Ja (Ie) – (d. c360 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Ja was a citizen from a province adjoining the Persian empire of King Sapor II. With several other Christian captives Ja was imprisoned for her faith. She was later accused of converting the wives of several important magicians, and was publicly tormented and scourged before being beheaded. Ja was revered as a saint (Aug 4), her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum. A church dedicated to her in Constantinople was later rebuilt by the emperor Justinian I (527 – 565).

Jabhthena (Gabtina) – (fl. c500 – 600)
Irish virgin saint
Jabhthena became a nun and a recluse, but little is known of her life. She was revered as a saint her feast (July 11) being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum and the Martyrology of Tallaght.

Jablonski, Wanda Mary – (1920 – 1992)
Czech-American oil expert
Jablonski was born in Czechoslavakia, the daughter of an oil company official and a physicist. She accompanied her father to his various postings around the world, before attending Cornel and Columbia universities in the USA. Wanda Jablonski was the founder of the Petroleum Intelligence Weekly newsletter, having worked as an office messenger at the Journal of Commerce in Manhattan, New York. She travelled the world and became an internationally recognized oil journalist. Wanda Jablonski died (Jan 28, 1992) aged seventy-one, in New York.

Jablow, Alta – (1919 – 1992)
American academic and folk-lorist
Jablow was born in Weehawken, New Jersey, and attended New York University, and then became a member of the Martha Graham Dance Company, which stimulated her interest in dance as a form of folk-lorist expression. Alta became the wife of the anthropologist, Joseph Jablow, to whom she bore a daughter. She worked with her husband on the faculty of Brooklyn College.
Mrs Jablow later earned her doctorate from Columbia University (1963), and was appointed as professor emeritus of anthropology at Brooklyn College (1965). She retired in 1980. Alta Jablow produced half a dozen published works concerning African folk tales including Yes and No: The Intimate Folklore on Africa (1961) and The Africa That Never Was (1970). Alta Jablow died (June 17, 1992) aged seventy-two, in Manhattan.

Jablow, Evelyn – (1919 – 1997)
American interiror decorator and furniture designer
Evelyn was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and attended New York University. She was married firstly (1941 – 1961) to David Jablow, whose name she retained after their subsequent divorce. She became known for her use of stainless steel frames in her furniture designs, and her first collection (1962) exhibited works which combined steel frames with silk, velvet, and fur. She established her won company, American Vernacular, of which she was president for almost twenty-five years (1973 – 1997), and travelled around the world, becoming a consultant to the US government (1970). She worked at the famous Bloomingdale’s department store before becoming the design director of House Beautiful magazine (1977 – 1978), and then the art director of L’Officiel magazine (1982 – 1984). Evelyn Jablow died (Sept 28, 1997) aged seventy-eight, in Delhi, New York.

Jaburkova, Jozka – (1896 – 1944)
Czech feminist and patriot
Jozka Jaburkova began her career as a journalist, and was then editor of the popular women’s magazine Rezsevacka (The Disseminator). She was confirmed pacifist and was prominent within that movement during WW I. She wrote several novels dealing with ordinary daily working life and also produced books for children. Jaburkova was elected a member of the Prague City Council in Bohemia and later joined the Communist Party. She campaigned publicly for improved conditions for female workers, and for the establishment of schools. With the Nazi takeover she was arrested and sent to Ravensbruck concentration camp, where she died. After the war was over, Jozka was proclaimed a national war heroine and a statue was erected in her honour in Prague (1965).

Jachino, Silvana – (1916 – 2004)
Italian film actress
Jachino was born (Feb 2, 1916). She appeared in films such as C’une fantasma nel castello (1942). Silvana Jachino died (Aug 28, 2004) aged eighty-eight.

Jachmann-Wagner, Johanna    see   Wagner, Johanna

Jackson, Alice Mabel – (1887 – 1974)
Australian educator and journalist
Alice Archibald was born (Oct 15, 1887) in Ulmarra, New South Wales, the daughter of a teacher. She herself trained as a schoolteacher, and married, but in her early forties changed careers to journalism. Jackson was the editor of the Australian Women’s Weekly (1939 – 1950) and briefly worked at the Woman’s Day for Sir Keith Murdoch, before she retired (1951). Alice Jackson died (Oct 28, 1974) aged eighty-seven, in Sydney.

