve children were,

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina – (1717 – 1780)
Holy Roman empress, queen regnant of Hungary and Bohemia (1740 – 1780)
Archduchess Maria Theresa was born (May 13, 1717) in Vienna, the elder daughter of the Emperor Charles VI (1711 – 1740), and his wife Elisabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, the daughter of Ludwig Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. The death of her only brother Leopold in infancy (1716), and the empress’s failure to produce any following male children, ultimately left Maria Theresa as her father’s heiress. By means of the Pragmatic Sanction, for which the principal European powers became sureties, her father appointed Maria Theresa as the heir to his hereditary thrones. She was married (1736) to Francis, Duke of Lorraine (1708 – 1765), who was later made Grand Duke of Tuscany and Holy Roman emperor as Francis I. With the death of her father Charles VI (1740), Maria Theresa was proclaimed Queen of Hungary and Bohemia.
After her accession the chief European powers put forward claims to her dominions. Spain and Sardinia claimed lands in Italy, Frederick II of Prussia overann Silesia, economically the most valuable of the Hapsburg possessions, whilst the elector of Bavaria, with French support, invaded Bohemia and Austria, was crowned king of Bohemia and elected emperor as Charles VII (1742). Her precarious position was saved by the loyalty of her Hungarian subjects, who were supported by Britain.. The War of the Austrian Succession (1741 – 1748) was terminated by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. She lost the state of Silesia to Frederick the Great of Prussia, and also lost Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla in Italy, but her rights were admitted, and her husband officially recognized as emperor Francis I. Maria Theresa instituted financial and economic reforms, supported and augmented the promotion of agriculture, manufacturing, and commerce, and managed to successfully decrease taxation, while substantially raising the national revenues. The Hapsburg military was reorganized by Marshal Daun, and Prince Wenzel von Kaunitz-Rietberg was placed in charge of foreign affairs. Never being able to reconcile the loss of Silesia, this political wound led to the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763) with Frederick the Great, during which time the empress was allied herself with the French, Austria’s old enemy. This alliance produced the ill-fated marriage (1770) of Maria Theresa’s daughter Marie Antoinette with the future Louis XVI of France, but King Frederick was confirmed in his possession of Silesia. The loss of Silesia always rankled, and the empress later continued in her efforts to regain the province, instigating a new war just prior to her death (1779).
With the death of her husband (1765), to whom she had been devotedly attached and borne sixteen children, the empress associated their eldest surviving son Joseph II with her in the government, though confining his attentions to foreign and military affairs, and embarked upon a series of reforms. Her suppression of the diets in most of her lands met with popular approval, since her hand was lighter than that of the feudal magnates who composed those bodies. Having no sympathy with the popular concept of self-government, the empress trod carefully in Hungary, and found ways of extending the germanized centralism of her administrator there without raising dangerous opposition, and attaching the leaders of Hungarian society to the Imperial court. The empress also applied her reforming zeal to the weaknesses of the church without papal authority, and she joined the general attack on the Jesuit order. She joined with Prussia and Russia in the first partition of Poland (1772), which secured to Austria the states of Galicia and Lodomeria, whilst she also received Bukhovina from the Turks (1777) and the Inn district of Bavaria. The empress died of a lung infection (Nov 29, 1780) at the Schonbrunn Palace, in Vienna. A beautiful and gracious woman, and a courageous and sympathetic ruler, Maria Theresa remained throughout her long reign, the untiring servant of her state and peoples, a far-seeing and able ruler, who achieved remarkable unification between the diverse areas of the Austro-Hungarian empire.

Maria Wilhelmina Frederica of Hesse – (1796 – 1880)
German Grand duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1817 – 1860)
Princess Maria was born (Jan 21, 1796) at Hanau, the second daughter of Freidrich III (1747 – 1837), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and his wife Polyxena Caroline, the daughter of Karl Wilhelm (1735 – 1803), Prince of Nassau-Usingen. Princess Maria was married (1817) at Cassel, to George (1779 – 1860), the reigning Grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, nephew of Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III of England (1760 – 1820). She was his consort for over forty years. The couple produced four children. Maria survived her husband as the Grand Dowager Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1860 – 1880). Grand Duchess Maria died (Dec 30, 1880) aged eighty-four, at the Palace of Neustrelitz. Her children were,

Maric, Ljubica – (1909 – 2003)
Yugoslavian composer
Maric was born (March 18, 1909) at Kragujevac and was a pupil of Josip Stolcer-Slavenski in Belgrade and with Josef Suk at the Prague Conservatory. She later became a professor at the Stankovic Music School in Belgrade. Maric was later elected as amember of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences (1963). She produced chamber music and orchestral pieces and her innovative work was greatly influenced by the traditions of Greek Orthodox religious music. Her best known composition was Pesme prostora (Songs of Space) (1956) whilst her other works included Skice (Sketches) (1947), Passacaglia (1958) for orchestra and Slovo svetlosti (Word of Light) (1965) for choir and orchestra, which was based upon mediaeval Serbian poetry.

Marie de Bourbon – (1606 – 1692)
French-Italian princess and heiress
Princesse Marie de Bourbon-Soissons was born (May 3, 1606) the second daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Soissons, and his wife, the heiress Anne de Montafie. Marie became the wife (1625) of Tommaso Francisco of Savoy (1596 – 1656), the first reigning prince of Carignano, whom she survived thirty-five years as Princess Dowager (1656 – 1692). Marie inherited the important French county of Soissons which she passed to her youngest son Eugenio. Princess Marie died (June 3, 1692) aged eighty-six. Her seven children were,

Marie de France – (c1145 – 1216) 
Anglo-Norman poet
Marie de France was probably the illegitimate daughter of Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, and half-sister to Henry II of England. She never married, and in c1181 became abbess of Shaftesbury, in Dorset, which position she held until her death. Her most famous works are her Lais, or short narrative poems, thought to have been written prior to 1180. Her masterpiece is believed to be her lai de Lanval, which showcases her wonderful story-telling skills. Marie also translated and adapted fables, which were published under the title Isopet (c1180), a collection of moral fables with traces of satire written in verse.

Marie de Guise    see    Mary of Guise

Marie de l’Incarnation    see     Acarie, Barbe

Marie de Medici – (1573 – 1642)
Queen consort and later regent of France
Princess Maria de Medici was born (April 26, 1573) in Florence, the daughter of Francesco I de Medici, Grand duke of Tuscany, and his first wife Johanna, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian II (1564 – 1576).  Marie de Medici became the second wife of Henry IV of France at Lyons (1600). She ruled as regent for their son Louis XIII., but was unpopular due to the influence of her Italian favourites such as Leonora Galgai and Concino Concini. With their subsequent trials and executions, Queen Marie was exiled to Blois, where she lived under almost house arrest. The queen mother escaped from Blois (1619) and became the centre for a new revolt against the nobility. Through the intervention of Cardinal Richelieu, Queen Marie became reconciled with Louis, and was permitted to maintain her own court at Angers, and well as being permitted to resume her seat in the royal council. Her later plots against the power of Richelieu left to her final banishment to Compeigne (1630). From there she escaped to Brussels (1631), but was never able to return to France. Her daughter Henrietta Maria de Bourbon was the wife of Charles I of England (1625 – 1649). Queen Marie died (July 3, 1642) in poverty in Cologne, Germany.

Marie d’Oignies    see   Oignies, Marie d’

Marie Leszczynska – (1703 – 1768)
Queen consort of France (1725 – 1768)
Princess Marie was born (June 23, 1703) at Breslau, Poland, the daughter of Stanislas I Leszczynski, King of Poland, and his wife Katarzyna Opalinska-Lodzia. Her father lost his throne whilst Marie was a child, and he supervised her education. The family resided in exile at Wissembourg in modest circumstances. Her marriage (1725) at Fontainebleau with the youthful Louis XV of France (1710 – 1774), seven years her junior, was arranged by the Duc de Bourbon and his powerful mistress, Madame de Prie. Princess Marie was chosen because of her placid nature, and ordinary background, which her supporters believed would prevent her from interfering in matters at court, and thus would become no obstacle to their own power.
Queen Marie interefered in politics only one, in order to prevent the disgrace of the Duc de Bourbon, but this failed, and was merely the beginning of her alienation from her husband, who spent the remainder of his life with a succession of mistresses. The couple produced ten children, of whom the Dauphin Louis (1729 – 1765), who predeceased his parents, was the father of three kings, Louis XVI (1774 – 1792), Louis XVIII (1795 – 1824), and Charles X (1824 – 1830). Having done her duty for the dynasty, the queen was treated with polite respect by the king and practically ignored by the rest of the court. Because of her many charitable contributions, Queen Marie was always in debt, but Louis always paid them for her. Because of her kindness and philanthropy the queen was greatly respected by the people of Paris. Queen Marie died (June 24, 1768) aged sixty-five. She was interred within the Abbey of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris. She appears as a character in the historical romance novels Louis the Wellbeloved (1959) and The Road to Compiegne (1959) by Jean Plaidy.

Marie of Anjou – (1404 – 1463)
Queen consort of France
Princess Marie was the daughter of Louis II of Anjou, King of Naples, and his wife Yolande of Aragon, and elder sister to Rene I, King of Naples. She married (1421) the Dauphin Charles, who succeeded as Charles VII the following year, and was the mother of Louis XI (1423 – 1483). From 1423 – 1429 Queen Marie remained with her growing family and household at the Chateau de Loches, in Touraine, whilst her husband was occupied with regaining his kingdom from the English. In all she bore Charles twelve children. By 1443 Charles had installed his favourite mistress, Agnes Sorel, at court. Queen Marie received much support during this time from her son, who always remained devoted to her, and Louis later caused much scandal by publicly attacking Agnes. Later the queen urged her son to posthumously defend the reputation of his first wife, Margaret of Scotland against the calumnies of the scandalmonger Jamet de Tillay.

Marie of Austria     see     Mary of Hungary

Marie of Brandenburg – (1519 – 1567)
German electress consort of the Rhine (1559 – 1567)
Princess Marie was born (Oct 14, 1519) in Bayreuth, the elder daughter of Kasimir (1481 – 1527), the Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and his wife Susanna of Bavaria, later the wife of Otto Heinrich, Elector Palatine of the Rhine. Her younger sister Kunigunde became the wife of Karl II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach. Marie became the first wife (1537) of Friedrich III of Simmern (1515 – 1576), Elector Palatine of the Rhine (1559 – 1567), becoming Countess Palatine of Simmern and then Electress Palatine consort (1559). Electress Marie died (Oct 31, 1567) aged forty-eight, at Heidelburg. Apart from three sons who died in infancy her children were,

Marie of Burgundy     see also    Mary of Burgundy

Marie of Burgundy – (1380 – 1422)
Duchess consort of Savoy (1417 – 1422)
Princess Marie of Burgundy was born at Dijon, Burgundy, the daughter of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy and his wife Margaret of Flanders. She was married (1401) at Arras, Flanders, to Amadeus VIII (1377 – 1449), count (1391 – 1417) and first Duke of Savoy (1417 – 1434), to whom she bore many children. Duchess Marie died (Oct 8, 1422) aged forty-two, at the Chateau de Thonon-les-Bains. Her husband later abdicated, became a monk, and was anti-pope as Felix V (1439 – 1449). Her children were,

Marie of Champagne (1) – (1126 – 1190)
Duchess consort (1145 – 1162)
Marie was the eldest daughter of Theobald V, Count of Blois and Champagne, and his wife Matilda the daughter of Engelbert II, Duke of Carinthia, she became the wife of Duke Eudes II of Burgundy, and was then regent of Burgundy (1162 – 1165) for her son Duke Hugh III. During her tenure in office, Duchess Marie dealt successfully with King Louis VII (1137 – 1180) and later retired from the court and became a nun at the famous abbey of St Marie, at Fontevrault in Maine, Anjou. She left two daughters, Adelaide of Burgundy (1148 – 1192), the wife of Archambaud VII, Seigneur de Bourbon, and Matilda of Burgundy (1150 – 1202), who married Robert IV, Comte d’Auvergne (died 1194), and left descendants.

Marie of Champagne (2) – (1174 – 1204)
Latin empress consort of Constantinople
Marie was the daughter of Henry I, Count of Champagne and his wife Marie Capet, daughter of Louis VII, King of France (1137 – 1180) and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. The niece of Richard I the Lionheart (1189 – 1199), she was married (1186) to Baldwin of Flanders, crusader and Latin emperor. Empress Marie left two daughters, Jeanne, countess of Hainault (1199 – 1244) and Margaret, Countess of Hainault (1244 – 1280). Empress Marie died (Aug 9, 1204) aged thirty.

Marie of Chatteris – (fl. c1250)
Anglo-Norman nun and hagiographer
Marie was of aristocratic birth. She was long thought to be a member of the community of nuns at Ely in Kent. However she is now believed to have been a sister of the Abbey of Chatteris, which was also dedicated to St Etheldreda of Northumbria. Marie was the author of Vie seinte Audree (Life of St Audrey) which was dedicated to their foundress the twice married St Etheldreda (Audrey) (630 – 679), the famous Abbess of Ely.

Marie of Cleves – (1426 – 1487)
Flemish-French poet and patron
Marie was born (Sept 19, 1426) in Dusseldorf, the sixth daughter of Adolf I, Duke of Cleves and his second wife Marie of Burgundy, the daughter of Duke Philip I of Burgundy. She was raised in the household of her uncle Duke Philip of Burgundy, who arranged for her to become the fourth wife (1440) of Charles, Duc d’Orleans (1394 – 1465), the nephew of King Charles VI of France (1380 – 1422) and bore him three children, a son Louis, and two daughters, Marie d' Orleans (1457 - 1493), the wife of Jean de Foix, Comte d' Etampes (died 1500), and Anne d' Orleans (1464 - 1491) who became a nun and was appointed as Abbess of St Marie at Fontevrault (1478) and then Abbess of Sainte-Croix (Holy Cross) at Poitiers (1485).
A celebrated beauty who was fond of riding, hunting, and falconry, Duchess Marie became a noted patron of poets and the arts and several of her own rondeaux have survived. Gossip linked her name with that of a young squire Jacques Lalain (1445), whom she had first met during her childhood at the Burgundian court, but there is no evidence of misconduct on her part. Marie survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Duchesse d’Orleans (1465 – 1487). As a widow the duchesse devoted herself to the care of her children, and was protected by Louis XI, who married his daughter Jeanne to her son Louis (1476). The duchesse died (Aug 23, 1487) aged sixty. She was interred within the Chapel of the Celestines in Paris, but her tomb was destroyed during the Revolution. Her son Louis, Duc d’Orleans (1462 – 1515) succeeded the childless Charles VIII as King Louis XII of France (1498 – 1515), and married his widow Anne of Brittany and left two daughters, the eldest of whom Claude d’Orleans became the first wife of Francois I (1515 – 1547) first ruler of the Valois branch of the family.

Marie of Guise     see    Mary of Guise

Marie of Luxemburg – (1304 – 1324)
Queen consort of France (1322 – 1324)
Princess Marie was the elder daughter of Count Henry of Luxemburg who became Holy Roman Emperor as Henry VII, and his wife Margaret of Brabant. Accomplished and beautiful her brother Jean of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia half-heartedly offered her hand in marriage (1321) to the elderly and twice widowed Henry of Carinthia, King of Bohemia. Marie refused to countenance such a marriage having no inclination for marriage with a man so aged and ill-favoured in looks. Marie agreed to the suit for her hand made by Charles IV, King of France and the couple were then married (1322). King Charles had intended to have himself elected as Holy Roman emperor on the grounds of his marriage with Marie but this plan did not eventuate. Queen Marie accompanied Charles on a visit to the Languedoc region (1323) and became pregnant. During the return journey the young queen was thrown from her carriage during an accident. This brought on a premature birth and she was delivered of a son Prince Louis (March, 1324) at the Chateau of Issoudon near Bourges, who died almost immediately. She never recovered and contracted puerperal fever. Queen Marie died (March 25, 1324) at Issoudon, aged nineteen. The people of Paris mourned her passing, having been much impressed by her youth and beauty.

Marie of Prussia – (1825 – 1889)
Queen consort of Bavaria (1847 – 1864)
Born Princess Frederica Franziska Augusta Marie Hedwig of Prussia (Oct 15, 1825) in Berlin, she was the daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, and his wife Marianne of Hesse-Homburg, and was the granddaughter of Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia (1797 – 1840). Marie was married at Munich (1842) to Maximilian II (1811 – 1864), King of Bavaria.  Queen Marie was the mother of two mad Bavarian kings, Ludwig II (1845 – 1916) and Otto I (1848 – 1916). She survived Maximilian as Queen Dowager (1864 - 1889).
A keen mountaineer, Queen Marie did much te revive the traditional Bavarian peasant costume, which she herself sometimes wore. As queen mother she disdained her son Ludwig's attachment to the composer Richard Wagner, as she did his liasion with the actress Lila von Bulyowsky, whom she ordered to leave Munich. During her widowhood Queen Marie became estranged from her eldest son. Queen Marie died (May 17, 1889) aged sixty-three, at Hohenschwangau Castle. She was interred within the Theaterkirche in Munich.

Marie of Saxe-Altenburg (Mary) – (1818 – 1907)
Queen consort of Hanover (1851 – 1866)
Princess Mary was born (April 14, 1818) at Hildburghausen in Saxony, the daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Altenburg. She was married to the blind crown prince George of Hanover (1819 – 1878), who succeeded his father King Ernst Augustus as King George V (1851), and to whom she bore children. Her husband was displaced from his throne due to the Imperial ambitions of the German Kaiser Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck. Queen Marie and their children accompanied him into exile. George was the first cousin to Queen Victoria and Queen Marie features in the surviving family correspondence between the queen and her daughter, the crown princess of Prussia. Marie survived as Queen Dowager for three decades (1878 – 1907). Queen Marie died (Jan 9, 1907) aged eighty-eight, at Gmunden in Austria.

Marie Adelaide of Savoy – (1685 – 1712)
Dauphine of France (1711 – 1712)
Princess Marie Adelaide was the daughter of Vittorio Amadeo of Savoy, King of Sardinia, and his wife Anne Marie d’Orleans, niece to Louis XIV. She was married to her cousin, Louis, Duc de Bourgogne (born 1682), grandson of Louis XIV, who succeeded his father, le Grand Dauphin (1711). Husband and wife both died of measles, within a few days of each other, and of their eldest son. The Duc d’Orleans was long accused of having poisoned them all. Her surviving son was the child ruler, Louis XV (1710 – 1774), who succeeded his great-grandfather (1714).

Marie Adelaide Therese Hilda Wilhelmine – (1894 – 1924)
Grand duchess of Luxemburg (1912 – 1919)
Her Grand Ducal Highness was born at Colmar-Berg, the eldest of the six daughters of William IV, Grand Duke of Luxemburg and his wife, the Portugese Infanta Maria Anna. She ascended the grand ducal throne at the age of eighteen, at the death of her father (1912) and was the first female sovereign of the house of Luxemburg. Her father had promulgated a special family law prior to his death to permit female succession. Luxemburg was invaded by Germany simultaneously (Aug 2, 1914) with the march into Belgium and Holland, but unlike her neighbours, the small grand dukedom could offer no resistance. Marie Adelaide, aged only twenty, gallantly drove to the frontier to order the invaders out of her country, but they politely refused, treating her with all respect. Although the German foreign minister prmised the duchy reparations for the violations of its neutrality the occupation lasted till the end of the war. By this time the grand duchess had been accused of pro-German sympathies, and France flatly refused to discuss peace terms with her ministers on this account. She was thus forced to abdicate in favour of her sister Charlotte (Jan 9, 1919). After the marriage of her sister with Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma (Nov, 1919), Marie Adelaide retired from the world, becoming a Carmelite nun as Sister Marie des Pauvres.  Her health quickly deteriorated and she died (Jan 24, 1924) at Hohenburg Castle, aged only twenty-nine.

Marie Alexandra Victoria – (1875 – 1938)
Queen consort of Romania
Princess Marie was born (Oct 29, 1875) at Eastwell Park, Kent, the daughter of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg, and his wife, the Russian grand duchess Maria Alexandrovna, daughter to Tsar Nicholas II. The granddaughter of Queen Victoria, she married (1893) Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern (1865 – 1927), the heir-apparent to his uncle, King Carol I of Romania. The mother of King Carol II (1893 – 1953), of her daughters Elisabetta became the wife of Giorgios II, King of Greece, whilst Marie married Alexander I, King of Yugoslavia. Ferdinand suceeded his uncle as king (1914) just before the eruption of World War I. Queen Marie, popular with the Romanians because of her beauty and generosity, remained fanatically loyal to England, and played an important role behind the scenes, strengthening the Allied faction within Romania during the war. When the Romanians joined the Allied cause (1916), the queen and her two elder daughters became actively involved with Red Cross work amongst the troops. With the German occupation of Bucharest, the queen maintained public morale at Tasi, where the government had re-established itself.
With the end of hostilities (1918) the long delayed coronation of the king and queen took place at Alba Iulia (1922), and in 1926 Queen Marie made an official visit to America, being received by President and Mrs Coolidge, and being much feted and admired. With her husband’s death, Marie became estranged from her son Carol II, and was omitted from the regency council of her grandson Michael I, after his father abdicated. Queen Marie retired from political life, and lived on her estates at Balcic on the Black Sea. The queen produced some Romanian fairy tales whilst her other written works included The Lily of Life (1913), My Country (1916), Ilderim (1925), The Country That I Love (1925), Crowned Queens : a Tale Out of the Past (1929), The Story of My Life (1934, memoirs), Ordeal (1935) and Masks (1937). Queen Marie died (July 18, 1938) aged sixty-two, at the Castle of Peles at Sinaia.

Marie Amelie Louise Helene d’Orleans – (1864 – 1951)
Queen consort of Portugal (1889 – 1908)
Princess Marie Amelie de Bourbon d’Orleans was born (Sept 28, 1864) at York House at Twickenham in Middlesex, England the daughter of Philip de Bourbon d’Orleans, Comte de Paris and his wife the Infanta Maria Isabel of Spain, the niece of Queen Isabella II. She was the great-granddaughter of Louis Philippe, King of France (1830 – 1848) and the sister of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, Head of the Royal House of France (1894 – 1926). She was married in Lisbon (1886) to the Crown Prince Carlos of Portugal (1863 – 1908), the son and heir of King Luis I and became Crown Princess of Portugal (1886 – 1889). When her husband succeeded his father on the throne as King Carlos I (1889) Marie Amelie became the queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves. She bore two sons though her daughter the Infanta Maria Ana (1891) died the day of her birth.
A beloved and popular figure amongst her Portugese subjects she always retained their affection. She remained attached to her husband despite his involvement in a liaison with a mistress Maria Amelia Laredo y Murco who bore him an illegitimate daughter. Her husband was later assassinated in Lisbon, together with their elder son Crown Prince Luiz (born 1887) and the queen herself was injured (Feb, 1908) though she recovered and became queen mother at the court of her son Manoel II (1908 – 1910) who was the last ruler of the Portugese dynasty. When the country was declared a Republic (1910) the queen mother and her son settled in England. After the death of her son at Twickenham (1932) the queen resided at her Chateau de Belleville le Chesnay, near Versailles, where she died (Oct 25, 1951) aged eighty-seven.

Marie Amelie Therese of Naples – (1782 – 1866)
Queen consort of France (1830 – 1848)
Princess Maria Amalia Teresa of Naples and the Two Sicilies was born (April 26, 1782) at Caserta, Sicily, the daughter of King Ferdinando I of Naples and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria, the elder sister of Queen Marie Antoinette of France. She was married (1809) at Palermo to Louis Philippe de Bourbon, Duc d’Orleans (1778 – 1850) who succeeded his cousin Charles X as King Louis Philippe (1830). Queen Marie Amelie had little influence over politics and with the revolutiom of 1848 retired with her husband to England, where Queen Victoria provided them with the estate of Claremont in Surrey. She resided there sixteen years as the last French queen dowager (1850 – 1866). Queen Marie Amelie died (March 24, 1866) aged eighty-three, at Claremont.

Marie Antoinette Josephe Jeanne – (1755 – 1793) 
Queen consort of France (1774 – 1792)
Archduchess Maria Antonia was born at the Schronbrunn Palace, in Vienna, the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I, and his wife Maria Theresa. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. Marie Antoinette was married (1770) to the French dauphin Louis Auguste, who succeeded his grandfather as Louis XVI (1774). The king and queen were crowned together in Rheims Cathedral. After a period of eight years the queen produced a daughter, Madame Royale (1778), who was followed by two sons Louis Joseph (1781) and Louis Charles (1785) and a second daughter Sophie Beatrix who died in infancy. Young and inexperienced, Marie Antoinette had already aroused criticism for her extravangance and disregard for conventions. On becoming queen she soon managed to entrench this dislike by her subjects, by her overt devotion to the interests of Austria, as well as to her opposition to all the measures devised by the economists Turgot and Necker for the relieving the financial distress under which France had been labouring for several decades.
Indeed, the miseries of France became identified with the queen’s extravagance, and in the affair of the Diamond Necklace (1784 – 1786) her guilt was unfairly taken for granted, and she was publicly reviled as ‘Madame Deficit’ and ‘Madame Veto.’ She made herself a centre of opposition to all new ideas, and prompted her weak and vaccillating husband to adopt a retrograde policy, which would prove to be his undoing, and the undoing of the Bourbon monarchy. The queen was capable of heroic strength, and despite her unpopularity could still inspire enthusiasm. When the women of Paris marched on the palace of Versailles (1789) it was Marie Antoinette alone who maintained a calm, courageous stance, but she possessed no insight into the troubled times, and her own efforts were continually hampered by the indecision of her husband, which was fuelled by his dread of civil war. The queen possessed an instinctive dislike to liberal nobles such as the Marquis de Lafayette and the Marquis de Mirabeau, but eventually was prevailed upon to make terms with Mirabeau (July, 1790). However she was too independent of spirit to accept his advice and with Mirabeau’s death (April, 1791), the doom of the monarchy was sealed. Three months later the royal family, with the help of the Swedish Count Axel Fersen, said to have been the queen’s lover, made their famous attempted escape from France by coach, but were caught at Varennes, when the king was recognized, and the family forced to return as prisoners to Paris. The storming of the Tuileries and the slaughter of the loyal Swiss guards followed. The king was tried, condemned, and executed by guillotine (Jan 21, 1793), their son Louis Charles (1785 – 1795) becoming titular king as Louis XVII.
Marie Antoinette was then seperated from her children, and sent to the prison of the Conciergerie. After two months of insult and harsh treatment, the ‘Widow Capet,’ as she was then formally known, was brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal. During her trial the queen bore herself with dignity and resignation, and attempts to accuse her of incest with her son proved disastrous with popular opinion. After two days of questioning she was sentenced to death, and guillotined (Oct 16, 1793). With the Bourbon Restoration (1815), her body was recovered from the Cemetery of the Madeleine, identified by some black stockings she was known to have worn, and the bones of her and her husband were reinterred within the Abbey of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris. The queen was notably portrayed on the screen by Norma Shearer in Marie Antoinette (1938) with Robert Morley as the king and Tyrone Power as Count Fersen, and then almost seven decades afterwards by Kirstin Dunst in Marie Antoinette (2006) with Jason Schwartzman as Louis XVI and Jamie Dornan as Fersen. She was the subject of the historical romances entitled Flaunting Extravagant Queen (1956) by British novelist Jean Plaidy and The Queen's Confession (1968) by Victoria Holt.

Marie Antoinette of Austria-Tuscany – (1858 – 1883)
Hapsburg archduchess
Born Archduchess Marie Antoinette Leopoldine Annunziata Anna Amalie Josepha Immakulata Thekla (Jan 10, 1858) in Florence, Italy, she was the only daughter of Ferdinando IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his first wife Anna, the daughter of Johann I, King of Saxony. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. The princess never married. She took religious orders and became a nun, and later abbess, of the Theresian convent in Prague, Bohemia. Archduchess Marie Antoinette died (April 13, 1883) aged twenty-five, in Cannes, France.

Marie Caroline Augusta of Schwarzburg – (1850 – 1922)
Grand duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1868 – 1883)
Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was born (Jan 29, 1850) at Rabensteinfeld, the daughter of Prince Adolf of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and his wife Princess Matilda von Schonburg-Waldenburg, the daughter of Prince Otto Victor von Schonburg-Waldenburg. She was married (1868) at Rudolstadt to Friedrich Franz II (1823 – 1883), Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, as his third wife.
Marie bore him four children before his death and survived him almost forty years (1883 – 1922) as the Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Grand Duchess Marie survived the fall of the monarchy in Schwerin (1918) and later retired to reside in Holland. Through the marriage of her youngest son Heinrich Grand Duchess Marie was the paternal grandmother to Queen Juliana of Holland (1948 – 1980). She died (April 22, 1922) at The Hague, aged seventy-two. Her children were,

Marie Christine Caroline Adelaide Francoise Leopoldine – (1813 – 1839)
Princess of France
Princess Marie Christine was born at Palermo, Sicily, the second daughter of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, and later King of the French (1830 – 1848) and his wife Marie Amelie of Naples. Known as Madamoiselle de Valois, she was married at the Palais de Trianon at Versailles (1837) to Duke Frederick of Wurttemburg (1804 – 1881), and was the mother of Duke Philip of Wurttemburg (18438 – 1917). The duchess was a talented and famous sculptor of considerable talent, best known for her statue of Jeanne d’Arc. She died at the Palazzo Vitelli in Pisa aged only twenty-five (Jan 2, 1839). Her letters, mostly addressed to her brother Louis Charles, duc de Nemours, were later published as Une Corresponance Inedite de la Princesse Marie d’Orleans, Duchesse de Wurtemburg (1937).

Marie Eleonore Elisabeth Cecile Mathilde Lucie – (1909 – 1956)
Princess consort of Albania
Princess Marie Eleonore was born (Feb 19, 1909) the daughter of Wilhelm I (1876 – 1945), Prince of Albania, and his wife Sophia (1885 – 1936), the daughter of Prince Victor von Schonburg-Waldenburg. Marie Eleonore was married firstly (1937) to her maternal cousin, Prince Alfred von Schonburg-Waldenburg (1905 – 1941) who died during WW II. After the war the princess remarried (1949) to the Romanian political figure, Ion Octavian Burea (born 1899) who came from an ancient aristocratic family. She was later imprisoned by the Romanian Communist regime, in the Miercurea Civic prison camp. Princess Marie Eleonore died in prison (Sept 29, 1956) aged forty-seven. She left no children by either marriage.

Marie Gabrielle of Bavaria – (1878 – 1912)
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Marie Gabrielle Mathilde Isabella Therese Antoinette Sabina of Bavaria was born (Oct 9, 1878) at Tegernsee, the daughter of Karl Theodor, Duke in Bavaria, and his second wife the Infanta Maria Josepha (Marie Jos) of Portugal, the daughter of Miguel, Duke of Braganza. She became the first wife (1900 – 1912) of her cousin, Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria (1869 – 1955) (later Crown Prince), the eldest son of King Ludwig III (1913 – 1916) and bore him several children. Princess Marie Gabrielle died (Oct 24, 1912) aged thirty-four, in Sorrento, Italy. Her children were,

Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours    see   Maria Giovanna Battista of Nemours

Marie Jose Charlotte Sophie Amelie Henriette Gabrielle – (1906 – 2001)
Last queen consort of Italy (1946)
Princess Marie Jose was born (Aug 4, 1906) at Ostende, Belgium, the only daughter of King Albert I of Belgium and his wife Elisabeth of Bavaria. She was married at the Quirinal Palace in Rome (1930) to Umberto of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont, the son and heir of King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy, to whom she bore several children, a son and heir, Victor Emmanuele (born 1937), and three daughters.
During World War II, the princess tried vainly to intercede with Adolf Hitler on behalf of Belgian prisoners of war and the starving population, and remained opposed to fascism, becoming vaguely connected with plots against Mussolini. Her husband succeeded his father upon his abdication as Umberto II (May, 1946), but a popular plebiscite ousted the royal family and they went into exile for life, Marie Jose having been queen only a few brief weeks, though Umberto did not abdicate. The king and queen then separated, Umberto retiring to Cascais in Portugal, and the queen to Switzerland.
During her long exile and subsequent widowhood (1983), the queen remained devoted to the cause of music. A talented pianist herself, she established the international Prize Queen Marie Jose for musical composition (1960). After acquiring a villa at Cuernavaca in Mexico to be closer to her family, she attended the Palace of Beaux Arts in Mexico City and patronised the careers of Mexican musicians. She was later permitted by the Italian government to return and visit Italy (1988) as the original exile order referred only to the consorts and male heirs of the king, and she was now a widow. Queen Marie Jose wrote several historical works including a history of the Savoyard royal house and a biography of Prince Emmanuel Philibert, the ancestor of her husband and children. The queen died (Jan 27, 2001) aged ninety-four, at her villa at Merlinge, near Geneva.

Marie Josephe Caroline Eleonore Francoise Xaviere – (1731 – 1767)
Dauphine of France
Marie Josephe was born (Nov 4, 1731) in Dresden, Saxony, the daughter of Augustus III, King of Poland, and his wife Maria Josepha, the daughter of Austrian emperor Joseph I. She married (1747) as his second wife, the Dauphin Louis (1729 – 1765) the heir of Louis XV of France, to whom she bore nine-children, including three Bourbon kings, Louis XVI (1774 – 1792), Louis XVIII (1814 – 1824) and Charles X (1824 – 1830). Though her new family was initially hostile to her as a Saxon princess, Marie Josephe’s gentle manners, religious piety, and determination, eventually won her the affection of the French royal family. With a good figure and a clear complexion, she was possessed of a vivacious nature, though she was by no means a beauty. With her husband she was a staunch supporter of the Jesuit party, and as such, opposed the influence of the King’s mistress, the Marquise de Pompadour. The Dauphin remained faithful to her until 1756, when he took a mistress, Madame de Dadonville, though he continued to treat her with great affection and respect. During her husband’s last illness, Marie Josephe nursed him devotedly at Versailles. Though no possessed of the full favour and confidence of her father-in-law, Louis XV, who admired her as an exemplary mother to his grandchildren, the Dauphine fell into a deep depression from which she never emerged. The Dowager Dauphine died (March 13, 1767) at the Palace of Versailles. She appears in the historical novel The Road to Compiegne (1959) by Jean Plaidy.

Marie Leopoldine Anna Josepha Johanna – (1776 – 1848)
Electress consort of Bavaria (1795 – 1799)
HIH (Her Imperial Highness) the Archduchess Marie Leopoldine of Austria was born (Dec 10, 1776) at Milan in Lombardy, the third daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Modena and his wife Maria Beatrice d’Este, she was the granddaughter of the Empress Maria Theresa, and niece of Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, and of the emperors Joseph II (1765 – 1790) and Leopold II (1790 – 1792). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Modena. Archduchess Marie Leopoldine was married at Innsbruck in Austria (1795) to the elderly widower Karl Theodore (1724 – 1799), Elector of Bavaria (1777 – 1799) and became his electress consort. The marriage remained childess and Marie Leopoldine survived her first husband as the Dowager Electress of Bavaria for almost fifty years (1799 – 1848). She was married secondly to Count Ludwig von Arco (1773 – 1854) and died (June 23, 1848) aged seventy-one at Wasserburg. She left three children by her second husband,

Marie Louise de Bourbon – (1728 – 1733)
Princess of France
Princess Marie Louise was born (July 28, 1728) at the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, the third daughter of King Louis XV (1715 – 1774) and his Polish queen, Marie Leszczynska, the daughter of Stanislas I Leszczynski, King of Poland. The princess was known officially at court as ‘Madame Troiseme.’ Princess Marie Louise died (Feb 19, 1733) aged four years, at Versailles. She was buried in the royal Abbey of St Denis, near Paris.

Marie Louise of Austria – (1791 – 1847)
Empress consort of France
Archduchess Marie Louise was born in Vienna, the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis II, and his second wife Maria Theresa, the daughter of Ferdinando I, King of Naples. The great-niece of Marie Antoinette, she became (1810) the second wife of the emperor Napoleon I (1769 – 1821). Her marriage had been arranged by the Austrian chancellor Prince Metternich after the Franco-Austrian peace (1809). In 1811 she bore Napoleon his long-hoped for son and heir, who was created king of Rome, duke of Reichstadt, and later known as Napoleon II. Despite being well-educated, and fluent in five languages, and possessed of a natural modesty, the empress’s relationship to the former queen, Marie Antoinette made her unacceptable to the majority of the French people. Marie Louise served Napoleon as regent in Paris during his Russian campaigns (1812). With the emperor’s first abdication, she refused to follow Napoleon into exile on Elba.  She ignored his repeated pleas, and when he threatened to have her abducted by force, she deserted him entirely. Marie Louise then returned with her son to Austria, escorted by Count von Neipperg, and was awarded the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814).
Following Napoleon’s death (1821), Marie Louise contracted a morganatic marriage with her lover, to whom she had secretly borne two children, Count Adam Albert von Neipperg, and governed her Italian duchies, with him to guide her. The empress instituted equal rights for women in inheritance (1817) and promulgated a civil code (1820). With Neipperg’s death (1829), the policies adopted by the new secretary of state, Josef von Werkheim, led to the eruption of a rebellion in Parma, designed at replacing her with her son Napoleon II (1831). The empress was forced to flee to Piacenza, but was restored to power by the Austrians, and thereafter ruled in accordance with Hapsburg wishes.  Marie Louise was present at the deathbed of her son in Vienna (1832), and contracted a third morganatic marriage (1834) with Charles Rene, Comte de Bombelles (1784 – 1856). Empress Marie Louise died (Dec 17, 1847) at Parma.

Marie Louise of Great Britain – (1872 – 1956)
Born Princess Franziska Josepha Louise Augusta Marie Christina Helena of Schleswig-Holstein (Aug 12, 1872) at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, Berkshire, the second daughter of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Helena, the daughter of Queen Victoria, she was always known as Marie Louise. Her marriage (1891) with prince Aribert of Anhalt (1864 – 1933) was unhappy and remained childless, and was ultimately annulled according to German law (1900). She returned to reside in England for the rest of her life and never remarried. Marie Louise devoted the remainder of her life to furthering charitable causes and social community services, which included improving conditions for lepers, youth clubs and the relieving of poverty in general, and she took an especial interest in organizations of international standing. Her patronage of the arts gained her a very wide circle of friends, and she moved with ease and dignity in the society of writers, actors and musicians. She attended Covent Garden regularly, and her home, Schomberg House, Pall Mall, which she shared with her unmarried sister Helena Victoria, was turned into a popular musical entertainment centre. She was awarded the GCVO (Grand Commander of the Victorian Order) (1953) by Queen Elizabeth II. The princess was the author of an extremely popular volume of memoirs My Memories of Six Reigns (1956) which was published only a few weeks before her death (Dec 8, 1956) at her house in Berkeley Square in London, at the age of eighty-four.

Marie Louise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel – (1814 – 1895)
Princess consort of Anhalt-Dessau (1832 – 1864)
Princess Marie of Hesse-Kassel was born (May 9, 1814) at Copenhagen in Denmark, the second daughter of Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (1787 – 1867) and his wife Princess Charlotte of Denmark (1789 – 1864). Her younger sister Louise of Hesse-Kassel was the wife of Christian IX, King of Denmark and Marie was the maternal aunt of King Frederik VIII of Denmark and King Giorgios I of Greece. Her nieces included Alexandra of Denmark, wife of Edward VII of England, and Empress Maria Feodorvna, wife of the Russian Tsar Alexander III. Princess Marie was married (1832) at Rumpenheim Castle to Prince Friedrich August of Anhalt-Dessau (1799 – 1864). She survived her husband as the dowager Princess of Anhalt-Dessau for three decades (1864 – 1895). Princess Marie died (July 28, 1895) aged eighty-one, at Hohenberg Castle in Bavaria. She left three daughters,

Marie Therese of Savoy     see    Artois, Marie Therese de Savoie, Comtesse d’

Marie Therese of Spain – (1638 – 1683)
Queen consort of France (1660 – 1683)
Infanta Maria Teresa was born in Madrid (Sept 20, 1638), the daughter of Philip V, King of Spain, and his first wife Elisabeth de Valois (Isabel), the daughter of henry IV, King of France (1589 – 1610). She also bore the titles of Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Hungary and Bohemia. She became the wife of King Louis XIV, to whom she bore six children, of whom only one survived infancy, Louis, le Grand Dauphin (1661 – 1711), who predeceased his father, and was himself grandfather to Louis XV (1715 – 1774). She was also the grandmother of Philip VI, king of Spain (1700 – 1746) who inherited the throne through her. Despite her fecundity, Marie Therese did not gain her husband’s affections, though he treated her with respect, so, for many years, until the arrival in the king’s life of Madame de Maintenon, her life was a sad and empty one at court, an onlooker at ceremonial, rather than a participant, and she was forced to accept the king’s mistresses, of whom Madame de Montespan particularly, had treated the queen with unwarranted insolence. The Maintenon reformed the king through religion, and urged him to return to his wife, which he did, to Marie Therese’s great happiness. Queen Marie Therese died of cancer (July 30, 1683) aged forty-four, at the Palace of Versailles. She was buried in the Abbey of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris.

Marie Therese Antoinette Raphaelle – (1726 – 1746)
Dauphine of France (1744 – 1746)
The Infanta Maria Teresa Antonia Rafaela of Spain was born (June 11, 1726) in Madrid, the daughter of Philip V, King of Spain and his second wife Elisabeth Farnese, Princess of Parma, the daughter of Odoardo Farnese, the hereditary Duke of Parma. Her father was a grandson of Louis XIV of France and her marriage (1744) with the Dauphin Louis (1729 – 1765) the son and heir of King Louis XV (1715 – 1774) possessed important dynastic implications. The crowning event of the couple’s marriage celebrations was the famous Ball of the Clipped Yew-Trees held at Versailles, which was the occasion that King Louis first met his mistress Madame de Pompadour. Pale skinned, red-haired and possessed of an Imperial temperament the Dauphine was never popular at the French court. Her husband however was devotedly attached to her. Her death in childbirth (July 22, 1746) at Versailles at the age of twenty left the Dauphin so stricken with grief that his father and family despaired of his life. Her infant daughter Princesse Marie Therese de Bourbon (1746 – 1748) known officially as ‘Madame’ inherited her mother’s jewels but died at the age of two.

Marie Valerie of Austria – (1868 – 1924)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Marie Valerie was born (April 22, 1868) at Ofen, near Buda, Hungary, the third and youngest daughter of the Emperor Franz Josef I (1848 – 1916), and his wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Maximilian Joseph, Duke in Bavaria. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. Marie Valerie was married (1890) at Ischl, to her cousin, Franz Salvator (1866 – 1939), Archduke of Austria-Tuscany, to whom she bore ten children. With the fall of the Hapsburg dynasty (1918) Marie Valerie retired to the estate of Wallsee Castle on the Danube River with her family. The archduchess left personal diaries which her grandson, Archduke Theodore, placed in the archives of Wallsee Castle. The notes she made in her diary regarding the death of her brother Crown Prince Rudolph (1889), are amongst the most important pieces of evidence in favour of the suicide theory which surrounded the Mayerling tragedy. Archduchess Marie Valerie died (Sept 6, 1924) aged fifty-six, at Wallsee Castle, and was buried at Sindelburg.

Marie Victoria Feodora Leopoldine – (1874 – 1878)
German princess
Princess Marie was born (May 24, 1874) the fifth and youngest daughter of Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt (1877 – 1892) and his first wife Alice, the second daughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. Marie was sister to the Russian Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna and of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, and of Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and of the Rhine, and bore the title and style of Her Grand Ducal Highness. Princess Marie died (Nov 16, 1878) aged four years, of diptheria at the grand ducal palace in Darmstadt. Her mother had insisted on nursing the child throughout her illness, and died herself a month later (Dec 14). Mother and child were interred in the family crypt in the Mausoleum of Rosenhohe in Darmstadt.

Marignane, Urbaine de     see   Agoult, Urbaine d’

Marigny, Marie Anne Francoise de Chateaubriand, Marquise de – (1760 – 1860)
French society figure and memoirist
Marie Anne de Chateaubriand was the elder sister of the famous Vicomte Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768 – 1848). She was married (1780) to Francois Jean Joseph Geffelot, Marquis de Marigny who perished during the Revolution (1793). She survived him for sixty-seven years as the Dowager Marquise de Marigny (1793 – 1860). Her memoirs were published posthumously as Paris en 1814: Journal inedit de Mme de Marigny (1907).