Jackson, Catherine Hannah Charlotte Elliott, Lady – (c1825 – 1891) 
British author
Catherine Elliot was the daughter of Thomas Elliot of Wakefield, Yorkshire. She was married (1856) to the diplomatist Sir George Jackson (1785 – 1861) on the island of St Helena, as his second wife. Widowed in 1861 she turned her attention to writing, and began editing her husband’s private journals and papers. She produced The Diaries and Letters of Sir George Jackson from the Peace of Amiens to the Battle of Talavera (1872) in two volumes and The Bath Archives: a further Selection from the Diaries and Letters if Sir George Jackson (1809 – 1861) (1873). Lady Jackson was granted a pension from the Civil List (1874) in recognition of her late husband’s services.
Lady Jackson produced several interesting, though sometimes inaccurate books on French society including Old Paris: it’s Court and Literary Salons (1878), The Old Regime: Court Salons and Theatres (1880), The French Court and Society, Reign of Louis XVI and the First Empire (1881), The Court of the Tuileries from the Restoration to the Flight of Louis Philippe (1883), The Court of France in the Sixteenth Century, 1514 – 1519 (1885) and The Last of the Valois and the Accession of Henry of Navarre, 1559 – 1589 (1888). Lady Jackson died (Dec 9, 1891) at Bath, Somerset.

Jackson, Daphne Frances – (1936 – 1991)
British nuclear physicist and lecturer
Daphne Jackson was born (Sept 23, 1936) and attended the Imperial College of Science and Technology and the University of London. After initially being employed as a reader in nuclear physics at Surrey University (1966 – 1971), Jackson worked as an academic in Washington and Maryland in the USA, and at the European universities of Louvain and Lund. Daphne Jackson was then appointed as a professor and appointed as Head of the Department of Physics (1971 – 1991) and Dean of the Faculty of Science (1984 – 1991) at the University of Surrey. She served as vice-president (1981 – 1983) and then president (1983 – 1985) of the Women’s Engineering Society. Her published work included Nuclear Reactions (1970) and Concept of Atomic Physics (1971)

Jackson, Freda – (1907 – 1990)
British character actress of stage and film
Freda Jackson worked in movies from 1942, and her credits included A Canterbury Tale (1944), Great Expectations (1946) and No Room at the Inn (1947). She also appeared in several horror flicks such as Brides of Dracula (1960) and Monster of Terror (1965).

Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske – (1830 – 1885)  
American novelist, reformer and writer
The schoolfriend friend of the noted poet Emily Dickinson, Helen Fiske was born (Oct 15, 1830) in Amherst, Massachusetts, the daugher of an academic. She attended school in Ipswich, and later attended a finishing school in New York. Helen was married (1852) to a military officer, Edward Bissell Hunt (1822 – 1863). With his early death, followed by those of their two sons, Helen was remarried (1875) to a banker, William Sharples Jackson. Ralph Waldo Emerson considered her an extremely talented verse writer, but modern opinons greatly differ on this subject.
Her novel Mercy Philbrick’s Choice (1876) is regarded as a fictionalized portrait of her friend Emily Dickinson. This was followed by the popular romantic novel Ramona (1884), and the publication A Century of Dishonor (1881), which supported the cause of the Native Indians, a cause she championed until her death. Helen Jackson sometimes wrote using her own initials ‘H.H’ and the male pseudonym ‘Saxe Holm.’
Her collected stories, poems, and personal reminiscences were published posthumously in the publications Sonnets and Lyrics, Glimpses of Three Coasts (1886) and Between Whiles (1886). Helen Maria Jackson died (Aug 15, 1885) aged fifty-four, in San Francisco, California.

Jackson, Laura Riding    see    Riding, Laura Reichenthal

Jackson, Lydia – (1900 – 1983)
Russian psychotherapist, educator, translator and author
The Russian revolution frustrated her early attempt at novel writing, and Jackson later went to England (1925) where she remained the rest of her life, and wrote using the pseudonym ‘Elisaveta Fen.’ She became established in practice as a successful child psychologist and therapist.
Her novels included All Thy Waves, Spring Floods and Tomorrow We Die, and she was the author of several volumes of autobiography including A Russian Childhood and A Russian’s England, as well as being a translator of the works of Anton Chekhov. Lydia Jackson died (Aug 12, 1983).