Marillac, Louise de – (1591 – 1660) 
French nun and saint
Louise de Marillac was born in Ferrieres-en-Brie, near Meaux. She lost both parents at the same time (1606) and was married (1613) to Antoine Le Gras. With the death of her husband (1625), Louise took spiritual guidance from St Vincent de Paul, and trained women to help with the care of the sick and the needy. She was the founder of the Order of the Daughters of Charity, (1633) who specialized in hospital work. Louise de Marillac was canonized by Pope Pius XI (1934), and was named as the universal patron of social workers (1960).

Marina    see also     Malinche

Marina Georgievna – (1589 – 1614)
Russian tsarina
Marina Mniszchowna was the daughter of George Mniszchowna, Palatine of Sanomierz in Poland, and his wife Jadwiga Tarlowna. Her father had become convinced of the genuineness of claims of the Dimitry (1584 – 1606), the ‘False Pretender,’and promised him Marina as his bride (1604) in token of his support, when Dimitry should firmly establish his Imperial claims. In return, Dimitry promised to provide Marina with the cities of Novgorod and Pskov, her Imperial wardrobe, and guaranteed her freedom to pratice her Catholic religion. With the murder of Tsar Feodor I, Dimitry was successfully proclaimed tsar (June, 1605), and the couple were married after Sigismund III of Poland granted permission for the marriage to take place (Nov, 1605). Marina was crowned tsarina (May 18, 1606) but a palace revolution barely a week later, led by Vasili Shyusky, ensured Dimitry’s downfall and eventual death, whilst attempting to escape. Marina was returned to her father, and they were interned with other Poles at Yaroslavl. She formed a liasion with the Tushino Brigand, whom she secretly married and bore a son (1610). The Ataman Zarutsky, to whom she had fled with her infant son for protection, handed her over to Tsar Mikail Romanov. Brought to Moscow in chains (July, 1614), her son was publicly hanged at the Serpukhov Gate, whilst the former tsarina died in prison at Kaluga shortly afterwards.

Marina of Greece – (1906 – 1968)
Duchess of Kent
Princess Marina was born (Nov 30, 1906) in Athens, youngest the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and his wife the Russian grand duchess Helena Vladimirovna, the daughter of Grand Duke Vladimir Romnanov. Educated by an English governess, she accompanied the family into exile in Switzerland (1917 – 1921) and again in 1922 when they went to Paris. It was there that the princess began her lifelong reputation as one of the best dressed women of her time. Princess Marina was married in London (1934) to Prince George, Duke of Kent (1902 – 1942) the son of George V. They were married according to both Anglican and Greek Orthodox rites. Marina bore two sons, Edward (born 1933) who succeeded his father, Michael (born 1942) and, Alexandra (born 1936) who became the wife of Sir Angus Ogilvy (1928 – 2004).The outbreak of WW II in 1939 prevented the duchess accompanying her husband to Australia, where he was to have been appointed governor-general. The duchess then trained for the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment), but her principal energies were devoted to the WRNS, of which she was appointed chief commandant in 1940. It was generally agreed that her taste in dress influenced the attractive uniform designed for this particular service.
Widowed in 1942, after her husband’s death in an air crash in Scotland, the duchess was patron of the National Lifeboat Institution, the Spastic Society, and the National Asssociation for Mental Health. Her constant attendance at Wimbledon as president of the All England Lawn Tennis Club was indicative of her generous interest in that game and her prescence at the annual tournaments were always enthusiastically received. Appointed GCVO (1948) she represented Queen Elizabeth II in 1959 at the Independence celebrations in Ghana, and in 1966 those of Botswana and Lesotho. Princess Marina died (Aug 27, 1968) at Kensington Palace, London after a short illness. She was buried at Frogmore. Her charm and personality during state visits to Australia, Canada, Mexico and Africa did much to increase the prestige of the British royal family abroad. Her portrait has been painted by such artists as Philip de Laszlo, Judy Cassab, Simon Elwes and Norman Hepple, and the Australian painter Sir William Dargie.

Marina Vladimirovna – (c1215 – 1238)
Russian princess and saint
Marina Vladimirovna was the daughter of Vladimir III, Prince of Smolensk. She was married (1230) to Prince Vsevolod of Vladimir (1212 – 1238). They had no children. Marina, together with her mother-in-law Princess Agatha, and sister-in-law, Christina, the wife of her husband’s brother, Mstislav, she was cut down by the invading Tartars in the church of Our Lady in Vladimir (Feb 7, 1238), inside which the ladies of the royal family and the court had taken refuge. The church was then set on fire. The three women are honoured together as saints by the Orthodox church (Feb 7).

Marinetti, Benedetta Cappa – (1899 – 1980) 
Italian novelist and poet
Benedetta Cappa Marinetti was born in Rome. From her youth she was a member of the Futurist movement which protested against the prevailing misogynistic attitude of the period towards women. Her first novel Le forze umane (1926) an abstract work, provoked much attention by virtue of its unusual literary style. Her second work Viaggio di Garara (1931) was a novel written for the theatre and musical accompaniement. Her third novel Astrea e il Sottomarino, was published in 1935. Benedetta also contributed poetry to journals such as Rassegna Nazionale.

Mariniana, Egnatia – (c195 – c254 AD) 
Roman Augusta (253 – c254 AD)
Egnatia Mariniana was perhaps the daughter of Licinius Egnatius and was related to Marinianus, consul (268 AD), who may have served as Imperial legate to Arabia, and was descended from Egnatius Victor Marinianus, the Imperial legate in Moesia. Mariana became the wife (c213 AD) of the Emperor Valerian I (253 – 260 AD), and was the mother of emperor Gallienus (260 – 268 AD) and his brother Licinius Valerianus, who was consul suffect (265 AD). She died shortly after her husband received the Imperial crown, and was deified. Later writers erroneously asserted that the empress was captured by the Persians, together with her husband, and that she was brutally treated until she died, but there remains little credible evidence of this claim. Empress Mariniana was represented as Augusta on surviving coinage from Alexandria in Egypt, whilst a surviving antoninianus coin which was struck in Rome (c255 AD) portrays a veiled bust of the empress behind a crescent on the obverse, with the legend DIVAE MARINIANAE. On the reverse of the coin the empress sits on the back of a flying peacock, with one hand raised, and the other holding a sceptre.

Marino Carou, Maria - (1918 - 1967)
Spanish poet
Maria Marino was born at Noia, Coruna, and remained at Algorta in safety with family during the Civil War (1936 - 1939). After this the family returned to Galicia and Maria was married to a schoolteacher, with whom she settled in the mountainous Lugo region. Together with her husband Maria taught at the Parada do Caurel school, where she met the poet Uxio Novoneyra, who became a lifelong friend. It was he who encouraged her to publish her collection of verse entitled Palabra no temp (Word in Time) (1963). Her work was characterized with inspirational themes from the landscape in which she lived. Maria Marino Carou died after a long illness, at Parada do Caurel. Her second volume of verse, Verba que comenza (1990) was published posthumously nearly three decades afterwards.

Mario, Queena – (1896 – 1951) 
American soprano
Born Queena Tillotson at Akron, Ohio, she had an early career as a journalist in New York before finally deciding to study music. She took vocal lessons with Oscar Saenger and Marcella Sembrich, the famous soprano. Queena made her debut at New York (1918) with the San Carlo Opera, and this was followed by her debut as Micaela in Carmen, which took place at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York (1922). Mario remained at the Metropolitan till 1939, but from 1931 she taught music at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. In 1925 Queena married Louis Wilfred Pelletier (1896 – 1982) the famous Cansdian conductor as his first wife. They were divorced in 1936. She was also a mystery novelist of some distinction, and perhaps her most famous work was Murder in the Opera House. Queena Mario died in New York.

Marion, Frances – (1887 – 1973) 
American screenwriter
Born Frances Marion Owens in San Francisco, California, she was variously employed as a model, commercial artist, and a journalist before coming to Hollywood (1913), where she worked with female director Lois Weber. She worked on scripts for screen idol Mary Pickford such as Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1918) and Pollyanna (1920). During WW I she worked as a war correspondent, after which she began directing silent films such as Just Around the Corner (1921) and The Love Light (1921). Her adaptations for films like Stella Dallas (1925) and The Scarlett Letter (1926) were much admired. With the transition of sound film she wrote for such famous stars as Jean Harlow and Great Garbo, and her credits included The Big House (1930) and The Champ (1931), for both of which she received Academy Awards. She retired in 1940, and produced several novels including Westward the Dream (1948). Frances Marion died (May 12, 1973) aged eighty-four, in Los Angeles.

Marischal, Mary Erskine, Countess    see   Panmure, Mary Erskine, Countess of

Mariscotti di Viganello, Clarissa – (1588 – 1640)
Italian saint and founder
Donna Clarissa Mariscotti was born at Viterbo, the daughter of Marc Antonio Mariscotti, Conte di Viganello and his wife Ottavia Orsini. Her intended husband died before their wedding could take place, and her parents arranged for her to be veiled as a Franciscan nun at the convent of St Bernardo, taking the name Giacinta (Hyacinth) in religion. Known for her personal pride and concern for earthly matters outside the convent, a serious illness reformed her character and her personal sacrifice whilst tending plague victims aroused admiration for her courage. At Viterbo she established two associations, one to provide for indigent gentlemen and prisoners, whilst the other provided shelters for the aged.  The members of these associations were known as the Oblates of Mary. Clarissa Mariscotti di Viganello died aged fifty-two. Her nephew, Cardinal Mariscotti solicited the Vatican for her beatification, which was finally granted by Pope Benedict XIII (1726). She was canonized by Pius VII (1807).

Marishall, Jean – (fl. 1766 – 1767)
Scottish Hanoverian novelist
Jean Marishall was the author of two popular works The History of Clarinda Cathcart and Miss Fanny Renton (1766) and The History of Alicia Montague (1767) both of which were published in London. Alicia Montague was published after public subscription.

Marjorie Bruce – (1296 – 1316)
Princess of Scotland
The foundress of the Scottish Royal House of Stewart, Marjorie was the eldest child of Robert I the Bruce (1274 – 1329), King of Scotland (1306) and his first wife Isabel de Mar, the daughter of Donald, sixth Earl of Mar and his Welsh wife Helen ferch Llewellyn, the natural daughter of Llewellyn II ap Iorweth, Prince of North Wales. With her father’s assumption of the crown Marjorie became a princess though this title was not used at the time and she became the ‘Lady Marjorie.’ After her father’s coronation at Scone when he was forced to flee to the west of Scotland in order to find refuge from the English, Marjorie, together with her stepmother Queen Elizabeth de burgh, and her two aunts, Christian and Mary Bruce, were escorted by Lord Atholl and Nigel Bruce to Kildrummy Castle in Aberdeenshire for safety. The party was forced to flee from that place and reached Tain on the Dornoch Firth where they looked for sanctuary in the local monastery of St Duthac. They were captured by the Earl of Ross and sent to England. Edward I gave orders that a cage should be made for Marjorie in the Tower of London so her confinement there should be visible. However, as she was but a child the king relented and sent her instead to a nunnery in Yorkshire. There she remained until after the battle of Bannockburn (1314) when the victorious Scots took so many noble English prisoners that, by exchange King Robert was able to procure the release of Queen Elizabeth, Marjorie, and his sisters. Marjorie was married (1315) to Sir Walter Stewart (1293 – 1326).
At the time of this marriage Marjorie was King Robert’s only legitimate child and the question of who should succeed the king if he should die could no longer be deferred. The outcome of the war with England was still in doubt and Marjorie was not declared heir-apparent but only heir-eventual. Should the king and queen, now reunited after eight years of separation, beget a male child then the succession would be vested in him. If King Robert died without a son then the throne would pass to his brother Edward Bruce, and this decision was concluded with Marjorie’s consent at the Parliament of Ayr (1315). Whilst in an advanced state of pregnancy Lady Marjorie fell from her horse whilst riding near Paisley in Renfrewshire. She gave birth to a premature son Robert Stewart (1316 – 1390) and died (March 2, 1316) aged barely twenty. She was buried in Paisley Abbey. In the same year her uncle Edward Bruce died in Ireland and Marjorie’s son was declared the heir to the Scottish throne. He succeeded his childless uncle David II as King Robert II (1371 – 1390) and through him Marjorie was the ancestress of Queen Mary Stuart.

Marjorie of Scotland – (1200 – 1244)
Princess Marjorie was the third daughter of William I King of Scotland (1165 – 1214) and his wife Ermengarde de Beaumont, a descendant of Henry I, King of England (1100 – 1135). Marjorie remained unmarried till the age of thirty-five, when she was finally married for dynastic reasons (1235) to Gilbert Marshal (c1196 – 1241), seventh Earl of Pembroke. The union remained childless. Princess Marjorie died (Nov 17, 1244) aged forty-four, in London, and was interred with the Blackfriar’s Church there.

Mark, Jan – (1943 – 2006)
British children’s writer
Born Janet Marjorie Brisland (June 22, 1943) at Welwyn in Hertfordshire, she was married to Neil Mark, to whom she bore two children. The marriage ended in divorce. Jan Mark began her career as an author only in her mid thirties, and was the author of around children’s books, she received the Carnegie Medal for her her works Thunder and Lightning (1977) and Handles (1983). She was awarded it a third and posthumous time for her work Turbulence (2005). Jan Mark died (Jan 16, 2006) aged sixty-two, at Oxford.

Markey, Lucille Parker – (1897 – 1982)
American horsebreeder and racer
Lucille Parker was married firstly to Warren Wright who inherited the Calumet Farm in Lexington, Kentucky (1931) and built it up into a thoroughbred eacing stable. With her first husband’s death (1950), Lucille inherited Calumet and she and her second husband, Gene Markey, ran the stable togther for almost three decades until his death (1952 – 1980). Under her leadership the Calumet studfarm achieved international fame, and was much admired for its cultured style. Eight of her colts won the Kentucky Derby, Whirlaway (1941), Pensive (1944), Citation (1948), Ponder (1949), Hill Gail (1952), Iron Liege (1957), Tim Tam (1958) and Forward Pass (1967). Lucille Markey died (July 25, 1982) aged eighty-five, at Calumet Farm.

Markham, Beryl – (1902 – 1986)
Anglo-African aviatrix and author
Beryl Markham was born in England. She was taken to East Africa by her father when a small child (1906) and was raised there, learning the native tribal languages of the Swahili and the Masai. Markham was trained as a horse trainer and breeder by her father, but hwn he left Africa for South America (1919) she remained in Africa. She obtained her pilot’s license, and organized a light plane service to connect mail and passengers with remote parts of Africa, and including Tanganyika, Rhodesia, and Kenya (1931 – 1936). Beryl Markham became the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean from east to west, beginning in England, and crash-landing unharmed in Nova Scotia less then twenty-four hours afterwards. Beryl Markham published the controversial autobiography West With the Night (1942).

Markham, Elizabeth – (1780 – 1837)
British children’s author
Elizasbeth Cartwright was the daughter of Edmund Cartwright, the inventor of the power loom, and was married to a clergyman named Penrose. She adopted the pseudonym of ‘Mrs Markham’ for her books, taking the name from the village of Markham in which she spent her childhood. Elizabeth Markham wrote historical works for children such as A History of England from the first Invasion by Romans to the end of the Reign of George III (1823). When it was released in a new enlarged, illustrated edition a few years later (1826) it became the most popular textbook of English history in schools and in family homes. Mrs Markham then produced a two volume History of France (1828) which also proved a great success, and also wrote histories of Malta and Poland which took the form of conversations in Historical Conversations for Young Persons (1836). Many of her works were published in the USA and her History of Germany (1853) was published posthumously.

Markham, Isabella    see   Harrington, Isabella

Markham, Violet Rosa – (1872 – 1959)
British civil servant
Violet Markham was the daughter of a colliery owner, and the maternal granddaughter of the famous gardener, Sir Joseph Paxton, who worked with Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, to design the famous Crystal Palace (1851). Violet was educated at home under a governess before finishing her schooling at Ham Common, London. Despite taking an anti-suffrage stand, Markham stood unsuccessfully for parliament (1918). During WW I she was appointed to the committee of the National Relief Fund and then as deputy director (1917) of the women’s section of the NSD (National Service Department). Such was her success as a public administrator that Markham was appointed as deputy chairman of the Assistance Board (1937 – 1946), a senior position never before filled by a woman. During WW II she organized a canteen. Violet Markham published several works such as A Woman’s Watch on the Rhine (1921) which was based upon her husband’s wartime experiences in Cologne (Koln), and two volumes of personal memoirs Return Passage (1953) and Friendship’s Harvest (1956).

Markievicz, Constance Georgina Gore-Booth, Countess – (1868 – 1927)
Irish patriot
Constance Gore-Booth was born in London the daughter of Sir Henry Gore-Booth, of Lissadell, county Sligo, and his wife Georgina Mary Hill. A society beauty, she studied art at the Slade School in London, and in Paris, where he met and married (1900) her future husband, the Polish painter, Count Kasimir Markievicz. The couple settled in Dublin (1903), where the countess became active in the national and labour movements. She joined the Sinn Fein group (1908), becoming a friend of Maud Gonne, and founded (1909) the Fianno na Eireann, or Irish National Boy Scouts. Her husband left Ireland for the Ukraine in Russia (1913), and never returned. For her part in the Dublin Easter Rising (1916), having commanding the public contingent at St Stephen’s Green,  the countess was arrested and sentenced to death, but was reprieved by the terms of the general amnesty (1917). The countess was then elected Sinn Fein MP for the St Patrick’s division of Dublin, becoming the first British woman Member of Parliament, but she refused to take her seat at Westminster. She was elected to the first Dail Eirann (1919), and was minister of Labour in the insurgent, and outlawed republican government. She twice sufferred imprisonment, and opposed the Irish treaty (1921) and rejoined the Dail after the Civil War (1923), remaining a militant republican.

Markova, Dame Alicia – (1910 – 2004)
British ballerina
Born Lilian Alicia Marks in Stoke Newington, North London, she learned dance under the direction of Seraphine Astafieva at Chelsea. She joined the Ballet Russe under the direction of Sergei Diaghilev in 1924 who gave her the name of Alicia Markova. George Balanchine created the role of the Nightingale for her in his Chant du Rossignol, and made solo performances for her in the premiere of Ravel’s L’ Enfant et les Sortileges. She also appeared as Red Riding Hood in Auroroa’s Wedding and was given Papillon’s solo in Le Carnaval. In 1929 Alicia returned to Britain, and appeared for the Camargo Society and in 1933 joined the Vic-Wells Ballet, the company that was to become the Royal Ballet. Alicia decided to form her own ballet company, and made a partnership with the dance and choreographer Anton Dolin which led to the establishment of the Markova-Dolin Ballet Company (1935). The couple made guest appearances around the world and became famous for their interpretation of Giselle as well as other famous works such as The Nutcracker and Swan Lake. Their touring group, which was assembled in 1950, developed into the London Festival Ballet, which later became the English National Ballet (1988).
In 1938, at the invitation of Leonide Massine, Alicia joined the newly formed Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo, where she performed in two of Massine’s symphonic ballets, Seventh Symphony by Beethoven and Rouge et Noir (Shostakovich No 1). From 1941 – 1950 she joined the American Ballet Theater, performing such roles as Princess Hermilia in Michel Fokine’s Bluebeard, Juliet in Anthony Tudor’s Romeo and Juliet, and the gypsy Zemphire in Massine’s Aleko. Retiring from the stage in 1962, she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1963), and served as a director of the Metropolitan Opera Ballet from 1963 – 1970 and was a governor of the Royal Ballet from 1973. She published her autobiography, Giselle and I (1960). Dame Alicia Markova died (Dec 2, 2004) aged ninety-four, at Bath, Somerset.

Markovic, Theodora     see    Maar, Dora

Marks, Elinor Kleiner – (1928 – 1982)
American artist
Elinor Kleiner was born in Paterson, New Jersey. She graduated from the Arts Students League, and specialized in oils and watercolours. Her work was exhibited at the Montclair Art Museum and the Seligmann Gallery in New York. From (1952 – 1959) she served as art instructor at Columbia University. Elinor married corporate executive Dr Lawrence Marks to whom she bore two sons. Elinor Marks died of cancer, at Summit, New Jersey, only days before her husband himself died after heart surgery.

Marks, Nora   see   Atkinson, Eleanor Stackhouse

Markus, Rixi – (1910 – 1992)
British champion bridge player and author
Born Erika Sharfstein in Gura Humoruui, Bukovina, Romania, she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975) in recognition of her contribution to chess. Rixi Markus died (April 4, 1992) in London.

Marlborough, Caroline Russell, Duchess of – (1742 – 1811)
British peeress and gardening patron
Lady Caroline Russell was born (Jan, 1742) the daughter of John Russell, the Duke of Bedford and his second wife Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower. Lady Caroline was one of the train-bearers at the wedding of Queen Charlotte to George III held at St James’s in Westminster, London (Sept 8, 1761). She was then married at Bedford House in Bloomsbury (1762) to George Spencer-Churchill (1738 – 1817), the fourth Duke of Marlborough. Beautiful and accomplished, and pronounced by Queen Charlotte to be ‘the proudest woman in England’ the duchess travelled Europe extensively with her husband. She was possessed of strong domestic and family interests, and took great pride in the upkeep of Blenheim Palace and its estate. Duchess Caroline was a patron of Capability Brown whom she hired to create many alterations at Blenheim, some of which provoked some criticism.
A portrait of the duchess and her sister Lady Elizabeth Spencer portrayed as the muses of music and painting by George Romney was sold in London at the end of Queen Victoria’s reign for over ten thousand guineas (1896). She appeared in a family portrait by the same artist (1777) who painted another portrait of the duchess in 1778. The Duchess of Marlborough entertained George III and Queen Charlotte at Blenheim Palace (1786) and the duchess’s description of the visit, written in a letter to John Moore, Bishop of Bangor has survived. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the traveller and antiquarian Horace Walpole. Duchess Caroline died (Nov 26, 1811) aged sixty-nine, at Blenheim. Her children were,

Marlborough, Gladys Deacon, Duchess of   see   Deacon, Gladys Marie

Marlborough, Lily Warren Price, Duchess of – (1854 – 1909)
American-Anglo heiress aristocrat
Lilian Warren Price was the daughter of Commodore Cicero Price of the US Navy. She was the wealthy widow of Warren Price when she became the second wife of George Spencer-Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. Though christened Lilian, she despised the name because it rhymed with million, and was always called ‘Lily.’ She was married firstly to Louis Hammersley of New York, and then became the second wife (1888) of George Spencer-Churchill (1844 – 1892), the eighth Duke of Marlborough. Both of these unions remained childless. The death of her first husband had left lily extremely wealthy. After her remarriage with the duke she became the originator behind many of the modernisations that took place at Blenheim Palace, the Marlborough family seat, and she caused central heating and electricity to be installed. She also donated three thousand pounds towards the restoration of Bladon Church in Woodstock. The marriage remained happy enough, though when the duchess came across a nude picture of her husband’s mistress, Lady Gertrude Campbell, she tore it to pieces in a rage. With the duke’s death Duchess Lily remarried a third time (1895) to Lord William de la Poer Beresford (1847 – 1900). Their only son died young. With the death of Beresford the duchess resided at Deepdene, near Dorking. The Duchess of Marlborough died (Jan 11, 1909) aged fifty-four, at Deepdene, and was interred with her last husband at Clonegarn, near Curraghmore in Portland, Ireland.

Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of – (1660 – 1744)
British courtier and political figure
Sarah Jennings was born ay Hollywell, the daughter of Richard Jennings, of Sandridge, Hertford, and his wife Frances Thornhurst. She entered the service of Mary Beatrice, the second wife of James, Duke of York (James II) in 1673, becoming the close friend of his younger daughter Anne, the future queen. In their private correspondence the two women referred to each other informally, Anne being ‘Mrs Morley’ and Sarah ‘Mrs Freeman.’ Tall, graceful, and possessed of masses of titian hair, Sarah married (1678) John Churchill (1650 – 1722), the famous Duke of Marlborough, to whom she bore seven children. After the ‘Glorious Revolution’ (1688), when William III and Mary II supplanted James II on the English throne, Sarah and her husband tried to draw Anne into Jacobite intrigues for the restoration of her father. After Anne succeeded to the throne (1702), Sarah controlled and dominated her household, becoming groom of the stole, mistress of the robes, and keeper of the Privy Purse. She was then granted the rangership of Windsor Park, Berkshire. However, her lack of tact and imperious airs seriously undermined her own position. The queen finally broke with the Marlboroughs (1711), and Sarah had actually already been supplanted in the queen’s affections (1707) by her own kinswoman Abigail Masham.
The couple resided abroad in Frankfurt, Germany (1713 – 1714) returning to England after the queen’s death, but they obtained no favours at the court of George I.  With John’s death, Sarah famously refused offers of marriage from Lord Coningsby and the widowed Duke of Somerset. Her retirement was spent quarrelling with relatives and organising the final completion of the conctruction of Blenheim Palace (1727). She tried vainly to arrange the marriage of her favourite granddaughter, Lady Diana Spencer, with Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and published an account of her ‘conduct’ (1742). Her two sons, John, Lord Blandford, and Charles, died without issue, and Sarah left five daughters, Harriet, who died in infancy, Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, the wife of Francis Godolphin, Anne, the wife of Lord Sunderland, Elizabeth, the wife of Lord Bridgewater, and Mary, wife of John, Duke of Montagu. The Duchess died at Marlborough House (Oct 18, 1744), leaving bequests to William Pitt and Lord Chesterfield.

Marle, Ada de – (c1044 – 1099)
French mediaeval heiress
Ada or Ade de Marle was the daughter and heiress of Lietaud II de Roucy, Seigneur de Marle and his wife Mathilde de Valois, the daughter Raoul II (c975 – 1040), Count of Valois and of the Vexin. Through her father she was a descendant of Count Rainald of Roucy and his wife Alberada of Lorraine, the stepdaughter of Louis IV, King of France (936 – 954). Her father’s only child and sole heir to the valuable seigneurie of Marle, Ada was married firstly (c1070) to Enguerrand I de Coucy (c1042 – 1116), Count of Amiens as his first wife and was the mother of his son Thomas de Coucy (c1073 – 1130), Count of Amiens, a notorious and unsavoury character. Despite the birth of an heir Enguerrand divorced Ada (c1074) and she then became the second wife (c1075) of Yves III de Beaumont (c1030 – c1084), Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise, to whom she bour four children before his death. Ada survived her second husband as the Dowager Countess of Beaumont (c1084 – 1099) and died (April 8, 1099). The seigneury of Marle passed to her eldest son Thomas de Coucy together with the seigneurie of La Fere (Aisne) in Picardy. The county of Marle was eventually reunited with the French crown five hundred years afterwards during the reign of King Henry IV (1589 – 1610). The children from Ada’s second marriage were,

Marliaue, Margeurite    see    Long, Margeurite Marie Charlotte

Marlowe, Sylvia – (1908 – 1981)
American harpsichordist
Sylvia Marlowe was born in New York, and received her training at the Ecole Normale de Musique in Paris under Nadia Boulanger and Wanda Landowska. Sylvia became a regular performer on the radio, and gave concerts and made recordings of her work, even performing in nightclubs. From 1948 until her death she was a teacher at the Mannes College of Music. Apart from commissioning new musical works form up and coming composers, she also produced new editions of works composed by Francois Couperin. Her husband was the landscape painter Leonid Berman.

Marly, Anna – (1917 – 2006)
Russian-French-American vocalist and guitarist
Born Anna Betoulinsky in St Petersburg, her father was executed and she fled as an infant with her mother to Finland and then to Paris where she was raised. She received musical instruction from Sergei Prokofiev and she began writing her own lyrics. Marly married a Dutch diplomat and with the Nazi invasion of France they fled to London (Feb, 1941). They were divorced and she remarried to George Smiernow (1946). During the war Marly inspired the French Resistance with her patriotic and stirring song Le Chant des partisans (Song of the Partisans), which she wrote in London during the Blitz (1944). Another of her songs The Lament of the Partisan was made famous by Leonard Cohen in his album Songs from a Room (1969). Marly later became an American citizen (1965) and settled in Jordanville, New York. Widowed in 2000 she retired to Lazy Mountain in Alaska.

Marmion, Avice – (c1310 – c1379)
English Plantagenet heiress and peeress
Avice Marmion was the younger daughter of John Marmion (c1292 – 1359), the third Baron Marmion and his wife Maud Furnival, the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas, second Baron Furnival (c1254 – 1332). She was the sister and coheir of her brother Robert, third Baron Marmion. Lord Robert was an invalid, and on the advice of his friends he agreed to the marriage of Avice to Sir John de Grey (1300 – 1359), first Baron Grey of Rotherfield upon the condition that their issue should bear the surname of Marmion. At her brother’s death (in or before 1360) the barony of Marmion fell into abeyance between herself and her elder sister Joan Marmion, the wife of Sir John Bernack. Avice survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Baroness grey of Rotherfield and was the mother of Sir John de Grey (c1330 – 1375) who succeeded his father as the second Baron Grey of Rotherfield (1359 – 1375) and was married twice and left issue.

Marmion, Hawise – (fl. 1091 – after 1106)
Anglo-Norman medieval patron and nun
Hawise was the wife of Robert Marmion, to whom she bore three sons, Roger, Helto, and Manasses. With the death of her husband (c1106), Hawise became a nun at the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Caen, in Normandy, which had been founded by Matilda of Flanders, the wife of William the Conqueror. With the permission of her sons, Hawise was granted certain lands and properties to Holy Trinity, which included estates in St George d’Aunay and Jurques, in Calvados. This grant was later confirmed (1246) by Henry III of England (1216 – 1272). Through her eldest son Roger Marmion (c1070 – c1130), Hawise was the progenatrix of the ancient feudal family of Marmion in England.

Marocchia de Marcaini, Pierina – (1845 – 1879)
Italian noblewoman
Born Pierina Petronella Philomena Lucia (May 14, 1845) in Slavo, Dalmatia, she was the daughter of Domenico Marocchia, Nobile de Marcaini, and his wife Regina Delaqua. Pierina became the morganatic wife (1870) in Vienna, of the German prince, Duke Gustav Karl of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1827 – 1892). She was created Baroness von Neupurg (1872) by the Emperor Franz Josef. The marriage remained childless. Pierina Marocchia died (April 22, 1879) aged thirty-three, in Vienna.

Marozia Theophylakta – (892 – 986)
Roman political figure and ruler
Marozia was the daughter of Theophylaktus and his poweful and influential wife Theodora nicknamed ‘the Senatrix.’ She was raised in the household of the Carolingian empress, Ageltrude of Benevento, widow of Guy of Spoleto and mother of the Emperor Lambert. Marozia was married to three politically important men, firstly to Alberic of Spoleto, secondly to Guido, marquis of Tuscany, and thirdly to Hugh of Arles, King of Italy (c880 – 947). Marozia was the mistress of Pope Sergius III (904 – 911), and mother of Pope John XI and grandmother of Pope John XII.  She inherited the political position and importance formerly held by her mother at the papal court, and possessed enough power to successfully arrange for the depostion of Pope John X, formerly the lover of her own mother, and the successful election of her own son as Pope John XI. After her last marriage with Hugh of Arles, which accord her the queenly title, her son Alberic II of Spoleto publicly insulted her, rebelled against her, arranging for her to be deposed, excommunicated and imprisoned within the dungeons of the castel Sant’ Angelo in Rome (932). She remained a prisoner in the mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian for nearly five and a half decades before being formally forgiven by Pope John XV, who then ordered her to be smothered. The day before her execution she was visited in her cell by the child emperor Otto III.

Marquand, Tina    see   Aumont, Tina

Marquets, Anne de – (1533 – 1588)
French poet
Anne de Marquets was born in Marques pres d’Eu, Normandy, of patrician parents. As a child Anne joined the Dominican nuns at the abbey of Poissy, where she took final vows in 1548 – 49. At Poissy she was educated in traditional Catholic doctrine, as well as in the ideals of the humanist scholar Henri Estienne. Anne composed several religious poems, prayers, hymns, and sonnets. Notable is her criticism of the Huguenots in her Sonnets, priers et devises (Sonnets, Prayers and Sayings) (1562). Her second work Divines poesies (Divine Poems) (1562) was a translation of the works of Flaminio, to which she added verses of her own. Her most famous work however was Sonnets spirituels (Spiritual Sonnets), a collection of nearly two hundred devotional pieces, organized around the Catholic calendar. Anne died at Poissy, and her last work was published posthumously (1605).

Marrable, Madeline Frances Jane – (c1835 – 1916)
British portraitist and water colour painter
Madeline Cockburn was the daughter of James Cockburn, and became the wife (1856) of the noted architect Frederick Marrable (1818 – 1872). She was employed as a portrait painter for the Royal family and was president of the Society of Women Artists. Madeleine Marrable died (May 21, 1916).

Marre, Romola Mary – (1920 – 2005)
British civil servant
Romola Gilling was the daughter of Aubrey John Gilling she was educated at the Chelmsford County High School for Girls, and majored in philosophy at Bedford College, at the University of London. She was married (1943) to Sir Alan Marre, the parliamentary commissioner for Administration (1971 – 1976). Marre was posted firstly to the ministry of Health (1941- 1942) and served as the junior commander of the Auxiliary Territorial Service (now the WRAC) officer selection board (1942 – 1945). With the end of the war Marre retired to raise her family, returning two decades later to serve as an organiser of the West Hampstead Citizen’s Advice Bureau in London (1962 – 1965). Lady Marre worked as a member of the Lord Chancellor’s Advisory Committee on Legal Aid (1975 – 1980), the Milk Marketing Board (1973 – 1982) and was a ppointed a deputy chairman of the Royal Jubilee Trust (1981). She was the founder and first president of the Barnet Voluntary Service Council (1979). Lady Marre died (March 6, 2005) aged eighty-four.

Marrener, Edythe    see   Hayward, Susan

Marriott, Alice Lee – (1910 – 1992)
American anthropologist and expert in American Indian culture
Alice Marriott was born in Wilmette, Illinois, and graduated from the University of Oklahoma, becoming the first female to earn a doctorate in anthropology there (1935). Marriott was employed as a specialist in arts and crafts for the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs. During her time there she assisted with the organization and co-ordination of two exhibits of Indian art, which were presented at the Golden Gate International Exposition (1939 – 1940), which was held in San Francisco, California and at the Museum of Modern Art (1941) in New York respectively. Marriott wrote extensively concerning the American Indian culture, and succeeded in bringing a new appreciation of their art and civilization to the notice of the broader American public. Her written worls were numerous and included The Ten Grandmothers (1945), a study of the Kiowa tribe Maria: The Potter of Ildefonso (1948), Sequoyah: Leader of the Cherokees (1956) and First Comers: Indians of America’s Dawn (1960). With C.K. Rachlin she co-wrote American Epic: The Story of the American Indian (1969). Marriott remained died unmarried. Alice Marriott died (March 18, 1992) aged eighty-two, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Marryat, Florence - (1838 - 1899)
British writer
Florence Marryat was the eldest daughter of Captain Frederick Marryatt, and his wife Catherine Shairp, the daughter of Sir Stephen Shairp of Houston in Linlithglowshire in Scotland. She was educated at home under the supervision of a governess, and later became the wife of Francis Lean. Marryat published over seventy works, including travel articles, and novels such as Love's Conflict, My Sister the Actress and My Own Child. Florence Marryat died (Oct 27, 1899) aged fifty-one.

Mars, Anne Francoise Hippolyte Boutet, Madamoiselle – (1779 – 1847) 
French actress
Marie Anne Boutet was born in Paris, the natural daughter of the actor and dramatist Monvel (1745 – 1812) (Jacques Marie Boutet) and the actress Madamoiselle Mars Salvetat. Anne Mars performed at Versailles during her childhood, and later went to Paris for further training. With the rehabilitation of the Comedie Francaise in 1795, she and her sister joined that company in 1799, and Madamoiselle Mars’ career there spanned over four decades until her eventual retirement in 1841. Renowned for her talent in ingenue and coquette roles, she excelled in the plays of Marivaux and Moliere, and she was for many years a favourite of the Parisian audiences, and her admirers included the emperor Napoleon himself. She created over one hundred roles for the Comedie’s repertoire. With her retirement she was appointed inspector of dramatic studies at the Paris Conservatoire. Madamoiselle Mars died in Paris. Her Memoires appeared in two volumes (1849).

Marsala, Adele Girard    see   Girard, Adele

Marsan, Beatrix de Bigorre, Vicomtesse de    see    Beatrix III of Bigorre

Marsan, Clarmonde de – (c1253 – 1287)
Gascon heiress
Clarmonde de Marsan was the daughter and heiress of Arnaud Guillaume de Marsan, vicomte de Louvigny, and was a descendant of Garcie Loup, seigneur de Soubestre, himself a grandson of Sancho III Garcia, duke of Gascony (died c892). Clarmonde married (c1265) Arnaud de Lescun, who died before 1270. With her father’s death, Clarmonde handed over custody of the chateau de Louvigny to the seneschal of Gascony, in exchange for two thousand sols, lent by Henry III of England. The viscounty however, remained in possession of the family, and descended, through Clarmonde’s son Fortunier III de Lescun, and through her granddaughter, Clarmonde, dame d’Lescun, the wife of Arnaud Guilhem de Bearn, into the notable families of Bearn, Pommiers, Aydie, Foix, Andoins, and Gramont.

Marsan, Marie Louise Genevieve de Rohan-Soubise, Comtesse de – (1720 – 1803)
French courtier
Marie Louise de Rohan-Soubise was the daughter of Jules Francois Louis de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, and his wife Anne Julie Adelaide de Melun. She was the younger sister of Cardinal Francois Armand Auguste de Rohan-Soubise, Bishop of Strasbourg (1717 – 1756). Marie Louise inherited the county of Walhain and became the wife (1736) of Gaston Louis Jean Baptiste Charles de Lorraine, Comte de Marsan, who died in 1743. Louis XV then appointed her as governess (1754) to his grandchildren, the future Louis XVI and his two younger sisters, Clothilde, later queen consort of Sardinia and Madame Elisabeth, who perished with her brother under the guillotine. The comtesse later became inveigled in factional bickering within the court at Versailles and remained the implacable enemy of Marie Antoinette but survived the horrors of the revolution. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole.

Marsden, Kate – (1859 – 1931)
British humanitarian and traveller
Kate Marsden was born in Edmonton, the daughter of a solicitor, and was trained as a nurse at Tottenham Hospital. She went to Bulgaria to work during the Russo-Turkish War (1878), after which she went to New Zealand. Marsden later travelled overland to Yakusk in Siberia to work to improve the plight of lepers in the region. She received important patronage from the Tsarina Marie, wife of Aelxander III, and Alexandra, Princess of Wales, the daughter-in-law of Queen Victoria. This expedition led to the publication of her work On Sledge and Horseback to Outcast Siberian Lepers (1893). Kate Marsden became one of the first women to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (1892) and wrote My Mission to Siberia: A Vindication (1921).

Marseilles, Barrale de – (c1175 – after 1230)
French heiress
Barrale de Marseilles was the only child of Raymond Geoffrey, Vicomte de Marseilles and the granddaughter and heiress of Vicomte Hugh Geoffrey II. With the death of her father (1192) and then her elder brother, William the Fat, Barrale and her cousin Mabile, the wife of Guillaume d’Adhemar, were the heiresses of the younger branch of the Marseilles family. Hugh de Baux (c1170 – 1240) decided to marry Barrale and then appropriate half the vicomte, whilst the remaining half went to Alfonso II, Count of Provence. However, the populace of Marseilles did not agree with this propsal and they forcibly withdrew Barrale’s surviving uncle Roncelin, from his monastery and made him viscount (1194). Hugh de Baux, who had married Barrale (1201) persuaded the pope to excommunicate Roncelin, but despite this Roncelin continued to rule Marseilles until he died fifteen years later (1211). Baux continued to fight for Barrale’s patrimony until 1226, when she sold her rights to the Commune of Marseilles. Further unsuccessful litigation continued, however, until she was finally compelled to sell her share to the Commune (1230).

Marsh, Catherine – (1818 – 1912)
British philanthropist and author
Catherine Marsh was born in Colchester, Essex, the daughter of a clergyman, and conducted Sunday school classes from an early age. When the family moved to Leamington, she distributed biblical tracts to the local workmen, and later held bible classes in the cottages of labourers. She published an account of this work in English Hearts and English Hands (1858), which proved extremely popular. She attended the sick and dying in the London Hospital in Whitechapel during the cholera epidemic (1866), and co-founded a nursing home with Catherine Gladstone in Brighton. Catherine Marsh was later appointed as the honorary life governor of the British and Foreign Bible Society (1899) and published several works including A Light on the Line.

Marsh, Mae – (1895 – 1968)
American actress
Born Mary Wayne Marsh (Nov 9, 1895) in Madrid, New Mexico, she was educated in a convent in Hollywood and became an actress at an early age, establishing herself as one of the early leading ladies of the silent screen, under the aegis of D.W. Griffith at the West Coast Biograph studio. Marsh appeared in such films as Man’s Genesis (1912), The Birth of a Nation (1915) produced by D.W. Griffith, in which she leapt to her death to avoid being raped, Spotlight Sadie (1918), Flames of Passion (1922) and The White Rose (1922). After her heyday passed, Marsh continued to play small character roles in films like Alice in Wonderland (1933), Jane Eyre (1943), A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1944), The Robe (1953) and many others. Her last film role was in Donovan’s Reef (1963), after which Marsh retired from films.

Marsh, Marian – (1913 – 2006)
American actress
Born Violet Krauth in Trinidad (Oct 17, 1913), she was of combined British and European descent, and came to Hollywood, where she was employed as an extra. Her original stage name was Marilyn Morgan. She was selected by John Barrymore to play the milkmaid turned diva, named Trilby, opposite him in his famous film Svengali (1931). This was Marsh’s greatest role, and her career had petered out by the end of WW II, and retired after her last film (1942). Other film credits included The Mad Genius (1932), The Eleventh Commandment (1933), The Black Room (1935), Missing Daughters (1940) and House of Errors (1942), amongst others. Marian Marsh died aged ninety-three, in Palm Desert, California.

Marsh, Dame Ngaio – (1899 – 1982) 
New Zealand novelist and theatre director
Edith Ngaio Marsh was born in Christchurch, and worked as a stage actress and then an interior designer before publishing her first detective novel A Man Lay Dead (1934), which featured her famous detective hero Roderick Alleyn. Over the next four decades Marsh published well over two dozen more popular novels, the last of which was Light Thickens (1982). She composed the libretto for the phantasy opera A Unicorn for Christmas (1962), with music by David Farquhar, and established the Little Theatre in Christchurch. In recognition of her contributions to literature, music, and theatre she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1948).

Marshall, Armina – (1896 – 1991)
American actress and dramatist
Armina Marshall was part Cherokee Indian and was born in Oklahoma, being brought up in Pawnee, where her father was the sheriff. Marshall later attended the University of California at Los Angeles, and was employed as a teacher in Brawley, California, before finally attending the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, where she met her future husband (1925), Lawrence Langner, a patent lawyer. Marshall, togther with her husband and drama critic Theresa Helburn, co-founded the Theater Guild, which ultimately became one of the most successful producers of Broadway productions. By the time of Helburn’s death (1959) the Guild had produced nearly two hundred successful theatrical productions across the USA and in London. One of the most celebrated of musicals produced was Oklahoma (1943) and works were presented by authors such as George Bernard Shaw, Eugene O’Neill, and Robert Sherwood. Regular performances were provided for the Guild by actors and actresses such as Judith Anderson, Claudette Colbert, Humphrey Bogart, Judy Holliday, and Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne. Marshall was also the founder of the American Shakespeare Theater in Stratford, Connecticut, and was a director of the American Academy of the Dramatic Arts. Armina Marshall died (July 20, 1991) in Manhattan, New York.

Marshall, Barbara – (1944 – 2009)
American television journalist and municipal official
Barbara Marshall was born (March 5, 1944) in Berwyn, Illinois, and studied at the University of Illinois. She became the first woman to host a scheduled broadcast news program (1963). She later worked as reporter with WBZ-TV in Boston, Massachusetts, and then transferred to Honolulu in Hawaii (1979). There she worked for over two decades (1979 – 2002) with KHON-TV, the number one Hawaiian news station, and achieved fame as a tough investigative news journalist and consumer advocate. Marshall left the news desk in order to enter local politics and was elected to the Honolulu City Council (2002), being re-elected for two more terms (2004) and (2008). Barbara Marshall died (Feb 22, 2009) aged sixty-four.