Jackson, Madeline – (1840 – after 1886)
British captive and memoirist
Anna Madeline Jackson was the sister of Sir Mountstuart Jackson, and niece to Coverley Jackson, Madeline went out to Sitapore in India with her family, and was there when the Mutiny broke out (1857). She managed to escape from the Sitapore residency, but was later captured, her brother murdered in front of her, and was kept prisoner for five months before being released into British custody. She was the author of Reminiscences, a narrative of her experiences, which she wrote at the request of her children.

Jackson, Mahalia – (1911 – 1972) 
Black American gospel vocalist
Jackson was born (Oct 26, 1911) in New Orleans, Louisiana. She was raised in a strict Baptist environment, but became attracted to the ‘profane’ blues of such popular vocalist as Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and Ida Cox, which she mixed with the evangelical fervour of the nearby Holiness Church. Her father and her own strong religious piety prevented Mahalia from performing publicly, and in 1927 she moved to Chicago, Illinois and sang professionally for the choir of the Greater Salon Baptist Church, and from 1932 with the Johnson Gospel Singers. She later worked with the hymnist Thomas A. Dorsey, and scored chart successes with such popular blues gospel songs such as ‘Move On Up a Little Higher‘(1947) which sold a million copies and ‘Let the Power of the Holy Ghost fall on me’ (1949).
Mahalia toured Europe (1952) refusing to perform in nightclubs, though she did perform her own songs in the film Jazz on a Summer’s Day. She sang at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, and at most of the civil rights rallies of the 1960’s. Her moving performance of ‘Precious Lord, Take my Hand’ at the funeral of Martin Luther (1968) was witnessed by vast crowds of mourners. She collapsed in Munich, Bavaria, whilst on tour and returned to America. Mahalia Jackson died (Jan 27, 1972) aged sixty, in Chicago.

Jackson, Mary – (1910 – 2005)
American character film and television actress
Jackson was born (Nov 22, 1910) in Mitford, Michigan, and attended Michigan University, where she trained as a schoolteacher. Mary Jackson worked on stage in Chicago, and later came to New York. Her early television career included appearances in such popular shows as Alfred Hitchcok Presents (1956), The Barbara Stanwyck Show (1960), My Three Sons (1961), The Outer Limits (1964), The Andy Griffith Show (1966), The F.B.I. (1967), Barnaby Jones (1973) and The Rockford Files (1979).
However, she was best known on television as Miss Emily Baldwin in the popular television series The Waltons (1971 – 1982), with Helen Kleeb as her sister Miss Mamie. Jackson was also the original choice to play Alice Horton in the daytime serial The Days of Our Lives, but only appeared in the pilot episode, the role being subsequently taken over by Frances Reid. Her film credits included Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night (1967), Airport (1970), Audrey Rose (1977) and Fun with Dick and Jane (1977). Mary Jackson died (Dec 10, 2005) aged ninety-five, in Los Angeles, California.

Jackson, Mavis – (1913 – 2000)
Australian scientist
Mavis Swan was born at Masulapatam, India, the daughter of Lieutenant-Commander Walter Swan, who had served with the British Royal Navy in India. She was educated in Melbourne, Victoria, in Australia, and later attended the University of Melbourne (1935). After her marriage and the outbreak of World War II, Mavis Jackson joined the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) as a microbiologist. She later joined the planning committee for International House, which served as a college for both Australian and international students at Melbourne University.
Jackson also established the cytology unit at the Alfred Hospital, which she continued to administrate until her retirement (1977). Renowned for her sixty-five year association with the Lyceum Club, she served as a member of the board of management of the Yooralla Children’s Hospital School (1954 – 1960) and served on the National Council of Women (1957 – 1960). Appointed the president of the Victorian Society for Cytology (1966) she was also an executive of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (1967 – 1984).

Jackson, Rachel Robards – (1767 – 1828)
American presidential wife
Rachel Donelson was the daughter of Colonel John Donelson, a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, and his wife Rachel Stockley. She was married firstly to Lewis Robards, but the union was not happy and they were later granted a divorce through the Virginia legislature. Though she had remarried (1791) to her second husband Andrew Jackson (1767 – 1845), later the seventh president of the USA (1829 – 1837), the legalities surrounding her divorce actually took a further two years to complete, and their marriage was not legal. It was only when her divorce from Robards was finally declared (1793), that a second legal marriage ceremony was performed.
Rachel and her husband remained childless, and they later adopted (1810) Mrs Jackson’s nephew, Andrew Donelson (1809 – 1865) as their son and heir, he adopting the surname of Jackson. Andrew Jackson junior inherited the family estate, The Hermitage, was married and left numerous descendants. Several portraits survive, and though much scandal had been caused by their relationship abd marriage, Jackson was ever ready to defend his wife’s honour. Rachel Jackson died (Dec 22, 1828) at The Hermitage and was buried in the garden there.

Jackson, Rebecca Cox – (1795 – 1871)
Black American religious leader and mystic
Rebecca became an elder of the Shaker sect, and was commonly known as ‘Mother Jackson.’ She wrote her autobiography for the years (1833 – 1836) and (1844 – 1851).

Jackson, Shirley Hardie – (1916 – 1965)
American writer and novelist
Shirley Jackson was born (Dec 14, 1916) in San Francisco, California, the granddaughter of an architect, and attended Syracuse University. She was the author of Hangsaman (1951), The Bird’s Nest (1954), The Witchcraft of Salem Village (1956), The Sundial (1958), We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962) and Come Along with Me (1968) which was published posthumously.
Her best known works included The Haunting of Hill House (1959) the famous ghost story. It was made into a successful film by Robert Wise entitled The Haunting (1963) which starred Julie Christie as Eleanor Vance, Russ Tamblyn, and Claire Bloom. It was remade under the same title (1999) with Lili Taylor as Eleanor, Catherine Zeta-Jones as Theo, and Liam Neeson as the doctor. Shirley Jackson died (Aug 8, 1965) aged forty-five.

Jackson of Lodsworth, Baroness      see    Ward, Dame Barbara Mary

Jacob, Mathilda – (1873 – 1943)
German secretary
Mathilda Jacob was born (March 8, 1873) in Berlin, Prussia, the daughter of a Jewish butcher. She became the confidante and personal friend of Rosa Luxemburg, whom she cared for during her period of imprisonment (1914 – 1919), and whose body she idnetified after her assassination (1919). Jacob saved Rosa’s letters and smuggled them to safety in the USA. Mathilda was later imprisoned by the Nazis in the notorious concentration camp at Theresienstadt. Mathilda Jacob died (April 14, 1943) aged sixty, at Theresienstadt.

Jacob, Mary Phelps     see    Crosby, Caresse

Jacob, Rosamund – (1888 – 1960)
Irish feminist, author, nationalist and political activist
Jacob was born to Quaker parents. Her two best known works were Callaghan (1920), which dealt with the circulation of suffrage newspapers in Dublin, and The Troubled House (1937) set during the War of Independence.

Jacob, Violet – (1863 – 1946)
Scottish writer, novelist and poet
Violet Kennedy-Erskine was born near Montrose, Angus. She was married to Arthur Otway Jacob (died 1936), an Irish officer with the British military, and accompanied him on his postings abroad. Greatly independent and unconventional, she smoked and wore male attire when she travelled in India. Her best known work was the novel Flemington (1911), which was set during the 1745 rebellion in Scotland.
Her other published works were numerous and included the novels The Sheepstealers (1902), The Golden Heart (1904) and Irresolute Catherine (1908), as well as several collections of verse such as Songs of Angus (1915), Bonnie Joan and Other Poems (1921) and The Northern Lights and Other Poems (1927). Her collections of short stories included The Fortune Hunters and Other Stories (1910) and Tales of My Own Country (1922). Violet Jacob died at Kirriemuir in Angus.

Jacoba of Baden – (1558 – 1597)
Duchess consort and regent of Cleves
Princess Jacoba was born (Jan 16, 1558), the eldest daughter of Philibert, Margrave of Baden and his wife Matilda of Bavaria. She became the wife (1585) of Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Cleves, Julich and Berg and received the ‘Golden Rose’ from Pope Sixtus V (1587). Their marriage remained childless. The duke later became insane (1590) but with the death of his elder brother Duke Wilhelm V (1516 – 1592) he succeeded as reigning duke of Cleves, but Duchess Jacoba and several of the duke’s councillors were proclaimed joint-regents.
Wilhelm von Waldenburg organized a coup three years later (1595) and gained possession of the duke and Dusseldorf Castle. The duchess was accused of adultery as a means of discrediting her fitness to rule, but there was no real proof of such a charge. Duchess Jacoba’s unexpected death (Sept 3, 1597) aged thirty-nine, at Dusseldorf, was probably murder.