Marshall, Catherine Wood – (1914 – 1983) 
American religious author and publisher
Sarah Catherine Wood was born in Johnson City, Tennessee, and attended college in Georgia. There she met and was married to the famous Scottish pastor Peter Marshall (1902 – 1949), who organized his church in Washington D.C. and was a chaplain with the US Senate. His early death and her own grief and acceptance were experiences that led to the publication of three works Mr Jones, Meet the Master (1950), A Man Called Peter (1951), which was made into a film (1955), and To Live Again (1957). Catherine later remarried (1959) to Leonard LeSourd, the executive editor of the magazine Guideposts, and established a career for herself as a publisher. Her other works included the novel Christy (1967) and the volume of autobiography Meeting God at Every Turn (1980).

Marshall, Emma – (1828 – 1899)
British children’s writer
Born (Sept 29, 1828) at Northrepps Hill House in Norwich, the failure of her husband’s finances necessitated Emma Marshall taking up a career as a writer, and she proved extremely prolific, producing over two volumes for children. Her earliest work was Happy Days at Fernbank, a story for little girls (1861). She corresponded with the noted American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807 – 1872). Marshall also wrote two historical novels Under Salisbury Spire (1890), which deals with the life of poet George Herbert and Penshurst Castle (1894), which dealt with the life of Sir Philip Sidney.

Marshall, Henrietta Elizabeth – (1876 – 1944)
British children’s writer
Henrietta Marshall was best known for her popular history books for juveniles, the most famous of which was Our Island Story (c1910). Other works included Scotland’s Story (1906), Our Empire Story (1908) and The Child’s English Literature (1909). Her last work was Kings and Things: first stories from English History (1937).

Marshall, Jane   see   Marishall, Jean

Marshall, Lenore – (1897 – 1971)
American poet, travel diarist and author
Lenore Marshall was born (Sept 7, 1897) in New York City. Apart from working as an editor with the US publishers Cape and Smith (1929 – 1932), Lenore also travelled extensively in Europe, and left a travel diary. A well known novelist, her works included, Only the Fear (1935) and Hall of Mirrors (1937), and she also produced several collections of poems such as No Boundary (1956) and Latest Will: New and Selected Poems (1969).Whilst aware that she was dying of cancer, Lenore attempted to organize her papers and diaries, but died before she could finish this task. These papers were edited by Janice Thaddeus and published in New York with the title Invented a Person: the Personal Record of a Life (1979). Lenore Marshall died (Sept 23, 1971) aged seventy-four, in New York.

Marshall, Lois – (1924 – 1997)
Canadian soprano
Lois Marshall was born in Toronto, and studied singing under Weldon Kilburn. Lois won prestigious singing awards in Canada before making her New York debut (1952) as a Naumburg Foundation prize winner. During her international career Lois appeared with conductors such as Sir Thomas Beecham, Arturo Toscanini, and Leonard Bernstein. She toured with the Bach Aria Group which was based in New York. Finally the lasting effects of polio prevented Lois from appearing in staged opera productions, though she continued to perform in operatic arias in recitals. She retired in 1982, but continued to teach voice at the University of Toronto. Lois Marshall died (Feb 19, 1997) in Toronto.

Marshall, Philippa Frances – (1920 – 2004)
British WRAF director
Philippa Marshall served as director the Women’s Royal Army Corps (WRAF) (1969 – 1973) formerly the ATS, the Auxiliary Territorial Service. She was the daughter of Horace Plant Marshall, of Stoke-on-Trent and was educated at St Dominic’s High School there. Marshall joined the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) during the war and was appointed a commandant with the WRAF, for which work she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1956). She was later made Air Commander (1969) and a Companion of the Order of Bath (1971). Philippa Marshall died (Feb 4, 2005) aged eighty-four.

Marshall, Sheina Macalister – (1896 – 1977) 
Scottish zoologist
Sheina Marshall was born in Rothesay where she attended local secondary schools before going on to study at the University of Glasgow. She received a Carnegie Fellowship and went on to work as a researcher at the Millport Marine Laboratory run by the Scottish Marine Biological Association. Marshall worked at Millport for almost five decades from 1923 until her retirement (1971), after which she was made an honorary Fellow. Her particular field of research, often conducted in collaboration with A.P. Orr, with whom she also collaborated with writing, was concerning the distribution and metabolism of plankton in the seas, which provided invaluable information for marine biologists. Her own discoveries of British sources of agar jelly proved of vital assistance in medical and commercial fields during WW II. Marshall was later elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society (1963) and in recognition of her important scientific contributions she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1966).

Marsilia – (fl. 1107)
French nun
Marsilia became abbess of Saint Amand in Rouen, Normandy. She is known to have written letters to Abbot Bovon of the abbey of Saint Amand at Elnone in Flanders, concerning miracles which were attributed to their joint patron, St Amand, as his monks were compiling an account of the saint’s life and religious career. The gruesome tale deals with the attempted suicide of a mentally deranged woman staying in the convent, and how the quick thinking nuns, not only managed to save her life, but later managed to restore her mental health.

Marson, Una Maud – (1905 – 1965)
Jamaican poet, dramatist and broadcaster
Una Marson was educated at Hampton School, Malvern. Trained as a social worker, she went to England to work as a secretary for the League of Coloured Peoples (1932 – 1936). Una Marson was also employed as private secretary to the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie during his exile in England during the 1930’s, and was active in the cause of continued colonial dependence. Una was the founder and editor of The Cosmopolitan magazine (1929 – 1932), she returned to Jamaica (1936), but later returned again to London to work at the BBC (1938 – 1947). In 1942 she instituted the BBC Caribbean Voices program. She was the founder of the Save the Children Fund, the Readers’ and Writers’ Club, and the progressive newspaper, Public Opinion. Una Marson was awarded the Musgrave Medal (1930) by the Institute of Jamaica for her contributions to literature. Her works of verse included Tropic Reveries (1930), Heights and Depths, poems (1931) and Towards the Stars: poems (1945). Her dramatic works included the plays At What a Price (1932), London Calling (1937) and Pocamania (1938).

Martel de Joinville, Comtesse de     see     Gyp

Martha – (fl. c20 – c30 AD) 
Jewish biblical character
Martha resided with her siblings, Mary and Lazarus, at Bethany, near Jerusalem. She may have been the wife and widow of Simon the Leper. She was a servant and admirer of the preaching of Jesus Christ, who had famously raised her brother from the dead (John – 11). According to the New Testament story Martha was upset which Jesus visited their home that she was left to perform all the necessary domestic arrangements whilst her sister Mary sat at his feet listening to his discourse. This scene is recorded in (Luke 10: 39 – 42). Both women are viewed by Christianity as representative of the two types of spirituality, the active and the contemplative.

Martha Alexievna – (1652 – 1707)
Russian Romanov grand duchess
Grand Duchess Martha (Marfa) Alexievna was born (Sept 4, 1652), the second daughter of Tsar Alexis (1645 – 1676), and his first wife Maria Ilyanovna Miloslavskaia, the daughter of Ilya Miloslavsky. She was sister to Tsarina Sophia, and was the half-sister of Peter the Great. She never married, and took religious vows as a nun (1698), taking the name of Sister Margarita. Grand Duchess Martha died (July 18, 1707) aged fifty-four.

Martha Bogdanovna – (1554 – 1571)
Russian tsarina
Martha Bogdanovna Sabokina was the daughter of Bogdan Sabokin, a merchant of Novgorod. When Ivan IV ‘the Terrible’ decided to take a third wife (1571), Martha was one of the candidates brought to Alexandrov for his inspection. At the same time Ivan chose Martha, his son, the Tsarevitch Ivan was married to Eudoxia Sabourova. The fathers of both brides were then created boyars. Martha was married to Ivan with full public ceremonial (Oct 28, 1571), but she died two weeks after the ceremony (Nov 13) under mysterious circumstances. The tsar insisted she had been poisoned, and insisted that because she had been in ill-health since the day of their marriage, he had not consummated the union. This however, was probably a ruse to enable him to remarry without upsetting the clergy. Ivan ordered an investigation into Martha’s death, which resulted in several courtiers being executed, one of whom, Prince Mikhail Temryukov, was the brother of Ivan’s second wife Maria Temruykovna (died 1569). Tsarina Martha was interred in the church of the nuns of the Ascension, within the walls of the Kremlin Palace.

Martha of Antioch – (fl. 533)
Graeco-Roman patrician heiress
Martha was a native of Antioch in Syria. She was the daughter of the patrician Sergius and his wife Auxentia and was probably born 511/512. Her father died whilst she was a small child and her mother Auxentia remarried, and then defrauded Martha of her inheritance. A letter (Feb, 533), preserved in the Novellae of Justinian recorded that the emperor ordered his official Belisarius to protect Martha’s legal rights, and to settle the matter in concert with the Patriarch of Antioch. Her styled Martha clarissima femina and her age was given as under twenty.

Martha of Astorga – (c233 – c251 AD) 
Spanish Christian martyr
Martha of Astorga was a native of the Asturias region. When the local chief Paternus commanded the local population to sacrifice to the pagan gods during the persecutions of the Emperor Traianus Decius, Martha absented herself from these proceedings. Arrested and tortured, Paternus offerred her marriage with his son if she recanted, but Martha refused and was killed, her body being retrieved from a dung heap, and decently interred by a local matron. The church venerated her as a saint (Feb 23) and she appears in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum.

Martha Sophia Louisa Dagmar Thyra – (1901 – 1954)
Crown Princess of Norway (1929 – 1954)
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Martha of Sweden was born (March 28, 1901) in Stockholm, the second daughter of Prince Karl of Sweden (1861 – 1951), Duke of Vastergotland and his wife Princess Ingeborge of Denmark, the daughter of King Frederik VIII (1906 – 1912) and sister of King Christian X of Denmark (1912 – 1947). Her younger sister Astrid of Sweden became the first wife of Leopold III, King of the Belgium. Martha became the wife (1929) of her cousin Crown Prince Olav of Norway (1903 – 1991) and became the Crown Princess (1929 – 1954). Martha bore her husband three children but died before he succeeded his father King Haakon V as King Olav V of Norway (1957). Princess Martha, like her sisters was an extremely beautiful and stylish woman, and was likened to one of the early movie queens. After her marriage with Olav the royal couple retired to live quietly at Skaugum in Asker, a few miles from Oslo. During the WW II years the family remained in the far north of the country, but with the Mazi invasion (1945) they fled into exile and went to England. The Crown Princess and her children were sent to reside in the safety of the USA, whilst her husband remained based with his government in exile in London. Martha died after a long illness (April 5, 1954) aged fifty-three, in Oslo. Her children were,

Martia Proba – (fl. c220 – c250 AD)
Early Romano-British Celtic queen and ruler
Martia Proba was probably of part Roman ancestry. When established as sole ruler, she made London (Londinium) her capital. Her nickname Proba (the Just) was given her in memory of the laws she enacted to protect her people, which were the first known statutes of common law in Britain. The later laws made by King Alfred (871 – 899) and Edward the Confessor (1042 – 1066), were largley based upon what were known as the ‘Martian Statutes.’

Martin, Agnes – (1912 – 2004)
Canadian abstract expressionist painter
Agnes Martin was born in Maklin, Saskatchewan, the daughter of a wheat farmer, and grew up in Vancouver. She enrolled at Western Washington College, in the US (1932) and became a teacher in Washington, Delaware and New Mexico. She studied art at Columbia University during the late 1940’s, and later taught painting at East Oregon College. She later resided in New Mexico (1956 – 1957). In 1957 she went to New York, becoming one of the first artists to move into the abandoned waterfront lofts on Coenties Slip in Manhattan. Agnes began painting in a style which became known as Biomorphic Abstraction. In 1959 Agnes began painting the repetetive abstract grids of vertical and horizontal lines which remained her lifelong obsession. Examples of her work included The Garden (1958), Islands No. 1 (1960) and Whispering (1963).
Critics credit her work as anticipating such popular movements as hard-edge painting, op art, conceptualism and minimalism. Besides exhibiting her work in London and Amsterdam, Agnes held various retrospections of her work throughout America, notably at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia (1973). She produced the film Gabriel (1976) which explored the themes of happiness and freedom from the persepctive of a juvenile male.  Awarded the Golden Lion at the 1997 Venice Biennale, examples of her work are preserved in the Tate, Guggenheim, and Stedelijk collections, and in the Museum of Modern Art. Agnes Martin died in Taos, New Mexico.

Martin, Anne Henrietta – (1875 – 1951)
American suffragist and feminist
Born Anne O’Hara in Empire City, Nevada, she was the daughter of wealthy politician and banker. She was educated in Carson City, Nevada and at the University of Nevada. She founded the history department at the University of Nevada (1897) and then studied in London and in Leipzig, Saxony. Whilst in England she became involved with the militant suffragette movement led by Emmeline Pankhurst and was herself arrested for participating in public demonstrations. She also joined the Fabian society under her maiden name of Anne O’Hara (1910). She returned to Nevada where she was elected as president of the Nevada Equal Franchise Society (NEFS) (1912). She then joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and became chairman of the National Woman’s Party (NWP) in Washington D.C. Martin was amonsgt the group of women arrested for picketing the White House (1917), but returned to Nevada in 1918 in order to campaign for the senate, and again in1920, though she prived unsuccessful. Martin late moved to Carmel in California (1921) where she was actively involved with the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) and served as a member of the national board of that association (1926 – 1936) and then as regional director (1926 – 1931). She was appointed to represent the League as international delegate to Dublin (1926) and Prague in Bohemia (1929). She resigned in 1936. Anne Martin died of a stroke (April 15, 1951) aged seventy-five, in Carmel of a stroke.

Martin, Emma – (1812 – 1851)
British socialist, midwife and author
Born Emma Bullock in Bristol, she converted to strict Baptist teachings and established a school for young ladies. She was married (1831) to a brickmaker, Isaac Martin, to whom she bore three daughters. Martin became the editor of the British Literary Magazine (1835) and then began giving public lectures on education. She became associated with the Owenite Halls of Science and Social Institutions, and lectured for equality for women and freedom from religious oppression. Martin attracted large crowds at her public speaking tours of the Midlands and Scotland, but she later settled in London and trained as a midwife, being employed at Covent Garden in London. Emma Martin was the author of The Most Common Female Complaints (1848), and translated some of the works of the Italian poet and writer, Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 1375). She died of tuberculosis at the age of thirty-nine.

Martin, Helen – (1909 – 2000)
American stage, film and television actress
Helen Martin was best remembered playing the role of Pearl Shay in the popular 227 television series. Helen Martin died (March 25, 2000) aged ninety, at Monterey in California.

Martin, Mary – (1913 – 1990)
American actress, dancer and vocalist
Mary Virginia Martin was born in Weatherford, Texas, the daughter of an attorney and a violin teacher. She was married firstly (1930) to a local accountant, by whom she she became the mother of popular actor Larry Hagman (born 1931). The couple later divorced (1935) and Martin established a dance school in Weatherford. An extremely talented and versatile dancer, singer, and stage performer, Martin appeared on radio in Dallas, and in nightclubs in Los Angeles. She appeared in popular stage productions such as Cole Porter’s Leave it to Me where her rendition of the popular tune ‘My Heart Belongs to Daddy’ gained her much acclaim on Broadway. She also appeared in productions of South Pacific, Peter Pan, and played Maria in The Sound of Music (1959 – 1961).
Martin joined Paramount studios (1939), and her film credits included a bit part in The Rage of Paris (1938), and then appearances in several light films such as The Great Victor Herbert (1939), Rhythmn on the River (1940), Love Thy Neighbour (1940), Kiss the Boys Goodbye (1941), Birth of the Blues (1941), Star Spangled Rhythmn (1942), Night and Day (1946) and Main Street to Broadway (1953). She remarried to Paramount producer Richard Halliday, to whom she bore a daughter, and left an autobiography, My Heart Belongs (1976). Martin continued a career in radio, performing with NBC and CBS, and toured American military bases with Hello Dolly (1965). Miss Martin later sufferred appalling injuries in a car accident in a cab with fellow actress Janet Gaynor (the injuries from which led to Gaynor’s ultimate death). Martin recovered and returned to her stage career, continuing to work until cancer forced her to retire, and was honoured by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (1989). Mary Martin died of cancer (Nov 5, 1990) aged seventy-six, in California.

Martin, Sarah – (1791 – 1843)
British prison reformer and visitor
Sarah Martin was born in Caister, near Great Yarmouth, the daughter of a trademan. She was raised by her grandmother and was apprenticed as a dressmaker. Martin later became converted to evangelical Christianity and managed to eventually secure permission to become a visitor at Yarmouth Gaol (1819). Martin arranged book-binding classes for the men and needlework classes for the women and raised money to fund her projects. The Yarmouth Town Council later provided an annual grant in recognition of her valuable services (1841).

Martin, Therese    see    Therese of Lisieux

Martin, Victoria Claflin    see   Woodhull, Victoria Claflin

Martin, Violet Florence    see    Ross, Martin

Martina – (c210 – 230 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Martina was the daughter of a consul, who was converted to Christianity and became a deaconess. She refused to sacrifice in the temple of Apollo during the persecutions of Alexander Severus, and sufferred hideous tortures before finally being beheaded (Jan 1, 230 AD). The church venerated her as a saint (Jan 30) and (Dec 31), and a chapel was erected over her tomb on the Capitoline Hill. During the presidence of Pope Urbanus VIII, Martina’s remains were located and identified in a ruined vault under her church (1634). The sarcophagus was inscribed with the names of Martina, Concordius, and Epiphanius, the epitaph stating that they had sufferred martyrdom for their religion. St Martina is patroness of the city of Rome

Martina, Aelia – (597 – 642)
Byzantine Augusta
Aelia Martina was the daughter of the patrician Martinus and his wife Maria, the daughter of Heraklius, exarch of Africa, and sister of the Emperor Heraklius I (575 – 641). She became the second wife of her widowed uncle (614) and was accorded the title of Augusta, bearing him eight children. The marriage of uncle and niece ahd been condemned by church law, and it was frequently made a matter of reproach to the emperor by the Greek clergy. Through Martina’s influence her son Herakleonas was proclaimed joint-emperor with his half-brother Constantine. However, much to her bitter disappointment, with her husband’s death (Feb 11, 641), the Senate forced the empress to retire from politics and permitted her no role in the new administration of her son. Her involvement in court intrigues nearly led to civil war, which was promoted by the death of her stepson (May, 641), whom it was rumoured that she had poisoned. These rumours developed into a popular revolt which deposed Herakleonas. The senate ordered the empress to be mutilated by having her tongue cut out, whilst Herakleonas’s nose was cut off, and she was exiled with all her surviving children to the island of Rhodes (Sept, 641). All were put to death there several months later by order of the Emperor Constans II.

Martindale, Hilda – (1875 – 1952)
British civil servant
Hilda Martindale was born in London, the daughter of a merchant. She was raised abroad by governesses before returning to England to attend school in Brighton. She attended classes at the Royal Holloway College and the Royal Sanitary Institute before becoming a workhouse inspector under Adelaide Anderson. After travelling abroad to study various methods of childcare, Martindale returned to England where she was appointed a factory inspector by the Home Office (1902). She was later assigned to work in Ireland, where she became the senior lady inspector (1908). She was stationed in Belfast and travelled considerably in the course of her work. Martindale was appointed as superintending inspector (1921) and then deputy chief inspector (1925) with the Southern Division of the Factory Department. She was later appointed to direct the women’s organizations within the Treasury (1933) and always advocated for equal rights for female civil servants. Hilda Martindale later became a governor of Bedford College and was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1935) by King George V. She published Women Servants of the State: A History of Women in the Civil Service, 1870 – 1938 (1938). She published her memoirs From One Generation to Another, 1839 – 1844: A Book of Memoirs (1944).

Martineau, Edith – (1842 – 1909)
British painter
Edith Martineau was the youngest daughter of Dr James Martineau, minister and professor of philosophy, and later principal of the Manchester New College, and his wife Helen, the daughter of Rev. E. Higginson of Derby. Educated in Liverpool, Edith attended the Leigh’s School of Art, and the Royal Academy School in London. She attracted notice as a water colour artist, and eventually became an Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours (ARWS).

Martineau, Florence Baker – (1912 – 1993)
American philanthropist
Florence Baker was born in Manhattan, New York, the daughter of a prominent banker and attended the Hewitt School at Sarah Lawrence College. She was married firstly (1932) to the sportsman Thomas Suffern Tailer to whom she bore two daughters and from whom she was divorced, and secondly (1941) to the sculptor Stanley Martineau to whom she bore a son. Active in charitable and philanthropic circles, she became a considerable patron of the Muscular Dystrophy Research Fund at the Children’s Hospital in Boston. Florence Martineau died (Aug 19, 1993) aged eighty-one, in Connecticut.

Martineau, Harriet – (1802 – 1876)  
British novelist and political economist
Harriet Martineau was born at Norwich in Norfolk, the daughter of a local textile manufacturer, and was sister to the noted Unitarian clergyman James Martineau (1805 – 1900). She received the same extensive and rigorous education as her brother, and published her first article in the Unitarian magazine the Monthly Repository (1821). Her first serious work Illustrations of Political Economy, published in twenty-five volumes (1832 – 1834), aroused such interest that she invited to address Parliament. Martineau wrote Society in America (1837) after a visit to that country, which was followed by her first novel Deerbook (1839). She visited the USA (1834 – 1836), Egypt and Palestine, after which she co-published Letters on the Laws of Man’s Social Nature (1851). She was later appointed as secretary of the Bedford College for Women in London (1849) and gave her support to the Married Woman’s Property Bill (1857). Harriet Martineau also wrote several children’s books such as The Settlers at Home, The Peasant and the Prince, which deals with the tragic fate of Louis XVII, Feats on the Fjord, and The Crofton Boys.

Martinelli, Caterinuccia – (1589 – 1608)
Italian vocalist
Caterinuccia Martinelli became child performer at the court of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, her talent being discovered by Paolo Faccini, the vocalist attached to the papal chapel in Rome. She was brought from Rome, after the duke paid her parents a considerable sum of money, and would eventually be schooled to become the duke’s mistress. Caterinuccia was sent to be educated in the household of the composer Claudio Monteverdi and showed considerable talent and musical expertise, appearing in the part of Amore in Rinuccini’s musical Dafne (1608). Her early death (March, 1608) either from smallpox or scarlet fever, was much regretted. Duke Vincenzo caused Caterina to be interred in the church of the Carmine in Manuta, where he commissioned a tomb for her. Monteverdi composed the musical elegy for her funeral and her epitaph.

Martinengo, Diana Maria Maddalena – (1637 – 1684)
Italian nun
Donna Diana Martinengo was the daughter of the noted warrior and astrononer, Leopardo Martinengo, Conte di Barco. She forsook marriage and after four years her father gave in to her wishes and allowed her to take religious vows. Diana became a Franciscan nun at the convent of Isola de’ Frati, in Lake Garda, where she eventually became abbess for seven years (1677 – 1684) and died in office. Renowned for her religious piety and her gentle affectionate nature, she was later beatified by Pope Leo XIII (1900).

Martinengo-Cesarescu, Evelyn Lilian Hazeldine Carrington, Contessa – (1865 – 1931)
Anglo-Italian painter and political writer
An English noblewoman married to an Italian peer, she studied the careers of prominent Italian statesmen such as Garibaldi, and was the author of Italian Characters in the Epoch of Unification (1890) and The Liberation of Italy 1815 – 1870 (1895).

Martinez, Maria     see     Cadilla de Martinez, Maria

Martinez de Meneses, Teresa – (1289 – 1350)
Portugese mediaeval heiress
Dona Teresa de Meneses was the daughter of Juan Alfonso de Meneses, Conde de Barcellos and Senhor de Alburquerque, and his wife Teresa Sanchez de Castilla. Teresa inherited the important fief of Alburquerque, and was married (1304) to Don Alfonso Sanchez of Portugal (1285 – 1329), the natual son of King Diniz (1279 – 1325). Her husband was killed in battle in Castile, leaving Teresa with an only son, Joao Alfonso e Bono de Portugal (1305 – 1354), who succeeded his father as second Conde de Alburquerque, and was later poisoned by order of King Pedro I of Castile (1350 – 1369). Condesa Teresa was the founder of the convent of Santa Clara at Villa-Comte, near Braga, and became a nun there until her death. Teresa died aged sixty, at Villa-Comte.

Martinez de Nisser, Maria – (fl. 1840 – 1841)
Colombian soldier and author
Maria Martinez dressed in male attire and managed to successfully join the army, and fought during the revolution in Antiquoia. She left a private diary which recounted her military experiences, which was later published as Maria Martinez de Nisser y La Revolution de Los Supremos (1983).

Martinozzi, Laura Margherita – (1608 – 1685)
Italian noblewoman and dynastic matriarch
Laura Mazarini was sister to Hieronima Mancini, Cleria Mazzarini, and to Cardinal Jules Mazarin, regent of France for Louis XIV. Laura became the wife of Conte Girolamo Martinozzi of Fano, and left two daughters, Laura Martinozzi, duchess consort of Modena, and Marie Anne Martinozzi, wife of the French Prince de Conti. Through her elder daugher Laura, she was the grandmother of Queen Mary Beatrice d’Este, second wife of James II of England (1685 – 1688), and ancestress of the Stuart pretenders.

Martin-Smith, Violet Mary – (1884 – 1965)
British WVS organizer
Violet Hambro was the only daughter of Sir Everard Alexander Hambro (1842 – 1925), Director of the Bank of England (1879 – 1925) and his first wife Gertrude Mary Stuart (1848 – 1905). She was married (1906) to Everard Reginald Martin-Smith (1875 – 1938) and bore him six children including Mary Martin-Smith, the wife of Denis Hill-Wood. Mrs Martin-Smith served as chairman of the WLA (Women’s Land Army) for Hertfordshire (1939 – 1946) (now the WRVS – Women’s Royal Voluntary Service) during WW II and was the county organizer of the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service) for Hertfordshire (1938 – 1950). She was appointed MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) in recognition of her valuable service.

Martin-Spencer, Lilly – (1822 – 1902)
American painter
Angelique Marie Martin was born in Exeter, Devon of French parentage. She immigrated to the USA with her parents as a child (1830) and the family settled in Marietta, Ohio. Despite the offer of financial assistance to study abroad in Europe, Lilly refused and settled in Cincinnati. Lilly was married (1844) to the painter Benjamin Rush Spencer, to whom she bore a large family of thirteen children. The family later removed to New York where Martin-Spencer had her work exhibited over several decades. Widowed in 1890 she kept working till the morning of her death. Many engravings and etchings have been produced from her paintings.

Martos, Lucia de    see    Santos, Lucia dos

Martyria – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian saint
Marytria was killed at Tomis on the Black Sea during the persecutions instigated by the emperor Diocletian. She was arrested and condemned for refusing to abjure her faith and sacrifice to the pagan gods. Her veneration (June 20) is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum. She is not to be confused with St Martyria of Ravenna (May 21).

Maruni – (fl. c967)
Rajput princess of Ajmer
Maruni became the wife of Dhola Rao, Prince of Amber. Her husband was later killed, but Maruni managed to escape, and gave birth to a posthumous son Dhundar. The love and affection which passed between husband and wife has been the subject of Indian legends. Maruni was the paternal gradnmother of the Rajput hero Maidal Rao.

Marwitz von Stephani, Edda    see   Editha Charlotte Wilhelmine

Marx-Aveling, Eleanor – (1855 – 1898) 
British socialist
Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx was born in Soho, London, the youngest daughter of Karl Marx and his wife Jenny von Westphalen. She was raised in a distinctly socialist environment in Soho, London. After finishing her education she supported herself as a schoolteacher, and through typing and translating. Her championship of the rights of the poor led to her active support of ‘Bloody Sunday’ (1887) and the following strikes (1889). Eleanor lived for over two decades as the common-law wife of Edward Aveling, a socialist, but the union remained problematican and uncongenial. With her father’s death she edited the fourth volume of Das Kapital, but committed suicide at the age of only forty-three (March 31, 1898) by ingesting prussic acid. With her father she co-wrote The Woman Question (1886) and later edited Engel’s work Revolution and Counter-Revolution (1896).

Mary – (c21 BC – c44 AD)
Jewish religious matriarch
The mother of Jesus Christ, and wife of Joseph, she was of the same family as her husband, and both were descended from King David (987 – 966 BC). She resided in Nazareth as a child, and was, according to the Gospels, visited by an angel of God, who foretold to her the birth of her son Jesus Christ, which duly took place in a cattle manger in Bethlehem. Mary‘s obedience to God and her humility led to her being extensively venerated by the Roman Catholic church. The gospel of St John records her prescence at the crucifixion of her son. After his ascension Mary and several other women devoted themselves to lives of prayer. Jesus had commended Mary to the care of John after his death, and according to tradition she died at Ephesus in Greece, sixteen years of her son’s death. The Catholic Feast of the Assumption celebrates Mary’s ascension into heaven, which was declared official doctrine by Pope Pius XII (1950).

Mary I – (1516 – 1558)
Queen regnant of England (1553 – 1558)
Princess Mary Tudor was born (Feb 18, 1516) at Greenwich Palace, London, the only surviving child of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) and his first wife, Catharine of Aragon. She succeeded Edward VI, her half-brother, and was married (1554) to Philip II (1527 – 1598), king of Spain, as his second wife. Her first betrothal, to the Dauphin Francois, son of Francois I (1518) led to the famous meeting between the two kings at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520), but this arrangement was later broken. An attractuve and very intelligent child, her mother’s dearest wish was that Mary should be married to her Spanish cousin, the emperor Charles V, yet despite various and extensive negotiations amd a solemn betrothal, rumours of her father’s plans to divorce Queen Catherine soon ended Hapsburg interest in this union.
At the age of nine (1525) Mary was seperated from her mother and established with her own court, at Ludlow Castle, in Wales, under the care of her lady governess, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury. During the ensuing years of her parents’ divorce proceedings, the princess was kept separate from her mother until she would agree to the invalidity of her marriage with her father. Her repeated refusals led to her estrangement from King Henry. With the birth of Anne Boleyn’s daughter Elizabeth (Sept, 1533) Mary was formally declared illegitimate. Repeated requests from mother and daughter to allow visits between the two were heartlessly refused. Princess Mary was eventually intimidated to sign the Act of Supremacy (1537) which she saw as a betrayal of her mother, being advised to do so for her own safety, by the Spanish ambassador, Eustace Chapuys, and was restored to favour at the court through the intercession of her stepmother, Queen Jane Seymour. However, Mary never forgave herself for what she had done. The rebellion known as the ‘Pilgrimage of Grace’ (1536 – 1537) had been aimed at restoring Mary’s rights. The rebellion was a failure but no reprisals were taken against Mary, who had had no personal invovlement in this matter. She stood godmother to her half-brother, Edward VI (1537) and was chief mourner at her stepmother’s funeral several weeks later. Late in 1539 Mary was betrothed to Duke Philip of Bavaria (1503 – 1548) though this match was never concluded either, despite the apparent ardour of the prince himself. Mary outwardly conplied with the successive changes of religion during her father’s reign and later secured parliamentary approval (1544) for her succession to the throne if her brother were to die childless. In the later years of her father’s reign the princess enjoyed a special friendship with her stepmother Catharine Parr (until that lady’s secret remarriage (1547) with Thomas Seymour at least), and was much attached to her brother Edward.
During Edward’s reign (1547 – 1553), while the Lord Protector, the Duke of Somerset, remained in power, Mary was allowed some measure of religious tolerance, and the Imperial ambassador secured the Protector’s promise that she might worship the Catholic faith as she saw fit in the privacy of her won household. However, with Somerset’s fall, and the rise of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, these privileges were challenged, and Northumberland was the cause of Mary’s estrangement from her brother. Indeed, with the aid of agents of her cousin Charles V, Mary even contemplated escaping to the Hapsburg dominions. Eventually however, she visited Edward in London (1551), and this meeting resulted on a compromise between the king and Mary.
With Edward’s death Northumberland attempted to deprive Mary of the crown in favour of her Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey. Jane was proclaimed queen (July 10) but Mary removed to Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, where the people rallied to her cause. Amidst great rejoising Mary was proclaimed queen in London (July 19) and then made her ceremonial entry into the city (Aug 3). She was crowned at Westminster (Oct 1, 1553) attended by her sister Elizabeth, and her former stepmother, Anne of Cleves. Mary appointed Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, as her lord high chancellor, and her reign saw the persecution of the Protestants. At the instigation of Gardiner the laws of Henry VIII and Edward VI that pertained to the maintenance of the Reformed religion were repealed. The following persecution resulted in the deaths of over three hundred Protestants by burning. These included Thomas Cranmer (1555), Archbishop of Canterbury, the godfather of her sister Elizabeth, who had pronounced the original sentence of divorce against her mother, and such Protestant divines as Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of Rochester. These persecutions, so alien to the English, earned the queen the heartless epithet by which she is always remembered, that of ‘Bloody Mary.’
Internally, the rebellion led by Sir Thoms Wyatt against the queen’s proposed marriage with Philip of Spain, which was crished, led to the executions of Lady Jane Grey, her husband and father, and the duke of Northumberland (1554). She persecuted her sister Elizabeth, even sending her to the Tower of London, before finally sending her to live under house-arrest at Woodstock.
Subsequently the loss of Calais (1557), the last English possession in France, caused by her involvement in Philip’s ongoing war against the French, lowered England’s international prestige abroad, and much saddened her. Her married life was not happy. Increasingly ill with cancer, which she mistook for pregnancy, her husband finally deserted her and returned to Spain. Mary, prompted by the urgings of Philip, who had decided that he would propose marriage to Elizabeth after her sister’s death, in order to maintain the Spanish influence in England, acknowledged her sister Elizabeth as her rightful successor (Nov 6, 1558). Queen Mary died (Nov 17, 1558) aged forty-two, at St James’s Palace, London. She was buried in Westminster Abbey. Queen Mary I has been portrayed on the screen by various actresses such as Daphne Slater in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) television series Elizabeth R (1971) with Glenda Jackson in the title role, by Kathy Burke in the film Elizabeth (1998) with Cate Blanchett in the title role, and by Joanne Whalley in the BBC film The Virgin Queen (2005) with Anne Marie Duff in the title role. She was portrayed by Sarah Bolger in the Showtime television series The Tudors (2006 - 2010).

Mary II (1662 – 1694) 
Queen regnant of England (1688 – 1694)
Princess Mary Stuart was born (April 20, 1662) at St James’s Palace, London, the elder daughter of James II and his first wife Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward, first Earl of Clarendon. She was raised at St James’s Palace and at Twickenham, near London, the estate of her maternal grandfather, Lord Clarendon. After her father’s second marriage to Mary Beatrice d’Este (1673) and subsequent conversion to Roman Catholicism, Mary was provided with her won separate establishment at Richmond House. Rumours of Mary’s marriage to William of Orange first began when the prince visited England (1670), but he did not formally ask for her hand until 1677, when she had become the heiress-pesumptive to the throne if her father and stepmother could not produce a son that survived. The marriage, which took place at Whitehall Palace in London (Nov 4, 1677) had thus been arranged for dynastic and political reasons, but produced only three stillborn children.
Though very popular with the Dutch people, Mary’s marriage remained childless, and she sufferred much privately from William’s liasion with his mistress, the unattractive Elizabeth Villiers. Later letters from Mary reveal that she became entirely devoted to William and that his affair with Villiers hurt her very deeply. The princess had an interest in domestic architecture, interior decorations, and gardens, her favourite palace being that of Honselaersdijik, close to The Hague. With her father’s accession to the English throne (1685) Mary became heiress-presumptive again, this dignity being symbolized by a growing formality at the Dutch court. With King James’s final escape to France (1688), followed by that of the queen and Mary’ half-brother, Prince James Edward Francis, the couple were invited by the leading Protestants to rule England together. William gained control of London (Nov, 1688) and Mary arrived from Holland (Feb, 1689). They were proclaimed joint sivereigns as William III and Mary II, as the queen had previously declared that she would not hear of her husband reciving any rank inferior to her own. They were crowned together at Westminster Abbey (April 11, 1689). The Bill of Rights (Dec, 1689) then fixed the succession first on any children Queen Mary might bear, then on her sister Anne and her heirs, and finally, upon any children William might have from a later marriage, though Queen Mary allowed her husband more prominence in the partnership.
Personally, the private conflict Mary suffered concerning her feelings for her father, caused her to retreat into privacy, though her English subjects soon came to appreciate her good qualities, and she became quite popular with the people, who respected her husband but held him in little personal affection. During William’s absence on campaign in Ireland (1690) Mary ruled in conjunction with the regency council, but found the exercise of such power to be personally distasteful. With her death from smallpox (Dec 28, 1694) aged only thirty-two, William ruled another eight years, to be succeeded by her sister Anne Stuart. She was provided with a magnificent and expensive funeral at Westminster Abbey (March 5, 1695). The diarist John Evelyn wrote of Mary ‘In sum she was an admirable woman, abating for taking the crown without a more due apology, as does, if possible, outdo the renowned Queen Elizabeth I.’ Genuinely modest in a shameless age and hating scandal, Queen Mary was not wanting in vivacity. Her surviving letters contain some sprightly turns of phrase and her memoirs some good sketches of character.

Mary III    see    Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina

Mary IV    see    Maria Theresa Henrietta Dorothea

Mary Bruce – (c1278 – 1323)
Princess of Scotland
Lady Mary Bruce was the second daughter of Robert de Bruce (1253 – 1304), Earl of Carrick and his first wife Countess Margaret (Marjorie) of Carrick, the widow of Adam de Kilconquhar. She was the sister to Robert I the Bruce (1274 – 1329), King of Scotland. When her brother assumed the Scottish crown (1306) Mary and her sisters attained the rank of princesses though this title was not used at the time. She was the paternal aunt of King David II (1329 – 1371). Lady Mary was later taken prisoner by the English (1306) together with her sister Christian, the Countess of Mar, their sister-in-law Queen Elizabeth and their niece Marjorie Bruce. By the orders of Edward I of England these ladies were confined in ‘Kages’ at Roxburgh Castle, though the story that they were suspended in them outside the walls of the castle is probably an exaggeration as they had servants and other small comforts provided for them. Lady Mary was still a prisoner at Newcastle (1312) when fourpence a day was being paid for her expenses, though negotiations for her exchange and release had been in progress for some time. Soon afterwards Mary was married to Sir Neil Campbell of Lochow as his third wife. The marriage had been arranged by her brother King Robert as a reward for Campnbell’s loyalty and service to himself. King Robert granted Mary and Neil jointly, together with their son, all the lands that had belonged to David de Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl. Her son John Campbell of Moulin (c1313 – 1333) who was created Earl of Atholl was married but died childless, being killed at the battle of Halidon Hill. Sir Neil Campbell died in 1315 and Lady Mary was remarried sooin afterwards to Sir Alexander Fraser, the Great Chamberlain of Scotland, and was ancestress of the Fraser family of Philorth. Lady Mary Bruce died (before Sept 22 in 1323).

Mary of Agreda      see    Agreda, Maria Fernandez Coronel de

Mary of the Angels    see   Fontanella, Marianna

Mary of Blois – (1136 – 1182)
Princess of England
Mary of Blois was the second, but only surviving daughter of Stephen of Blois, King of England (1135 – 1154) and his wife Matilda, the daughter and sole heiress of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne. She was the sister of Eustace of Blois, crowned as king and co-ruler with his father (1140 – 1153). Mary was educated at the nunnery of Stratford, later known as St Leonard’s, near Stratford-le-Bow, Middlesex, which was granted the manor of Lillechurch in Kent to pay for her maintenance (1151). Mary then took the veil (1153) and was installed as prioress of the convent of Lillechurch, where the nuns of Stratford were later transferred. She later left Lillechurch for the abbey of Romsey in Hertfordshire (1155). The death of her only surviving brother William, count of Boulogne (1159) left Mary the sole inheritor of the honours of her family, and she was acknowledged as countess of Boulogne.
Despite being dedicated as a nun and abbess, her kinsman Henry II (1154 – 1189) later forced Mary to renounce her religious vows despite her own vehement disinclination, and she was forcibly removed from Romsey Abbey. She was then forced to make a dynastic marriage (1160) with Matthew (1137 – 1173), the brother of Count Philip of Flanders, who became count of Boulogne in Mary’s right. The marriage was condemned by Thomas a’Beckett and by Sampson, archbishop of Rheims, and Pope Alexander III placed the country under and interedict. The fact that Mary was not included by name in either this or any succeeding papal bulls passed against Count Matthew proves that she was considered to be free of blame in this matter. When her husband accompanied his brother Philip on campaign against the Flemish (1165) Mary ruled in Boulogne as regent, and her signature and personal seal have survived. The religious benefactions made by Count Matthew were confirmed by Mary in a separate charter. After bearing two daughters, the marriage was annulled, though the legitimacy of her children was assured by papal decree, and Mary retired (1170) to become a nun at the abbey of St Austreberte, near Montreuil in France. Despite this divorce and Matthew’s remarriage, Mary’s name remained evident in public documents after this date, for Matthew later bestowed lands upon the church of St Judoc (1173) “ with the consent of the Countess Mary, his wife, and his daughters.” Count Matthew was killed soon afterwards at the siege of Driancourt (July 25, 1173). Princess Mary died aged forty-five, and was interred within the nunnery of St Austreberte. Her two daughters were,

Mary of Burgundy (Marie) – (1457 – 1482)
French duchess and heiress
Princess Marie was was born in Brussels, the only daughter of Chalres the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1467 – 1477) and his second wife, Isabella of Bourbon. With her father’s death at the battle of Nancy (1477) Mary inherited all of his possessions in France and the Netherlands. Louis XI of France wanted Mary to marry his son, the Dauphin Charles (VIII), and repossessed Burgundy and Picardy. The Netherlands then revolted and Mary married the Hapsburg archduke Maximilian, the son of the emperor Frederick III, which helped to restore order within her dominions. In the ensuing war with France, Louis XI was defeated. The young duchess died after sufferring a fall from her horse. Her son Phulip I the Handsome (1478 – 1506) was married to Juana the Mad, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and their son was the Emperor Charles V (1500 – 1558).

Mary of Coucy – (c1220 – 1285)
Queen consort of Scotland (1239 – 1249)
Mary (Marie) was the second daughter of Enguerrand III (c1170 – 1243), Seigneur of Coucy and his third wife Marie de Montmirail-en-Brie, the daughter of Jean de Montmirail, Seigneur de Brie, and sister to Seigneur Raoul III of Coucy (1243 – 1250). She travelled to Scotland with a suitable retinue and became the second wife of Alexander II (1198 – 1249), King of Scotland (1214 – 1249) at Roxburgh (1239) his first wife Joan Plantagenet having died childless (1238). This French marriage was unpopular in England, and with other causes of friction the two countries came near to the brink of war. This situation was eventually remedied in 1244 when it was agreen that Mary’s son Alexander III (1241 – 1285) should marry Princess Margaret Plantagenet, the daughter of Henry III, King of England. With her husband’s early death (1249) the young queen mother was quickly ousted from any position of political power.
Queen Mary quickly returned to France where she was remarried to a young French lord Jean de Acre (1225 – 1296), Seigneur de Brienne and Grand Butler of France, son of Jean of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, as his second wife. She left no known descendants from her second marriage and was the stepmother of Blanche de Brienne (c1252 – 1302) the wife of Guillaume II de Fiennes, Baron de Tingry and ancestress of the Mortimer family in England. Blanche had been born to Jean de Brienne by his first wife Jeanne, Dame de Chateaudun. Queen Mary returned to Edinburgh when her son came of age to rule (1257). Soon afterwards the Comyn family, fearing the queen mother’s influence over Alexander kidnapped the young king. A conference held at Jedburgh (1258) decided with the Comyns and Alexander III that there should be joint regency consisting of the queen mother and her husband Jean de Brienne, and four members from each of the two rival parties which had divided the country since the king’s accession. Queen Mary survived these events by some three decades and died aged in her mid-sixties. She was interred at Newbattle Abbey.

Mary of Egypt – (c344 – 421 AD)
Graeco-Roman desert Christian
Mary made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Palestine, after repenting having lived a sinful life for most of her youth, and was converted to Christianity. As a form of penance she went to reside in the desert along the rover Jordan. She resided there for forty-seven years, receiving communion from the priest Zosimus the day prior to her death.