Jacobi, Edna – (1902 – 1998)
Jewish-Australian Zionist and businesswoman
Edna Jones was born (March 5, 1902) in Melbourne, Victoria, and was married in Jerusalem, Palestine, to the political militant, Solomon Jacobi (1928). The couple had two daughters. Mrs Jacobi and her husband worked tirelessly to improve the conditions of Jews in eastern Europe, and in London, Edna acted as hostess for the Revisionist Zionist Organization, led by Vladimir Jabotinski, who acknowledged the her own particular influence within the organization.
Having evacuated from France with her daughters during WW II, Solomon died suddenly of a brain tumour in Paris.  Edna and her children returned to Australia, where she remained the rest of her life. She later supported her family by establishing a butcher business in the heart of Melbourne, a venture which proved extremely successful. Edna Jacobi always remained active for Jewish causes, both at home and abroad, and was elected president of the Women’s Auxiliary of the Hebrew University. Edna Jacobi died (Dec 21, 1998) aged ninety-six, in Melbourne.

Jacobi, Irene – (1890 – 1984)
American pianist
Born Irene Schwarcz, she studied music at the Institute of Musical Art in New York, which later became the Juilliard School. She was later married (1917) to the noted composer Frederick Jacobi, then assistant conductor with the Metropolitan Opera. Irene performed her husband’s works in Europe and throughout the USA, and made recordings under several labels. Widowed in 1952, two decades later, Irene organized a remembrance concert of her husband’s works at Carnegie Hall (1972). Irene Jacobi died (May 25, 1984) aged ninety-three, in Manhattan, New York.

Jacobi, Jolande – (1890 – 1973)
Hungarian psychotherapist
Jolande Jacobi was born (March 25, 1890) in Budapest. She studied at psychology at the University of Vienna and in Zurich, Switzerland. Jacobi was appointed as executive vice-president of the Austrian Cultural Association (1934 – 1938), and practised in Zurich. After WW II she taught and lectured in Zurich. Her published works included Die Psychologie von Carl Gustav Jung (1940) and Bildreich der Seele (1969). Jolande Jacobi died (April 1, 1973) aged eighty-three, in Zurich.

Jacobi, Lotte (Johanna Alexandra) – (1896 – 1990)
German-American portrait photographer
Lotte Jacobi was born (Aug 17, 1896) in Thorn (now Torun in Poland), the daughter of Sigismund Jacobi, a commercial photographer, and was the great-granddaughter of the prominent photographer, Samuel Jacobi, himself a pupil of Jacques Louis Daguerre (originator of the daguerreotype). Jacobi studied art history in Posen and later at Munich in Bavaria (1925 – 1927). Her first husband was a timber merchant from whom she was later divorced (1924), whilst her second (1940 – 1951) with the publisher Erich Reiss lasted till his death.
Jacobi studied photography and film making at the Staatliche Hohere Fach Schule fur Phototechnik. With her father’s death she took over his studio in Berlin, until the rise of the Nazis forced her to leave Germany and immigrate to the USA (1935). Lotte established her own studio in New York, but later removed to Deering in New Hampshire (1955). She was particularly known for her portraits of painters, politicians, and scientists, amongst many other notable sitters, and for her unusual dance photography. Lotte Jacobi died (May 6, 1990) aged ninety-three, in Concord, New Hampshire.

Jacobi, Mary Corinna Putnam – (1842 – 1906)
American physician
Mary Corinna Putnam was born (Aug 31, 1842) in London, England, the daughter of George P. Putnam, the noted American publisher, and educated at Yonkers in New York after her family immigrated to the USA (1847). Mary Putnam attended a private school and then attended the New York College of Pharmacy and the Women’s Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mary was married (1873) to the noted paediatrician and physician, Abraham Jacobi (1830 – 1919), the president of the Medical Society of the County of New York.
Mary Jacobi studied to be a doctor at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania from 1864, and worked with the German physician Marie Zakrzewska at her clinic at Boston in Massachusetts. A prominent campaigner for female suffrage, after her return to New York, Jacobi worked in both private practice and within the hospital system. She founded the Association for the Advancement of the Medical Education of Women (1872) and organized the National Consumer’s League, which aimed at the removal of all sweatshops.
Mary Jacobi was the author of The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation (1876), for which she was awarded the Boyleston Prize from Harvard University, and was she became the first woman to be elected to the New York Academy of Medicine (1880). Othe published works included Hysteria and Other Essays (1880), Common Sense Applied to Woman’s Suffrage (1894) and Stories and Sketches (1907) which was published posthumously. Mary Jacobi died (June 10, 1906) aged sixty-three, in New York.

Jacobi, Naomi – (1884 – 1964)
British writer
Naomi Jacobi was born (July 1, 1884), and was educated at Middlesborough secondary school. Though she originally trained as a school teacher with the Church of England, Jacobi was later employed as the manager and private secretary to the variety performer Margeurite Broadfoote. Later after drifting through various other employments, Jacobi worked on the stage and was a committed suffrrage supporter and member of the Conservative Party. Ill-health required a change of climate, and Miss Jacobi removed to Italy, where she became an officer in the Women’s Legation (1939) and was closely involved with welfare work. Jacobi wrote several novels and several articles on cookery. Naomi Jacobi died (Aug 27, 1964) aged eighty, at Sirmione, in Brescia.

Jacobina – (fl. 1304)
Italian physician
Jacobina was born in Bologna, the daughter of Bartolomeo, a practising physician, from whom she learnt the art of medicine. Jacobina established herself in private practice in Bologna, and such was her reputation, that she was admired by her male contemporaries.

Jacobini, Diomira - (1896 - 1959)
Italian silent film actress
Diomira Jacobini was born (May 29, 1896) in Rome, the niece to Cardinal Jacobini, and the sister of actresses of Bianca and Maria Jacobini. She made her movie debut in La Sposa della Morte (1915) and Tormento gentile (1916).
Jacobini made two dozen films during her eighteen year career, most of them silent such as Demonietto (1917), Camere separate (1918), La Via del peccato (1924) and Jolly clown da circo (Jolly the Circus Clown) (1923). She made several German films such as Die Vertauschte Braut (1925) and Revolutionshochzeit (The Last Night) (1928). She made several sound film but retired after appearing as Marina in Cento di questo giorni (1933). Diomira Jacobini died (Sept 13, 1959) aged sixty-three, in Rome.

Jacobini, Maria - (1890 - 1944)
Italian film actress
Maria Jacobini was born (Feb 17, 1890) in Rome, the niece of Cardinal Jacobini, and sister to actresses Bianca and Diomira Jacobini. She studied at the Academy of Dramatic Arts in Rome, and made her screen debut in the early silent dramas Lucrezia Borgia (1910) and Beatrice Cenci (1910).
Jacobini became a famous silent star, and appeared mostly in historical dramas, being considered well educated and ladylike. Her other silent credits included La Corsara (1915), La Vergine Folle (1919), Amore rosso (1922), La Vie de Boheme (1923) and Il Carnavale di Venezia (1926).
She appeared in several German and French films such as Unfug die Liebe (1928) and Maman Colbiri (1929), and appeared in the adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's play The Living Corpse (1929) by Russian director Fedor Ozep (1895 - 1949). Her later films included Eternal Melodies (1940) and La Donna della Montagna (1943).

Jacobs, Aletta – (1851 – 1929)
Dutch physician and birth control campaigner.
Aletta Jacobs was the daughter of a physician, and was educated at home and attended a local school. She was trained as a medical dispenser as medicine as a career was then closed to women. Jacobs was granted the right to attend the University of Groningen and study medicine after sending a personal petition to the Dutch Prime Minister, Thorbecke. She established public clinics for the poor, and founded the first birth control clinic for women in Amsterdam (1882).
Aletta was married (1892) to the journalist and politician, Carel Victor Gerritsen, with whom she had cohabited for several years. Their only child died young, and Gerritsen’s death (1905) left her inconsolable. She founded the Association for Women’s Suffrage (1894), and organized the international suffrage movements in Washington, D.C. (1902) and in Berlin, Prussia (1904). She attended the Peace Movement during WW I with Jane Addams. After the Netherlands finally granted female suffrage (1919), Jacobs worked for the International Alliance of Women.