Mary of Great Britain (1) – (1723 – 1772)
British Hanoverian princess
Princess Mary was born (Feb 22, 1723) at Leicester House in London, the daughter of King George II (1727 – 1760) and his wife Caroline, the daughter of Johann George, margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. She was the paternal aunt of King George III (1760 – 1820). Princess Mary was taught music by George Frederic Handel, and was married (1740) to the German landgrave, Friedrich II of Hesse-Kassel (1720 – 1785) as his first wife. Though the princess produced several healthy sons, her marriage remained on uneasy terms, and when Friedrich converted the Roman Catholicism (1754), she left his court and retired to live seperately in her own private court at Hanau, and at Rumpenheim Castle, near Frankurt-am-Main. She was supported by her fatherin-law, and sent her two elder sons to Copenhagen to be educated under the supervison of the Queen of Denmark. After her husband succeeded to the landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (1760) Mary ruled Hanau as regent. They were never reconciled. Princess Mary died (Jan 14, 1772) aged forty-eight, at Hanau, and was interred at the Church of St Maria (Marienkircke) there. Her children were,

Mary of Great Britain (2) – (1776 – 1857)
British Hanoverian princess
Princess Mary was born (April 25, 1776) at Queen’s House, St James’s, London, the fourth daughter of King George III (1760 – 1820) and his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Karl Ludwig, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Princess Mary was sister to kings George IV (1820 – 1830) and William IV (1830 – 1837), and was a favourite aunt to Queen Victoria. Mary was married (1816) when aged forty, to her first cousin, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester (1776 – 1834). The marriage remained childess. She was the last survivng child of George III’s fifteen children. Mary survived her husband for two decades as Dowager Duchess of Gloucester (1834 – 1857). Princess Mary died (April 30, 1857) aged eighty-one, at her residence of Gloucester House, in Piccadilly, London. She was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, in Berkshire.

Mary of Gueldres – (1433 – 1463) 
Queen consort and regent of Scotland
Mary og Gueldres was the daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres and his wive Catherine, the daughter of Adolf I, Duke of Cleves, and was niece to Duke Philip II of Burgundy, at whose court she was educated. Princess Mary became the wife (1449) of James II (1430 – 1460), as part of a pact to strengthen commercial ties between the Low Countries and Scotland. Philip of Burgundy provided her with a dowry of sixty thousand crowns, whilst King James settled a dower on her consisting of ten thousand crowns, with properties in Strathearn, Atholl, Methven, and Linlithgow. Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh had been built especially to receive her. She was the mother of the future James III, amongst other children.
With her husband’s death  at the siege of Roxburgh (Aug 3, 1460) Queen Mary ruled Scotland as regent for her son James III, with the assistance of the council, and proved successful at the siege of Roxburgh against the English (1460) where her prescence in the camp spurred the Scots on to victory. Her son James was then crowned soon afterwards (Aug 10) at Kelso. Queen Mary had received Margaret of Anjou and her son Edward in Scotland, and later sent troops to England to aid the Lancastrian cause. When Henry VI was deposed (1461) she demanded the return of Berwick, which demand was granted. Despite this friendship the queen mother continued to negotiate with the Yorkists, though she politely refused an offer of marriage made to her by Edward IV (1462). Queen Mary died (Dec 1, 1463) aged thirty, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity in Edinburgh, which she had built, along with Ravesncraig Castle. Her first born son died soon after birth (1450). Her six surviving children were,

Mary of Guise – (1515 – 1560)
Queen consort and regent of Scotland
Marie de Guise was born at Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine, the eldest daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Guise and his wife Antoinette, the daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Vendome. She married firstly (1534) to Louis d’Orleans, Duc de Longueville (1510 – 1537), to who she bore two sons, and, after refusing the suit of Henry VIII of England (1538) she married his nephew, James V of Scotland (1512 – 1542). His death (1542) left Mary as regent for their only child, the week-old Mary Stuart. Mary refused the hands of the earls of Lennox and Bothwell in marriage and proceeded to oust the Lord Arran from the regency council. A council was appointed (1543) to direct her as regent, but Mary failed to overthrow Arran (1544). With the death of Cardinal Beaton (1546), the queen-regent became the leading political figure in Scotland. She took her daughter to France (1550) in preperation for her marriage with Francois II, and paid a state visit to Edward VI in England on her way home. With Arran’s secession from the regency, the queen took his place (1554). However, she permitted her kinsmen the Guises, so much influence at the Scottish court, that the Protestant nobles erupted in rebellion (1559) and she was forced to keep Perth garrisoned with Scottish troops in the pay of France. Queen Mary died in Edinburgh Castle (June 11, 1560), with the controversy still raging fiercely. She was interred in the Abbey of St Pierre, at Rheims, near Paris. She was portrayed by Fanny Ardant in the film Elizabeth (1998) with Cate Blanchett in the title role.

Mary of Hungary (Maria, Marie) – (1505 – 1558)
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia
Archduchess Maria was born (Sept 15, 1505) in Brussels, Flanders, the third daughter of Philip I the Handsome of Austria, King of Castile and his wife Juana the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Her mother became insane after the death of her father (1506) and Mary and her siblings were raised with their own small court in Brussels under the supervision of their aunt Margaret of Savoy, and then at the court of her grandfather Maximilian I at Innsbruck. She was sister to the emperors Charles V (1519 – 1555) and Ferdinand I (1555 – 1564). An early proposal to marry Mary to the Duke of Lorraine was refused by Emperor Maximilian I and Mary was married instead (1521) to Louis II (Lajos), King of Hungary and Bohemia. They remained childless. The couple’s life was spent in court dissipations, and Louis was drowned whilst fleeing from the Turks after the battle of Mohacz (Aug 29, 1526). As there was no male heir Queen Mary successfully campaigned for the election of her brother Ferdinand as King of Hungary and Bohemia, he being the husband of Louis’ sister Anna.
With the death of her aunt Margaret of Savoy (1530) her brother Charles V appointed Mary as regent of the Netherlands. She had agreed on the condition that her brother would not force her to remarry if she did not wish too and ruled efficiently for over two decades (1531 – 1555). The queen was not unsympathetic to the cause of moderate reform concerning Lutheranism, which views caused the emperor some concern. However she was a self-reliant woman and admirably justified her religious views and her surviving letters to the emperor prove beyond doubt her ability to handle him, both politically and emotionally. Despite her patronage of the arts however, her rule made the Netherlands further subject to Catholic Spain and the empire, and the persecution of Protestant heretics eventually led to Eighty Years War (1568 – 1648) against Hapsburg rule. The queen was a lady of boundless physical energy who adored outdoor pursuits. The English scholar Roger Ascham wrote of her ‘At this town (Tongres) we met the Queen of Hungary posting from Austria to Flanders, having about thirty in her company, for she had outridden the rest; accomplishing that journey in thirteen days, when a man can scarcely do it in seventeen. She is a virago, and is never so well as when she is flying on horseback and hunting all the night long.’ Some of her correspondence has survived. She planned a rescue of her cousin, Mary Tudor, from England by sea, but the princess eventually decided against fleeing abroad. Queen Mary died (Oct 18, 1558) aged fifty-three. Her nephew Philip II caused her remains to be removed from Brussels and reinterred with the royal monastery of the Escorial Palace in Madrid (1574).

Mary of Lancaster – (1321 – 1362)
English Plantagenet princess
Princess Mary was the sixth daughter of Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (1326 – 1345) and his wife Matilda, the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly. Her father was the grandson of King Henry III (1216 – 1272). Mary was married (1334) at Tutbury Castle, to Henry Percy (1320 – 1368), third Baron Percy of Alnwick, Northumberland, as his first wife. Princess Mary died (Sept 1, 1362) aged forty-one, and was buried at Alnwick. Her children were,

Mary of Modena       see    Mary Beatrice

Mary of Scotland      see also      Mary Stuart

Mary of Scotland – (1082 – 1116)
Princess Mary was the younger daughter of King Malcolm III Canmore, and his second wife St Margaret, daughter of the Anglo-Saxon prince, Edward the Aetheling. Her elder sister Matilda was the first wife of Henry I, King of England (1100 – 1135). Mary was raised and educated in England at the royal monsteries of Wilton, Wiltshire, and Romsey in Hampshire by their aunt Christina, who was a nun in both these houses. Both sisters wore the veil as nuns but were not acutally consecrated as such. After her sister’s marriage with Henry I (1100), Mary’s own potential marriage became a matter of policy for him. Henry arranged for Mary to marry (1102) Eustace III (1058 – 1125), count of Boulogne, brother to the famous Crusader, Godfrey of Bouillon. The couple had an only daughter and heiress, Matilda of Boulogne (c1105 – 1152), the wife of Stephen of Blois, King of England, through whom Mary left descendants. Princess Mary was a munificent benefactress of the Cluniac abbey of Bermondsey in London, and made grants to the monks there of her manor of Kynewardstone (1114). Princess Mary died (May 31, 1116) aged thirty-four, at Bermondsey, and was buried there. The surviving Latin verses on her tomb reveal that her death was very painful and unexpected.

Mary of Teck – (1867 – 1953) 
Queen consort of Great Britain (1910 – 1935)
Born Princess Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes of Teck at Kensington Palace, London, she was the daughter of Francis Paul, Duke of Teck, and his wife Mary Adelaide, daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, a younger son of George III. Originally betrothed (1891) to her cousin Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, the eldest son of Edward VII, with his death from pnuemonia, she married (1893) his brother George, Duke of York (1865 – 1936), to whom she bore six children. During 1901 the Duke and Duchess travelled to Australia via Canada and Singapore, and opened Federal Parliament in Melbourne. The couple wore formally appointed Prince and Princess of Wales, and in 1910, the duke succeeded his father as George V.
Queen Mary accompanied her husbnd to Delhi (1910) as empress of India for the historically unique Coronation Durbar (Dec, 1911). Although of a stiff and rather reseved nature herself, Queen Mary was nevertheless more sympathetic to change than her husband, and the couple worked to mould and adapt the monarchy in order to ensure its continued survival in the new century. During World War I the queen organized the war efforts of the British women at home, being closely involved with the National Relief Fund and the Relief Clothing Guild. During the king’s illness (Nov – Dec, 1928) Queen Mary headed the list of six counsellors appointed to act for him during his illness. She kept up many public and philanthropic duties even after the death of her husband (1936). With the abdication of her eldest son Edward VIII in order to fulfill his desire to marry Mrs Simpson, the queen mother applied her wide experience to strengthening the position of the monarchy throughout the reign of her son George VI. In this endeavour she was ably seconded by her daughter-in-law, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyons. During World War II the queen mother spent several years at Badminton, the home of her niece the Duchess of Beaufort. Queen Mary died (March 24, 1953) at Marlborough House, London, three months before the coronation of her granddaughter Elizabeth II. Her diaries and letters to her favourite maternal aunt the Grand Duchess Augusta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, have survived. Mary was played by actress Judy Loe in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series Edward VII (1975) with Timothy West in the title role. In the television movie The Lost Prince (2003) which detailed the life of Mary's youngest son Prince John, the queen was portrayed by Miranda Richardson with Tom Hollander as George V.

Mary of York – (1467 – 1482)
English Plantagenet princess
Princess Mary was born (Aug, 1467) at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, the second daughter and second child of King Edward IV and his wife Elizabeth Woodville, the widow of Sir John Grey of Groby. Her maternal grandmother, Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, was present at her christening caremony (Aug 12). Mary was sister to the murdered child king, Edward V and maternal aunt to Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). Princess Mary was blonde-haired and attractive, like her sisters, she was raised at Sheen Palace under the supervision of her governess, Lady Berners. When her father was forced to flee abroad (1470 – 1471) Mary and her sisters fled to the safety of Westminster Abbey, to avoid capture by the Lancastrians. With her father’s eventual success and restoration, the queen and princesses returned to the court (April, 1471). By the terms of the Treaty of Picquigny (Aug, 1475) it was agreed that her elder sister Elizabeth should be married to the future Charles VIII of France, with a jointure of sixty thousand a year provided by Louis XI. This same betrothal contract provided that if Elizabeth should die before the marriage could take place, then Mary would take her sister’s place. Her father’s will of the same years guaranteed Elizabeth and Mary the sum of ten thousand marks annually from the revenues of the duchy of Lancaster. Mary was later betrothed (1481) to marry Frederik I, King of Denmark. However the proposed marriage never took place because of her early death. Princess Mary of York died (May 23, 1482) aged only fourteen, at Greenwich Palace, near London. She was interred within St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Mary Plantagenet (1) – (1278 – 1332)
Princess of England, traveller and nun
Princess Mary was born (March 11 or April 22, 1278) at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, one of the younger daughters of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor, the daughter of Ferdinando II, king of Castile and Leon. Mary was always designated for the religious life from early childhood (1282) and was finally sent to the royal abbey of Amesbury in Wiltshire to become a nun (1285) under the supervision of her grandmother, Eleanor of Provence, the widow of Henry III. She had been originally intended to be prioress of the abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault in France, but the decision lay with her grandmother, who decided to keep the child in England with her family. She was granted appropriate revenues so she could be maintained at Amesbury in royal style, and received an allowance from the royal wardrobe.
Mary was professed a nun several years afterwards (1289), and Amesbury became her principal residence, though she was by no means confined there. She attended the Easter festival with the royal family at Woodstock Palace (1290). With the death of her grandmother, Eleanor of Provence (1291) her income was doubled. She was later elected as prioress (1294) a position she retained until her death. Her half-sister Eleanor, the daughter of Margaret of Valois, was placed under her care there (1308 – 1311). Princess Mary travelled quite often, with members of her family, both young and old, and had a fondness for gambling. She was a lover of the minstrels and court poets, and encouraged these arts as far as she was able. She was a patroness of literature, and the chronicler Nicholas Trivet dedicated one of his works to her. She acted as chief mourner at the funeral of her sister Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford (1316). Princess Mary died (July 8, 1332) aged fifty-four, at Amesbury, and was buried there. She was the only one of Edward I’s numerous children to survive past fifty years of age.

Mary Plantagenet (2) – (1344 – 1362)
English princess and duchess consort of Brittany (1361 – 1362)
Princess Mary was born (Oct 10, 1344) at Waltham, near Winchester, Hants, the fourth daughter of Edward III, and his wife Philippa, the daughter of William III, count of Hainault. Princess Mary was married (1361) at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, to Jean IV (1339 – 1399), Duke of Brittany, as his first wife, being attired in cloth of gold from Lucca, which was adorned with ermine. There were no children. A marriage between one of Edward’s daughters and Jean de Montfort of Brittany had been planned as early as 1341. Mary’s birth denoted her as the future duchess of Brittany, and her future husband was raised at the English court with her, in preperation for their marriage. Her husband succeeded his father as duke of Brittany (1345) and Mary was styled duchess consort. She then resided with her own household at Tickhill Castle in York, and received and entertained her mother-in-law, the Countess of Montfort, and her daughter Joan there (1348). She later visited her sister-in-law, Blanche of Lancaster, at Leicester Castle, during the time of her first confinement (1360). Duchess Mary died aged eighteen, perhaps a victim of the plague, after being married for only thirty weeks, without ever having visited the Breton court. She was buried in Abingdon Abbey, Oxon. Her effigy is preserved on the south side of her father’s monument in Westminster Abbey, London, which shows a shield with the arms of Brittany, impaled with those of England.

Mary Stuart (1) – (1382 – 1458)
Princess of Scotland
Princess Mary was the second daughter of King Robert III (1390 – 1406), and his wife Annabella, the daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall. Her betrothal (1397) to George Douglas (1377 – 1402), first Earl of Angus, was arranged by his mother, the Countess Margaret of Angus, who oversaw the marriage contract. Angus was taken prisoner at the battle of Homildon Hill, and died of the plague in England (1402). Before this Mary had borne him two children,

Princess Mary was remarried secondly (1404) to Sir James Kennedy of Dunure, to whom she bore three sons, of whom the second son Gilbert (1405 – 1479), first Baron Kennedy of Dunure, was ancestor of the marquesses of Ailsa, whilst the third, James Kennedy (1408 – 1465) became Bishop of St Andrews, and filled an important position during the reign of James II (1437 – 1460). Sir James Kennedy was killed (Nov 8, 1408). The princess had a papal dispensation (1409) to remarry a third time to Sir William Cunningham (died 1415), as his second wife, but there is no evidence this marriage ever took place. She finally remarried fourthly (1413) to William Graham (died 1423), first Baron Graham of Edmonstone. Her eldest son from this marriage was ancestor of the dukes of Montrose, whilst the second son became the first Archbishop of St Andrews. Her fifth and last husband (1425) was Sir William Edmonstone, of Duntreath and Culloden, by whom Princess Mary became the ancestress of the present day owners of the estate of Duntreath. Princess Mary died aged seventy-six, and was buried with her last husband in the Church of Strathblane. She was ancestress of ‘Bonnie Dundee,’ John Graham of Claverhouse, viscount Dundee, who fell at the battle of Killiecrankie (May, 1689).

Mary Stuart (2) – (1432 – 1465)
Princess of Scotland
Princess Mary was the fifth daughter of James I, King of Scotland (1406 – 1437) and his wife Lady Joan Beaufort, the daughter of Sir John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset. Her mother was the granddaughter of Edward III of England (1327 – 1377). With the discovery by Parliament of her mother’s second marriage with Sir John Stewart of Lorne (1439), Mary and her sisters Eleonore and Annabella, and their brother James II, were removed to Stirling Castle. When the Scottish council decided that an alliance with Holland was desirable, Princess Mary was married (1444) to the important Flemish nobleman, Wolfran van Borselen (1429 – 1487), who was count of Campte-Vere in Zeeland. At the time of her marriage James II granted Mary the title of Countess of Buchan, and van Borselen is said to have been styled Earl of Buchan in her right, though no documentary proof of this claim can be found. Mary kept Christmas of 1446 with her brother at Stirling, and was present at her marriage with Mary of Gueldres (1449). Her two sons died young. Princess Mary died (March 20, 1465) aged thirty-two.

Mary Stuart (3) – (1452 – 1488)
Princess of Scotland
Princess Mary was born (May 16, 1452) the eldest daughter of King James II (1437 – 1460) and his wife Mary, the daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres. Princess Mary was married firstly (1467) to Thomas Boyd, the son Lord Robert Boyd, the king’s governor, and received the Island of Arran and the sheriffdom of Bute as her dowry, whilst Thomas was created first earl of Arran. When her husband left Scotland to accompany the king’s bride Margaret of Denmark to the Scottish court (1469), jealous nobles prevailed upon the young king to think badly of Arran. Princess Mary met the royal vessel at Leith, and after informing her husband of the situation, came aboard and accompanied him to Denmark, where they were received with great kindness by King Christian I and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. Sometime prior to 1471, the princess returned to Scotland, where James declared her marriage null and void, and caused her to be remarried to the elderly lord, James Hamilton (c1398 – 1479), a man old enough to be her grandfather “…although her husband, Thomas Boyd, was neither dead nor divorced from her.” With Boyd’s death (1473), Mary’s marriage with Hamilton was solemnized a second time (April, 1474) for the sake of the legitimacy of their children, and a papal dispensation was later granted to the couple (April, 1476). Princess Mary died (May, 1488) aged thirty-six.
The marriages of this princess were of great importance to the Stuart dynasty nearly seventy years later. With the death of James V and the accession of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots (1542), if she had not survived infancy, the throne would have passed to Princess Mary’s grandson, the Earl of Arran, as the next heir by blood. However, complications from his father’s various marriages rendered Arran illegitimate. Then the succession was vested in the Lennox Stuarts, who were directly descended from Mary Stuart and Lord Hamilton, through the female line. Her children by Lord Arran were,

Her children by Hamilton were,

Mary Stuart (4) – (1542 – 1587) 
Queen regnant of Scotland
Princess Mary was born at Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, the only surviving child of King James V, and his second wife Mary of Guise, the widow of Louis d’Orleans, Duc de Longueville. Her father died after the battle of Solway Moss, when she was only a week old, and she was then proclaimed queen. She was crowned queen in the chapel of Stirling Castle when she nine months old (Sept 9, 1543). Her betrothal to Prince Edward, the son of Henry VIII of England was annulled by the Scottish parliament, precipitating a war with England, which culminated with the Scottish defeat at Pinkie Cleugh (1547). Offerred in marriage to the French Dauphin Francois, the heir of Henry II, she was sent to France to be brought up at the court of Catherine de Medici. They were married in 1558, her marriage treaty containing the secret clause by which, if she died childless, both Scotland and her right of succession to the English crown would pass to France. The dauphin succeeded as King Francois II after the death of his father in a tournament (1559). But Francois died in 1560, leaving Mary a childless widow. The death of her mother in the same year necessitated her return to her Scottish kingdom, which was rent with unrest. Protestant riots even threatened the celebration of mass in her private chapel at Holyrood.
As queen, her chief advisers were her illegitimate hal-brother James Stewart, earl of Moray, and the talented diplomatist, William Maitland of Lethington. A Catholic with a clear dynastic aim, Mary wished to see her ambitions for the English throne fulfilled, and in 1565, she married her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, by whom she became pregnant. However, disgusted by his debauched behaviour, Mary attempted to live apart from him. The vicious murder of David Rizzio, her Italian secretary, perpetrated by Lord Darnley and a group of Protestant nobles which included James Morton and William Ruthven, in her very prescence (1566) confirmed the perilousness of her position. She gave birth to her only surviving child, James VI and I (1566 – 1625) but this auspicious event did not succeed in bringing the couple together.  Darnley refused to attend the child’s Catholic baptism. Divorce was openly discussed and Darnley talked of leaving the country. When Darnley, who was recovering from an attack of smallpox, was found strangled after an explosion at Kirk o’Field, in Glasgow (Feb 10, 1567), the chief suspect was Lord Bothwell, who underwent a mock trial and was acquitted. The extent of Mary’s aforeknowledge and involvement remains unclear to this day, but after only three months she succumbed to her infatuation and remarried the recently divorced Bothwell, a fatal error, that united all her enemies together around her. Forced to surrender at Carberry hill (June 15, 1567), she sufferred the insults of the mob in Edinburgh before she was imprisoned on the island of Lochleven. There she was compelled to abdicate in favour of her son, under the regency of her half-brother Lord Moray. In 1568 Mary managed to affect her escape from Lochleven, and managed to raise an army in an attempt to regain her throne. Defeated at Langside, near Glasgow, she placed herself under the protection of Queen Elizabeth I and was incarcerated for life.
Her prescence in England served to stimulate numerous Catholic plots against Elizabeth, such as the Ridolfi plot (1571), but her guilt could not be established. Finally, after the failure of the Babington conspiracy (1586), she was brought to trial for treason, on evidence brought to light by Sir Francis Walsingham. Found guilty, she executed in dramatic style at Fotheringhay Castle, in Northamptonshire. She was originally interred in Peterborough Cathedral, but was later re-interred in the Chapel of Henry VII, in Westminster Abbey, London (1612). Mary Stuart’s beauty and personal accomplishments were considerable, she spoke and read six lanuages fluently including Greek and Italian, played various musical instruments, wrote poetic verse and possessed a private library of over three hundred volumes. Queen Mary was portrayed on the screen by Vanessa Redgrave in Mary, Queen of Scots (1971) and by Samantha Morton in Elizabeth : The Golden Age (2007) with Cate Blanchett.

Mary Stuart (5) – (1605 – 1607)
Princess of England and Scotland
Princess Mary was born (April 8, 1605) at Greenwich Palace, Kent, the third daughter of James I, King of Great Britain (1603 – 1625) (James VI of Scotland. Her mother was Anne, the daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark, and she was named for her grandmother, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Her health at birth was such that her baptism had to be postphoned. Her godparents were her uncle, the Danish Prince Ulric, Bishop of Schleswig, and Lady Arbella Stuart. After this she was placed under the care of Lord and Lady Knyvett at Stanwell Park, near Staines, Middlesex. In Aug, 1607 she developed a violent fever, which lasted three weeks, though neither parents visited the sick child. Princess Mary died (Sept 16, 1607) aged two years, at Stanwell Park, near London. She was interred within the Chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey, London, beside her younger sister Sophia, who had predeceased her (1606). Her monument, executed by Maximilian Colt, portrayed the princess resting on her arm, wearing a full skirt, a stomacher, and a French cap.

Mary Stuart (6) – (1685 – 1687)
Princess of England and Scotland
Princess Mary stuart was born (June 2, 1685) at Whitehall Palace in London, the eldest daughter of Anne Stuart, Princess of York (Queen Anne from 1702) and her husband Prince George of Denmark, the younger son of Frederik III, King of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were King James II (1685 – 1688) and his first wife Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, the daughter of Sir Edward Hyde, first Earl of Clarendon, the advisor of King Charles II. She bore the additional style and title of Princess of Denmark. The day after her birth she was christened by Henry Compton, Bishop of London (June 3). She remained healthy at first but by May, 1686 she began to decline and eventually spitting blood. Princess Mary died (Feb 8, 1687) at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, six days after the death of her younger sister Anne Sophia (Feb 2). She was interred within the vault of Mary, Queen of Scotls in the Chapel of Henry VII within Westminster Abbey, London.

Mary Tudor – (1495 – 1533) 
Queen consort of France (1514 – 1515)
Princess Mary Tudor was born (March 18, 1495) probably at Westminster Palace, London, the third, but second surviving daughter of Henry VII (1485 – 1509) and his wife Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV (1461 – 1483). Her year of birth is sometimes given as 1496 or 1498, but the correct date was recorded by her her paternal grandmother, Margaret Beaufort, in her won Book of Hours, and Lady Margaret herself would have been present during the birth. Famous for her beauty, she was the favourite sister of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) and was popularly known as ‘Mary Rose’ (Mary the Tudor Rose). She was betrothed for several years (1507 – 1514) to the emperor Charles V. Instead she became the second wife (1514) of the elderly Louis XII d’Orleans (1462 – 1515), King of France (1498 – 1515). The marriage took place by proxy at the Greyfriars Church in Greenwich Palace (Aug, 1514) after which Mary travelled in state by sea to France. There she was married to the king in person (Oct 9) at Abbeville Cathedral, and was then crowned queen (Nov 5) at the Cathedral of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris. King Louis’s death two months afterwards left her childless.
Queen Mary quickly and secretly remarried in the chapel of the Palace of Cluny, to Charles Brandon, first Duke of Suffolk (1484 – 1545), as his third wife, claiming that she had been given her royal brother’s tacit consent that when she became a widow, she could choose her next husband. They were publicly married (May 13, 1515) at Greenwich Palace, and eventually, after a descent period of disgrace, Henry graciously forgave the couple, and they were welcomed at court. Despite her second marriage Mary was always referred to by her regal title and the heraldic symbols of a queen of France. Her litter was decorated with the fleur-de-lys and royal monograms. Queen Mary bore Brandon several children, Henry (1516 – 1534), Earl of Lincoln, Frances (1517 – 1559) and Eleanor (1519 – 1547). Their son died unmarried and childless, and through her eldest daughter Frances, wife of Henry Grey (1517 – 1554), and Duke of Suffolk in her right, Queen Mary became grandmother of the ill-fated Lady Jane Grey (1537 – 1554). A firm friend of her brother’s first wife, Catharine of Aragon, she detested Anne Boleyn, and was one of the few people at court able to speak her mind to Henry on this matter. This led to a permanent rift between the queen and her brother, and she retired from the court to reside on her husband’s estates. Many of her holograph letters have survived. Queen Mary died (June 24, 1533) aged thirty-eight, at Westhorpe Hall, Suffolk. She was buried firstly at the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk, but when that abbey was dissolved (1538) her remains were later removed to the Church of St Mary in Bury St Edmunds. A painted window, depicting scenes from Queen Mary’s life, was later presented by the church to Queen Victoria (1881). Her illuminated Book of Hours was preserved at Queen’s College, Oxford. She appears in the historical romance The Other Boleyn Girl (2001) by Philippa Gregory.

Maryam Begum – (c1640 – after 1719)
Persian Safavid princess
Maryam Begum was the elder daughter of the Emperor Safi I (c1611 – 1642). She was married to a nobleman named Sadr, and became an extremely prominent and powerful figure in Persian politics. She was instrumental in securing the succession to the throne for her nephew Sultan Husayn (1694) and was still living over two decades afterwards, being held in high regard.

Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elisabeth – (1833 – 1897)
British Hanoverian princess
Princess Mary Adelaide was born (Nov 27, 1833) in Hanover, Germany, the second and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, a younger son of King George III (1760 – 1820), and his wife Augusta of Hesse-Kassel. Though possessed of beauty and a vivacious, kindly personality, she did not marry to after the age of thirty, due to her corpulence. She became the wife (1866) at Kew, Surrey, of Franz Paul, Duke of Teck (1837 – 1900), to whom she bore several children including Mary of Teck, the wife of George V. Beloved by the people for her jolly nature and philanthropic activities, the duchess was viewed with some disapproval by her cousin, Queen Victoria. Princess Mary Adelaide died (Oct 27, 1897) aged sixty-three, at the White Lodge, Richmond Park, in Surrey. Her four children were,

‘Maryan’   see   Descard, Maria

Mary Beatrice Anne Margaret Isabel – (1658 – 1718)
Queen of England (1685 – 1688)
Princess Maria Beatrice d’Este was born Oct 5, 1658) in Modena, the only daughter of Alfonso IV d’Este, Duke of Modena and Ferrara, and his wife Laura Martinozzi, the niece of Cardinal Mazarin. Brought up strictly by Catholic nuns, she became the second wife (1673) of James, Duke of York (1633 – 1701), the brother and heir of Charles II of England, the match being suggested by Louis XIV of France. With the death of his brother (1685) the duke of York became King James II, but his Catholicism and that of the queen made them both highly unpopular figures. Her five daughters all died in infancy, but in 1688 Queen Mary Beatrice finally gave birth to a healthy son and heir, James Edward Francis Stuart, Prince of Wales, known to history as ‘The Old Pretender.’ Scandal and anti-Catholic propaganda said that the prince was a suppostitious child, brought into the queen’s bed in a warming-pan, and foisted on the English to ensure a Catholic heir. The king’s son-in-law William of Orange (William III) used this story as a pretext to his successful takeover of the throne in the so-called ‘Glorious Revolution.’ (1688). She has been condemned by historians for urging James to join her in France, when it was in his manifest interest to remain in England and fight for his crown. The queen fled to France with her infant son by boat, accompanied by her lady-in-waiting Vittoria Davia. James joined her there shortly afterwards.
The family were treated well by Louis XIV, who granted them the Chateau de St Germain as their residence. She caused her husband’s former mistress, Catharine Sedley, to return to England, and her last child Louisa Maria Teresa, was born in exile (1692). Widowed in 1701, Queen Mary Beatrice remained at St Germain, and became closely associated with the convent of the Visitation at Chaillot, especially after the death of her daughter (1712). Her health then began to fail. Queen Mary Beatrice died (May 8, 1718) aged fifty-nine, at Chaillot, and was interred in the abbey of the Visitation of St Marie with her husband, though their tomb was destroyed during the French Revolution. Of her twelve children, five were stillborn. The other seven were,

Mary Henrietta Stuart – (1631 – 1660)
Princess Royal of Great Britain
Princess Mary Henrietta was born (Nov 4, 1631) at the Palace of St James’s in London, the eldest daughter of King Charles I (1625 – 1649) and his wife Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV, King of France (1589 – 1610). Her governess was the Countess of Roxburgh and Mary was the first to bear the official title of ‘Princess Royal.’ She excelled at dancing but not at intellectual pursuits. The first proposal that Mary should become the wife of William II (1626 – 1650), Prince of Orange (1647 – 1650) was rejcted (1640) as Charles I had been hoping to arrange a match for her with Philip IV of Spain. When Philip married Mariana Victoria of Austria instead the king sanctioned the earlier marriage with William of Orange which was celebrated at Whitehall Palace (1641). Her dower was settled at ten thousand pounds.
Queen Henrietta Maria accompanied her daughter to Holland (1642) where the new princess fulfilled all her state functions with a solemness and decorum remarkable for a girl of only eleven years. Her husband succeeded as Stadholder of Holland (1647) and their only child William III of Orange (1650 – 1702), who was born posthumously, became King of England (1688 – 1702) after marriage (1677) with his cousin Queen Mary II, the eldest daughter of James II. Always unpopular in Holland the princess never bothered to learn the Dutch language and disliked the Dutch because of their sympathy with Oliver Cromwell. Nevertheless she retained guardianship of her son by decree (1651) by aroused the jealousy of the states because of the financial assistance she provided to her two brothers Charles and James during their exile, some of which was spent at the Dutch court of The Hague. To save expense at the interests of her brothers Princess Mary resigned two of her dower residences, keeping only Breda and Hanslandyke. The princess then travelled throughout Flanders and Germany for several years (1654 – 1655) before visiting Paris (Jan, 1656) where she was received with all the honours due to visiting royalty. She finally returned to Breda (Feb, 1657).
Princess Mary declined all other offers of marriage and at length was forced to dismiss George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham from her court to cease his importunement of his in this matter. Successive proposals made by Carlo Emanuele II, Duke of Savoy, Duke Ernst Augustus of Brunswick and Duke George Wilhelm of Celle were all politely refused. When her brother Charles II received the invitiation from the English Parliament to return home as sovereign Princess Mary accompanied him to Scheveling from when he sailed home (May, 1660). After making arrangements for her son William’s education and care the princess sailed for England to visit the court there (Sept, 1660). Parliament gave her the present of ten thousand pounds but her homecoming was ruined when she received news that her brother James had rashly married Anne Hyde, Mary’s former lady-in-waiting, so she curtailed her visit. However she contracted smallpox and died (Dec 24, 1660) aged twenty-nine. She was buried in the vault of Mary, Queen of Scots in the Chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey, London.

Mary Leo, Sister    see   Niccol, Dame Kathleen Agnes

Mary Magdalen – (c3 – c63 AD) 
Jewish Christian figure
Mary Magdalen was born probably at Magdala on the west coast of the Sea of Galilee. She was supposedly a prostitute and harlot, and the bible records that Jesus Christ exorcized seven evil spirits from her (Luke 8: 2) and he famously saved her from death at the hands of angry and self-righteous mob. Mary Magdalen was present at the crucifixion (c29 AD) and was the first to visit the empty tomb in Gethsemane, and the first to encounter the risen Christ, whom she first mistook for a gardener. She has been identified with the woman who annointed the feet of Christ and dried them with her hair. This in particular has led some modern theologians to concur that Mary Magdalen may actually have been the wife of Christ. She is said to have gone to Greece with John the Evangelist, and later gone to reside at Marseilles in Gaul (France), where she later died during the reign of the Emperor Nero, aged about sixty. The church honoured her as the archetypal repentant sinner, and her feast was celebrated (July 22).

Mary Virgilius, Sister    see   O’Brien, Clare

Mas – (fl. c140 – c170 AD)
Graeco-Roman public benefactor
Mas was the wife of Kendeas, patron of the city of Iotape in Cilicia, Asia Minor, and builder of the temple of Poseidon there.Mas built the temple to the local deity Moira from her own finances, as well as paying for the cult statue, and joined with her husband in distributing wine and oil to the citizens and to the council (boule). Because of her munificent benefactions she was honoured as archiereia (a civic and religious honour) of Thea Sebaste Faustina.

Masako (Kane) – (1888 – 1940)
Japanese princess
Princess Masako was born (Sept 30, 1888), the eldest daughter of the Emperor Meiji (1867 – 1912) and his concubine the lady-in-waiting Sono Sachiko. She was half-sister to the Emperor Taisho (1912 – 1926) and was aunt to the Emperor Showa (1926 – 1989) (Hirohito) married (1908) to her cousin, Prince Tsunetisa Takeda (1882 – 1919), whom she survived as Dowager Princess Takeda (1919 – 1940). She was the mother of Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi (1909 – 1992). Princess Masako died (March 8, 1940) aged fifty-one, in Tokyo.

Masako, Tokugawa (Kazuko) – (1607 – 1678)
Japanese empress consort (1620 – 1629)
Tokugawa Masako was born (Nov 23, 1607) the daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada, the second shogun. She became the wife (1620) to the empeorr Go-Mizunoo, and is sometimes known as Empress Kazuko. When her husband abdicated the throne (1629), their daughter, Princess Kazu-no-miya Okiko, reigned for fifteen years (1629 – 1643) as Empress Meisho. At this time the Empress mother assumed the name of Tofukumonin. Famous as a patron of the arts and literature, Empress Masako used her own considerable wealth to support the cities of Edo and Kyoto, and to maintain her own court. She was a talented calligrapher, and penned poetic verses which have survived. Empress Masako died (Aug 2, 1678) aged seventy.

Masekhonyana – (fl. c1820 – 1841)
African queen
Masekhonyana was the daughter of Masekoane, a chief of the Bafokeng. She was married (c1827) to Moshoeshoe I, paramount chief of the Lesotho (c1786 – 1870), as his third wife. Baptised as a Christian, she took the biblical name of Deborah. She became the mother of Prince Sekhonyana (1828 – 1906), and was divorced (c1841) and returned to her people.

Masham, Abigail Hill, Lady – (1670 – 1734)
British courtier and political figure
Abigail Hill was born in London, the daughter of Francis Hill, a Levant merchant, and was cousin to Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough the powerful favourite of Queen Anne. Her father having been ruined by speculation, Abigail had been forced to go into service in the household of Lady Rivers at Chafford, Kent. Her condition was brought to the attention of her powerful cousin, through whose influence Abigail entered the household of Queen Anne as a chambermaid (1700). A subtle intriguer and Tory supporter, Abigail gradually turned the queen against the Marlboroughs to such an extent that by the time of her marriage (1707) to Samuel Masham (Lord Masham of Otes from 1712), she had successfully superseded her cousin as the queen’s confidante and the power behind the throne. Her opinions of church and political matters were in unsion with the queen’s own, whilst her undeviating attentions and compliant manners formed a strong contrast to the conduct of the duchess. The duchess was finally dismissed (Feb, 1711) and Abigail was promoted to keeper of the Privy Purse. With the queen’s death (1714) her influence ended, and with her husband retired from court to live quietly at Langley Marsh. Lady Masham died there (Dec 6, 1734) and was interred at High Lower, Essex.

Masham, Damaris Cudworth, Lady – (1658 – 1708) 
English scholar
Damaris Cudworth was born at Cambridge, the daughter of scholar Ralph Cudworth, and married Sir Francis Masham of Essex, as his second wife (1685). Her stepson Samuel was the husband to Abigail Masham (above) the favourite of Queen Anne. A friend and pupil of the philosopher John Locke from 1682, he later resided with Lady Masham and her husband under their roof for thirteen years (1691 – 1704), and he formed a high opinion of her scholarly and intellectual capabilities. Lady Damaris advocated improved educational opportunities for women, in order to prepare them for their future roles as teachers of children. The English Platonist John Norris of Bemerton, inscribed to Lady Masham his Reflections Upon the Conduct of Human Life (1690), and she wrote several devotional tracts such as Occasional Thoughts in Reference to a Christian Life (1694), an appeal to women to study their religious beliefs in an intelligent manner and Discourse concerning the love of God (1696). Lady Masham was interred in Bath Abbey, Somerset.

Mashamba – (c1610 – c1650) 
African ruler of Bunyoro
Mashamba was the daughter of King Olimi II of Bunyoro in Uganda, and the sister of kings Nyarwa and Cwa I. With the death of her brother Cwa in battle Mashamba ruled as queen regent for her young nephew Kyebambe I. Queen Mashamba was assassinated.

Mashin, Draga      see      Draga Lunyevica

Masina, Giulietta Anna – (1920 – 1994) 
Italian actress
Giulietta Masina was born at San Girogio di Piano, near Bologna. She met the famous director Federico Fellini (1920 – 1993) when they were university students and they later married (1943). Masina made her film debut in the film Paisa (1949), directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906 – 1977). She was her husband’s leading actress, and was best remembered for roles in movies like La Strada (The Road) (1954), Giulietta degli Spiriti (Juliet of the Spirits) (1965) and Ginger e Fred (Ginger and Fred) (1986). Giulietta Masina died (March 23, 1994) aged seventy-three, in Rome.

Masiotene, Ona – (1883 – 1949)
Lithuanian feminist
Born Ona Brazauskaite in Slavenae, she was educated in Russia. She warmly supported the cause of female suffrage, and after her return to her homeland she founded the Alliance of Lithuanian Women. She worked as a teacher in Vilnius and in Moscow, where she became involved in the organization of the Revolution (1917).

Masip i Biosca, Magdalena - (1897 - 1972)
Spanish poet
Magdalena was born in Barcelona, Aragon. She became the wife of shopkeeper Tomas Torrent Orri, with whom she ran a business in Puigcerda. Magdalena Masip i Bioseca wrote two collections of verse which were only published after her death, Retrunys interns (Inner Rumblings) (1976) and Des de Cerdanya (From Cerdanya) (1985).

Maslow, Sophie – (1911 – 2006)
American dancer and choreographer
Maslow was born (March 22, 1911) in New York, and was cousin to the artist Leonard Baskin. She was taught dance by Blanche Talmud and Martha Graham, and was a dancer with Graham’s own company (1931 – 1943). She established her won dance troupes, the Sophie Maslow Dance Company, and the Dudley-Maslow-Beales Trio, which she also co-directed. Influenced by both jazz and popular music, her best known dance work Dust Bowl Ballads (1941), with songs by Woody Guthrie, was inspired by the sufferings of rural people during the Depression. This was followed by Folksay (1942), which had been based upon a poem by Carl Sandburg. Sophie Maslow died (June 25, 2006) aged ninety-five, in Manhattan, New York.

Mason, Belinda – (1958 – 1991)
American AIDS activist
Belinda Mason was a native of Kentucky where she worked as journalist. Mason became infected with the virus after receiving a blood transfusion whilst giving birth to her second child (1987), where upon she became a firm and determined advocate for proper treatment for people sufferring from the disease. Mason founded the Kentuckiana People With AIDS Coalition the first type of public advocacy organization to be established in Kentucky. Later appointed president of the National Association of People With AIDS, President George Bush appointed Mason to head the National Commission of AIDS (1990) where she refused to support government policies that would stigmatize AIDS sufferrers, such as compulsory testing for health-care workers, or refusal of entry into the USA because one had the disease. Belinda Mason died (Sept 9, 1991) in Nashville, Washington.

Mason, Charlotte Maria Shaw – (1842 – 1923) 
British churchwoman and writer
Charlotte Mason was born in Bangor, the daughter of a merchant from Liverpool. She trained as a teacher and was appointed as vice-principal of Bishop Otter College in Chichester. Charlotte later became principal of the House of Education at Ambleside and was the founder of the Parents’ National Education Union (1887) and was editor of the magazine The Parents’ Review. Her published works included An Essay towards a Philosophy of Education (1923). Charlotte Mason died (Jan 16, 1923) aged seventy-nine, at Seale How near Ambleside.

Mason, Harriet – (1845 – 1932)
British civil servant
Marianne Harriet Mason was born at Moreton Hall in Nottinghamshire, the daughter of a rural squire. She educated privately at home by a governess. Mason remained unmarried and worked with the children of the local poor in Nottinghamshire, and with the Girls’ and Young Men’s Friendly Societies. She was appointed to become an inspector for boarded-out children (1885) by the Local Government Board, and was then first female inspector in the Civil Service. She worked tirelessly to secure employment for other women as inspectors and was eventually appointed to head her department (1889 – 1910). Harriet Mason died at Rondebosch in South Africa.

Mason, Hilary – (1917 – 2006)
British stage, film and television actress
Hilary was born (Sept 4, 1917) in London and trained as the London School of Dramatic Art. She appeared in the film Don’t Look Now (1973) directed by cinematographer Nicolas Roeg, as a blind psychic, but most of her career was confined to television. She made appearances in such popular series as Dixon of Dock Green, Z-Cars, Ripping Yarns, and One Foot in the Grave, with Annette Crosbie and Richard Wilson. Mason appeared in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) with Keith Michell and Dorothy Tutin, as Anne Boleyn. Mason played the queen’s unsympathetic aunt, Lady Elizabeth Boleyn who attended her at court and then at her execution. She also appeared as Gladys in the popular children’s program Maid Marian and Her Merry Men. Hilary Mason died (Sept 5, 2006) aged eighty-nine.

Massa, Teodora   see   Gambacorta, Teodora

Massalitinovna, Varvara Osipovna – (1878 – 1945)
Russian actress
Varvara Massalitinovna was the daughter of Osip Massalitinov, she studied drama and theatre at the Moscow Theatre School, from which she graduated (1901). Joining the Malyi theatre, Varvara established a reputation for herself as a popular and talented dramatic actress. From 1918 she worked in films, being best known for her appearances in Gospada Skotining (1927), Groza (1934), Detstvo (1938), and V. Liudiakh (1939). Varvara Massalitinovna died (Oct 20, 1945) aged sixty-seven.

Massalska, Helene Apolline    see   Ligne, Helene Apolline Massalska, Princesse de

Massalsky, Vera Nikolaievna – (1854 – 1897)
Russian Imperial courtier and princess
Vera Massalsky was maid-of-honour to the Empress Marie Feodorovna, wife of Tsar Alexander III, and married the Imperial chancellor Apollon Vasilievitch Priselkov (1859 – 1916). She died in the reign of Nicholas II aged forty-two (March 4, 1897).

Massart, Madame    see   Masson, Louise Aglae

Massen, Osa – (1914 – 2006)
Danish film actress
Born Aase Madsen (Jan 13, 1914) in Copenhagen, she worked as a newspaper photographer prior to turning to career in the movies. She was best remembered for her appearance as Mrs Bellamy opposite Joan Crawford in A Woman’s Face (1941). She appeared opposite Lloyd Bridges in the film Rocketship X-M (1950). She worked in television until her retirement (1962). She resided in Denmark for many years prior to her death. Osa Massen died (Jan 2, 2006) aged ninety-one, in Hollywood, California.

Masserano, Cristina di Savoia, Princess di    see   Cristina of Savoy

Massey, Elizabeth    see   Chidiock, Elizabeth

Massey, Perotine – (c1535 – 1556)
English religious martyr
Perotine was born at St Peter’s Port, on the island of Guernsey. Married and with child, she was arrested and brought to trial, but refused to recant her Protestant religion. Condemned to be burned at the stake, despite her condition, during the persecutions instigated by Mary I, Perotine gave birth in the flames and the child was burnt with her.

Masson, Louise Aglae – (1827 – 1887)
French pianist and educator
Louise Masson was born in Paris. She became the wife of violinist Lambert Massart (1811 – 1892) and the two performed recitals of chamber music together. She later succeeded Louise Farrenc as a teacher at the Paris Conservatoire. Louise Masson died in Paris.

Masticana – (fl. c600)
Roman landowner in northern Africa
Masticana is attested by an extant inscription from Thereste, dated to the time of Bishop Faustinus. Masticana fortified an estate at Henchir Bou Sboa, near Thereste, presumably her own property, and this constructionwas carried out by her on the instructions of the public authorities there. The surviving inscription was placed above the entrance gate to the fortress.

Masuko – (c1161 – 1228)
Japanese empress consort
Masuko was a member of the powerful Fujiwara clan, and became second wife (c1178) of the Emperor Takakura (1161 – 1181). Empress Masuko survived her husband almost five decades as Empress Dowager (1181 – 1228) into the reign of their son, Emperor Go-Taba (1180 – 1239).

Masuyer, Valerie – (1797 – 1878)
French courtier and memoirist
Valerie Masuyer served at the Bonapartist court as lady-in-waiting to Hortense de Beauharnais, the wife of Louis de Bonaparte, King of Holland, stepdaughter of the Emperor Napoleon I and mother of the Emperor Napoleon III. Her memoirs and correspondence were published posthumously as Memoires, letters, et papiers de Valerie Masuyer, dame d’honneur de la reine Hortense, publies, sous le patronage de la famille (1937).

Mata Hari – (1876 – 1917)
Dutch dancer and espionage agent
Born in Leeuwarden as Margaretha Gertruida Zelle, she was married (1895) to a Scottish army officer named Macleod, who was attached to the Dutch colonial army. She travelled with her husband to various appointments until they eventually seperated (1905). Madame Macleod trained as a dancer in Paris, and possessed of some beauty, she created notoriety for herself by appearing on stage in semi-nude roles. Her private life was chaotic and she encouraged lovers from both the military and government circles. She was arrested and found guilty of spying for the Germans and was shot in Paris. Though her name has become synonymous with the espionage game, the true facts concerning her activities remain uncertain.

Matenga, Huria – (c1840 – 1909)
Maori heroine
Huria Matenga was born at Whakapuaka, near Nelson, the granddaughter of the famous warrioe, Ngati Tama to Puoho-o-te-rangi. She married (1858) Hemi Matenga Wai-punahau, but remained childless. When the brig Delaware was dashed on the rocks at Whakapuaka (Sept, 1863), Matenga was one of those who swam out to pick a lead line thrown by the captain of the vessel. Eventually Huria and two companions swam into the raging surf, and all but one of the crew was safely rescued. Her youthful beauty and courage captured popular imagination, and the colonial government publicly acknowledged her bravery. Three portraits of her were painted by Gottfried Lindauer. Huria Matenga was herself a woman of standing within the Maori community, and owned large estates in Taranaki, Porirua, and Nelson itself. With her father’s death (1880) she inherited nearly eighteen thousand acres of land at Whakapuaka, much of which she leased to Pakeha farmers. The Native Land Council had granted these lands to Huria Matenga alone (1883). Between 1896 and 1934, over a dozen petitions to Parliament were made objecting to this arrangement by family members. The affair was not settled until 1936. Huria died (April 24, 1909) at Whakapuaka, and was buried there.

Mather, Margaret – (1885 – 1952) 
American photographer
Margaret Mather was born in Utah, near Salt Lake City. She ran away from home and adopted the surname of her adoptive parents. She worked as a prostitute in San Francisco in California before turning to photography as a serious career. Mather opened her own studio in Glendale with fellow photographer Edward Weston (1886 – 1958), and was best known for her still-lifes and nude figures. She later resided with the designer and artist Willaim Justema (1923 – 1927) and retired from commcercial photography in 1930, after which she established herself as a reputable antique dealer.

Mathers, Helen – (1853 – 1920)  
British novelist
Helen Mathers was born at Misterton, near Crewkerne in Somerset. She produced popular works such as Comin’ thro’ the Rye and The Sin of Hagar. Her married name was Reeves. Helen Mathers died (March 11, 1920) aged sixty-six.

Matheson, Annie – (1853 – 1924) 
British poet and author
Annie Matheson was born at Blackheath, near London. She wrote the collection of verse As Months go by and the biography Florence Nightingale. Annie Matheson died (March 16, 1924) aged seventy.

Matheson, Elizabeth Mary Gertrude Keppel, Lady – (1890 – 1986)
British voluntary activist
Lady Elizabeth Keppel was born (Feb 4, 1890), the only daughter of Arnold Allan Cecil Keppel (1858 – 1942), the fifth earl of Albemarle, and his wife Lady Gertrude Lucia Egerton, the only child of Wilbraham, the first Earl Egerton of Tatton. She became the second wife (1923) of General Sir Torquhil George Matheson (died 1963), fifth baronet, to whom she bore two sons. Lady Matheson served during WW I as a nurse with the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment (1915 – 1919) and was mentioned in despatches. In recognition of this service she was awarded the 1915 star, with two medals and was appointed ARRC (Associate of the Royal Red Cross). She survived her husband over two decades as the Dowager Lady Matheson.

Mathew, Ellis – (c1743 – 1781)
Irish beauty
Ellis Smyth was the daughter of James Smyth of Tinney Park, Wicklow, and his wife Mary, the daughter of James Agar of Gowran Castle, Kilkenny, and the sister of Sie Edward Skeffington Smyth, Baronet. Her sister Elisabeth became the wife of Marie Charles de Rohan-Chabot, Comte de Jarnac. Ellis married (1764) Francis Mathew, who became the first earl of Landaff in1797, and became the mother of Francis James Mathew, second and last Earl (1768 – 1833). Before her marriage, she attended the wedding of George III and Queen Charlotte (1761, London) and on this occasion Horace Walpole pronounced her to be a ‘most perfect beauty.’ Her portrait was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Mrs Mathew later visited the French court, where she was received by Louis XV, and attended a famous costume ball held by the Duc de Guines. Ellis Mathew died of dropsy at Thomastown Castle, Tipperary before she was forty.

Mathews, Charlotte – (fl. 1793 – 1794)
British Hanoverian novelist
Charlotte Mathews published the two popular novels Simple Facts; or, The History of an Orphan (1793) and Perplexities, or, The Fortunate Elopement (1794). Charlotte was apparently no connection of fellow novelist Eliza Mathews.

Mathews, Lucia Elisabetta    see   Vestris, Lucia Elisabetta

Mathews, Dame Vera Elvira Sibyl Marie Laughton – (1888 – 1959)
British WRNS director
Vera Laughton was the daughter of the naval historian Sir John Laughton. She was educated by nuns in London and Belgium, for returning to England to finish her education at King’s College in London. A painter and musician of considerable talent, Vera began her career as a journalist, but with the arrival of WW I she joined the WRNS (1917) and was placed in charge of the naval depot at the Crystal Palace. For this service she was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by George V. Vera later travelled to Japan and was married (1924) to Gordon Dewer Mathres, to whom she bore three children. After returning to England, Vera Mathews was appointed a District leader (1928), and then the District (1930) Commissioner of the Girl Guides. During WW II she was appointed as director of the WRNS (1939 – 1946). She was the author of memoirs entitled Blue Tapestry (1948).

Mathieu, Simone – (1909 – 1980) 
French tennis player
Simone Mathieu achieved fame in 1929 when, as a young mother, she nearly succeeded in defeating Helen Wills. In 1933 and 1934 she shared the Wimbledon doubles titl with the American Elizabeth Ryan. She also won the 1938 amd 1939 French singles championships. With the outbreak of World War II, Simone became actively involved in the Free France movement, and eventually became leader of the Volontaire Francaises in London, after the fall of France to the Nazis, and for which she was condemned to death by the Vichy Government (1941). She was awarded the Legion d’Honneur and the Resistance Medal and the War Cross for her work with the French underground. Simone Mathieu died (Jan 9, 1980) in Paris.

Mathilda of Saxony – (955 – 999)
German Imperial princess
Princess Mathilda was born (Dec, 955) the daughter of Emperor Otto I the Great (962 – 973) and his second wife Adelaide of Burgundy. She was the twin sister to the Emperor Otto II, and was aunt to Otto III. She was later appointed Abbess of Quedlinburg (966 - 999), which had been founded by her paternal grandmother, Mathilda of Westphalia, the widow of Emperor Heinrich I the Fowler. Her position as Abbess gave her a prominent seat on the German Diet, and Mathilda remained a powerful political force within the Ottonian Dynasty. She ruled as unofficial regent during the abscence of her father and brother in Italy (968), and during this time she inaugrated a reforming synod at Dornberg with matters concerning the Church in Germany. Mathilda presided over the Imperial Diet held at Quedlinburg (984) when the right of her nephew Otto III to succeed to the throne was disputed by Heinrich II of Bavaria. Mathilda skilfully refuted the claims of Heinrich of Bavaria and her nephew was duly recognized as emperor. Mathilda then ruled as joint regents with Otto's mother the Dowager Empress Theophano and her own mother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide. She organized troops to deal with barbarian invasions, and succeeded in restoring both peace and the Imperial authority. The Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey dedicated his work Res gestae Saxonicae to Princess Mathilda. Mathilda died aged forty-three.

Mathilda of Westphalia – (896 – 968)
Holy Roman empress (919 – 936)
Countess Mathilda was born in Engern, Westphalia, the daughter of Theodoric, Count of Westphalia and Ringelsheim, and his wife Reinilda of Friesland, a Scandinavian princess. She was raised and educated by her paternal grandmother and name sake, Abbess Mathilda at the Abbey of Herford. She became the second wife (909) at Wallhausen of Duke Heinrich of Saxony who later succeeded (919 - 936) as the Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich I the Fowler, and was the mother of Emperor Otto I the Great (912 – 973). Mathilda was Empress Dowager for over three decades (936 – 968). Her marriage with Heirich I produced five children, three sons and two daughters. Mathilda's two younger sons were Duke Heinrich I of Bavaria (917 - 955) and Bruno of Saxony (925 - 965), Archbishop of Cologne (Koln). Her two daughters were Gerberga of Saxony, the wife of Louis IV of France, and mother of King Lothair of France (954 - 986), and Hedwig of Saxony, the third wife of Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris, and the mother of King Hugh Capet (987 - 996).
Though a pious and earnestly religious woman, she caused divisions within the family because of her preference for her younger son, Heinrich I the Quarrelsome, Duke of Bavaria. She quarrelled with her daughter-in-law the English princess Edith, and left the Imperial court for a time, and resided on her dower estates. This breach was later healed by Edith's successor, Adelaide of Burgundy. Empress Mathilda founded the abbey of Quedlinburg near Halberstadt in Germany, as a convent of nobly born canonesses, and upset both of her sons because of her extravagant grants of lands and estates to the church. Empress Mathilda died (March 14, 968) aged seventy-one, at Quedlinburg. She was buried at Qudelinburg with her husband in the Chapel of St Servatius. Empress Mathilda was venerated as a saint (March 14) and two vitae were written concerning her life, vita antiquior (c974) and vita posterior (c1003).

Mathilde de Bonaparte     see    Bonaparte, Mathilde de

Mathilde of Saxony – (1863 – 1933)
German princess
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Mathilde Marie Augusta Victoria Leopoldine Caroline Louise Franziska Josepha was born (March 19, 1863) in Dresden, the third daughter of George I, King of Saxony (1902 – 1904) and his wife the Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal, the daughter of Maria II da Gloria, Queen of Portugal and her second husband Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg. She was the sister of Friedrich Augustus III, the last reigning King of Saxony (1904 – 1918) and bore the additional title of Duchess of Saxony. The Princess Mathilde showed a talent for drawing and painting as a young woman and became a creditable artist. Some of her works have survived. Despite many suggested marriages she ultimately remained unmarried. She survived the fall of the monarchy (1918) and retained certain of her properties. Mathilde remained resident in Saxony and died (March 27, 1933) aged seventy, in Dresden.

Matidia, Mindia – (c82 – after 161 AD)
Roman Imperial princess
Mindia Matidia was the daughter of Mindius and his wife Matidia Salonina, the niece of the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD). Her half-sister Sabina was the wife of the Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD). Matidia never married, and remained a much venerated figure at the Imperial court until her death. The details of her notable, and rather troublesome will, were recorded by M. Cornelius Fronto. Her will had been tampered with after her death, and as the main beneficiaries were the empress Faustina II and her daughters, and the emperor Marcus Aurelius having to judge the case, it was fraught with embarassment for the Imperial family. She was portrayed on the coinage which commemorated her mother, Marciana (112 AD).

Matidia Salonina – (c63 – 122 AD)
Roman Augusta
Matidia Salonina was the daughter of C. Saloninus Matidius Patruinous and his wife Marciana, sister to the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD). She was married firstly to Mindius, and secondly to Lucius Vibius Sabinus, and was the mother of Mindia Matidia and of Vibia Sabina, wife to the Emperor Hadrian. Matidia Salonina was accorded the Imperial title on the same day as the death of her mother, Augusta Marciana (Aug 29, 112 AD), and later (117 AD), with the empress Plotina and the praetorian prefect Acilius Attianus, she escorted Trajan’s remains to Rome. The empress died aged about sixty (Dec 23, 122 AD) and was deified by her son-in-law, who erected a commemorative temple for her in Rome. She is represented on surviving coinage.

Matignon, Edmee Charlotte de Brenne de Bombon, Marquise de – (c1700 – 1756)
French courtier
A member of the court of Louis XV at Versailles, Edmee Charlotte de Brenne became the wife (1720) of Marie Thomas Auguste de Goyon de Matignon, Marquis de Matignon. The marquise attended the scandalous Regency court of Philippe II d’Orleans during her youth, but later became a member of the court of Louis XV and his mistress, Madame de Pompadour. The comtesse was mentioned in the correspondence of the noted British antiquarian Sir Horace Walpole.

Matilda    see also    Mafalda, Mathilda, Mechtild

Matilda d’Este – (1729 – 1803)
Italian princess
Princess Matilda was born at Genoa, the daughter of Francesco III, Duke of Modena (1737 – 1780) and his first wife Charlotte Aglae d'Orleans, the daughter of the French regent Philipe II d’Orleans, and sister to Duke Ercole III. Proposed as a bride for the young Pretender Charles Edward Stuart, her father considered endowing her with the duchy of Novellara. However, the prince’s prospects after 1745 paled considerably, and the marriage never eventuated. She remained unmarried. Princess Matilda died (Nov 14, 1803) aged seventy-four, at Treviso.

Matilda of Apulia – (1059 – 1112)
Norman princess
Matilda was the eldest daughter of Robert Guiscard of Hauteville, Count and Duke of Apulia, and his second wife Sichelgaita of Salerno. She was married firstly (1078) to Ramon Berengar II el Grande (c1055 – 1082) Count of Barcelona (1076 – 1082), their betrothal being recorded in the Alexiad of Anna Komnena, though the intended bride’s name was not recorded. The Catalonians called her ‘Mahalta.’ Countess Matilda was the mother of his son and heir, Ramon Berengar III the Great (1080 – 1131), who succeeded his father as count of Barcelona (1082 – 1131) whilst an infant. After the murder of Count Ramon Berengar (Dec, 1082) by his half-brother, the rights of the countess and her infant son were strongly defended by Guillem Ramon, the Seneschal of Catalonia. The countess was remarried to Amalric II (Amaury), Vicomte of Narbonne and was the mother of his son Vicomte Amaury II (1106 – 1134). Her second husband died whilst on crusade in the East (1106) and she survived him as Dowager Vicomtesse of Narbonne (1106 – 1112). Countess Matilda was the great-grandmother of Alfonso II, King of Aragon (1162 – 1195) and was ancestress of Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III, King of England (1216 – 1272) from whom she left many descendants.

Matilda of Aragon   see   Sanchia of Aragon (1)

Matilda of Arneburg – (c915 – 991)
German countess
Matilda was the daughter of Count Bruno of Arneburg, and his wife Frideruna of Westphalia (later the wife of Wichmann I, count of Saxony). Her mother was sister to the Empress Mathilda, the mother of Emperor Henry I (919 – 936). Matilda was married (c930) to Count Lothair II of Walbeck (c910 – 986), whom she survived as Countess Dowager of Arneburg (986 – 991). Through the marriages of the various children, the countess became ancestress of most of the royal and aristocratic dynasties of Europe. Countess Matilda died (Dec 3, 991) aged about seventy-five. Her children were,

Matilda of Blois – (1133 – 1138)
Anglo-Norman princess
Matilda was the elder daughter of Stephen of Blois, King of England (1135 – 1154), and his wife Matilda, the daughter of Eustace III, count of Boulogne. Her mother was niece to St Margaret of Scotland. Matilda was married in infancy (Easter, 1136) to Waleran de Beaumont (1104 – 1168), Earl of Meulan, a powerful nobleman three decades her senior, who received the lands and earldom of Worcester as her dowry, but she remained in the household of her mother, Queen Matilda. This arrangement ended with her early death. Princess Matilda died aged five years, in the Tower of London. Matilda was interred in the Priory of the Holy Trinity without Aldgate, London, on the south side of the altar, beside her eldest brother Prince Baldwin (1126 – 1135). Their mother later founded the church and hospital of St Katherine’s, near the Tower, for the benefit of the souls of Matilda and Baldwin. King Stephen gave the manor of Bracking in Hertfordshire to the canons of the Holy Trinity, for prayers to be said on behalf of his two children.

Matilda of Boulogne – (c1105 – 1152) 
Queen consort of England (1135 - 1152)
Matilda was the only child and heiress of Eustace III, count of Boulogne, and his wife Mary, the younger daughter of Malcom III, king of Scotland, and his wife St Margaret. She became the wife (c1116) to Stephen of Blois (1096 – 1154), a grandson of William I the Conqueror, to whom she bore several children, including Eustace IV, count of Boulogne, Duke of Normandy, who ruled England jointly with his father as king (1152 – 1153). Queen Matilda inherited the county of Boulogne and considerable properties in England. Queen Matilda worked hard to support her rather useless husband, and arranged his reconciliation with her uncle, David I of Scotland (1139). The queen also negotiated the marriage of her son Eustace with Constance Capet, the daughter of Louis VI of France (1140). She later raised an army and secured the exchange of King Stephen when he had been captured by the empress Matilda (1141). Her only surviving child was Mary of Blois.

Matilda of Brunswick – (1025 – 1044)
Queen consort of France (1034 – 1044)
Matilda was the elder daughter of Luidolf of Brunswick, Margrave of Friesland, and his wife Gertrude of Egisheim, the daughter of Hugh VI, Count of Egisheim and Nordgau. She became the second wife (1034) of the French king Henry I (1032 – 1060) and the Norman historian Rodolfus Glaber referred to the new queen as Mathildem ….. de regno eius ex Germanie nobilioribus. Queen Matilda remained childless, and died in Paris, aged nineteen, being interred in the Abbey of Rheims, at Marne, near Paris. Her tomb was destroyed during the Revolution.

Matilda of Burgundy – (982 – 1005)
French mediaeval princess
Matilda was the eldest daughter of Otto I William of Burgundy, King of Lombardy and his first wife Ermengarde of Roucy, the wife of Alberic I, Count of Macon and daughter of Rainald, Count of Roucy and Alberada of Lorraine, the stepdaughter of Louis IV, King of France (936 – 954). She became the second wife (992) of Landeric III de Monceau (c965 – 1028), Count of Nevers and seneschal of France. Landeric received the county of Nevers as Matilda’s dowry. Countess Matilda died (Nov 13, 1005) aged twenty-three, and was buried in the Abbey of St Stephen at Auxerre in Burgundy. Her three sons included Rainald I (c997 – 1040) who succeeded his father as Count of Nevers (1028 – 1040) and left issue.

Matilda of Chalons – (c959 – after 1016)
French heiress
Matilda was the daughter of Lambert of Autun, Count of Chalons, and his wife Adelaide of Vergy, later the wife of Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou. Matilda was married firstly (c974) to Geoffrey I, count of Semur, as his first wife, to whom she bore several children. He later divorced her and she became the third wife (c993) of Henry Capet, Duke of Burgundy (c945 – 1002). Matilda inherited a claim to the important county of Chalons. Her daughter Aremburga of Burgundy, fathered by her second husband, was married to Dalmas I of Semur, the son of her first husband and his second wife. This family genealogy provides a detailed and intricate example of medieval dynastic politics.

Matilda of Cuiseaux – (c1100 – 1137)
French countess consort of Geneva (1134 – 1137)
Matilda was the daughter of Hugh, Seigneur de Cuiseaux. She became the first wife (before 1130) of Amadeus of Geneva (c1095 – 11780, who succeeded his brother Gerald II as the reigning count of Geneva (1134). Countess Matilda died (before July 2, 1137). Her children were,

Matilda of Dagsburg – (c1096 – after 1157)
German mediaeval countess and heiress
Matilda was the daughter of Albert II (Adalbert) of Egisheim, Count of Dagsburg and Lord of Moka, and his wide Ermesinde of Luxemburg, later the wife of Count Godfrey of Namur. She was the niece of Heinrich of Alsace (died 1063), Count of Nordgau and was sister to Count Hugh VII of Dagsburg (c1093 – c1136). Matilda was married (c1115) to Count Volmar V of Metz and Homburg. She was the heiress of the fiefs of Dagsburg, Moka and Egisheim which she brought to her husband whom she survived as the Dowager Countess of Metz. Matilda died sometime after 1157, when aged over sixty. Her children were,

Matilda of England – (1102 – 1167)
Norman queen and Holy Roman empress
Originally named Adelaide, she was born (cFeb, 1102) at Winchester, Southampton, the daughter of King Henry I and of his first wife Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland. She assumed the name Matilda (Maud) in 1114, at the time of her first marriage with the Holy Roman emperor Henry V (1081 – 1125). This marriage remained childless, but whilst in Germany, Matilda wielded considerable power as Imperial consort. The deaths of her two brothers William and Richard in 1120 left her as her father’s only legitimate child, and after the emperor’s death, Matilda was recalled to England. Against her wishes, King Henry arranged her marriage with Geoffrey V (1113 - 1151), Count of Anjou (1131 – 1151) which took place at La Mans, Anjou in 1128. This marriage was very unhappy, but nevertheless Matilda produced three sons, the eldest of whom was the future Henry II (1133 – 1189).
With Henry I’s death (Dec, 1135) Matilda was his heiress and queen of England, though she was not officially acclaimed as Lady of the English until April, 1141, having to contend with the usurpation of her cousin, Stephen of Blois. The conflict plunged England into a disastrous civil war, the ravages of which were not to be repaired until the reign of her son. Her official reign was brief, and Matilda was deposed in Nov, 1141, and she was forced to flee to France, the crown remaining with her cousin Stephen. Eventually, after the death of his son Eustace, Stephen, in the interests of England’s future peace and prosperity, proclaimed Matilda’s son Henry to be his official successor in England at his death. During the first years of her son’s reign, and his absence in England, Matilda ruled Normandy successfully as regent. The empress died (Sept 10, 1167) at the Abbey of Notre Dame des Pres, near Rouen, and was interred in Rouen Cathedral. An intelligent, but imperious woman, her own character helped to bring about her deposition and loss of the English throne, but she lived to see the throne she had fought for bestowed upon her own son.

Matilda of Flanders (1) – (c1011 – c1036)
Flemish noblewoman and countess
Matilda was the daughter of Badwin IV, Count of Flanders, and his first wife Ogiva, the daughter of Friedrich I, Count of Luxemburg. Through her father she was a descendant of Egbert, the first Anglo-Saxon king of all Britain (bretwalda) (802 – 839). Matilda of Flanders was married (c1026) to Henry I (c990 – 1038), Count of Louvain (1015 – 1038) and became his countess consort for about a decade (c1026 – c1036). She appears to have predeceased her husband and left four children,

Matilda of Flanders (2) – (1032 – 1083) 
Queen consort of England (1066 – 1087)
Matilda was born at Lille, the only daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders (1036 – 1067) and his wife Princess Adela Capet, the widow of Richard III, Duke of Normandy, and daughter of Robert II the Pious, King of France (996 – 1031). She was married at the cathedral of Notre Dame d’Eu (1050) to William II of Normandy (1027 – 1087) later king of England as William I the Conqueror. She was the mother of the Norman kings, William II Rufus, (1087 – 1100) and Henry I Beauclerk (1100 – 1135), and many daughters. This marriage had been forbidden because they were related within the forbidden degrees of consanguinity, but this objection was overcome when they agreed to found two abbeys at Caen in Normandy. When William left to claim the English throne (1066) Matilda remained behind as regent in Rouen in Normandy. When the situation was considered safe the queen and her children sailed for England and Matilda was crowned as queen at Westminster Abbey. The last of her children, Henry, was born at Selby in Yorkshire, the only one of her children to be born in England. Though beloved by her husband, her marriage sufferred due to her preference for her eldest son, Robert of Normandy, which lead to dissensions within the new dynasty. Matilda left William and retired to her foundation of Abbaye des Dames at Caen in Normandy, in which she had placed her daughter Cecilia as a nun (1075). Queen Matilda died at Caen (Nov 2, 1083) aged fifty-one. Her children were,

Matilda of France – (943 – before 992)
Queen consort of Burgundy
Princess Matilda was the daughter of Louis IV d’Outremer, King of France 9936 – 954) and his wife Gerberga of Saxony, the widow of Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine. Matilda was married (964) to Conrad I the Peaceful, King of Burgundy (925 – 993) and was the mother of King Rudolf III (993 – 1037), and Bertha, the second wife of Robert II the Pious of France, amongst other children. Matilda was a patron of the Cluniac reforms instigated by the church. Queen Matilda died (Jan 26 or 27) after 981, and before 992.

Matilda of Hauteville    see   Matilda of Apulia

Matilda of Holstein (Mechtild) – (1225 – 1288)
Queen consort of Denmark (1250 – 1252)
Matilda was the eldest daughter of Adolf IV, Count of Holstein and his wife Hedwig of Lippe. Countess Matilda was married (1237) to Prince Abel of Denmark (1218 – 1252), who became king in 1250. Queen Matilda bore her husband four children before he was killed in battle (1252). She survived him as Queen Dowager of Denmark for thirty-five years (1252 – 1288) but remarried a decade afterwards (1261) to Birger (c1200 – 1266), the famous Swedish jarl (earl) and statesman, as his second wife. Queen Matilda died at Kiel in Holstein, and was buried in the monastery of Varnhems in Vastergotland. Her children were,

Matilda of Lancaster (Maud) (1) – (c1310 – 1377)
English Plantagenet princess
Matilda was the second daughter of Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster, and his wife Matilda, the daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly. Through her father Matilda was the great-granddaughter of King Henry III (1216 – 1272). Matilda was married firstly (1327) to William de Burgh (1312 – 1333), third Earl of Ulster, whose mother Elizabeth de Clare, was herself a granddaughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307). The papal dispensation granted for the marriage because of their being related within the prohibited degrees was dated (March 1, 1329). Her husband was murdered (June 9, 1332) by John de Logan and several of the Mandeville family, whilst on his way to Carrickfergus Castle, where the countess was awaiting the birth of their only child and heiress, Elizabeth de Burgh (1332 – 1363) who later became the first wife of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, the second son of Edward III (1327 – 1377) and left descendants. After recovering from the rigours of childbirth, the countess took her infant and fled for safety to England.
Countess Matilda remarried secondly (1343) to Sir Ralph de Ufford, the Justiciar of Ireland, the brother of William, first Earl of Suffolk, and likewise bore him an only daughter and heiress, Matilda de Ufford (Maud) (1346 – 1413), who became the wife of Thomas de Vere (1336 – 1371), fifth Earl of Oxford, and left issue. With the death of her second husband Matilda became an Augustinian canoness at Campsey Abbey in Suffolk (1348) where she built a chantry for the souls of her two husbands and her two daughters. She later received license from Pope Innocent VI (1364) to transfer to the convent of the Poor Clares at Bruisyard Abbey in the same county, and was resident at Bruisyard in 1368. Matilda died (before May 5, 1377) at Campsey Abbey, and was interred at Bruisyard.

Matilda of Lancaster (2) (Maud) – (1335 – 1362)
English Plantagenet princess
Matilda was born (April 4, 1335), the elder daughter of Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (1351 – 1361) and his wife Isabella, the daughter of Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan. Matilda was originally contracted to marry her cousin, John de Segrave, but this match was broken off. She was married firstly (1344) to the equally young Ralph de Stafford (c1340 – 1348), the son of Ralph, first Earl of Stafford, who soon died. She was remarried secondly (1352) at the King’s Chapel, in Westminster Palace, London, to William V (1327 – 1389), Duke of Bavaria, and count of Holland and Zeeland, son of the Holy Roman emperor, Louis IV. Her only child from this marriage, a daughter (1356), died in early infancy.
Matilda succeeded her father as countess of Leicester and Dame of Kidwelly (1361). The dukedom of Lancaster became extinct, though the earldom devolved upon Matilda and her sister Blanche, the wife of John of Gaunt, third son of Edward III (1327 – 1377). The barony of Lancaster fell, according to modern doctrine, into abeyance between the sisters. A partition was then made and the duchess received the earldom of Leicester and the lordship of Kidwelly. Matilda then travelled to England to claim her inheritance.
Matilda died (April 10, 1362) in England, aged only twenty-seven, soon after her arrival, a victim of the Black Death. Because she had died childless, her vast estates passed to her only sister, Blanche of Lancaster, and her husband John of Gaunt. Envy at this piece of dynastic luck caused spiteful gossip that Matilda had been poisoned by her brother-in-law. This charge is groundless.

Matilda of Lorraine – (1024 – 1043)
Queen consort of France (1041 – 1043)
Matilda was the second daughter of Friedrich II, Duke of Upper Lorraine (1026 – 1027), and his wife Matilda of Swabia, the daughter of Hermann II, Duke of Swabia (995 – 1003). Matilda became the second wife (1041) of Henry I (1008 – 1060), King of France (1031 – 1060). She died childless.

Matilda of Louvain – (c1005 – c1046)
Felmish mediaeval countess
Matilda was the daughter of Lambert I the Bearded, Count of Louvain, and his wife Gerberga of Lorraine, the daughter of Charles, King of Lorraine, and granddaughter of King Louis IV d’Outremer (936 – 954). She was married (c1021) to Eustace I (c1003 – 1049), Count of Boulogne (1041 – 1049) and became countess consort (1041 – c1046). Countess Matilda became the paternal grandmother of the famous Christian crusader prince, Godfrey of Bouillon (1059 – 1100). Through her eldest son Matilda was the great-grandmother of Matilda of Boulogne, the wife of Stephen of Blois, King of England (1135 – 1154). Through her younger son Lambert Matilda was the maternal grandmother of Matilda of Huntingdon, the wife of David I, King of Scotland (1124 – 1153) who left many descendants. Her children were,

Matilda of Normandy – (c1061 – before 1113)
Princess of England
Matilda was born in Rouen, one of the younger daughters of William I the Conqueror, King of England (1066 – 1087) and his wife Matilda of Flanders, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders. The identification of this lady had been made difficult by the fact that the chroniclers, Ordericus Vitalis, Robert of Torigny, and William of Jumieges, omit her name altogether from their respective lists of the children of William and Queen Matilda. However, her existence is confirmed by an entry in the Domesday Book (1086), where Geoffrey, the chamberlain of the king’s daughter, is entered as holding Hatch Warren in Hampshire of the king, in reward for the services performed for his daughter Matilda, who is described as filiae regis (daughter of the king). It would appear that Matilda died unmarried, sometime between 1086 and 1113, when in the mortuary role of Matilda, the first abbess of Caen in Normandy, her successor, Abbess Cecilia, the elder sister of Princess Matilda, asked for prayes for their foundress, Queen Matilda, and her daughters Adeliza, Matilda, and Constance, all of whom had died prior to his date.

Matilda of Poitou    see    Agnes of Poitou (5)

Matilda of Savoy (Maud) – (1125 – 1157)
Queen consort of Portugal (1146 – 1157)
Matilda was born at Turin, Piedmont the daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, and his first wife Adelaide. She was married (1146) to Alfonso I Henriques (1110 – 1185), King of Portugal, and was known as Mafalda to his subjects. She was the mother of sevweral children including his successor, King Sancho I. The queen became famous for her devotion to the church, and her religious piety and sanctity were reknowned. Queen Matilda died (Dec 4, 1157) aged thirty-two, at Coimbra. She left seven children,

Matilda of Saxony – (1172 – 1209)
German princess
Princess Matilda was the elder of the twin daughters of Heinrich V the Lion, Duke of Saxony and his second wife Matilda Plantagenet, the eldest daughter of Henry II, King of England (1154 – 1189) and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former wife of Louis VII, King of France (1137 – 1180). Her twin sister Richenza of Saxony later became the first wife of Valdemar II, King of Denmark.
The princess was present with her mother in the city of Brunswick when the Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa laid siege to the city but the duchess and her children were honourably treated. When Duke Heinrich was forced to leave Germany for three years (Nov, 1181) the princess accompanied her family to England and the court of her paternal grandfather. They travelled forst to Argentan and from there arrived in England (June, 1184) resideing firstly at Winchester.
Matilda was present at the family reunion held at Westminster (Nov 30, 1184) at which her grandmother Queen Eleanor was present, and at the royal gathering held at Winchester during the following Christmas celebrations. She then accompanied her grandparents on a visit to Normandy (1185 – 1186). Matilda was married (before June, 1189) to the Norman lord Count Geoffrey II of Perche with whom she attended the coronation of her maternal uncle King Richard I of England at Westminster Abbey (Sept 1, 1189). On this occasion the countess and her brother William ‘of Winchester’ received the gifts of pelisses (fur-trimmed cloaks) from the king. With the death of Count Geoffrey (1202) Matilda was remarried (1204) to Enguerrand III (Ingelram) (c1170 – 1243), Seigneur of Coucy. Matilda left three sons from her first marriage,

Matilda of Scotland – (1079 – 1118) 
Queen consort of England (1100 – 1118)
Matilda was born at Dunfermline Castle in Fife, the elder daughter of Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scotland and his second wife Margaret Aetheling. Originally named Edith, she was brought up at the abbey of Romsey and married Henry I of England soon after his acession (1100) in order to unite the fledgling Norman dynasty with the old Anglo-Saxon royal house. The marriage produced five children of whom two sons William and Richard, who both drowned in the wreck of the White Ship (1120) and the second daughter Matilda survived. The younger Matilda was married to the German emperor Henry V, but later became the mother of Henry II (1154 – 1189). Queen Matilda devoted herself to religious matters and attained a great reputation for ascetism and piety during her lifetime, building a hospital for lepers at St Giles-in-the-Fields, in London, but her influence over political affairs was minimal. When the king exacted heavy sums from the clergy, they begged the queen to intercede on their behalf, but she burst into tears, and told them that she dare not meddle in the matter. Nevertheless, during her husband’s frequent abscences in Normandy, the queen acted ably as regent with the assistance of Roger de Caen, Bishop of Salisbury. She kept up an affectionate correspondence with St Anselm throughout his exile (1103 – 1106) and warmly welcomed the prelate on his return to England. Queen Matilda died (May 1, 1118) at Westminster Palace, London. Her children were,

Matilda of Swabia – (989 – 1033)
German mediaeval princess
Matilda was the daughter of Herman II, Duke of Swabia (995 – 1003) and his wife Gerberga, the daughter of Conrad I the Peaceful, King of Burgundy. She was married firstly to Conrad I (died 1011), Duke of Carinthia, and secondly (1012) to Friedrich II (995 – 1027), Duke of Upper Lorraine and became duchess consort. Matilda survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Lorraine (1027 – 1033). Her four children were,

Matilda of Tuscany – (1046 – 1115)
Italian ruler
Popularly known as ‘La Gran Contessa’ she was the daughter of Boniface II, marquis of Tuscany. Her father was murdered during her childhood (1052), and her mother remarried to the powerful Godfrey of Louvain, Duke of Lower Lorraine. Matilda inherited vast fiefs in northern Italy, and was married to her stepbrother, Godfrey the Hunchback, to whom she bore an only daughter. With his death (1076) she was married for political considerations to Duke Welf of Bavaria, more than twenty-five years her junior. Unsurprisingly this marriage was unhappy and the couple eventually seperated (1095). A devoted supporter of the papacy, Countess Matilda remained a loyal adherent of Pope Gregory VII, and even personally led troops, clad in chain mail, to aid him in his struggle agains the Holy Roman emperor, Henry IV. It was at her castle at Canossa that the emperor did his barefoot penance to the pope (1077). With Gregory’s death in 1085, Matilda’s lands were invaded and ravaged by the emperor’s supporters, but she refused to acknowledge the election of the anti-pope Clement III, and remained a firm supporter of Pope Urban II until his death (1099). Matilda later retired to the Benedictine abbey of Polirone, near Mantua, where she died.

Matilda of Vermandois (Mathilde) – (1080 – before 1130)
French medieval aristocrat
Matilda was the daughter of Hugh I Capet, Count of Vermandois, and his wife Adelaide of Vermandois, and was the paternal granddaughter of Henry I, King of France (1031 – 1060) and niece of Philip I (1060 – 1108). Matilda was married (c1095) to Raoul (c1065 – c1118), seigneur de Beaugency, whom she survived as the Dowager Lady de Beaugency. Dame Matilda survived her mother Adelaide (1124) but had died sometime prior to 1130. Her children were,

Matilda of Vohburg – (c1030 – after 1072)
German mediaeval noblewoman
Matilda was the daughter of Dietpold I, Margrave of Vohburg of the Ratpotonen dynasty of Bavaria. She became the wife (c1050) of Friedrich I of Chiemgau (c1030 – 1071), Count of Tengling (1070 – 1071). Countess Matilda survived her husband and died (Sept 30) after the year 1072 when she retired from the world and became a nun. Her four children were,

Matilda of Walbeck – (c1053 – c1100)
German mediaeval noblewoman
Matilda was the daughter of Conrad of Walbeck, Margrave of Magdeburg and his wife Adelaide of Bavaria. She was descended from the family of the counts of Stade through whom she was descended from the famous Saxon hero Widukind (died after 807) who unsuccessfully opposed the Emperor Charlemagne. Matilda was married (c1069) to Count Dietrich of Plotzkau (c1045 – before 1100) whom she briefly survived. Countess Matilda left four children,

Matilda Plantagenet – (1156 – 1189)
Duchess consort of Saxony (1168 – 1189)
Princess Matilda was born (June, 1156) at Windsor Castle, in Berkshire, the eldest daughter of Henry II, King of England (1154 – 1189), and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former wife of Louis VII, King of France (1137 – 1180). She was named for her paternal grandmother, the Empress Matilda, and was the elder sister to kings Richard I (1189 – 1199) and John (1199 – 1216). Matilda was married (1168) at Minden Cathedral in Germany, to Henry V the Lion (1129 – 1195), Duke of Saxony and Brunswick, as his second wife. Matilda and her husband later spent several years in England, and Matilda was permitted by King Henry to pay visits to her mother in captivity at Salisbury Tower in Wiltshire. Several of her children were raised at the English court. Duchess Matilda died (June 28, 1189) aged thirty-three, at Brunswick, and was interred within Brunswick Cathedral. Her children were,

Matilda Lucia of Blois – (c1095 – 1120)
Anglo-Norman royal
Matilda Lucia was the daughter of Stephen I Henry, Count of Blois and Chartres, and his wife Adela of Normandy, the daughter of William I the Conqueror, King of England (1066 – 1087). She was married to the Norman lord, Richard d’Avranches (1094 – 1120), who held the earldom of Chester in England under Henry I (1100 – 1135). She and her husband formed part of the group which was sailing from Barfleur in France to England, with her first cousin, Prince William and his younger brother Richard, the only legitimate sons of Henry I. Matilda Lucia and her husband both perished (Nov 25, 1120) in the wreck of the White Ship, which claimed many others including her two royal cousins.

Matraini, Chiara – (1515 – c1604)
Italian poet, humanist, letter writer and translator
Chiara (Clara) Matraini was born (June 4, 1515) in Lucca, and became the wife (1530) of Vincenzo Cantarini. There were no children and Cantarini died before 1542. After this Chiara was connected adulterously with Bartolomeo Graziani, a married man. This affair seems to have continued until Graziani was later murdered (1555) and is the source for the Circe-like traditions which attached themselves to Chiara. Chiara later resided in Genoa (1560 - 1562) where she attended the doge's court but had returned to reside in Lucca by the mid-1570's. She was painted by Alessandro Ardenti as the Sibyl of Cumae, which formed part of the decoration of the altar that Chiara commissioned for the Church of Santa Maria Forisportam in Lucca. Chiara was eventually buried there at her death.
Her work was influenced by that of Patrarch, Pietro Bembo and Vittoria Colonna The poetic work Rime e prose di Madonna Chiara Matraini Gentildonna Lucchese (1555) went through several editions. Four decades afterwards her correspondence was published as Lettere di Madonna Chiara Matraini Gentildonna Lucchese, con la prima e seconda parte delle sue Rime (1597), together with a revised edition of her 1555 work..

Matrona – (fl. 591 – 603)
Italian landowner
Matrona was the daughter of Pompeiana and became the wife of Epiphanes, lector of the church of Cagliari in Sardinia. Her mother had built a convent for nuns in her own home in Cagliari and Matrona was left a widow prior to 591. A letter preserved in the Epistolarum Registrum of Pope Gregory I and dated (Sept, 603) reveals that Matrona had been left a life usage of her late husband’s estate according to his will. She also possessed property of her won which had been illegally seized (603) by Januarius, Bishop of Caralis, and by the church official Vitalis.

Matrona of Perga – (c370 – c470 AD)
Greek Christian ascetic
Matrona was born in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. She was the wife of a minor nobleman Domitian, to whom she bore a daughter, Theodota. She removed with her family to Constantinople, where she became friendly with the Christians saint, Eugenia. To escape her husband, who tried to prevent any further religious fervour on her part, Matrona shaved her head, adopted male attire, and was received into the brotherhood of St Bassianus. When her sex was discovered she was returned to her husband, who sent her to Jerusalem. There she escaped and hid at Berytus. With Domitian’s eventual death, Matrona returned to Constantinople, accompanied by two deaconesses, and became famous for her religious ascetism, being greatly esteemed by the Empress Verina, wife of Leo I. Matrona died aged one hundred and was venerated as a saint (Nov 5).

Matschat, Cecile Hulse – (1894 – 1976)
American artist, writer and botanist
Cecile Hulse was born in Binghampton, New York, and married Louis Matschat. Cecile travelled, painted and wrote in Mexico and South America, but was better known for her book Suwannee River (1938) written after she had lived with the people of the Okefenokee Swamp, America, and for which she received the Literary Guild award. Cecile also wrote more than a dozen historical novels set in America such as Preacher on Horseback (1940) and Tavern in the Town (1942), and a detective novel Murder at the Black Crook (1943). She also wrote seven books on horticulture including Mexican Plants for American Gardens (1935) and Shrubs and Trees (1937). She also left travel memoirs Seven Grass Huts: An Engineer’s Wife in Central and South America (1939). Cecile Matschat died in Brooklyn, New York.