Jacobs, Bertha – (1427 – 1514)
Flemish anchorite, mystic and poet
Also known as ‘Sister Bertken,’ she joined the Order of Anchorites and lived as a bare-footed ascetic in a cell at Utrecht for fifty-seven years (1457 – 1514). She wore a hair shirt against her skin and dressed without thought of comfort from the weather. Some of her poetic verses have survived including ‘A Ditty’ which had been printed in modern anthologies. Bertha Jacobs died aged eighty-seven. She was venerated as a saint (June 25) her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Jacobs, Harriet Brent – (1813 – 1896)
Black American slave and writer
Her personal reminiscences were recorded and edited by Lydia Maria Child, who verified her story. This work was published under the title Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861) under the pseudonym ‘Linda Brent.’

Jacobs, Helen Hull – (1908 – 1988)
American tennis player
Helen Jacobs was born (Aug 8, 1908) in Berkeley, California. Possessed of a smashingly strong backhand drive, Jacobs was also remembered as being the first female player to wear shorts when playing at Wimbledon (1933) and her longtime rivalry with fellow tennis champion, Helen Wills Moody. Jacobs was the winner of four US Opens (1932 – 1935) and the Wimbledon championship (1936), and was declared the Associated Female Athlete of the Year (1933). She later retired from competition tennis (1940). Helen Jacobs died (Dec 27, 1988) aged eighty, and was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.

Jacobs, Jane – (1916 – 2002)
American architectural historian and social critic
Born Jane Buzner, she was the author of such works as The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and The Economy of Cities (1969).

Jacobs, Sophia Yarnall – (1901 – 1993)
American civil and human rights activist and writer
Sophia Yarnall was born in Haverford, Pennsylvania, and attended Bryn Mawr College. She was married (1921) to Reginald Robert Jacobs, a banker from Philadelphia, which marriage ended in divorce (1937). Sophia Jacobs wrote articles for various periodicals including Good Housekeeping, Country Life, and Harper’s Bazaar. She served as executive secretary of the Philadelphia Orchestra Club (1937 – 1945).
After moving to New York (1954) she became a prominent figure in various educational organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and the Rachel Carson Trust for the Living Environment. Sophia Jacobs served as vice-president of the National Urban League and fought againt school segregation and racial discrimination. Jacobs later became the president of the National Council of Women (1960) and acted as chairwoman at the anniversary celebration of the International Council of Women held in Washington (1963). Sophia Jacobs died (June 30, 1993) aged ninety-one, on Mount Desert Island, Notheast Harbor, Maine.

Jacobs-Bond, Carrie (Caroline) – (1861 – 1946)
American pianist and composer
Carrie Jacobs was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, and received piano instruction from an early age. She was later married and bore a son, but the union eventually ended in divorce (1881). She was later remarried (1886) to Frank Bond, a physician (died 1895) and resided in Michigan. With her husband’s unexpected death from a minor accident she moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she painted china and sang in concert in order to bring an income to support herself and her son.
During this time she attempted without much success of publishing her songs, but eventually managed to establish her own company, Carrie Jacobs-Bond and Son of Chicago (1901). Her first collection of songs were published as Seven Songs as Unpretentious as the Wild Rose and some of her works were performed by the operatic soprano, Ernestine Schumann-Heink, but her most famous works included the popular songs ‘A Perfect Day’ (1914), which sold over eight million copies and ‘My Mother’s Voice’ (1942).
Carrie later removed her company to Hollywood in California (1920) where she composed scores for films and published her volume of memoirs The Roads of Melody (1927), and a collection of poems The End of the Road (1940). Carrie Jacobs-Bond died aged eighty-five.

Jacobsen, Ulla – (1929 – 1982)
Swedish film actress
Ulla Jacobsen was born (May 23, 1929) in Goteborg. She began her career on the stage and then progressed to films, becoming a leading lady of the screen. Her film credits included One Summer of Happiness (1951), which performance won her international acclaim, The Sacred Lie (1955), The Phantom Carriage (1958), Zulu (1964), The Heroes of Telemark (1965) and The Servant (1970).

Jacoby, Alberta Smith – (1911 – 1992)
American mental health specialist and film producer
Alberta Smith was born in Worthington, Minnesota, and was a talented sportswoman. She attended the University of Minnesota and then studied public health at Yale University. During WW II she worked as a program director for the Office of War Information and as an information provider for the National Institute of Mental Health. With her husband Irving Jacoby (died 1985), she formed the Mental Health Film Board (1949) and produced over one hundred black and white documentary films, and was a member o the faculty (1967 – 1992) at the School of Epidemiology and Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine. Alberta Jacoby died (July 8, 1992) aged eighty.