Matsuoka, Moto    see    Hani, Motoko

Matthau, Carol – (1925 – 2003)
American novelist and writer
Born Carol Doree, she was married firstly to the bandleader Artie Shaw and then to the fantasy writer William Saroyan (1908 – 1981). She was married twice to her third husband the actor Walter Matthau (1920 – 2000), and their relationship was a volatile one. Carol Matthau published the short novel The Secret in the Daisy (1955) using the pseudonym ‘Carol Grace.’ She claimed to be the model for the character Holly Golightly in Truman Capote’s book Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958). Carol Matthau published the volume of memoirs entitled Among the Porcupines (1992).

Matthee, Dalene – (1938 – 2005)
South African author
Matthee was born at Riversdal in the Cape Province. She studied music at the conservatorium at Oudtshorn and at the Holy Cross convent in Graff-Reinet. Her earlier works included the children’s novel Die twaalfuurstokkie (The twelve-o-clock stick) (1970) and Die Judasbok (The Judas Goat) (1982), a collection of short stories. She received international acclaim with the publication of her novel Kringe in ‘n bos (Circles in a forest) (1984), which dealt with the exploitation of native woodcutters of the Knysna forest and their gradual extermination of the native elephant populations. This was followed by other novels which utilized the same theme, Fiela se kind (Fiela’s child) (1985) and Moerbeibos (The Mulberry Forest) (1987). She was awarded numerous prized for her literary endeavours and two of her books were made into films. Matthee’s works were eventually tranalated into over a dozen languages. Her last work Toorbos (Dream Forest), was published the same year she lost her husband (2003). Dalene Matthee died (Feb 20, 2005) aged sixty-four, at Mossel Bay in South Africa.

Matthei d’Racconigi, Caterina – (1486 – 1547)
Italian nun and saint
Sometimes known as St Catherine of Racconigi, she was born in Piedmont, the daughter if Giorgio Mattei, a locksmith. Her family was reduced to poverty by the war between the Duke of Savoy and the Marquis of Saluzzo. Caterina experienced mystical visions and the stigmata, and was credited with magical powers by the local populace, who referred to her as La Masca di Dio (the Sorceress). Caterina died at Caramagna her Vitae being written by Francesco Pico della Mirandola, Conte di Concordia before her death. Caterina was venerated as a saint (Sept 5).

Matthieu, Anna Rosina    see   Lisziewska, Anna Rosina

Matthews, Jessie Margaret – (1907 – 1981)
British stage and film actress
Jessie Matthews was born (March 11, 1907) into a poor London family. She made her stage debut as a child (1917) and later became a chorus dancer. She became a popular revue performer which led to popular film roles later in her career. Matthews refused to go to Hollywood in order to advance her career, and directed the film Victory Wedding (1944). Jessie Matthews made an extremely successful tour of Australia, South Africa and the USA (1950 – 1960) and published her autobiography Over My Shoulder (1974). Jessie Matthews died (Aug 20, 1981) aged seventy-four, in London.

Matto de Turner, Clorinda – (1854 – 1909) 
Peruvian novelist and poet
Regarded as one of the most important Latin-American writers produced by the nineteenth century, Clorinda Matto de Turner's best known work was Aves sin nido (Birds Without a Nest) (1889) which dealt with the contemporary lives of the Southern American native Indians. Matto de Turner’s other famous work was Tradiciones cuzquenas (Traditions of Cuzco) (1884 – 1886).

Mattus, Rose – (1916 – 2006)
American ice-cream manufacturer
Born Rose Vesel in Manchester in Lancashire, England, she was the daughter of Polish parents. She immigrated to Brooklyn in New York and became a book keeper. She was married (1934) to Reuben Mattus (died 1994). They produced their own ice cream which they sold on street corners and supplied to restaurants, but later established the rich and creamy brand known as Haagen-Dazs which became nationally famous in the 1970’s, and eventually achieved international fame. Rose and her husband sold the business in 1983 and it was later acquired by Nestle. She published the memoir The Emperor of Ice Cream (2004).

Matuka bint Hamud – (c1886 – 1940)
Sultana of Zanzibar
Princess Matuka bint Hamud was born in Zanzibar, east Africa, the elder daughter of Hamud bin Muhammad, Sultan of Zanzibar (1898 – 1902) and his wife Khanforah, the only child of Majid bin Said, the former sultan (1856 – 1870). Matuka was married at Zanzibar (1900) to her kinsman, Khalifa bin Harub (1879 – 1960) as his first wife. Khalifa was installed as sultan after the abdication of Princess Matuka’s brother, Sultan Ali II (1902 – 1911). Matuka was sultana consort for almost three decades (1911 - 1940). Sultana Matuka died (July 2, 1940) aged in her mid-fifties, in the Sultan’s Palace in Zanzibar. She left three children,

Matyushkina, Anna Alexievna – (1722 – 1804)
Russian imperial courtier
Anna Alexievna Gagarina was the eldest daughter of Prince Alexei Gagarin. She was the youthful friend of the Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, but this friendship suffered because of Anna’s fateful tendencies to fall in love with her mistress’s favourites. The empress finally arranged for Anna to become the wife of the handsome courtier Count Dimitry Matyushkin. Anna survived into the reign of Tsar Alexander I. Madame Matyushkina was mentioned in the Memoires of Princess Dashkova.

Matzenauer, Margarete – (1881 – 1963)
Hungarian mezzo-soprano and contralto
Margarete Matzenauer was born in Temesvar, the daughter of a conductor and an opera singer. She had vocal training under Madame Milke and Madame Neuendorf, and under Franz Emerich. She made her stage debut in Strasbourg (1901) in the role of Puck in Weber’s Oberon, and remained there for three years. Margarete was attached to the Munich Opera in Bavaria (1904 – 1911), and specialized in such Wagerian roles as Isolde, Ortrude and Brunnhilde, and won acclaim for her performances as Laura in Gioconda, in Gluck’s Orfeo, and Fides in Le Prophete. She then spent nearly twenty years (1911 – 1930) as a performer with the Metropolitan Opera in New York, and sang at Monaco, Paris, Bayreuth, London, Paris, and Buenos Aires. She sang in recitals and as a solist with orchestra, as well as being a highly respected vocal teacher after her retirement from the stage (1934), and appeared in films. Margarete Matzenauer died at Van Nuys, California.

Maubourg, Jeanne – (1875 – 1953)
Belgian mezzo-soprano, actress and teacher
Maubourg was born (Nov 10, 1875) in Namur, and was musically trained in Nancy, Lorraine, and abroad in Algiers and Paris. She made her first performance with the Theatre de la Monnaie in Brussels (1897), where she achieved notice for her performances of such roles as Musetta in La Boheme, and as Carmen. She appeared at Covent Garden in London (1900 – 1904) and made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera in New York as Lola in Cavalleria Rusticana (1909). She was married to the conductor Albert Roberval. Maubourg settled in Montreal, Canada, with her husband, and performed character roles with the Societe Canadienne d’Operette. She worked in radio and appeared in films. There are several recordings of her work. Jeanne Maubourg died (May 12, 1953) aged seventy-seven.

Maud    see also    Matilda

Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria – (1869 – 1938)
Queen consort of Norway (1905 – 1938)
Princess Maud was born (Nov 26, 1869) at Marlborough House, London, the third and youngest daughter of Edward VII, King of Great Britain (1901 – 1910) and his wife Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX, King of Denmark (1863 – 1906). She was the granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Maud was married to Prince Charles of Denmark (1872 – 1957), who was elected king of Norway (1905) as Haakon VII. She was the mother of an only child, King Olav V (1957 – 1991). Known for her love of privacy, and dislike of public court life, she was also an entusiastic bicycler. Queen Maud kept in constant touch with her British relatives, but always retained the affections of the Norwegian people due to her unpretentious behaviour. She was portrayed on the screen by actress Rosalyn Elvin in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series Edward VII (1975). Queen Maud died (Nov 20, 1938) aged sixty-eight, in London.

Mauda    see    Medhb

Maude, Lady Clementina     see     Hawarden, Lady

Maughan, Monica - (1933 - 2010)
Australian stage, film and television actress
Monica Cresswell Wood was born (Sept 15, 1933) at Nuku'alofa in Tonga, the daughter of the Australian Methodist missionary Harold Wood (1896 - 1989). She came to live in Melbourne, Victoria, as a child and attended the University of Melbourne. She adopted the stage name of Monica Maughan and made her stage debut with the University Dramatic Club in The Front Page (1954) opposite Barry Humphries. After working as a speech therapist Maughan joined the Union Repertory Theatre Company appearing with Jean Anouilh in Ring Round the Moon (1957). She received the Melbourne Theatre Award for Best Actress after her portrayal as an unmarried mother in Three Months Gone (1971).
Monica Maughan was best known for her portrayal of Miss Prism in the Melbourne Theatre Company's production of Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest (1988 - 1992) in which she appeared with Geoffrey Rush, and for which role she recieved the Green Room Award for Best Supporting Actress (1990). Maughan appeared in the risque television series The Box (1974 - 1975) and Prisoner (1979), and in the comedy mini-series The Damnation of Harvey McHugh (1994). Her film credits included Road to Nhill (1997), Tear from a Glass Eye (1998), Crackerjack (2002), Strange Bedfellows (2004) and Blessed (2009). Miss Maughan was married twice and left three daughters. Monica Maughan died (Jan 8, 2010) aged seventy-six, in Melbourne.

Maulevrier, Marthe Henriette de Froullay, Marquise de – (1679 – 1751)
French courtier and aristocrat
The daughter of the Comte de Tesse, Marthe became the wife of Edouard Colbert, Marquis de Maulevrier and attended the court of Versailles during the last decades of the reign of Louis XIV. She long survived her husband as the Dowager Marquise de Maulevrier into the reign of Louis XV. Details of her life and marriage were recorded in the Memoires of the court historian Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de Saint-Simon.

Mauley, Elizabeth Meinill, Lady de    see   Meinill, Elizabeth

Maultravers, Lady Margaret   see   Woodville, Margaret (1)

Maura – (fl. c379 – 395 AD)
Roman Christian founder
Born in Rome, Maura was either raised as a Christian or was converted as a young woman. She resolved never to marry and to embrace a life of virginity. Together with her friend Domnina, Maura travelled to the court of the Emperor Theodosius I in Constantinople. Maura and her friend prevailed upon the emperor to grant them some unoccupied land wishing to found a convent there. Theodosius assisted the two women financially and two abbeys were established, named in honour of St Maura and St Domnina. Both women were regarded as saints but their date of veneration has been lost. The story of Maura and Domnina is found in Tillemont’s Histoire des Empereurs. The usurper emperor Hypatius (532) was later interred within their church.

Maura, Julia – (1910 – 1970)
Spanish dramatist
Julia Maura was born in Madrid, the daughter of Gabriel, Duque de Maura, and was the niece of the famous dramtist Honorio Maura. Julia was the author of the moral tales written in a conservative, but comic style, which revealed the evils of hypocrisy in Spanish patrician society. Maura’s first work La mentira del silencio (The Lie of Silence) appeared in 1944, and another seventeen plays followed. All were staged and performed in Madrid prior to 1970. Some of her more popular worls included Chocolata a la espanola (Hot Chocolate, Spanish Style) (1953) and La eterna dona Juana (the Eternal Dona Juana (1954). Her last play Jaque a la juventua (Warning to Youth) (1965), dealt with the evolving morality of contemporary Spain.

Maure, Anne Doni d’Attichy, Comtesse de – (1600 – 1662)
French salonniere and society leader
Anne Doni d’Attichy was the daughter of Ottaviano Doni, Baron d’Attichy and his wife Valence de Marillac. She was the maternal niece of the Marechal Louis de Marillac, the keaper of the seals, who was executed for treason (1632). She served as court as maid-of-honour to Marie de Medici, the mother of Louis XIII, and attended the salon of Madame de Rambouillet in Paris, where she became the friend of the famous prescieuse Madame de Sable. Anne became the wife of Henri Louis de Rochechouart (1603 – c1669), Comte de Maure. Madame de Maure was a supporter of the Jansenist theology at the Abbey of Port-Royal.

Maurella    see   Nirilla

Maurepas, Marie Jeanne Phelypeaux de la Vrilliere, Comtesse de – (1704 – 1793)
French courtier
A prominent figure at Versailles, Marie de Phelypeaux was the daughter to the Marquis de La Vrilliere and wife to the Comte de Maurepas, the royal minister of Louis XV. Madame de Maurepas held her own salon in Paris, as well as being a prominent figure in society. A memner of the ‘old guard’ she was one of those put off side by Marie Antoinette after she became queen (1774). The comtesse is mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Sir Horace Walpole.

Maurier, Angela du    see   Du Maurier, Angela

Maurier, Dame Daphne du     see    Du Maurier, Dame Daphne

Maurina, Zenta – (1897 – 1978)
Latvian essayist, novelist and writer
Zenta Maurina was born in Lejasciems the daughter of a physican and a musician, and was crippled by poliomyelitis in childhood, spending much time in a wheelchair. Maurina devoted much time to scholarly pursuits and became a teacher at the University of Riga, from which she received a doctorate in Baltic philology (1938). She also followed academic pursuits in Heidelberg in the Rhineland, and was one of the founders of the Latvian People’s University. She lectured abroad in Finland, France and Italy, but her ideology upset the Soviets and she was threatened with summary execution if they caught her. Thus she fled Latvia with her companion, the author Konstantin Raudive, and managed to escape into Germany, finally settling in Sweden (1946). Maurina spoke as a guest lecturer at the University of Uppsala and was honoured by King Gustav VI and she later embarked upon lecture tours in Germany (1951). She later settled at Krozingen in West Germany, and died at Basel, Switzerland aged eighty (April 25, 1978). Her works included the autobiographical Die weite Fahrt (A Long Journey) (1951), Denn das Wagnis ist schon (Fair is the Venture) (1953) and Die eisernen Riegel zerbrechen (The Iron Bars areBreaking) (1957). She also left the collection of essays Mosaik des Herzens (The Mosaic of the Heart) (1947).

Maury, Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira – (1866 – 1952)
American astronomer
Antonia Maury was the daughter of a clergyman, and the granddaughter of the astronomer John William Draper. She attended Vassar College and studied ornithology and astronomy, becoming an assistant at the Harvard College Observatory. Maury researched the spectral lines of the star Mizar, which had been discovered by Edward Pickering, and herself discovered the spectroscopic binary, Beta Aurigae (1889). She undertook a classification system of the stars, and after her eventual retirement (1935), Antonia served as the curator of the Draper Park Museum in New York.

Maussion, Angelique de Fougeret, Comtesse de - (1772 - 1851)
French memoirist
Angelique de Fougeret was the daughter of Jean de Fougeret, the receiver general of Burgundy and his wfe Charlotte d'Outremont. With the upheaval of the Revolution the Fougeret family were arrested and imprisoned within the convent of Port-Royal. Her father perished under the guillotine (1794) but Angelique, her mother and her siblings escaped and emigrated abroad, residing in Belgium, Holland and England, and eventually returning to France in 1797. Angelique became the wife of the Comte de Maussion, whom she had met whilst incarcerated with other aristocrats and bore him three sons. Her memoirs entitled Rescapes Thermidor were published posthumously in Paris (1975).

Mavia – (fl. 370 – 378 AD) 
Saracen warrior queen
Probably of the Ghassanid family, Mavia succeeded her husband as ruler and organized raids in Palestine and Phoenikia (c373 – 378 AD), in which a Roman army was defeated. Peace was only made on the condition that a Christian hermit named Moses was forcibly consecrated as bishop of her tribe. Mavia’s daughter was married to the Roman commander-in-chief, Victor, master of the cavalry (363 – c379 AD). A contingent of Mavia’s troops assisted with the defence of Constantinople (378 AD), and their bloodthirty mode of gighting is said to have intimidated event the Goths. Her granddaughter may be the Mavia who built a shrine to St Thomas, at Hanaser in Syria (426 AD).

Mavrogenous, Manto – (c1780 – 1848)
Greek nationalist and freedom fighter
Manto Mavrogenous was born into a patrician family. She had been living in Trieste until the time of the Greek revolution againsnt Turkish rule (1821), when she returned to the island of Mykonos in Greece. Manto organized squads of guerilla fighters, whom she maintained and organized using her own finances, and used her own fortune to provide ammunition for the Greek army. She used her won correspondence with several leading ladies of England to engender a great sympathy for the plight of the Greeks in that country. When Greece gained independence, Manto withdrew to private life, and was granted a small state pension. She died in poverty.

Mavrokordatou, Alexandra (Ruxandra) – (1605 – 1684)
Greek intellecutal, scholar and salonniere
Born Alexandra Beglitzi in Constantinople, Asia Minor, she was married firstly (1625) to Alexandru III, Prince of Wallachia (1623 – 1627). This brief union left no issue and ended in divorce (1626). Alexandra was later married (1635) to Niccolo Mavrokordatou (died 1639), whom she survived over forty years. Alexandra studied the classics, as well as history and philosophy, and was the first Greek woman to establish a literary salon, which attracted artists and politicians. When her son was suspected by the Turkish government of betrayal during the siege of Vienna (1683), Alexandra was arrested and placed in confinement, where she died.

Mawa – (c1775 – 1848)
Zulu princess and leader
Mawa was one of the younger daughters of King Jama and sister to King Senzangakhona. During the reign of her nephew King Mpande, the princess and her supporters and followers fled Zululand and migrated to Natal, where she established a permanent Zulu settlement. This dramatic incident in Zulu history is recorded as the ‘Crossing of Mawa.’ Princess Mawa died in Natal.

Mawson, Pasquita – (1891 – 1974)
Australian letter writer and biographer
Francisca Delprat was the youngest daughter of Dutch born Guillaume Daniel Delprat, the general Manager of BHP (Broken Hill Proprietary Limited). Known from childhood by the diminutive ‘Paquita,’ became the wife (1914) of Sir Douglas Mawson (1882 – 1958), the famous geologist and Antarctic explorer. With his death she became the Dowager Lady Mawson (1958 – 1974). She published a biography of her father A Vision of Steel (1958), and the biography Mawson of the Antarctic (1964). Her own correspondence was discovered amongst her husband’s papers at the University of Adelaide, South Australia and were edited and published by Nancy Robinson Flannery as The Everlasting Silence: the Love Letters of Paquita Delprat and Douglas Mawson 1911 – 1914 (2000).

Maxima Faustina – (fl. 361 – 366 AD)
Roman Augusta
Maxima Faustina was the third wife of the Emperor Constantius III (317 – 361 AD). Accorded the Imperial title, she gave birth after the emperor’s death, to a daughter, Constantia Posthuma. Empress Maxima was later involved in the abortive attempt of the usurper Procopius, who briefly assumed the Imperial title (365 – 366 AD). Her later fate remains unknown, though her daughter became the first wife of the Emperor Gratian.

Maximilla – (c130 – c179 AD) 
Graeco-Roman Montanist leader
Maximilla and another prophetess, Priscilla, led the heretical Montanist Christian sect, who believed that Christ’s return was at hand. They believed he would establish the New Jerusalem mentioned in the Bible near the village of Pepuza in Phrygia, Asia Minor. Despite the attempts of local angry Christian bishops to have her contained or removed, she remained leader of the sect. She prophesied that war and death would follow her death, the lack of which led to the eventual disintegration of the sect.

Maximilla, Valeria – (c281 – 316 AD)
Roman Augusta (306 - 312 AD)
Valeria Maximilla was the daughter of the Emperor Galerius by his first wife whose identity remains unknown. Her stepmother was the Empress Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian and his wife Prisca. Her father gave Maximilla in marriage (before c300 AD) to the Emperor Maxentius (284 – 312 AD). When Maxentius was proclaimed emperor by the praetorians after Diocletian's abdication (Oct 26, 306 AD) Valeria Maximilla was accorded the title of Augusta. Empress Maximilla bore her husband two sons, the elder Valerius Romulus (304 - 309 AD) who died at the age of five years was then deified. His deification was proclaimed on coins depicting a circular temple which was dedicated to his eternal memory AETERNAE MEMORIAE. Her younger son, whose name remains unrecorded, was living at the time of his father's death (312 AD). With her husband’s death, the empress was expelled from the Imperial palace and then from the court of the Emperor Maximinus. Maximilla fled to Thessalonika with her stepmother Valeria, the widow of Galerius, and her stepgrandmother Prisca, Diocletian’s widow. They were accompanied by Maximilla's illegitimate brother Candidianus, and remained in hiding there for some time in Thessalonika, until they were finally recognized and arrested. All were beheaded by orders of Licnius, their bodies thrown into the sea.

Maxse, Caroline Berkeley, Lady – (1803 – 1886)
British society figure
Lady Caroline Berkeley was the daughter of the Earl of Berkeley and his wife Mary Cole. Unlike several of her elder siblings who had been born before her parents had been married, Lady Caroline was born fully legitimate. She became the wife of James Maxse and became a prominent figure in London society. Caroline survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Maxse (1864 – 1886). Lady Caroline Maxse died (Jan 20, 1886) aged eighty-two. Her children included,

Maxwell, Erica     see    Pyke, Lillian Maxwell

Maxwell, Lois – (1927 – 2007)
Canadian film actress
Born Lois Ruth Hooker (Feb 14, 1927) in Kitchener, Ontario, she was the daughter of a teacher, and later went to work in Hollywood, California, where she adopted the name of ‘Lois Maxwell.’ After a brief period as a leading lady on the screen just after the war (1946 – 1948), in which she appeared in films like The Decision of Christopher Blake (1947) and Corridor of Mirrors (1948), and won a golden Globe Award as best newcomer to the screen after her appearance with Shirley Temple in the comedy, That Hagen Girl (1947). She appeared with the future president Ronald Reagan, in Bedtime for Bonzo (1951). Maxwell then she went to England, where she continued her career in films, and married the television executive, Peter Marriott. She was remembered particularly for her role as Miss Moneypenny, a role she played in all fourteen of the James Bond series of espionage films from Dr No (1962) until A View to a Kill (1985) opposite Roger Moore. Other film credits included Kill Me Tomorrow (1957), Endless Night (1972), Age of Innocence (1977) and The Fourth Angel (2001). Lois Maxwell played the doctor’s disbelieving wife (the character is not in the book) in the classic horror flick The Haunting (1963) with Claire Bloom, Russ Tamblyn, and Julie Christie as Eleanor. With the death of her husband (1973) Maxwell returned to Canada, but still appeared in films from time to time. She also appeared in the telemovie The Blue Man (1987). Maxwell later moved to Fremantle, Western Australia, in order to be nearer her family. Lois Maxwell died there (Sept 29, 2007) aged eighty.

Maxwell, Marilyn – (1921 – 1972)
American film actress
Born Marvel Maxwell, she performed as a dancer from early childhood. Blonde and attractive, she began her career movie career in Hollywood in was films like Stand By For Action (1942), Swing Fever (1942) and Thousands Cheer (1943). Later film credits included appearances in The Lemon Drop Kid (1951), New York Confidential (1955), Rock-a-bye-Baby (1958), and the western flick Stagecoach to Hell (1964).

Maxwell, Mary Herbert, Lady    see    Montagu, Mary Herbert, Lady

Maxwell, Mary Elizabeth     see    Braddon, Mary Elizabeth

May, Charmian - (1937 - 2002)
British actress
Charmian May was born (June 16, 1937) at Purbrook in Hampshire. She worked in the theatre prior to make her first appearance on television. She appeared in the several espisodes of the popular series The Good Life (1975) with Richard Briers and Felicity Kendall, and played a brisk, non nonsense town councillor in several episodes of the comedy Keeping Up Appearances (1990 - 1992) with Patricia Routledge. Miss May also appeared in several films, notably The Dawning (1988) and as Mrs Darcy in Bridget Jones's Diary (2002) with Renee Zellweger in the title role. Charmian May died (Oct 24, 2002) aged sixty-five, in Purbrook.

May, Olive – (1892 – 1947)
British actress
Olive Meatyard was the daughter of George Meatyard of Kensington in London. She became a successful actress and singer during the Edwardian and pre WW I era as ‘Miss Olive May.’ Olive May retired from the stage after becoming the wife (1913) of Lord Victor William Paget (1889 – 1952) to whom she bore two children. This marriage ended in divorce (1921) and Lady Paget then became the second wife (1922) of the Irish peer Henry Charles Ponsonby Moore (1884 – 1957), the tenth Earl of Drogheda and became the Countess of Drogheda (1922 – 1947). This marriage remained childless. Lady Drogheda died (Nov 24, 1947) aged fifty-five.

May, Sophie    see    Clarke, Rebecca Sophia

Mayanalla Devi – (fl. c1060 – after 1094)
Indian queen
Mayanalla Devi was the daughter of Jayakisan, King of Goa, and married (c1064) Karna, King of Gurjurat (c1030 – 1094). With the death of her husband, Queen Mayanalla ruled Gurjarat as regent for their young son Jayasimha. The queen arranged the construction of two lakes, one at Dholka, near Baroda, and another near Viramgam.

Mayer, Constance – (c1767 – 1821) 
French painter
Constance Mayer was the student of Greuze, and with his death (1805) she became the long-time mistress of fellow artist Pierre Paul Prud’hon, whose children she raised. Mayer exhibited five works in Paris in 1798 inlcuding her own self-portrait, and her works included the blissful vision The Dream of Happiness, and The Happy Mother. She may or may not have painted the famous Sleep of Venus and Cupid in the Wallace Collection, which was commissioned by the Empress Josephine, as some claim the work as Prud’hon’s. Mayer resided with Prud’hon in the Sorbonne district (1810), but eventually committed suicide in Paris (May 27, 1821), when she realized that he would never marry her.

Mayer, Helene – (1910 – 1953)
German-American fencer
Helene Mayer was born in Offenberg, near Strasbourg. She won her first national foil title at the age of only thirteen (1923), and then an Olympic title (1928). Mayer went on to win two world foil champiosnhips (1929) and (1931), but was later expelled in Germany because of her Jewish ancestry. She was later asked to represent Germany at the Berlin Olympics but came second to Ilona Elek, whom she later defeated and regained the world title (1938). Mayer later took up American citizenship and played there professionally, winning the US championship eighteen times.

Mayer, Lourdes – (1920 – 1998)
Brazilian actress
Lourdes Mayer was the sister of actress Zilka Salaberry, and of actor Alair Nazareth. She was married to the actor Rodolfo Mayer (1910 – 1985). She appeared in the film One Estas Felicidade? (1939), but worked mainly in television. Mayer appreared in early popular televison series such as Coracao Delator (1953) and As Professoras (1954) and for the next four decades worked almost continually in television. Noted roles included that of Silvia in Enguanto Houver Estrelas (1969), Esther in Dancin’ Days (1978), Alzira in Olhai os Lirios do Campo (1980) and Vereda Tropical (1984). Her last roles were appearances in the mini-series Anos Rebeldes (1992), and in two serials O Campeao (1996) and Xica da Silva (1996) in which she played the mother superior. Lourdes Mayer died (July 25, 1998) aged seventy-seven, in Rio de Janeiro.

Mayer, Maria Goeppert     see    Goeppert-Mayer, Maria Gertrude

Mayfield, Sara Martin – (1905 – 1979)
American director, writer and journalist
Sara Mayfield was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. She produced The Constant Circle (1968) and Exiles from Paradise (1972). Sara Mayfield died (Jan 10, 1979) aged seventy-three, in Tuscaloosa.

Maynard, Anne Parsons, Lady      see    Parsons, Nancy

Maynard, Olga – (1913 – 1994)
American educator and critic
Myriol Olga Gittens was born (Jan 16, 1913) in Belem do Para in Brazil. She was married firstly to Ralph du Coudray, secondly to the novelist Leonard Wibberly, and thirdly to Elliot Russell Maynard. Olga Maynard was a writer and critic of the theatrical arts and her published works included The Ballet Companion: An Illustrated How to Look and How to Listen Guide to Four of the Most Popular Ballets (1957), The American Ballet (1959), Bird of Fire: The Story of Maria Tallchief (1961) and Children and Dance and Music (1968). Olga Maynard died (Dec 26, 1994) aged eighty-one, at Irvine in California.

Mayo, Arabella Praed, Countess of - (1766 - 1843)
Irish peeress and courtier
Arabella Praed was born (Nov, 1766), the fourth daughter and heiress of William Mackworth Praed, of Bitton House, Devon, and his wife Susanna Stokes, the daughter and coheiress of John Stokes, of Rill, near Aylesbear in Devon. She became the wife (1792) of John Bourke (1766 - 1849), fourth Earl of Mayo, and became the Countess of Mayo. There were no children. With the accession of King William IV (1830 - 1837), Lady Mayo was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to the queen, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. Her humour, sense and sincerity made the countess a valued friend to Queen Adelaide. The queen's niece Queen Victoria, recalled in her diary of Lady Mayo ' being such a quizz.' Lady Glengall however, called the countess ' the ugliest woman in the world,' and when Lady Mayo quizzed her personally about that particular remark, Lady Glengall merely replied in a friendly vein : " Well I must say, Lady Mayo, I think you are the most frightful woman I ever saw in my life." The Countess of Mayo died (Nov 19, 1843) aged seventy-seven, at Bersted Lodge in Bognor, Sussex.

Mayo, Blanche Julia Wyndham, Countess of – (1826 – 1918)
British Vicereine of India
The Hon. (Honourable) Blanche Wyndham was born at Brighton in London, the daughter of George Wyndham, first Baron Leconfield and his wife Mary Fanny Blunt. She was married (1848) to Richard Bourke, sixth Earl of Mayo (1822 – 1872) whom she accompanied to India after his appointment as British Viceroy and Governor-General (1868). Lord Mayo was assassinated by an Afghan convict during a visit to the Andaman Islands (1872). Because of the manner of her husband’s death the Dowager Lady Mayo, who had previously served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria, was granted a parliamentary annuity, whilst the Council of India granted her a similar pension, with the gift of a sum of twenty thousand pounds.  She served at court again as lady-in-waiting, and the queen appointed Lady Mayo a Lady of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India (CI) and a Lady of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert (VA). She left seven children, including Dermot Bourke, seventh Earl of Mayo (1851 – 1927) and Capt. Hon. Maurice Bourke (1853 – 1900), who served as equerry to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Gotha. Her daughter Lady Eva Bourke became the wife of Windham Wyndham-Quin, fifth Earl of Dunraven (1857 – 1952). Lady Mayo died at Marylebone in London aged ninety (Jan 31, 1918).

Mayo, Isabella Fyvie – (1843 – 1914)
British novelist and journalist
Of Scottish parentage, she was educated at a private school in London, and married (1870) a solicitor John Ryall Mayo, whose early death left her childless. She never remarried. She sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Edward Garrett,’ and contributed verses and written articles to various periodicals and magazines. Mayo revised and annotated the translation of the later works of the Russian author Leo Tolstoy. Her novels included Occupations of a Retired Life (1868), Premiums Paid to Experience (1872), By Still Waters (1874), Mrs Raven’s Temptation (1881), The Mystery of Alan Grale (1885), Not by Bread Alone (1890) and Chrystal Joyce (1899). Isabella Mayo died (May 13, 1914) in Bishop’s Gate, in Aberdeen, Scotland.

Mayo, Katherine – (1868 – 1940)
American journalist and critic
Katherine Mayo was born in Ridgeway, Pennsylvania, she was best known for her work Isles of Fear (1925), an unsympathetic viewing of the American administration of the Philippines, and Mother India (1927) which condemned such customs as child-marriage.

Mayo, Margaret Anah Scott, Countess of – (1889 – 1964)
British club organizer
Margaret Scott was the daughter of Major John Harrey Scott, and became the second wife (1916) of Walter Langley Bourke (1959 – 1939), the eighth Earl of Mayo (1927 – 1939). The marriage produced an only daughter, Lady Betty Jocelyne Bourke (born 1917) who married firstly to Captain Ronald Banon (died 1943), and secondly to Samuel Clarke of Akeley Wood, near Buckingham. The countess served as president of the Girls Life Brigade (1936 – 1946) and served as the vice-president of the National Association of Girls Clubs and as the honorary vice-president of the National Association of Youth Clubs. She survived her bhusband for twenty-five years as the Dowager Countess of Mayo (1939 – 1964). Lady Mayo died (May 29, 1964).

Mayreder, Rosa – (1858 – 1938)
Austrian feminist, painter and author
Rosa Mayreder was best remembered as author of ther feminist essay, A survey of the women problem (1913). She worked for the pacifist cause during WW I, and worked to reform the laws which affected the rights and conditions of prostitutes. Her artwork was exhibited in Vienna and in the USA and she wrote a libretto for the famous composer Hugo Wolf (1860 – 1903).

Maywood, Augusta – (1825 – 1876)
American ballerina
Augusta Maywood made her stage debut in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the early age of twelve (1837). She then travelled to France in order to study with the Paris Opera, and where her style of dancing received critical acclaim. Augusta later worked with her husband, the dancer Mabille, with whom she had eloped (1840). They performed in Burgundy, France and in Lisbon, Portugal, but Augusta soon abandoned her husband (1841) and returned to live in Vienna and Italy. Augusta Maywood established herslef as a famous prima ballerina, becoming the first American dance to achieve international status, and amassed a great fortune during her heyday. With her eventual retirement, Maywood resided near Lake Como in Italy.

Mazalskiy, Helena Ghika, Princess     see    Ghika, Elena

Mazarin, Francoise de Mailly-Rubempre, Marquise de – (1688 – 1742)
French salonniere
Francoise de Mailly was born (Aug 30, 1688) the daughter of Louis, Comte de Mailly and his wife Marie Anne de Sainte-Hermine, the daughter of Helie, marquis de Sainte-Hermine. She was married firstly (1700) to Louis, Comte de Phelypaux (1672 – 1725) and secondly (1731) to Paul Jules de La Porte-Mazarin, Duc de Mazarin and de La Meilleraye (1666 – 1731). The duchesse left three children by her first marriage, Louis de Phelypeaux, Comte de Florentin and Duc de La Vrilliere (1705 – 1777) who held several offices of state, Marie Jeanne (1704 – 1793) the wife of Jean Frederic Phelypeaux, Comte de Maurepas, and Louise Francoise (1708 – 1737) the wife of Louis de Brehan, Comte de Plelo. With the death of her stepdaughter the Marquise de Nesle (1729), the duchesse undertook the upbringing of that lady’s three younger daughters, two of whom would later became the mistresses of Louis XV. From 1725 she served as lady-in-waiting (dame du palais) to Queen Marie Lesczinska. A highly influential courtier, mother to one minister and the mother-in-law to another, her salon at Versailles was a hot-bed of scandal and political intrigue and she actively supported the plan to make her step-granddaughter, the Duchesse de Chatearoux, the king’s mistress. The duchesse died (Sept 11, 1742) aged fifty-four, at the Palace of Versailles.

Mazarin, Hortense Mancini, Duchesse de     see    Mancini, Hortense

Mazel, Judy – (1943 – 2007)
American author
Judy Mazel was born in Chicago, Illinois. She attempted to become an actress in Hollywood, but after devising her won health regimen she moved to Los Angeles in California, where Mazel established a wight-loss clinic. She became the author of the best-selling book The Beverly Hills Diet (1981) which sold almost one million copies. She maintained that it was not the quantities of food consumed that added what, but instead the injudicious combinations of various foods. Judy Mazel died in California, after suffering a stroke, aged sixty-three.

Mazumdar, Hema Prabha – (1882 – 1962)
Indian political activist
Hema Prabha was the wife of Basanta Kumar Mazumdar (1876 – 1942). She joined the Non-Cooperation Movement (1921) and remained an active figure in Indian politics for the next three decades until her final retirement (1952).

Mazzarini, Cleria – (1604 – 1669)
Italian nun
Born Anna Mazzarini, she was the sister of Cardinal Jules Mazarin, regent of France for the young Louis XIV. Her sisters included Margherita Martinozzi and Hieronima Mancini. She never married and took religious vows at abbey of Santa Maria in the Campio Marzio in Rome. She later became abbess (1657). Cleria Mazzarini died aged sixty-five.

Mbande, Jinga    see    Nzinga, Mbande

Mead, Frances – (1899 – 1966)
American athlete
Frances Mead was raised in New York City, and at Tarrytown in New York. She graduated from Choate Rosemary Hall in Greenwich, Connecticut (1921), and then from Smith College, and competed in the Paris Olympic Games (1924). She later married and had two children. Frances Mead died (Sept 21, 1966).

Mead, Margaret – (1901 – 1978)
American anthropologist
Margaret Meade was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was appointd the assistant curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History (1926). She was later promoted to associate curator (1942), curator (1964), and finally curator emeritus (1969). She taught at Fordham and Columbia universities, and was a prominent environmentalist nd supporter of women’s rights. Margaret made several expeditions to Samoa, New Guinea, Bali, and other regions of the South Pacific region and produced Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) and Growing Up in New Guinea (1930). Later works included Male and Female (1949) and Growth and Culture (1951). She reasoned that personality characteristics, especially the differences between men and women, were actually the result of cultural conditioning rather than heredity. Her pioneering research helped to popularize public interest in social anthropology, thus making it more accessible to the general public. After her death however, some of her theories were highly criticised.

Meade, Elizabeth Thomasina – (c1853 – 1914)
Irish novelist
Meade was born in Bandon in Cork, the daughter of the rector of Nohoval. She was married (1879) to one Toulmin Smith, to whom she bore three children. Elizabeth Meade later came to reside in Bishopsgate Without, London, and was employed by the British Museum. She was editor of the Atalanta publication. Meade’s published works included the popular novels The Way of a Woman, The Rebellion of Lil Carrington, The Brotherhood of the Seven Kings, The Colonel and the Boy, The Stormy Petrel, and Love’s Cross Roads. She also produced Stories from the Old Bible for juvenile readers. Elizabeth Meade died (Oct 26, 1914).

Meade, Lady Katharine – (1871 – 1954)
British courtier
Lady Katharine Meade was the second daughter of Richard James Meade (1832 – 1907), the fourth Earl of Clanwilliam and his wife Elizabeth Henrietta Kennedy, the daughter of Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, the Governor of Queensland in Australia. She remained unmarried. Lady Katharine served at court as lady-in-waiting (1910 – 1922) to HRH the Duchess of Albany, widow of Prince Leopold and daughter-in-law of Queen Victoria. She then served in the same capacity (1923 – 1926) to HRH the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth, the wife of George VI). Lady Katharine Meade died (Oct 19, 1954) aged eighty-three.

Meade, Mary    see   Church, Ruth Ellen

Meath, Dorothea Stopford, Countess of – (c1681 – 1728)
Irish literary figure
Dorothea Stopford was the younger daughter of Captain James Stopford, of Tara Hill, Meath, Ireland and of Saltersford, Chester, England, and his second wife Mary Forth. Dorothea was married firstly (1704 – 1708) to Edward Brabazon, Earl of Meath, and secondly to Lieutenant-General Richard Gorges, of Kilbrew. A prominent figure in Irish society, Lady Meath was the ‘Countess Doll’ of whom Dean Swift, whose humorous epitaph of her and her second husband as ‘Doll and Dickey’ was well-known. The countess died (April 10, 1728) at Kilbrew, two days before her husband.

Meath, Mary Jane Maitland, Countess of – (1847 – 1918)
Irish memoirist
Lady Mary Jane Maitland was the daughter of the eleventh Earl of Lauderdale and his wife Amelia Young. From 1854 she was her father’s sole heir and she was married (1868) to Reginald Brabazon, twelfth Earl of Meath (1841 – 1929) to whom she bore six children. Lady Meath left a diary of her charitable and philanthropic work for a period of almost four decades (1880 – 1918). Lady Meath died (Nov 4, 1918) aged eighty-one, at Kilruddery in County Wicklow. Her husband edited her diaries and caused them to be published in London in two volumes as The Diaries of Mary, Countess of Meath (1928 – 1929). Her children included Reginald Le Norman Brabazon (1869 – 1949), who succeeded his father as thirteenth Earl (1929 – 1949), Captain Hon.(Honourable) Ernest Brabazon (1884  1915) killed in action in France during WW I, and her youngest daughter, Lady Violet Brabazon, who became the wife of James Grimston, fourth Earl of Verulam.

Meath, Petronilla de (Petronilla de Midia) – (c1275 – 1324)
Irish heretic and suspected withcraft accomplice
Petronilla was the maidservant of Dame Alice Kyteler, who was prosecuted for witchcraft by Richard Ledrede, Bishop of Ossory. Ledrede accused Petronilla to be arrested, whipped, and tortured, in order to extract a ‘confession’. Petronilla de Meath became the first person in Ireland to be burnt at the stake for heresy (Nov 3, 1324). Her daughter Basilia managed to escape to the safety of England with Dame Alice.

Mechtild of Hackeborn – (1241 – 1299)
German nun, visionary and saint
Mechtild (Matilda) von Hackeborn was born near Magdeburg. She became a nun with her sister and was for many years prone to mystic revelations which she kept to herself. She became abbess of Helfta. After a prolonged illness these visions became more intense, and Mechtild began to reveal the contents to some of the sisters. St Gertrude of Helfta and some of her nuns wrote down Mechtild’s verbal account (c1290) of her spiritual visions in the Liber Specialis Gratiae. Abbess Mechtild died (Nov 19, 1299) at Helfta.

Mechtild of Magdeburg – (1210 – 1282) 
German mystic
Mechtild of Magdeburg joined the abbey of Magdeburg as a beguin (c1222). She sufferred mysitcal visions and experiences, and sufferred from the criticism of both the other nusn and the clergy because of these. In 1270 she finally retired to the Cistercian abbey of Helfta, where she later died. Her poetic visions were recorded in seven sections as The Flowing Light of the Godhead.

Meda – (c359 – c336 BC)
Thracian princess
Meda was the daughter of Kothelas, king of the Getae in eastern Thrace. Her father gave her in marriage as part of a political alliance with Philip II of Macedonia, whose sixth wife she became (342 BC). The historian Satyrus records that because of her rank as the daughter of a king, when she arrived at Philip’s court at Pella, she was formally introduced to Olymias, his chief queen. There were no children and she was stepmother to Alexander the Great. Meda is believed to have committed suicide after Philip’s assasination (June, 336 BC), and was interred with him at Vergina.

Meda, Felicia da – (1398 – 1444)
Italian saint
Felicia da Meda was born to a patrician family in Milan with her sister entered the convent of St Ursula in Milan after the deaths of their parents. Twenty-five years later Felicia was elected abbess. The fame of her religious sanctity and piety spread so much that Battista Malatesta, Countess of Pesaro, and her daughter Elisabetta, Countess of Camerino, who were building the Franciscan convent of Corpus Christi at Pesaro, begged St Bernardino of Siena to procure Felicia’s help for them in establishing their new house. She ruled Corpus Christi from 1439 till her death. Battista and Elisabetta both became nuns under her.
The church honoured Felicia as a beata (Sept 30).

Medalle, Lydia Sterne – (1747 – 1776)
Anglo-French editor
Lydia Sterne was the second daughter, but only surviving child of Laurence Sterne, the British humourist, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Richard Lumley, Rector of Bedale. Her father ever remained devotedly attached to her throughout his life and she accompanied her parents to Toulouse, in France whence they travelled for the benefit of her father’s failing health (1762). Educated in France she was an elegant and beautiful woman when she returned with her mother to their father in London (1767) before travelling to reside at York. With the death of her father she and her mother threatened his romantic friend Eliza Draper that they would publish Sterne’s correspondence with her. She retired to Angouleme in France with her mother (1769), later removing to Alby on the Tarn River in Langeudoc. There she met and married (1772) Alexandre Anne Medalle, a customs house official, after converting to Roman Catholicism. Lydia gave birth to a son then lost both her mother and husband in quck succession. She returned to London where she published her edited collection of her father’s correspondence, with herself and those written to his friends. Medalle then returned to France and died a short while afterwards. The popular legend that made Madame de Medalle and her husband the victims of the guillotine during the Revolution is dramatic, but spurious.

Medania of Hauteville (Madania) – (c1181 – after 1213)
Norman princess
Princess Medania was the eldest daughter of Tancred of Leece, King of Sicily (1189 – 1194) and his wife Sybilla di Medania, the daughter of Ruggiero di Medania, Count of Acerra. She was sister to the child king, Roger III (1194) and William III (1194 – 1197). It has been thought that perhaps her real Christian name was Sybilla, and that the name ‘Medania’ was perhaps a reference to her maternal family connections, rather than a personal name, but the chronicle known as the Thomas Tusci Gesta Imperatorum et Pontificum, specifically names her as ‘Madania,’ recording the facts that she remained unmarried, and later  became a nun. Princess Medania was later arrested with her mother and sisters, and was confined with them in the convent of Hohenburg in Alsace, by order of the Emperor Henry VI (1197). She was later released due to the intervention of Pope Innocent III (1198 – 1216), and then took religious vows. Some sources claim that Medania was in fact married to a Sicilian nobleman named Robert di Montescaglioso, but if this assertion was true, the marriage was brief and remained childless.

Medawar, Jean Shinglewood Taylor, Lady – (1913 – 2005)
British author and family planning advocate
Jean Singleton was born in Cambridge, the daughter of a physician. Educated at the Benenden School in Kent, she won a scholarship to study zoology at Somerville College, Oxford. There she met and married (1937) Sir Peter Medawar, later director of the National Institute for Medical Research, and winner of the Nobel Prize for medicine (1960). Lady Medawar became associated with the Family Planning Association (FPA), the Citizens’ Advice Bureau (CAB), and the Marriage Guidance Council, and became involved with social work with young offenders from Holloway Prison. She was elected second chairman of the FPA (1967) and co-founded the Margaret Pyke Centre for Study and Training in Family Planning and the Margaret Pyke Memorial Trust.

Medbury, Jessie see Landis, Jessie Royce

Medea – (fl. c1500 BC)
Georgian princess
Medea became the heroine of the tale of Jason and the Argonauts. Famed as a sorceress she was the daughter of Aeetes, king of Kolchis (believed to be modern Georgia). According to the legend she fell in love with Jason and married him. She assisted him to steal the Golden Fleece and then exacted a brutal revenge when he then abandoned her by killing their children. Medea was later said to have married the Athenian ruler Aegeus to whom she bore a son, Medus, but she was said to have made an attempt on the life of her stepson, the hero Theseus, and was sent into exile. She returned with her son Medus to Kolchis, where she restored her father to his throne, which had been usurped by his brother Perses. Medea was honoured as a goddess at Korinth and her son Medus was believed to be the ancestor of the Medes of Persia. The chief seat of Medea’a cult was in Thessaly in Greece, which was always regarded since remote antiquity as the birthplace of magic. In the classic film Jason and the Argonauts (1963) Medea was portrayed by actress Nany Kovack.

Medeiros, Maria Quiteria de Jesus – (fl. 1822 – 1824)
Brazilian heroine
Maria Quiteria was the daughter of Gonzalo de Medeiros, of the province of Bahia in Brazil. She was much moved by the desire of her fellow Bahian patriots who worked for the independence of Brazil from Portugal. The Bahian patriots refused to accept the appointment of Brigadier Bandeira de Mello, who had been sent by the Emperor Pedro II to replace their own Brigadier de Freitas Guimaraes. However, when the Portugese troops took up arms instead in favour of their own General Madeira, the patriots declared for the emperor, and Maria Quiteria resolved to become personally involved with the struggle. Without the knowledge of her father, she assumed male disguise and firstly joined an artillery regiment at Cachoeira, before changing to a light infantry battalion. Despite the fact that her father discovered her deception, Maria Quiteria continued to serve with her battalion until the end of the war. Her bravery was acknowledged by the Emperor Pedro, who awarded her the Imperial order of Cruzeiro.

Medel, Angelique de – (1754 – 1799)
French philanthropist, émigré and memoirist
Born Angelique de Ferrieres in Poitiers, she was sister to the Marquis de Ferriers. With the outbreak of the Revolution and the despotion of the king, she chose to join her husband in exile abroad, and lived as an émigré in Belgium, Holland, and Germany until her death (1792 – 1799). Her personal account of these travels was published (1930) by the Societe de Antiquaires as Le Journal d’emigration de Madame de Medel (1792 – 1794).

Medforth, Kay – (1914 – 1980) 
American stage and film actress
Kay Medforth was born in Manhattan, New York, and after graduating from Morris High School, she went to Hollywood, in California, to pursue an acting career. She made her screen debut in The War Against Mrs Hadley (1942). Kay made her debut on Broadway in the popular Lerner-Loewe musical Paint Your Wagon (1951) and toured internationally with a night-club act, and directed entertainments for the troops in Japan and Hawaii after the war. However, she was best remembered for her comic talent, which became firmly established when she appeared in the Broadway show John Murray Anderson’s Almanac (1953). Other film appearances included The Rat Race (1960), Butterfield 8 (1960) with Elizabeth Taylor, Bye Bye Birdie (1963) where she played the mother of Dick Van Dyke, and Funny Girl (1969) where she played the mother of Barbra Streisand. Kay Medforth died (April 10, 1980) in Manhattan.

Medforth, Margeurite Elizabeth – (1879 – 1966)
British nurse and military matron
Margeurite Medforth was born (Sept, 1879) the daughter of a justice of the peace. She was educated at home under the supervision of a governess before she studied at Oxford. Medforth trained as a nurse as the Metropolitan Hospital (1903 – 1906). She then joined Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS) and worked with units in France, Egypt, and Salonika in Greece during WW I. Miss Medforth later served as matron-in-chief of the QAIMNS until her eventual retirement (1930 – 1934). In recognition of her valuable service she was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1931) by King George V. During WW II (1940 – 1945) she served as a regional nursing officer with the London Ministry of Health. Margeurite Medforth died (May 29, 1966) aged eighty-six.

Medhb – (fl. c70 – c100 AD)
Celtic Irish warrior queen of Connaught
Medhb was supposedly a contemporary of Cartimandua, Boudicca, and Conchobar mac Nessa, king of Ultonia. She became the wife of Ailill, king of Ulster, and, according to the Tain Bo Cuilinge, she tricked the hero Cu Chulainn, the chapion of Ulster, into losing both his powers and his life. An outstanding figure in early Irish literature, Medhb is perhaps to be identified as an early mother-goddess.

Medici, Anna Maria Ludovica de – (1667 – 1743)
Florentine princess
Princess Anna de Medici was born in Florence, the daughter of Cosimo III de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his wife Margeurite Louise, the daughter of Gaston de Bourbon, Duc d’Orleans, brother of King Louis XIII. Hopes to marry her to the Dauphin Louis, son of Louis XIV in 1679 – 1680 did not eventuate, as did plans for her to marry Pedro II of Portugal (1684), and she eventually married (1691) John William, elector Palatine of Neuburg (1658 – 1716) as his second wife. The marriage was happy, but remained childless. In 1713 the emperor Charles VI, at her father’s insistence, supported Anna Maria’s claim as heiress of Tuscany, her two brothers being childless. Widowed in 1716, she resided in Florence for the rest of her life. With the death of her brother Grand Duke Gian Gastone (1737) the great powers of Europe, by the terms of the Treaty of Vienna (1735) disregarded the claims of the electress to the Grand ducal throne, and bestowed Tuscany on the Duke of Lorraine, with the understanding that he should return Lorraine to France.
Though offered the position of regent of Florence, the princess haughtily declined it. She retained her apartments in the Pitti Palace, and was an immensely rich woman, having her own personal fortune as well as the Medici family fortune and the priceless Medici art collection. Anna Maria Ludovica de Medici died (Feb 18, 1743) in Florence, and was interred in the Church of San Lorenzo there. Her will stipulated that all works of art, paintings, sculptures, books, furniture, silverware, gold, stoneware, clothing, medallions, tapestries and pottery, formerly belonging to the Medici family, should become part of the patrimony of the Grand duchy of Tuscany. She also stipulated that this inheritance would only be valid if this estate remained in Florence, where it was to be made accessible to anyone and everyone, and every nation in the world. Thus, this legacy ensured that Florence would remain one of the greatest art centres of the world.

Medici, Bia de – (1537 – 1542)
Italian mediaeval noblewoman
Bia de Medici was born in Florence, the illegitimate daughter of Cosimo de Medici (1519 – 1574), later grand duke Cosimo I of Florence. Her portrait survives, painted by Il Bronzino (Angelo Allori) (1503 – 1572), her father’s favourite painter. It was completed shortly before her death, at the age of only five. She was depicted wearing a medallion which bore her father’s portrait.

Medici, Catherine de      see    Catherine Marie Romola

Medici, Eleonora de – (1591 – 1617)
Italian princess
Princess Eleonora de Medici was born (Nov 10, 1591) in Florence, the eldest daughter of Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Christina of Lorraine. She received an excellent education and was betrothed during childhood to Philip III, King of Spain (1598 – 1621), which was a major political alliance for her family. However this match was broken off (1599) and Eleonora died unmarried (Nov 22, 1617) aged twenty-six. She was interred within the Medici mausoleum in Florence. Her portrait is preserved in the Uffizzi Gallery.

Medici, Maddalena de – (1473 – 1528)                   
Italian papal relative and courtier
Maddalena de Medici was the daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino, and his wife Claricia Orsini, and the sister of Pope Leo X. Maddalena was married to Francesco Cibo, Count di Anguillara and Ferentilla (c1455 – 1519), the illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII, who publicly attended the wedding. The marriage was unhappy due to her uncultured husband’s venal and liscentious habits.
With the election to the papacy of Maddalena’s brother, Leo X, her husband was made governor of Spoleto, and their son Innocenzo Cibo (1491 – 1550) a cardinal and Bishop of Genoa. Later, the pope granted Maddalena the profits from the sale of papal indulgences collected from the church in Germany. Another of Maddalena’s sons, Giambattista Cibo (1508 – 1552) became bishop of Marseilles, whilst whilst Lorenzo became count of Ferentilla, and married Ricciarda di Malapina, the heiress of Massa and Carrara. Of her daughters, Caterina became the wife of Giovanni Maria Varani, Duke of Camerino.

Medici, Marie de     see    Marie de Medici

Mediken – (fl. c680 – c656 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Mediken was sister to Pharoahs Anlamani and Aspelta of the XXVth Dynasty (721 – 656 BC). She was married to her brother Aspelta and was mother to his daughter Henuttakheb, who married and became the mother of an unidentifed Kushite king, perhaps Amtalqa or Malenaqen. Queen Mediken is portrayed on the Adoption Stelae of Aspelta, discovered at Gebel Barkal, and now preserved in the Louvre Museum, Paris.

Medina, Louisa – (1813 – 1838)
Spanish-American dramatist
Louisa Medina was the daughter of a Spanish businessman, and received an excellent education in classical languages and mathematics. She arrived in New York in the early 1830’s, when the bankruptcy suffered by her father, forced her to become financially independent. Louisa taught languages, and also contributed poems and stories to various newspapers. When she wrote scripts for theatrical producers she came to the notice of Thomas Hamblin, owner of The Bowery Theatre in New York. She adapted popular novels for the stage, her works including The Last Days of Pompeii (1835), Norman Leslie, Rienzi, Ernest Maltravers (1838) and the popular Nick of the Woods. Louisa produced nearly thirty-five plays during a five year period (1833 – 1838), though only three are known to survive. Louisa Medina died aged only twenty-five, admired more for her intelligence and charm, than for her beauty.

Medina de Rioseco, Vittoria Colonna, Duquesa de – (c1569 – 1633)
Italian-Spanish grandee
Vittoria Colonna was born in Italy, a member of the powerful Roman Colonna dynasty. She was married (1587) at Vicque, to Don Luis Enriquez de Cabrera (c1555 – 1600), fourth Duque de Medina de Rioseco and Admiral of Castile. Vittoria was duchess consort (1587 – 1600) and survived her husband for over three decades (1600 – 1633) as Dowager Duquesa. Her children included Juan Alonso Enriquez de Cabrera (1599 – 1647) who succeeded his father as fifth Duque de Medina de Rioseco, and left descendants. Duchess Vittoria died (Dec 28, 1633) aged in her mid-sixties.

Medina-Sidonia, Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo y Maura, Duquesa de – (1936 – 2008)
Spanish grandee and feudal heiress, author, and political activist
Luisa Isabel de Toledo y Maura was born (Aug 18, 1936) at Estoril in Portugal, the daughter and eventual heiress (1955) of the twentieth Duque de Medina-Sidonia, and was herself a descendant of the ill-fated commander of the Spanish Armada against Queen Elizabeth I of England (1588). The duchess was married (1955) to Leonard Gonzales de Gregorio Marti, to whom she bore three children. The duchess gave away many of her estates and fiefs to assist with the establishment of rural-co-operatives, but when she led an illegal march to gain higher pay for Spanish fisherman (1964) the Franco government caused her to be arrested, convicted, and fined, but she refused to pay. She then led a campaign at Palomares where livelihoods had been destroyed by radio-active leakage which originated with an American military plane. This earned her the popular sobriquet, ‘the Red Duchess’ and she was idolized by the poor agricultural communities, but suffered a year in prison (1967 – 1968). The duchess and her husband had seperated (1960) and a lengthy court battle ensued for custody of their children. The court used her political activism and a case for mental instability, and Marti gained custody. She published the novel La Huelga (1967) which dealt with police atrocities and coverups during the time of her political activity. Later convicted of breaking censorship laws (1970) the duchess retired to exile in France, returning only after Franco’s death (1976). The Duquesa de Medina-Sidonia died (March 7, 2008) aged seventy-one.

Medina-Sidonia, Maria de La Cerda, Duquesa de – (c1420 – 1468)
Spanish grandee and courtier
Maria de La Cerda was the daughter of Luis I de La Cerda, third Count de Medincaelli and his wife Juana Sarmiento. She was was a descendant of Alfonso X the Wise, King of Castile (1252 – 1284) and was married (1434) to Juan Alfonso de Guzman (1410 – 1468), first Duque de Medina-Sidonia popularly known as El Bueno. The duquesa was a prominent figure at the court of Juan II of Castile and then that of his son Enrique IV (1454 – 1474) whose second wife Juana of Portugal she attended. Duquesa Maria inherited the feudal fief of Huelva and died (Oct, 1468). She was the mother of Enrique de Guzman (c1439 – 1492) who succeeded his father as the second Duque de Medina-Sidonia.

Medland, Lilian – (1880 – 1955)
British painter
Lilian Medland specialized in detailed studies of flowers and birds. Her work was displayed at the Royal Academy in London.

Medullina Camilla, Livia – (c8 BC – 3 AD)
Roman patrician
Livia Medullina Camilla was the daughter of Marcus Furius Camillus, consul (8 AD), and his wife Livia Scriboniana, the daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus, consul (15 BC). She was a descendant of Marcus Furius Camillus, who served as consular tribune six times between (401 – 381 BC) and was the sister of Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scrobonianus consul (32 AD). In early childhood Medullina was betrothed to Claudius, the grandson of the empress Livia, and stepgrandson of Augustus. The marriage was arranged by the Emperor Tiberius in order that Medullina’s father, who was his close friend, should be allied with the Imperial Family. Medullina died suddenly on the day of her wedding, which fact is recorded by Suetonius, and is atttested by a surviving tomb inscription from Veliternus. A surviving inscription raised to her memory by her tutor styled her Medullina, daughter of Camillus, betrothed of Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus. In the historical novel I Claudius (1934) by Robert Graves Medullina is poisoned by Livia on her wedding day out of spite because she was not consulted as the marriage arrangements.

Medway, Violet Maude – (1909 – 1996)
Australian educator
Violet Medway became associated with the Queenswood School for Girls at Mosman, in Sydney, New South Wales at an early age (1929) as a teacher. Several years later Violet had become co-owner and co-principal of the school, eventually being elected as chairwoman of the Board of Governers. A firm believer in female equality, Violet served as the honorary secretary of the Headmistress’ Association for fifteen years, and was also a representative on the NSW Government Board of Secondary Studies for nearly two decades. She retired as principal (1982), but retained her position as chairwoman of the board until 1992. Her valuable work was publicly recognized when she appointed MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1970).

Medwick, Lucille – (1922 – 1971)
American editor
Lucille was married to the sculptor Maurice Medwick, to whom she bore three daughters. From 1970 – 1971 Lucille was the associate editor of The New York Quarterly, a poetry magazine to which she herself contributed articles concerning Puerto-Rican, Chinese and Jewish poets, which had been founded by William Packard, the professor of poetry at New York University. She was a member of the Poetry Society of America. Lucille Medwick died (Oct 20, 1971) in New York.

Mee, Margaret Ursula – (1909 – 1988)
British botanical artist and bird painter
Born Margaret Ursula Henderson, in Chesham, she studied at the Camberwell School of Art. She settled permanently in the jungles of the Amazon during the 1960’s and produced Flowers of the Brazilian Forests (1968). After her death the Margaret Mee Amazon Trust was established to draw attention to the increasing destruction being done in the Amazon region in the quest for farming land, wood, and minerals.

Mee, Medea     see   Figner, Medea Ivanovna

Meechie, Helen Guild – (1938 – 2000)
British army officer and director
Helen Meechie was born (Jan 19, 1938) the daughter of John Strachan Meechie. She attended school in Dundee prior to going on to study at the University of St Andrew’s. She joined the army and served in Britain, Cyprus and Hong Kong (1961 – 1976) and later in Germany (1977 – 1982) attaining the rank of brigadier. Meechie served as the honorary ADC (aide-de-camp) to Queen Elizabeth II (1982 – 1986) and was then appointed as ADC (1986). For this service she was appointed CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth (1986) and was appointed as the director of the WRAC (Women’s Royal Army Corps) (1982 – 1986) of the Army Service Conditions in the Ministry of Defence (1988). Brigadier Helen Meechie died (Aug 24, 2000) aged sixty-two.

Meeke, Mary – (c1750 – 1816)
British Hanoverian novelist
Mary Meeke was a married woman who turned to writing as professional employment. She was the author of the popular novels Count St Blancard, or, The Prejudiced Judge (1795) and The Abbey of Clugny (1795), both published in London. For some of her later works she adopted the pseudonym of ‘Mary Gabrielli.’

Meena – (1956 – 1987)
Afghan poet and activist
Meena was born in Kabul into a comfortably settled family. She attended the Lycee Malalai and the University of Kabul, where she studied law (1976). Meena refused a conventional arranged Afghan marriage, but through the involvement of relatives, she was introduced to her future husband, Faiz Ahmed, a physician, who was sympathetic to the cause of equal rights for Afghan women. She established the secret RAWA (Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan), which encouraged secrecy in order to protect the lives and work of the female participants. Meena organized housing for refugee women and children, and established the magazine Pam-e-Zan (Women’s Voice) (1981). She later represented the Afghan resistance movement at the French Socialist Party Conference to protest against the Soviet occupation of her country. Eventually her activities brought her into conflicet with the Afghani secret police. Within hours of giving birth to her daughter, Meena fled the hospital in disguise, whilst her husband was able to flee to Pakistan. She was assassinated at Quetta, aged thirty.

Meeuwissen, Sue – (1961 – 2000)
Australian anti-smoking activist
Sue Meeuwissen was born in Melbourne, Victoria, and sufferred from cystic fibrosis from birth. Because of this she later led the campaign to make public places smoke free. She persevered through a double lung transplant (1994), only to find that her new organs were asthmatic. Sue successfully litigated against the smoke filled city nightclubs. The clubs were found guilty and fined, but the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Tribunal ruled that a smoke free demand would merely prove ruinous to the businesses. Sue Meeuwissen died in a Melbourne hospital.

Megallis – (c180 – c139 BC)
Syrakusan tyrant
Megallis was the wife of Damophilus, tyrant of Enna. Both husband and wife were of an avaricious and cruel nature. When the slave, Eunus of Apamea, led a revolt in the city of Enna, they were captured. Damophilus was killed, whilst Megallis was handed over to her female slaves, who tortured her and finally threw her from the battlements in revenge. Their daughter however, who had taken no part in the crimes of her parents, was spared, and safely escorted to relatives in Catania.

Megalostrata – (fl. c550 BC)
Greek poet
Megalostrata was a native of Sparta. None of her work has survived, and she was principally remembered for her reputed romantic liasion with Spartan lyric poet, Alkman, who praised her work. According to tradition, it was Megalostrata’s intelligent style of conversation that caused him to fall in love with her, though fragment’s of his work praise her for possessing beautiful hair.

Megayzi, Mariska    see    Madison, Mae

Megethia – (fl. c580)
Byzantine patrician
The Patria Constantinopolitana recorded that Megethia caused a place to be built in the city, which was named after her, during the reign of Emperor Tiberius II Constantinus (578 – 582).

Mehaa – (fl. c2250 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Mehaa was married to Pepi I of the VIth Dynasty (c2282 – c2117 BC), to whom she bore a son named Hornetjerkhet. Queen Mehaa is depicted on a doorway from the tomb of her son in Saqqara.

Mehtyenweshket – (fl. c1000 – c980 BC)
Egyptian queen mother
Mehtyenweshket was the mother of King Osorkon the Elder of the XXIst Dynasty (1064 – 940 BC). She was the grandmother of King Shoshenq I, the first ruler of the XXIInd Dynasty (948 – 927 BC). The queen was named on the survivng stelae of Pasenhor, recovered from the Serapeum. A surviving text from the roof of the Khonsu temple at Karnak, gave her the title of ‘King’s Mother.’

Meinhof, Ulrike Marie – (1934 – 1976)
German political activist, terrorist and co-founder of the Bader-Meinhof gang
Ulrike Meinhof was born in Oldenburg, the daughter of a museum director. She studied at Marburg University, where she became known as a prominent anti-nuclear campaigner. She was married (1961 – 1968) to the communist activist Klaus Rainer Rohl, to whom she bore two daughters. They were later divorced. Meinholf became committed to the use of violence after an interview with the imprisoned arsonist Andreas Baader (1943 – 1977). She assisted with Baader’s break from jail (1970), and headed the underground terrorist organization, the Red Army Faction. She was arrested and then sentenced to eight years in prison at the high-security prison at Stammheim (1974). During her time there she wrote essays and drama, but finally committed suicide in her cell.

Meinill, Elizabeth – (1331 – 1368)
English mediaeval heiress
Elizabeth Meinill was born (Oct 15, 1331) the daughter and heiress of Sir Nicholas Meinill, the first Baron Meinill of Whorlton and his wife Alice de Ros. She was married firstly to Sir John Darcy, second Baron Darcy de Knayth (1317 – 1356) and became the Baroness Darcy de Knayth and left several children. Her husband was killed at the battle of Poitiers and Elizabeth survived him as the Dowager Baroness Darcy de Knayth (1356 – 1368). She later remarried a second time to Sir Piers de Mauley (1330 – 1383) of Mulgrave Castle. Elizabeth Meinill died (July 9, 1368) aged thirty-six.

Meir, Golda – (1898 – 1978)
Israeli politician
Born Golda Mabovich in Kiev, Ukraine, in Russia, she immigrated to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States with her family at the age of eight (1906). She married in America (1917) but them removes to reside in Palestine, where she became involved with the Labour movement which supported the Zionist cause. Golda Meir proved so successful that she was quickly elevated to a leading figure within the party. During World War II Golda was appointed to head the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, which worked to obtain the release of Jewish agitators imprisoned by the British. After the war Golda was one of the signatories to Israel’s declaration of independence (1948), and was appointed the Israeli ambassador to the Soviet Union (1948 – 1949). Her second appointment, as minister of Labour (1949 – 1956) saw Golda promote unrestricted immigration of Jews to Israel, and large improvements and reforms to the housing and roads infrustructure.
Golda was appointed Foreign minister (1956 – 1966) and constantly attempted to improve relations between the Jews and their Arab neighbours. She then served as secretary general of the Mapai party (1966 – 1968). Elected prime minister (1969), Golda travelled the world extensively in her efforts to promote peace in the Middle East. Despite all her efforts however, the fourth Arab-Israeli war finally broke out (1973), and she resigned the government the following year. Highly respected as an astute stateswoman in international circles, she left memoirs My Life (1975). Golda Meir died (Dec 8, 1978) in Jerusalem of leukaemia.

Meireles, Cecilia – (1901 – 1964)
Brazilian poet, critic and dramatist
Cecilia Meireles was born in Rio de Janeiro. Losing both parents at an early age (1904) she was raised by her grandmother. She later married, but her husband, to whom she bore three daughters, ultimately committed suicide. Cecilia’s early poetry (1919) was nostalgic and recollected her grandmother’s beautiful gardens, and the pleasant times she spent there. With the publication of her later work Viagem (Voyages) (1939) she was awarded the Brazilian Academy of Letters Prize, becoming one of Brazil’s best known and most highly revered poets. Her work dealt with the transitory nature of life and with the mysteries associated with death and was favourably compared with the work of the American poet Laura Riding.

Meiser, Edith – (1898 – 1993)
American stage and film actress
Edith Meiser was born in Detroit, Michigan, and attended Vassar College. She made her debut on the Broadway stage in 1923, appearing in the musical revue Garrick Gaieties, produced at the Theater Guild. Her film appearances included roles in It Grows On Trees, The Middle of the Night and the trilogy Queen For a Day, which was based on stories by Dorothy Parker, amongst others. Edith also performed on radio with the Marx Brothers, and produced the play The Wooden O. Known for her satiric wit, Edith appeared in the stage production of The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1960). Edith Meiser died (Sept 26, 1993) aged ninety-five.

Meisho (Meisho-tenno, Myoshu, Myoshu-tenno) – (1624 – 1696)
Japanese empress regnant (1629 – 1643)
Born Princess Okiko (Jan 9, 1624), she was the second daughter of the Emperor Go-Mizunoo (1612 – 1629), and his first wife Masako (Kazuko), the daughter of Hidetawa, the second Tokugawa shogun. Her father abdicated when Meisho was six years old after the famous ‘Purple Clothes Incident,’ and she ruled as empress in her own right, becoming the first female ruler in Japan in nine hundred years since the reign of Empress Shotoku-Koken (died 770). During her reign power was invested with her maternal uncle, the shogun Iemitsu Tokugawa, though her father is said to ruled in her name till the end of her reign. During her reign there was a major rebellion in Arima and Shimabara, which was incited by Christian rebels (1637 – 1638). The revolt was crushed and almost forty thousand Christians were put to death, which effectually ended the Christian influence in Japan. When a Spanish vessel arrived in the port of Nagasaki with a delegation of over sixt people from Macau, all were then executed (1640). The empress also twice formally received delegations from the king of Korea (1635) and (1643). Empress Myoshu later abdicated (1643) in favour of her younger half-brother, Go-Komyo, and then retired to private life for the next five decades. Empress Meisho died (Dec 4, 1696) aged seventy-two.

Meitner, Lise – (1878 – 1968)
Austrian mathematical physicist
Lise Meitner was born in Vienna and attended secondary school and university there. She was made a professor in Berlin (1926) and was for three decades a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry (1907 – 1938), where she studied nuclear physics with the noted radiochemist Otto Hahn (1879 – 1968). Meitner fled to Sweden prior to the arrival of the Nazis (1938) and then worked with her nephew, Otto Frisch (1904 – 1979), with whom she discovered and explained the elucidated fission of the uranium nucleus. After retiring in 1960 she went to live in England, where she died.

Melania the Elder – (c345 – c410 AD)
Roman Christian saint
The elder Melania was of Spanish descent, being the daughter of granddaughter of Consul Marcellinus. She was widowed young (c367 AD), being left with a surviving son Publicola, whom she left to be cared for in Rome, whilst she made an extensive pilgrimage to the East. She met St Athanasius in Alexandria, and visited the ascetic hermit communities in the desert of Nitra. She presented Abbot Pambo with a gift of silver plate valued at 300 Roman pounds. She discussed the theories of Origen with the philosopher Didymus, and then travelled to Palestine, where she gave assistance to the Arians being persecuted by the Emperor Valens. She was arrested after visiting prisoners, but was released immediately her rank was revealed.
Melania established a monastery in Jerusalem over which she presided as leader for twenty-seven years, aided by her adviser Rufinus, who may have been her steward. She later visited Rome after an absence of almost thirty-five years (404 AD), in order to visit her granddaughter and namesake, whom she had never met. She arrived on horseback along the Via Appia, where she was greeted by crowds of aristocratic citizens. She vivisted her nephew Paulinus and his family at Nola, and made him a gift of a piece of the True Cross. She then returned to Rome, where she resided with her granddaughter and her husband Rufius Albinus for severl years.
Melania later returned to Jerusalem (c409 AD) and died not long afterwards. Melania was highly regarded by St Augustine and St Paulinus, but incurred the enmity of St Jerome, when she failed to support him in a quarrel. She was recorded as a saint jointly with her granddaughter (Oct 22) in the Martyrology of Salisbury and by the Graeco-Slavonian Calendar (Dec 30).

Melania the Younger – (383 – 439 AD) 
Roman Christian saint
Melania the Younger was the granddaughter of Melania the Elder. She was the daughter of Publicola and his wife Albina, the daughter of Ceionius Rufius Albinus. She was married to Valerian Apinianus. Their two children died in infancy. The couple took vows of celibacy after the deaths of their children, and founded and endowed monasteries and churches, being friends with Bishop Palladius of Helenopolis, author of the Lausiaca. Accompanied by Albina, the couple visited St Paulinus at Nola, before travelling to Sicily and Carthage. They visited Bishop Alipius at Tagaste, and then accompanied him to Hippo, where they were introduced to St Augustine. There Melania used her fortune to redeem captives from slavery and was particularly talented at transcribing sacred texts. The family then travelled to Palestine, settling on the Mount of Olives, outside Jerusalem. There Melania established two monasteries, one for women and one for men, and presided over both as abbess. Melania died (Dec 31, 439 AD) aged fifty-six, whilst returning from Christmas Day observances in Bethlehem. She was venerated as a saint (Dec 31). Her Vitae was written by her private cleric, the priest Gerontius, who succeeded her as head of her monastic establishment.

Melantha – (fl. c485 AD – 507)
Spanish noblewoman
Melantha was the wife of Eudomeius a Visigothic official. Husband and wife received a letter of condolence from Ruricius, Bishop of Limoges when their young son died. Addressed to dominis sublimbus et magnificis filiis Eudomio et Melanthiae it remains preserved in the Epistulae of Ruricius.

Melba, Dame Nellie – (1861 – 1931) 
Australian coloratura soprano
Born Helen Porter Mitchell (May 19, 1861) at Doonside, Richmond, in Melbourne, Victoria, though possessed of a fine singing voice rom early childhood, she studied the piano, and was not able to study singing professionally until 1882. She was married (1881) to Andrew Armstrong, to whom she bore an only child, George Armstong (1888 – 1971). Adopting the professional name of ‘Nellie Melba’ she performed in Sydney and in London after studying under Mathilde Marchesi. She made her stage debut in Brussel as Gilda in Giuseppe Verdi’s Rigoletto (1887). Melba then appeared at Covent Garden, where the purity of her voice attracted her international acclaim. Her most popular roles included that of Violetta in Verdi’s La Traviata, Margeurite in Gounod’s Faust, and Mimi in La Boheme. Nellie moved comfortably in high society and was a close friend to Lady Gladys de Grey, the famous patron of Covent Garden. In recognition of her contribution to music she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1927). Nellie was the author of memoirs Melodies and Memories (1925) and retired in 1926. The delicacies peach Melba (peche melba) was invented and named for by by the French chef Auguste Escoffier, whilst Melba toast was likewise named for her by the Savoy Hotel in London. Dame Nellie died (Feb 23, 1931) aged sixty-nine, in Sydney, New South Wales. She was portrayed by Linda Cropper in the mini-series Melba (1987) with Joan Greenwood as her teacher Madame Marchesi.

Melbourne, Elizabeth Milbanke, Lady – (1749 – 1818)
British society hostess
Elizabeth Milnbanke was the daughter of Sir Ralph Milbanke, of Halnaby, Yorkshire and his wife Elizabeth Hedworth. She was married (1769) to Peniston Lamb, the first Viscount Melbourne (1748 – 1819) and was the mother of William Lamb, the second viscount (1779 – 1848), husband to Lady Caroline Ponsonby, the mistress of Lord Byron, and the first Prime minister to Queen Victoria. A brilliant society leader and hostess, and famous brunette beauty, the rise of the Lamb family was due to Lady Melbourne’s talents. She was the mistress at one time of the Prince of Wales, son of George III, and of the earl of Egremont, whom scandalmongers accused of being the real father of her son William. Her husband’s appointment in the household of the Prince of Wales, as well as his three peerages can safely be attributed to her charm and skill.
Horace Walpole considered Lady Melbourne to be affected and sneered at her, but this view was not the general one. Lord Byron admired her and referred to her as ‘a sort of modern Aspasia’ and it was she that arranged his ill-advised marriage with her niece Annabella Milbanke. Despite this Byron never lost his admiration for Lady Melbourne and many of his letters to her appeared in Lord Byron’s Correspondence (1922). Lady Melbourne retained her charm and elegance into old age, and she was painted three times by Sir Joshua Reynolds, including once with her eldest son Peniston. Her daughter Emily Lamb became Lady Palmerston. Lady Melbourne died (April 6, 1818) aged sixty-eight, at Melbourne House, Whitehall, in London. She was portrayed on the screen by Margaret Leighton in Lady Caroline Lamb (1972) with Sarah Miles in the title role, Jon Finch as William Lamb and Richard Chamberlin as Lord Byron.

Melena, Elpis   see   Schwartz, Marie Esperance Brandt von

Melfort, Caroline Barry, Comtesse de – (1768 – after 1824)
Irish peeress
Lady Caroline Barry was born (May 17, 1768) the only daughter of Richard Barry (1745 – 1773), ninth Earl of Barrymore and his wife Lady Amelia Stanhope, daughter of the Earl of Harrington. She visited France in 1788 and was married at St Germain-en-Laye to the Scottish-French peer Louis Pierre Francois Malcolm Drummond (c1761 – 1833), Comte de Melfort, the great-grandson of John Drummond, Earl and Duke of Melfort, the secretary of State to King James II, who possessed a decent fortune. Her husband served as a military officer under King Louis XVI, and was the son of Louis de Drummond, Comte de Melfort. They visited England and the court of George III and Queen Charlotte, and two sons were born, a decade apart. This marriage was later annulled prior to 1814, though the reason is not given. The comtesse was a rather outrageous figure, particularly in England, where she emulated the riotous lifestyles led by her infamous brothers. Because of her habit of using obscene language she was popularly nicknamed ‘Billingsgate.’ With the death of her remaining brother Henry Barry, eleventh and last Earl of Barrymore (1823) the comtesse was the last heiress of her line. The earldom of Barrymore became extinct but without recourse to the British House of Lords, the comtesse held herself to have inherited the ancient feudal barony of Barry, a much older title, as the descendant and last heir of the family of Barry, holders of the viscounty of Buttevant. She then adopted the title of ‘Baronne de Barry’ as she was known in France. Madame de Melfort was living in France in 1824. Her date of death remains unknown. She left two sons,

Melfort, Euphemia Wallace, Duchess of – (1653 – 1743)
Scottish Jacobite exile
Euphemia Wallace was the daughter of Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie, Lord Chief Clerk of Scotland and his wife Euphemia Gemmill, of Teaplelands, Ayrshire. A great beauty, she became the second wife (1680) of the widowed John Drummond (1649 – 1715), earl of Melfort, who was made a duke by James II (1686), to whom she bore twelve children. When granted, the reversion of the dukedom of Melfort was made to the issue of the Duke and Euphemia, the sons of his first marriage with Sophia Maitland being passed over as staunch Protestants. With the arrival of William of Orange (1688) the duke hastily resigned his estates to the crown, and had them regranted to the Duchess Euphemia, with the remained to their son John Drummond. The duchess and her son speedily joined the duke in exile at Ambleuse in France, abandoning her claim to the estates, and their Edinburgh residence was destroyed by the mob.
The duchess remained in France for the remaineder of her life. The idea put about that she influenced her husband to abuse his friendship with King James for financial gain cannot be proven. The duchess survived her husband thirty years and to provide for her suitable maintenance Louis XIV allowed her to keep a faro table at Versailles. Her eldest son was John Drummond, second Duke of Melfort (1682 – 1754) and her second, Thomas Drummond, Comte de Melfort (c1687 – 1742) joined the Imperial service, becoming a soldier under the emperor Charles VI. Her two eldest and two youngest daughters died unmarried. The Duchess of Melfort died aged ninety, at St Germain-en-Laye, Paris.

Melgar, Mariana Ayala de Cordoba, Condesa de – (c1407 – 1431)
Spanish mediaeval heiress
Mariana Ayala de Cordoba was the first wife (c1423) of Fadrique Enriquez (c1495 – 1473), Conde de Melgar y Rueda, later the Admiral of Castile. Mariana inherited the seigneurie of Cassarrubios, which was held by Fadrique in her right. She died young. Mariana was the mother of Juana Enriquez, the second wife of Juan II (1398  -1479), King of Aragon, which made her the maternal grandmother of Ferdinand V, King of Aragon, the husband of the famous Queen Isabella of Castile. Through these marriages, Mariana was ancestress of Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII of England (1509 – 1547) and their daughter, Queen Mary Tudor.

Melgum, Sophia Hay, Lady      see    Hay, Sophia

Melikoff, Irene – (1917 – 2009)
Azerbaijani Turkologist
Irene Melikoff was born (Jan 2, 1917) in Petrograd, and studied oriental languages at the Sorbonne in Paris. She was later appointed to head the Turkic and Iranian Studies Institute at Strasburg University and was the recipient of several prestigious awards because of her contribution to Oriental studies. Melikoff was a chairwoman of the Turkic Development Group and was the author of various articles and publications. Irene Melikoff died (Jan 9, 2009) aged ninety-two, in Strasburg.

Melikova, Genia – (1929 – 2004)
Russian-American ballerina and teacher
Genia Melikova was born in France and trained under Lubov Egorovna and Anatole Vilzak. She joined the de Cuevas Company in Paris (1954 – 1962). She performed the role of Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty and Odette-Odile in Swan Lake, being the first western ballerina to perform with Rudolf Nureyev after his defection to the west (1961). Melikova performed with the London Festival Ballet and the Grand Ballet Classique de France before settling in the USA. In America Madame Melikova taught dance for over two decades at the Juilliard School in New York. She also taught at the Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Centre in New York. Melikova also directed the Brideport Ballet Company in Connecticut. Genia Melikova died aged seventy-four in New York.

Melinno – (fl. c200 – c170 BC)
Greek poet
Melinno was a native of the province of Magna Graecia. She is known for her poetic work in five sapphic stanzas, which dealt with the theme of the world dominance and power of the Roman state entitled From Melinno of Lesbos to Rome. Though she used the Sapphic strophe, the poem was composed in artificial language familiar from earlier choral poetry. Melinno’s use of the sapphic stanza may have been written in response to a contemporary revival of Sappho’s school of poetry, or merely in admiration, but nevertheless remains a unique specimen for the particular period it was written.

Melis, Carmen – (1885 – 1967)
Italian soprano
Carmen Melis was born at Cagliari in Sardinia. Possessed of extraordinary neauty and acring ability, she made her debut in 1905, and performed at the Manahttan Opera House in New York (1909) and with the Boston Opera Company (1911). From 1913 she appeared at the Metropolitan, and performed in Paris and throughout Italy. Her favoured roles were those of Manon Lescaut in the operas written by both Jules Massenet (1884), and Giacomo Puccini (1893). Other roles included Salome, Minnie in La Fanciulla del West, and Nedda in Pagliacci. She was the first to perform the role of Magda in Puccini’s La Rondine (1917). With her retirement from the stage (1935), Carmen became a vocal teacher, and one of her pupils was the famous Renata Tebaldi. Carmen Melis died at Longone al Segrino in Como, Lombardy.

Melisande of Crecy – (c1090 – after 1147)
French countess
Melisande of Crecy was the daughter of Guy II le Rouge (the Red) of Montlhery and Crecy, seigneur of Rochefort-en-Yveline, and his wife Adelaide, the heiress of Crecy. She became the third wife (c1108) of the infamous Thomas I of Marle (c1075 – 1130), seigneur of Coucy and Count of Amiens. Melisande was the mother of Thomas’s successor Enguerrand II who left many descendants. Her husband was notorious for his attacks on travellers and merchants, whom he caused to imprisoned within his own dungeons. Thomas was eventually killed in a skirmish (1130) with soldiers sent by Louis VI of France to curtail his activities. Apparently possessed of the same cruel and avaricious nature as her later husband Melisande and her family continued to resist the orders of King Louis to have the innocent captives freed from their illegal confinement. Countess Melisande was living in 1147 when her son left France to go on crusade in the Holy Land with Louis VII. Her children were,

Melisande of Jerusalem – (1110 – 1161)
Queen regnant of Jerusalem (1131 – 1161)
Princess Melisande was the eldest daughter and heiress of King Baldwin II and his Armenian wife, Moprhia of Melitene. Her father successfully offered Melisande as wife to Fulk V, Count of Anjou (1092 – 1143) with the promise of the succession to the Crusader kingsom. The couple married in 1129, Melisande receiving the cities of Acre and Tyre as her dower. With her father’s death (1131), the couple ruled jointly for a decade, and apparently resided amicably enough, though contemporary gossip of the queen’s amorous intrigues appears to have been widespread. With Fulk’s death, Melisande was crowned jointly with their son, the young Badlwin III (Dec 25, 1143) and governed as regent with the support of the the constable of Jerualem, Manasses of Hierges, while her second son Amalric received the county of Jaffa. She weakened her position by several hazardous involvements, notably the disastrous expedtion sent to fight the sultan of Damascus at Haira. Baldwin had himself crowned sole-ruler (1150) but still had to divide the kingdom with his mother, she receiving Judaea and Samaria. The rivalry between the two intensified, and Baldwin made war, capturing Manasses of Hierges, and besieging Queen Melisande in Jerusalem. The queen mother yielded the city to her son (1152), retaining only Nablus as her dower. Mother and son ruled together again from 1154 – 1160, when Melisande retired to the convent of Bethany. Queen Melisande died (Sept 11, 1161) in Bethany.

Melisande of Lusignan – (1200 – after 1249)
Princess of Cyprus
Melisande of Lusignan was the second daughter of Isabella I, Queen of Jerusalem by her fourth and last husband, Amalric II of Lusignan, King of Cyprus. Melisande was married (1217) to Bohemond IV (1176 – 1233), Prince of Antioch, as his second wife. The couple produced one surviving child, a daughter Maria (born 1219). This marriage was to be the cause of much dynastic dissension between the princes of Antioch and the royal family of Jerusalem. With the death of the Queen Dowager Alice of Jerusalem (1246), Melisande’s elder half-sister, the regency of Jerusalem passed to the next male heir, Alice’s son, King Henry I of Cyprus. However, the Dowager Princess Melisande protested that as Alice’s next surviving sister, the regency should be passed to her instead of her nephew. Pope Innocent IV passed her claim on to Odo de Chateautroux to investigate, but the matter was later dropped. Her daughter Maria later took up her mother’s claim to the throne of Jerusalem, but eventually sold these rights (1277) to Charles I, King of Naples. Melisande was still living in 1249.

Melisande of Montlhery – (c1049 – after 1097)
French countess consort of Rethel and royal matriarch
Melisande of Montlhery was the daughter of Guy I (c1009 – 1095), seigneur of Montlhery and Braye, and his wife Hodierna, Dame de La Ferte, the daughter of Guillaume de Gometz, seigneur de Bures. Melisande became the wife (c1063) of Hugh I (c1045 – 1118), Count of Rethel, to whom she bore a large family of children. Surviving charter evidence reveals that Countess Melisande was living in 1097. Her surviving children were,

Melisande of Tripoli – (1142 – 1161)
French Crusader princess and romantic heroine
Melisande was the only daughter of Raymond, II, Count of Tripoli, and his wife Hodierna of Jerusalem, the third daughter of Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (1118 – 1131). Melisande was sought in marriage by the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Komnenus, a brilliant match for a crusader princess, but the negotiations were broken off when the ambassadors uncovered gossip concerning the sexual behaviour of Countess Hodierna. Melisande never recovered from the shock and died of shame not long afterwards.

Melissa – (c650 – c620 BC)
Greek patrician and murder victim
Melissa was the daughter of Prokles, tyrant of Epidaurus. She was married to Periander (c655 – 585 BC), tyrant of Korinth, to whom she bore two sons, Kypselus and Lykophron. The Greek historian Herodotus records that her husband adored her passionately, but he accidentally killed her by a blow during her pregnancy, having been roused to a fit of anger after a false accusation was brought against her. His remorse for this deed embitterred Periander for the remainder of his life, and destroyed his relationship with his sons and with Melissa’s father, whom he later captured and kept a prisoner.

Melitzki, Dorothee – (1914 – 2001) 
German-American scholar and academic
Dorothee Melitzki was born in Germany, the daughter of a Jewish businessman, and spent part of her youth in Russia, where her family had fled before the Bolsheviks. She attended the University of London from 1931, where she became a protégé of Moshe Sharett, the future Israeli prime minister.  When she had finished her degree, Dorothee travelled to Jerusalem, where she became involved with the founding of the modern state of Israel. There she was a co-founder of the English department at Hebrew University, and she also assisted with the founding of a self-help organisation for Arab women. During the regime of Golda Meir, Dorothee was employed as a press officer for the Foreign Ministry, and was secretary for the affairs of Arab women in the Israeli Federation of Labour. In 1954 she enrolled in American studies at Yale University, and later taught English at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1966 she returned to Yale, where she taught until 1984. Dorothee was recognized as a leading scholar of medieval Arabic, and was the author of The Matter of Araby in Medieval England (1977) and Melville’s Orienda (1960). Dorothee Melitzki died (April 14, 2001) at Hamden, Connecticut.

Mellanby, May Tweedy, Lady – (1882 – 1978) 
British nutritional scientist
May Tweedy was the daughter of an oil engineer who spent some years working in Russia where May was raised. Returning to England she was permitted to attend Girton College at Cambridge. After finishing her studies successfully she became a research fellow and lecturer in physiology at Bedford College in London. She was married (1914) to fellow student Edward Mellanby. Mellanby’s own private research on animals revealed the necessity of vitamins A and D for the proper development of teeth, and she became the first woman to present a paper before the British Orthodontics Society (1919). She prepared detailed reports for the Medical Research Council exploring the links between diet, disease, and dental problems.

Mellblom, Forence Tatham - (1900 - 1983)
Australian painter, naturalist and photographer
Florence Dawson was born (March 8, 1900) at Portland, Victoria, and studied art in Ballarat. She was a talented etcher from childhood, and joined the Portland Camera club. She also produced many water colour paintings of the historic places of Portland. Florence was married (1932) to Karl Enoch Mellblom. An enthusiastic naturalist, several of Florence Mellblom's specimens of orchids were described in the Victorian Naturalist magazine, but she was best remembered for her discovery of the Caladenia Hastata (Mellblom's spider orchid) (1936), which had become an endangered species by the end of the century. Florence Mellblom died (Dec 11, 1983) aged eighty-three, at Mt Gambier in South Australia.

Mellesa – (c460 AD – 508)
Roman patrician
Mellesa was the wife of Severus and the mother of children who had all been married well before her death. The poet Bishop Ennodius of Ticinum composed the Epitaphium domnae Mellesae inlustris femina in her honour which has survived in his Carmina.

Mellis, Margaret – (1914 – 2009)
British modernist artist and painter
Margaret Mellis was born (Jan 22, 1914) in China of Scottish parents. She studied painting at the Edinburgh College of Art under John Peploe, and then travelled to Spain, France and Italy and there studied under Andre Lhote (1885 – 1962). Mellis was later married to the artist and critic Adrian Stokes (1902 – 1972) and then resided in Cornwall till after WW II (1939 – 1947). The marriage ended in divorce and she remarried (1947) to artist Francis Davison (1919 – 1984). Mellis was a friend to Ben Nicholson and Dame Barbara Hepworth, and worked as a constructivist collage maker and relief carver. Retrospectives of her work were held at the Nottingham Art Gallery (1987). Her works included Construction with Yellow Oval (1940), Collage with Dark Red Oval (1942), Boats: Yellow and Orange (1959) and Dead Narcissus, Blue and White (1989). Margaret Mellis died (March 17, 2009) aged ninety-five.

Mellon, Gwendolyn Grant – (1911 – 2000)
American nurse and philanthropist
Gwendolyn Grant was born in Englewood, New Jersey, and attended the Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, graduating from Smith College, Massachusetts (1934). Seperating from her first husband, Gwen took a job on a ranch in Arizona, taking her children with her. There she met and married (1946) the banking and oil heir, Larry Mellon. Her husband was vastly impressed with the work of Albert Schweitzer in West Africa, and the two corresponded. Under Schweitzer’s guidance, the couple began medical training at Tulane University in New Orleans, he as a doctor, and she as a nurse and medical technician. The couple used their considerable financial resources to set up and organize the Albert Schweitzer Hospital at Deschapelles, north of Port-au-Prince, in Haiti (1956). Haiti’s president, General Paul Magloire later granted the couple permanent use of the former plantation site, and they settled permanently in Haiti. Widowed (1989), Gwen took over the daily management of the hospital. She left memoirs My Road to Deschappelles (1997).

Mellon, Harriet – (1777 – 1837)
British actress
Harriet Mellon was the daughter of Matthew Mellon, a soldier, and of an Irish peasant woman. She first appeared on the tage at the Ulverston Theatre as Little Pickle in The Spoilt Child (1787). Richard Sheridan later noticed her and arranged for her to appear as Lydia Languish in The Rivals (1795) at the Drury Lane Theatre. The actor Charles Macklin described Harriet Mellon at this time as ‘a countrified girl, blooming in complexion, with a very tall, fine figure, raven locks, ivory teeth, a cheek like a peach and coral lips. All she put you in mind of was a country road and a pillion.’ She played roles in Twelfth Night and The Merry Wives of Windsor but was best remembered as Mrs Candour in The School for Scandal. Harriet proved rather unsuccessful in the Shakespearean roles of Ophelia in Hamlet and Rosalind in As You Like It. After winning a raffle for ten thousand pounds (1806) Miss Mellon bought the estate of Holly lodge in Highgate, later famous as the venue for her estravagant parties. She attracted the attemtion of the married banker Thomas Coutts, whose wife became insane. The couple became lovers and when Mrs Coutts died (1815) they were married, to the dismay of Mr Coutt’s three daughters. At his death (1822) he left Harriet his entire fortune of nine hundred thousand pounds ‘for her sole use and benefit and at her absolute disposal, without the deduction of a single legacy to any other person.’
Harriet Coutts then accepted a proposal of marriage from William Beauclerk (1801 – 1849), ninth Duke of St Albans, over twenty years her junior. The writer Creevey on hearing of the proposed marriage declared of Harriet that ‘a more disgusting, frowzy, hairy old B. could not have been found in the Seven Dials,’ but Sir Walter Scott was far more diplomatic and wrote ‘If the Duke marries her, he ensures an immense fortune, if she marries him, she has the first rank. The disparity of age concerns no one but themselves, so they have my consent to marry if they can get each other’s.’ The marriage took place in London (June 16, 1827) and Harriet became the Duchess of St Albans (1827 – 1837). Society would never accept the duchess because of her lowly origins and she was once pointedly omitted from a ball held at the Brighton Pavilion by Queen Adelaide (1832). However, because of her profuse and benevolence to the poor of Highgate she became a legendary figure. Being childless, she left the bulk of her vast estate to her stepgranddaughter Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts (1814 – 1906), the famous philanthropist. Harriet Mellon died (Aug 6, 1837) aged fifty, at her residence in Stratton Street, London.

Mellon, Sarah Jane – (1824 – 1909)
British stage actress
Sarah was born at Gosport in Hampshire, the daughter of a tailor who turned to the stage. Her father caused her to be tained for the stage, where she appeared as Bella Wilfer at the Adelphi Theatre, in an adaptation of Charles Dickens work Our Mutual Friend (1843). Sarah was married to the musician Alfred Mellon and worked at the Lyceum Theatre. Mellon was especially popular as Anne Chute in the play The Colleen Bawn. She later served as supervising manager of the Adelphi (1867 – 1883), a career that was cut short due to ill-health.

Melloney, Frank    see   Franken, Rose

Melmoth, Charlotte – (1749 – 1823)
American actress
Charlotte eloped with a young actor, Courtney Melmoth, from whom she later seperated, but retained his name. She made her first appearance at Covent Garden in London (1774) and then appeared at Drury Lane (1776). Charlotte later worked with the American Company in New York, where she was particularly admired in the role of Euphrasia in Grecian Daughter (1793). Melmoth was particularly talented in tragedy roles and her performances as Lady Macbeth. She became the leading actress with the new Park Theatre in New York. She became involved in a dispute with the manager and went to the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Charlotte Melmoth retired from the stage (1812) and established a stage school.

Melville, Elizabeth    see    Colville, Elizabeth Melville, Lady

Melville, Mary Ann – (c1840 – 1900)
Anglo-Australian actress
Mary Ann Melville trained and worked the stage in London before coming to Australia in the late 1870’s, where she performed until her death two decades later. Melville appeared at the Theatre Royal in Sydney, New South Wales, as the governess in the Christmas pantomime Babes in the Wood, produced by J.C. Williamson. Other credits included appearances in the productions Arrah-na-Pogue and Kerry (both 1880). Miss Melville portrayed the society dowager, Araminta Sparks in the Irish comedy, Bridget O’Brien, Esquire (1891) where she appeared opposite the female impersoantor, John Sheridan. Melville later joined Her Majesty’s Theatre Company, and appeared as the talkative landlady Mrs Sampson in The Mystery of the Hansom Cab and the spinster Lavinia Dove in Man to Man, opposite George Rignold (both 1893). Mary Ann Melville died (Aug 27, 1900) aged about sixty, in Sydney.

Memmia, Sulpicia – (fl. c229 – 235 AD)
Roman Augusta
Sulpicia Memmia was the daughter of consul Sulpicius, and the granddaughter of one Catulus, thought to be identical with Cinna Catulus, the Stoic philosopher, who flourished during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). Memmia became the second wife (c229 AD) of the young emperor Alexander Severus (208 – 235 AD), being probably chosen for him by his mother, the Augusta Julia Mamaea, and was accorded Imperial honours. There were no children and no coins are known. Together with his mother, Memmia is said to have remonstrated with her husband on account of his excessive affability with his subjects. When a string of costly pearls were presented to Memmia as a gift, Alexander had them placed upon the statue of Venus in her particular shrine. Her husband was murdered with his mother by the praetorians (March, 235 AD). Of Memmia herself nothing is recorded, though it seems likely she shared their fate.

Menchik-Stevenson, Vera – (1906 – 1944)
Russian-Anglo chess player
Vera Menchik was born in Moscow, and played professionally from the inaugration of the first women’s Olympiad and women’s tournament (1927), and won every successive tournament till her untimely death. During a mixed tournament (1934) Vera placed third, a record she was never able to trounce. A noted and admired chess teacher and lecturer, Vera became a British citizen after her marriage (1937) and was killed in London during a bombing air-raid.

Mencken, Sarah Powell     see    Haardt, Sarah Powell

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Fanny Cacilie – (1805 – 1847)
German pianist and composer
Fanny Mendelssohn was born (Nov 1, 1805) in Hamburg, the sister of composer Felix Mendelssohn. Possessed of an extraordinary talent and precosity, she was able to perform Bach Preludes and Fugues from memory at the early age of thirteen (1818). Fanny studied the piano under Ludwig Berger in Berlin, Prussia, and composition under Karl Zelter. She was married to the painter Wilhelm Hensel. She organized and performed in concerts in Berlin. Her private diaries were later used by her son to publish a family biography (1879). Madame Mendelssohn-Bartholdy died (May 14, 1847) in Berlin, Prussia.

Mendenhall, Dorothy Reed – (1874 – 1964)
American physician and civil rights activist
Born Dorothy Reed in Columbus, Ohio, she was the daughter of a shoe manufacturer. She was educated at home by her grandmother and later attended Smith College, after which she studied medicine at the newly established John Hopkins Medical School. Dorothy Reed and Margaret Long were the first women employed by the US naval hospital (1898) when they assisted with surgery and in the bacteriological laboratories at the Brooklyn Navy Yard Hospital. Reed was married (1906) to Charles Elwood Mendenhall, to whom she bore four children. Dr Mendenhall was best known for her early research into Hodgkin’s disease, and she made important contributions to the fields of maternal and child care and she was employed as a medical officer for the United States Children’s Bureau, which she represented at the International Child Welfare Conference (1919). Her written works included Milk: The Indispensable Food for Children (1918), Child Care and Child Welfare: Outlines for Study (1921) and Midwifery in Denmark (1929). Dorothy Mendenhall died (July 31, 1964) aged eighty-nine, at Chester in Connecticut.

Mendes, Gracia – (1510 – 1569)
Jewish-Spanish heiress
Born Gracia Mendes Nasi, her parents had emigrated to Portuga, where she was born, from Spain. She was married (1528) to the wealthy Catholic Portugese lord, Francisco Benaviste-Mendes. Their marriage contract survives, which guaranteed the return of Gracia’s large dowry in the event of a divorce, and provision for any children. The couple had one child, Reyna Mendes. With Francisco’s death (1536) Gracia was appointed executor of his estate. Soon afterwards she and other family members retired to live in the Portugese colony in Antwerp, Holland, and Gracia transferred all her wealth there. She became involved in merchant and other business dealings, with her brother-in-law, Diogo Mendes, the husband of her own younger sister Brianda. The Emperor Charles V later confiscated the family’s assets, but Gracia managed to arrange a deal which guaranteed their eventual return. Her sister Brianda involved Gracia in extensive litigation, and she and her daughter were detained in Venice. Finally released (1552), she went to Constantinople via Italy, where was allowed to live openly as a Jewess. Her daughter Reyna (died 1599) became the wife of Joseph, Duke of Naxos.

Mendes, Maria – (1701 – 1731)
Portugese victim of the Spanish Inquisition
Maria Mendes was a Jewish converso, and the wife of Joao Terrones. They were resident in the city of Tavira in the kingdom of Algarve. Maria was arrested and interrogated by the holy office, being accused of heresy. She refused to confess and was burnt alive (June 17, 1731) aged twenty-nine, in the grounds of the convent of Santo Domingo, in Lisbon.

Mendes, Tabitha – (1728 – after 1761)
British traveller
Tabitha Mendes travelled to Venice, Florence, Rome and Turin in the entourage of the widow and daughters of Richard Wynne (1760). She was recommended by Lord Grantham to the care of the Abbe Grant in Rome, where she sat for her portrait with Nathaniel Dance, who commented upon the ugliness of her person and the amiability of her nature. She was painted with the Duke of Roxburgh in Florence (1761) by Patch, and both appear in his Punch Party. She had returned to England prior to Christmas of 1761.

Mendl, Lady    see  Wolfe, Elsie de

Mendoza, Ana de – (1540 – 1592)
Spanish courtier, intriguer and prisoner
Dona Ana Mendoza y de la Cerda was the daughter of Diego de Mendoza, first Prince de Melito and first Duque de Francavilla and his wife Catalina de Silva y de la Cerda, the daughter of the Conde de Cifuentes. She was the granddaughter of Diego de Mendoza and the granddaughter of Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, Archbishop of Toledo. She was married in accordance with the wishes of her family and King Philip (1552) to the Portugese nobleman Ruy Gomez de Silva (1516 – 1573) whom was created Prince de Eboli in Naples and first Duque de Pastrana in Castile and was made a Grandee of Spain. Ana eventually bore her husband six children and suffered four miscarriages. Described by a contemporary as a ‘haughty, passionate termagent’ even St Teresa d’Avila whom the couple entertained at their estate of Pastrana wrote that the princess caused some embarrassment by her behaviour. With the death of her husband the princess announced her intention of joining the convent of the Discalced Carmelites at Pastrana but her behaviour there caused so much disruption that King Philip II commanded her to return to her family. Her subsequent immoral behaviour and the erratic and impractical conduct in the care of her children, and the management of her household and estates caused the king much further embarrassment. Ana was rumoured to have been Philip’s mistress whilst other sources say that the king aspired to make her his mistress and failed.
Sometime around 1576 the princess became involved in a liaison with the king’s favoured minister Antonio Perez. This romance was discovered by Juan de Escobedo, secretary to Don Juan of Austria. When Escobedo threatened to expose them to the king they conspired to arrange his murder which took place in Madrid (March, 1578). Rumours of the guilt of Perez and the princess grew, and though Philip at first offered Ana his protection eventually the rise of public opinion forced him to order their arrest.
Perez later escaped from custody but Princess Ana remained a prisoner until 1581, after which she was permitted to retire to her estate at Pastrana. She was later re-arrested and remained a prisoner until her death (Feb, 1592) aged fifty-one. Ana appears as a character in Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller’s play Don Carlos (1785). Her children included Ana de Silva y Mendoza (1561 – 1610) the wife of Alonso Perez de Guzman el Bueno (1549 – 1615), the seventh Duque de Medina-Sidonia by whom she left issue, and Rodrigo II de Silva y Mendoza (1562 – 1596) who succeeded his father as the second Duque de Pastrana (1573) and left descendants.

Mendoza, Juana de – (c1420 – 1498)
Spanish literary patron
Juana Diaz de Mendoza was the daughter of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza and his wife Teresa de Guzman. She became the wife of the famous poet and political figure, Don Gomez de Manrique (1412 – 1490). Juana attended the courts of Juan II and Enrique IV of Castile and served as lady-in-waiting to the queen mother, Isabella of Portugal, the widow of Juan II, and mother of Isabella I (1474 – 1504). Mendoza is believed to be the ‘virtuous lady’ to whom Teresa de Cartagena addressed her devotional treatise Arboleda de los enfermos (Grove of the Infirm) (c1460) and her work Wonder at the Works of God (Admiracion operum Dey), is directed to Juana de Mendoza by name, using the same epithet.

Mendoza, Lydia – (1916 – 2007)
Mexican-American popular singer
Lydia Mendoza was born (May 21, 1916) in Houston-Texas, the daughter of Mexican immigrants, and was taught to play the guitar by family members. With her family Lydia recorded almost two dozen songs with the Okeh label (1928), the group taking the title Cuarteto Carta Blanca, and then resided in San Antonio. After performing solo on radio, Lydia became contracted to Bluebird label, her first album, Mal Hombre, being a resounding success (1934). This success was followed by Pero Hay Que Triste (But Oh, How Sad) and Angel de Mis Anhelos (Angel of My Desires). Mendoza worked in vaudeville, as well as being a solo performer, became famous for her traditional tejano style of singing. Her fame established by the end of WW II, she was popularly known as ‘La Londra de la Frontera’ (the lark of the border). Mendoza recorded more than fifty albums, and sang at the inauguration of President Jimmy Carter (1977). She only retired after sufferring a stroke (1988), and was later awarded the National Medal of the Arts (1999). Lydia Mendoza died (Dec 20, 2007) aged ninety-one, in San Antonio, Texas.

Menebhi, Saida – (1952 – 1977)
Moroccan poet and political activist
Saida Menebhi was born in Marrakech. Educated in Rabat, she became a member of the National Union of Morroccan Students (UNEM) and the Marxist-Leninist organization, Ila Al Aman. Arrested and condemned to solitary confinement, she died as the result of a hunger strike in Casablanca. Her work Poemes, Lettres, Ecrits de Prison (1978) were based on the principles of democracy.

Menecratilla, Aelia – (fl. c170 – c200 AD) 
Roman patrician
Aelia Menecratilla was the sister of Publius Aelius Menecratianus. She became the wife of Publius Mevius Saturninus Honoratianus, an Imperial procurator under the emperor Septimius Severus (1931 – 211 AD). Menecratilla was the mother of Publius Mevius Saturninus Honoratianus, military tribune of the XI Claudian legion, stationed in Moesia Inferior, who served as Imperial legate to Numidia, in Africa (202 – 205 AD). Her grandson, Mevius Honoratianus, served as prefect of Egypt during the reign of Alexander Severus (222 – 235 AD), and held office under emperor Maximinus I (237 AD). Menecratilla was attested by a surviving inscription she set up at Lambaesitanus, to honour Septimius Severus, the empress Julia Domna, and their sons, Caracalla and Geta.

Meneghelli, Antoinette    see   Dal Monte, Toti

Menen (1) (Manan Liben-Amdie) – (c1800 – 1853)
Ethiopian empress
Born into a Muslim family of Wara Himano in northern Shawa, she was married to Ras Ali Alula Gugusa, a powerful leader of the Galla tribe and accepted the Christian religion, and was the mother of Ras Ali Alula. When her son Ali was elected as guardian of the emperor at the early age of only thirteen, Menen’s political influence became paramount, and she was granted valuable provinces surrounding Lake Tana as her own property. She herself then remarried to the deposed emperor Sahela Dengel who was then crowned emperor as Yohannes III (1840 – 1855). Her position and authority were successfully challenged by the future emperor Tewdoros II and the empress personally led her troops into battle against his forces (June, 1847). She was heavily defeated and captured. Tewdoros released her after she agreed to give up her territories and she died in obscurity.

Menen (2) (Manan) (1889 – 1962)
Empress consort of Ethiopia
Menen was the daughter of Janterer Asfaw and a relative of the deposed emperor Lij Yasu. She was married firstly to an Ethiopian nobleman to whom she bore children, and secondly (1911) to Ras Tafari (1892 – 1975) who became Emperor Haile I Selassie after the death of the empress Zauditu (1930). The couple produced six children including Princess Tenagne Worq (1911 – 2003). Menen became an important figurehead at the Ethiopian court as the wife of the regent and heir to the throne (1916) in succession to the reigning empress. She visited Rome, Paris, and London with her husband (1924), becoming the first Ethiopian royalty to travel abroad. Menen fully participated in her husband’s reformist ideas and was also involved with the foiling of a palace coup directed against her husband, collecting arms for his bodyguard (1928). With his husband’s accession they were crowned in the Cathedral of St George in Addis Ababa (Nov 2, 1930).
Menen founded a school for girls in Addis Ababa which bore her name. With the Italian invasion of Ethiopia the empress remained to assist her husband where she could, collecting provisions for the troops and soliciting foreign aid.  During his absence in Geneva she was left behind as regent (1936). When the situation became hopeless the empress and her children were sent to Jerusalem in Palestine, and eventually settled in Bath, England, where the emperor later managed to join them. Sufferring much now from ill-health she returned to the capital after her husband was restored to the throne (1941) but declining health curtailed her former activities. The death of her younger son, the Duke of Harar, in a car accident (1957) caused a grief that never healed and her public appearances after this event were few. The empress received the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester when they visited Ethiopia (1958) and made a special pilgrimage to Jerusalem to attend the Easter ceremonies of the Ethiopian Church there (1959). Empress Menen died (Feb 15, 1962) aged seventy-two, at Addis Ababa.

Menerville, Elisa de    see   Fougeret, Elisa de

Menetewab     see     Mentewab

Meng – (fl. 1086 – 1096)
Chinese empress
Meng was the first wife of the Emperor Zhezong (1076 – 1101) whom she married at the time of his accession in 1086. Meng had been chosen as empress by the Dowager Empress Gao who opposed the radical reform party favoured by the young emperor. Meng’s family supported the empress dowager’s conservative party, and this association had led to her becoming chosen as a suitable Imperial bride. However, the marriage remained childless, and with the empress dowager’s death (1093), Meng’s position at court quickly deteriorated, and finally in 1096, Zhezong demoted her from the possition of empress, and she was forced to retire to private life.

Mengs, Anna Maria – (1751 – 1793)
German painter
Anna Maria Mengs was one of the daughters of the artist Anton Raphael Mengs (1728 – 1779), and was his pupil, together with her sisters Theresa and Juliana. Anna Maria was married to the Spanish artist Manuel Salvador Carmona, and worked as a portraitist herself in Spain, where she was elected a member of the Academia de San Fernando (1790).

Mengs, Julia Carlotta – (1730 – after 1808)
German nun
Julia Carlotta Mengs was the sister of the painter Anton Raphael Mengs (1728 – 1779) and was the younger sister of the artist Theresa Concordia Mengs. Julia was the aunt of the painter Anna Maria Mengs. She received training as an artist within the family but later decided on the religious life, becoming a nun as Sister Maria Speranda. Two pastel portraits of Julia survive, one produced by her brother, and another by her sister Theresa whom she survived.

Mengs, Theresa Concordia – (1725 – 1808)
German painter
She was the sister of artist Antonio Rafael Mengs (1728 – 1779) and aunt of Anna Maria Mengs. She was married to Anton von Maron. Her pastel self-portrait has survived as has one that she produced of her younger sister Julia Mengs.

Menhet – (fl. c1480 – c1460 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Menhet was one of the secondary wives of King Tuthmosis III (c1505 – c1450 BC) of the XVIIIth Dynasty (1491 – 1348 BC). With two other minor wives, Menwi and Merti, Menhet was of Syrian origins, all being daughters of local chieftains, with whom the pharaoh contracted political marriages. All three women died whilst young, perhaps the victims of some local epidemic, and were interred together in a cliff-tomb, at Der el-Bahri, near Thebes. This tomb, much water damaged, was discovered in the twentieth century (1916). Inscriptions recorded their names, and the fact that each had been accorded the ranks of ‘King’s Wife.’ Among the funerary articles found in the tomb were three headdresses, two with complete long wigs, and a third which had a miniature gazelle heads attached to the front band. These items are preserved at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.

Menia – (fl. c475 – c490 AD)
German queen
Menia was recorded in the Historia Gentis Langobardorum as the wife of Basinus (c453 AD – c500), King of Thuringia. Her own ancestry remains unrecorded but she may have had Roman antecedents. Queen Menia was the mother of three Thuringian kings, Berthacharius (died c529), Herminifredus (died 532) and Baderic (died c529). Her daughter Ranicunda was the first wife of Vaccho, King of Lombardy (510 – 540). Menia was the paternal grandmother of St Radegonde, Abbess of Chelles, near Paris, the fifth wife of Clotaire I (died 561), King of Neustria.

Menichelli, Pina – (1890 – 1984)
Italian film actress
Born Giuseppina Menichelli in Castroreale, she appeared in nearly two dozen Italian silent movies. She retired from films before the advent of sound. Menichelli appeared in film such as Scuola d’eroi (1913) Cajus Julius Caesar (1914), Cabiria (1914), the title role in Lulu (1915), Countess Natka in Tigre reale (1916), Clara de Beaulieu in Il Padrone delle ferriere (1919), and Beatrice in La Storia si una donna (1920). Her last film role was in La Dama de Chez Maxim’s (1923) and she survived her film career by more than six decades. Pina Menichelli died (Aug 29, 1984) aged ninety-four, in Milan, Lombardy.

Menken, Adah Isaacs – (1835 – 1868)
American actress and poet
Born Adele Theodore near New Orleans, Louisiana, she had several husbands including the British novelist Charles Dickens, and appeared on the stage in New York (1859). Adah Menken appeared in the popular Mazeppa (1864) to great public acclaim, but her real fame appears to rest on a horseback ride performed almost naked. Her later salons in San Francisco, California, and in London, England, drew such literary figures as Algernon Swinburne, Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Mark Twain, Charles Reade, Joaquin Miller, and Bret Harte. Her best known work was Infelicia (1868).

Mensdorff, Countess Sophia von    see   Sophia Frederica Caroline Louisa

Menteith, Mary de – (c1313 – 1360)
Scottish peeress (1332 – c1360)
Mary de Menteith was the daughter and sole heiress of Alan, eighth Earl of Menteith, and his wife Alice, who later resided in England as Dowager Countess of Menteith with a pension paid by Edward III (1327 – 1377). Mary was raised with her mother in England, at Wotton, near Northamptonshire. With her father’s death at the battle of Dupplin (Aug 12, 1332) Mary succeeded as ninth Countess of Menteith. She was married (before 1334) to Sir John Graham, who was styled Earl of Menteith in Mary’s right, after receiving a papal dispensation, the couple being related within the prohibited degrees. John Graham was captured fighting for David II at the battle of Neville’s Cross (1347) and was sentenced to death by Edward III for treason. Countess Mary survived her husband and died (before April 29, 1360) when a papal dispensation for her daughter, describes her as Countess of Menteith.

Menten, Maude – (1879 – 1960) 
Canadian histochemist and pathologist
Maude Menten attended the University of Toronto, after which she was employed by the Rockefeller Institute at the Western Reserve University in Toronto. After further study at the University of Chicago, Menten was appointed as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and then worked as the chief pathologist at the Children’s Hospital. Her research concerned the molecular and cellular mechanisms of particular diseases.

Menter, Sophie – (1846 – 1913)
German pianist and concert performer
Sophie Menter was born (July 29, 1846) in Munich, Bavaria. She became Madame Popper by marriage and after her retirement as a performer she established herself as a teacher. Sophie Menter died (Feb 23, 1913) aged sixty-six, in Stockdorf, Germany.

Mentewab (Mentuab) – (c1706 – 1773)
Ethiopian empress
Born Walatta Georgis, her mother the Princess Enkpye was a descendant of the Emperor Minas (1559 – 1563). During her youth she was popularly known as Berhan Mogasa or ‘Glory of Grace,’ her renowned beauty being attributed to a Portugese ancestor. Berhan was married to the Emperor Bakaffa (c1722), and during his reign she was appointed ‘Iteghe’, given the new name of Mentewab, and accorded the right to act as regent. With Bakaffa’s death (1730) she became regent for their son, the emperor Iyasu II, she being crowned co-ruler with her son. Iyasu had little interest in government, and the empress controlled the kingdom’s administration until his death (1755). She is often held responsible for the weakening of the old Ethiopian empire, since her nepotism aroused the hostility of the nobles. She also had insufficient means to control the rebellions which resulted from this ill-feeling.  The empress managed to have her grandson Iyoas recognized as emperor (1755), but she was gradually ousted from power by her daughter-in-law’s family, and the death of Iyoas ended her power altogether (1769). Mentewab then retired from court to reside at Cusquam, where she involved herself in a plot to set up a rival candidature to the throne. In the midst of these plans she died aged about sixty-seven (June 27, 1773). The Scottish traveller James Bruce, met her in old age at Qusqwam, and recorded her story. The empress built the palace complex of Qusqwam (1731 – 1740) and the church of Abuna Ewestatewos (Bishop Eustatius) (1737).

Menton, Rosina   see   Rudolphine, Rosina Elisabeth

Mentschikoff, Soia Sergeievna – (1915 – 1984)
Russian-American lawyer
Princess Soia Mentschikoff was born in Moscow, the granddaughter of Prince Sergei Mentschikoff. She was raised in New York City, USA. She graduated from Hunter College (1934) and then attended the Columbia Law School, graduating in 1937. There she was the student, and later became the wife (1947) and research assistant of Professor Karl Nickerson Llewellyn. The couple later taught at the University of Chicago Law School (1950) and opened their home to academic society. Mentschikoff became a partner (1944) in the law firm of Spence, Hotchkiss, Parker & Duryee, becoming the first woman to be accepted as such in Wall Street. She later became the first woman to teach law at Harvard University (1947) and was the first woman to be appointed a trustee of the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica. With her husband she drafted the Uniform Commercial Code, which set the standards for business throughout the United States. Widowed in 1962 she later served as the Dean of the University of Miami School of Law (1976 – 1982) but continued to work as a private consultant and perform public speaking tours during her retirement. Soia Mentschikoff died of cancer (June 18, 1984) aged sixty-nine, at Coral Gables in Florida.

Mentuab      see     Mentewab

Menuhin, Hephzibah – (1920 – 1981)
Anglo-American Jewish pianist and concert performer
Hephzibah was born (May 20, 1920) in San Francisco, California, and was the younger sister to the noted violinist, Yehudi Menuhin. She was trained as a pianist under Marcel Ciampi and first performed in public in San Francisco (1928), New York (1932), and Paris (1934) with intense success. Hephzibah made her London debut with her brother (1934), and together they played duet recitals, which included the works of Brahms, Beethoven, Bartok, and Elgar. She was particularly admired for her renditions of Mozart’s sonatas, and performed many times in Australia. Her second husband (1956) was the noted sociologist Richard Hauser. Hephzibah served as president of the Women’s League for Peace and Freedom. Hephzibah Menuhin died (Jan 1, 1981) aged sixty, in London.

M.E.R.     see    Rothman, Maria Elisabeth

Merab – (fl. c1010 – c1000 BC)
Hebrew princess
Merab was the elder daughter of King Saul and his wife Ahinoam. Her younger sister Michal became the wife of King David. The Bible records that Saul had offerred David the hand of Merab originally, as a reward for his help in battle against the Philistines. But when David returned victorious, her father had married Merab off to Adriel (Samuel 1 14: 49). Several Hebrew manuscripts and ancient translations record that David later gave Merab’s sons to the Gibeonites for execution, as an act of political appeasement (Samuel II 21: 8 – 9).

Meran, Countess Anna von    see   Plochl, Anna Maria Josephine

Merceni, Antonia   see   Argentina, La

Merchant, Vivien – (1929 – 1982)
British actress
Born Ada Thompson, in Manchester, Lancashire, she made her stage debut in a touring production of Jane Eyre when she was fourteen (1933). She married the author Harold Pinter in 1956 who produced plays especially written for her. Her film credits included Alfie (1966) with Michael Caine, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award, Accident (1967) which was written by her husband and directed by Joseph Losey, and Frenzy (1972) written by Alfred Hitchcock. She was best remembered for her brilliant performance in the Royal Shakespeare Company’s production of The Homecoming in New York (1967), which had again been written by her husband. She also performed classic roles for the stage such as Lady Macbeth. Vivien Merchant died in London.

Mercier, Charlotte – (c1720 – 1762)
French painter
Charlotte Mercier was the daughter of the painter and engraver Philippe Mercier. Trained by her parents, her mother also being a noted amateur miniaturist, Charlotte made a name for herself as a talented pastel portraitist, one of her works still being in circulation in 1923. Mercier’s later life was tragic, her professional career rapidly deteriorated, though the reason for this remains unknown, possibly debt, and she ultimately died in a London workhouse.

Mercis       see      Bithiah

Mercoeur, Elisa – (1809 – 1835)
French poet, novelist and dramatist
Elisa Mercoeur was born at Nantes, and began writing poetry at a very young age. Her work was much appreciated for its’ literary merit. She resided in Paris after 1828 and was a member of the fashionable literary salons of the era. Elisa produced two collections of poems Bisson (1827) and poesies de Mlle Elisa Mercoeur (1829). Granted a pension by Charles X, she turned to writing to support herself, and her novel La Comtesse de Villequiers was published in 1833. Elisa died young (Jan 7, 1835) in Paris, and her mother collected, edited and published her works entitled Oeuvres completes d’Elisa Mercoeur, de Nantes, precedees de memoires et notices sur la vie de l’auteur, ecrits par sa mere (1843) in three volumes.

Mercoeur, Laure Victoire Mancini, Duchesse de – (1635 – 1657)
Italian-French patrician and courtier
Laure Mancini was the eldest sister of Marie, Olympe, and Hortense Mancini, and niece to the powerful Cardinal Mazarin, who arranged for them all to be brought to the French court. Laure, a famous beauty, was eventually married, at the connivance of her uncle, to Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Vendome, grandson of Henry IV, but she died tragically young. The famous soldier Duc de Vendome was their son.

Mercouri, Melina – (1923 – 1994)
Greek actress and politician
Anna Amalia Mercouri was born in Athens and began her film career in Stella (1955), though her international acclaim rested on her appearance in Never on Sunday (1960). Her second husband was the director Jules Dassin, with whom she collaborated on the production of several films. Mercouri was exiled from Greece in 1967 after the coup, and worked in England in the USA, appearing in films such as Topkapi (1964) and Gaily, Gaily (1969). After being permitted to return to her homeland Miss Mercouri became actively involved in politics and was later elected to parliament (1977). She twice served as minister of Culture and Sciences, being a prominent campaigner for the British to return the famous Elgin Marbles, and was also minister of Culture, Youth, and Sports (1985 – 1990).

Mercuriade of Salerno – (fl.c 1200 – c1220)
Italian surgeon and physician
Her name, now believed to be a pseudonym, reveals her as the author of four surviving medical tretises De Curiatone Vulnerum, De Crisibus, De Febre Pestilenciali, and De Unguentis, which cover the treatment of various fevers, the preperation of ointments, and the procedures for treating many types of wounds.

Mercy-Argenteau, Louisa de Carman-Chimay, Comtesse de – (1837 – 1890)
French political salonnierre and courtier
Comtesse Marie clotilde Elisabeth Louise de Caraman was born (June 3, 1837) the daughter of Alphonse de Caraman, Prince de Chimay. She travelled in Europe and Russia, and developed a talent for music, excelling at the piano. She was married (1860) to Comte Eugene de Mercy-Argenteau (1838 – 1888). Admired by both the emperor Napoleon III and Kaiser Wilhelm I, she was recognized as one of the great beauties of the Second Empire. Her portrait by Cabanel was commissioned by Napoleon himself. Alarmed at the threat posed to France by the ambitions of the German chancellor Bismarck, the comtesse entered into secret political intrigues with the emperor, and acted as a peacemaker between himself and Emilr Ollivier, whom she persuaded to support the Imperial Party. Her correspondence with the emperor and the composer Franz Liszt survives. Madame de Mercy-Argenteau retained her interest in music and arranged that the opera Le Filibustier, produced by Cesar Cui (1835 – 1918) should be published in Paris by Leduc. He produced the collection of piano pieces entitled A Argenteau after her estate in Belgium. The Russian composer Alexander Borodin dedicated his Petite Suite to the comtesse. Widowed in 1888, she visited the court of Tsar Alexander III in St Petersburg. Countess Louisa died there (Nov 8, 1890) of cancer, aged fifty-three.

Mere, Elisabeth Guenard, Baronne – (1751 – 1829)
French novelist
Elisabeth Guenard wrote profusely and produced supposed ‘memoirs’ of the Princesse de Lamballe, the unfortunate favourite of Queen Marie Antoinette entitled Memoires historiques de Madame Marie Therese Louise de Carignan, princess de Lamballe, a biography written in the third person which was published in Paris under the emperor Napoleon I (1801). However Madame de Lamballe’s official lady-in-waiting and companion, the Marquise de Lage de Volude scathingly refuted the contents, and labelled the work,‘an abombinable obscenity written by a woman of whom we have never heard, and who could certainly not have known her interior, nor even her barnyard.’

Meredith, Susanna – (1823 – 1901)
Irish pioneer of criminal rehabilitation
Susanna was the daughter of the deputy governor of Cork County Gaol. She was married to a physician, but his death several years later left her a youthful widow. Meredith became involved in organizing lace-making classes for poor girls, and after moving to London (1860) she became the editor of The Alexandra magazine. She obtained permission to become a visitor at Brixton Prison, and she established a mission house nearby, in order to provide meals and lodging for released female prisoners. She established a laundry and a hospital, and her first home to care for the children of released prisoners at Addlestone, Surrey, was opened by Princess Mary Adelaide, the cousin of Queen Victoria (1871). She published A Book about Criminals (1881) and Saved Rahab! An Autobiography (1881). Susanna Meredith died at Addlestone (Dec, 1901) aged seventy-eight.

Meresamenet – (fl. c800 BC)
Egyptian princess
Meresamenet was the daughter of Prince Osorkon and his wife Shaamenimes. Her father was the son of King Takelot III of the XXIIIth Dynasty at Thebes (867 – 724 BC), and Queen Irtiubast, who was probably the daughter of King Osorkon III. Princess Meresamenet was buried in the Temple of Hatshepsut at Der el-Bahri. Her coffin was preserved in the Cairo Museum, whilst surviving inscriptions reveal that the queen served as chantress of Amun, having the title of ‘Singer of the Harem of Amun.’

Merian, Maria Sibylla – (1647 – 1717) 
German botanical and entomological illustrator
Maria Sibylla was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, the daughter of an etcher, and was the stepdaughter of the flower painter, Jakob Marrel. Maria Sibylla Merian published a three volume study of flowers, and visited Surinam in Dutch Guiana (1699 – 1705) with her daughter Dorothea Marrell where she studied local insect species and their fruit diet, which led to the publication of Metamorphosis insectorum surinamensium (1705) which was engraved with many water colours. Maria Sibylla Merian died in poverty.

Meric, Henriette see Lalande, Henriette

Merici, Angela – (1474 – 1540) 
Italian nun and founder of the Ursuline Order
Angela Merici was born at Desenzano, near Lake Garda. Orphaned during childhood, she later became a Franciscan tertiary, and she and several companions became devoted to the education of poor girls. In 1535 they dedicated themselves to the furtherance of this aim by placing themselves under the patronage of St Ursula. The ladies did not take regular vows and the order was not an enclosed one. The church viewed Angela’s concept of her order with some considerable hesitation, and the religious authorities only recognized her organizationas a congregation in 1565. Angela Merici was canonized (1807) by Pope Pius VII (1800 – 1823).

Mericourt, Theroigne de – (1762 – 1817) 
French revolutionary and feminist
Born Anne Josephe Theroigne at Marcourt, near Liege, she was the daughter of a farmer. Educated at a convent school of Robermont, she left home after an argument with her stepmother, and was employed as a farm worker, a dressmaker and a governess. Anne Theroigne became the companion of an Englishwoman, Mrs Colbert (1779) with whom she visited London (1782). In London, she established herself as a successful courtesan, and became known to the Prince of Wales. She then became mistress to the Duc d’Orleans, Philippe Egalite, and adopted the title of comtesse de Campinados. She returned to Paris (1785) where she established her revolutionary salon in the rue de Boulai in Paris, and founded the Club des Amies de la Loi. She adopted the name of ‘Theroigne de Mericourt,’ taken from the name of her village.
When the royal family was brought back to Paris after the abortive escape to Varennes (1791), Theroigne danced in front of the royal carriages. A frequent visitor to the National Assembly, her public pronouncements and violent harangues were ridiculed by the royalist press. When the Paris mob stormed the Tuileries Palace, Theroigne was famously prominent amongst the crowd, and on the same day demanded and personally witnessed the death of the journalist Suleau, who had lampooned her. However, she later modified her stance, and was later attacked, and publicly stripped and flogged by the Jacobin women of Paris for her support of Brissot (May, 1793). She never recovered from the humiliation of this experience and became insane, being incarcerated within the La Salpetriere prison. She remained there for the rest of her life.

Meritaten    see      Meryetaten

Merit Ptah – (fl. c2700 BC)
Egyptian physician
The earliest female to practice medicine known to recorded history, Merit Ptah was portrayed on a tomb near Saqqara in the Valley of the Kings. Her son accorded her the title of ‘Chief Physician’ which indicated that she held a high position at the royal court.

Meriwether, Elizabeth Avery – (1824- 1917)
American author
Elizabeth Avery was born in Bolivar, Tennessee, and became the mother of the famous lawyer, author, and special government agent, Lee Meriwether (1862 – 1966). A novelist of some note her works include The Klu Klux Klan (1877), The Master of Red Leaf (1880) and Black and White (1883). Elizabeth Meriwether died (Nov 4, 1917) aged ninety-three.

Merken, Lucretia Wilhelmina van – (1721 – 1789)
Dutch poet, dramatist and didactic writer
Lucretia Merken was born in Amsterdam, and was married (1768) to Nicolaas van Winter. Her didactic poem Het Nut der tegenspoeden (Adversity Doesn’t Help), published in 1762 caused contemporary literary figures to consider Lucretia one of Holland’s greatest poets. Earlier in her career Lucretia wrote several plays Artemines (1745) and Toneelpoezig (1774 – 1786), which were distinguished by their clear, cultivated style.

Merlin, Dorothy    see   Johnson, Pamela Hansford

Merlin, Maria Mercedes Santa Cruz y Montalvo, Condesa de – (1789 – 1852)
Cuban letter writer and traveller
Maria Mercedes Santa Xruz y Montalvo was born in Havana, but was raised abroad in Madrid, Spain, and was married to the French general, Christophe Antoine. During the 1830’s and 1840’s the Comtesse de Merlin, as she had become by then, held several brilliant literary and political salons in Madrid, in Havana (1840) and in Paris, where she entertained Prince Louis de Bonaparte (Napoleon III).
The first Cuban female writer of any note, all her works were written in French and possessed a feminist slant. She produced a biography of the famous actress and vocalist Maria Felcite Malibran (1838) and a very strong attack on slavery, L’esclavage aux colonies espagnols (1840) which was published in Paris. The comtesse also produced several novellas the Histoire de Soeur Ines (1838) and the Duc d’Athenes (1852), and travel memoirs such as Viaje a la Habana (1844) with French text and an introduction by fellow female author Gertrudis Avellaneda. The Condesa de Merlin left two volumes of memoirs Souvenirs et memoires (1836) and Mes douze premieres annes (1838).

Merman, Ethel – (1908 – 1984)
American vocalist and actress
Born Ethel Agnes Zimmerman in Astoria, New York, she received a supporting role in George Gershwin’s production of Girl Crazy (1930) on Broadway, where her vibrant rendition of the classic son ‘I Got Rhythm’ gained international fame. Merman appeared in the plays Annie Get Your Gun (1946) and Call Me Madam (1950), and sang in the films like Alexander’s Ragtime Band (1938), Stage Door Canteen (1943), Call Me Madam (1953) and There’s No Business Like Show Business (1954). Ethel Merman was married four times, lastly to actor Ernest Borgnine, and was said to have been romantically involved with the novelist Jacqueline Susann. Ethel Merman published two volumes of autobiography entitled Who Could Ask for Anything More ? (1955) and Merman (1978).

Merneith    see    Meryetneith

Merode, Diane Cleopatre – (1876 – 1966)
French dancer and actress
Diane Merode was born in Paris,