Jacqueline of Bavaria (Jacoba) – (1401 – 1436) 
Dutch heiress and ruler
Countess Jacqueline was born at Quesnay (July 25, 1401), the daughter of William II of Bavaria, Count of Holland and Zeeland, and Lord of Friesland, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Philip II, and sister to Jean the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. Jacqueline was married firstly (1406) Prince Jean de Valois, Duc de Touraine (1398 – 1417), the son of Charles VI, who became dauphin of France (1416), upon the death of his elder brother Louis. He died childless (1417).
Jacqueline waged war against John the Pitiless of Bavaria for the right to succeed to her father’s title there, then married (1418) her weak, incompetent cousin, John IV, Duke of Brabant (1404 – 1427), who mortgaged Holland and Zeeland to John of Bavaria. Repudiating this marriage, Jacqueline travelled to the English court (1421), where she was granted a pension and acted as godmother to the infant Henry VI. Her marriage with the duke of Brabant had been annulled by the anti-pope Benedict XIII, but this annulment was never recognized. In England she remarried (1422), bigamously and illegally, to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (1391 – 1447), the brother of Henry V. This event was the occasion of a celebrated ballad written by the poet Lydgate.
Deserted by him during an invasion to regain her lands in Hainault (1424), which destroyed the alliance between England and Burgundy, she was captured (June, 1425) by Philip the Good of Burgundy, and was forced to relinquish to him her claims to sovereignty through the Treaty of Delft (July, 1428). This act brought together the lands under Burgundian rule to the Netherlands, when Jacqueline formally abdicated in Philip’s favour (April 12, 1432).  Her marriage to Duke Humphrey was eventually annulled (Jan, 1428) and her second with the duke of Brabant, from whom she had been divorced, was upheld.
In 1432 she married, again illegally, at Ostende, to Franz van Borsselen, lord of Zuilen and Smaartendijk, in Zeeland (c1390 – 1471), but Philip suspected action against him, so he had Franz imprisoned, an forced Jacqueline to give up her title of countess of Holland, Hainault, and Zeeland, which she had been allowed to retain. Duchess Jacqueline died (Oct 9, 1436) aged thirty-five, at Teylingen Castle, near Leiden. She appears as a character in the historical novel Crown in Candlelight (1978) by Rosemary Hawley Jarman.

Jacques, Hattie – (1924 – 1980)
British film actress and commedienne
Hattie Jacques established her career as a comic at the Players’ Theatre. She became the wife of veteran actor John Le Mesurier (1912 – 1983), and was known for her appearances in many of the ‘Carry On’ series of comic films with Sid James. Her other film credits included roles in Oliver Twist (1948), The Pickwick Papers (1952), Make Mine Mink (1961) and Crooks and Coronets (1969).

Jacquet de la Guerre, Elisabeth Claude – (c1666 – 1729)
French composer and harpsichordist
Elisabeth Jacquet was born the daughter of an organist and instrument maker. An exceptionally talented child, she performed in Paris (1677) and she obtained the patronage of Madame de Montespan, the mistress of Louis XIV. Elisabeth was married (c1682) to the organist, Marin de la Guerre and was the godmother to the famous harpsichordist and composer Louis Claude Daquin (1694 – 1772), who performed before Louis XIV as a child (1700), and then became organist at the Chapel Royal to Louis XV.
With the death of her husband (1704), Elisabeth worked in Paris as a professional musician, and estsablished an international reputation for herself. She composed ballet music, violin sonatas, and harpsichord pieces, but her earliest surviving piece was the opera Cephale et Procris (1694).

Jacquetta of Luxemburg – (1416 – 1472)
French-Anglo princess and duchess of Bedford
The mother-in-law of King Edward IV (1461 – 1483), Jacquetta was the daughter of Pierre I of Luxemburg, Comte de St Pol, and his wife Margaret del Balzo, the daughter of Francis del Balzo, Duke of Andria, in Naples, Italy. Her first marriage (1433) with John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford (1389 – 1435), the brother of Henry V, was childless. Young and beautiful, the Duchess of Bedford caused considerable scandal when she remarried secretly (1436) to Sir Richard Woodville (c1405 – 1469), who was later created first Earl of Rivers.
The duchess had to pay a fine of one thousand pounds for marrying without permission, and her dower was forfeited, though later restored to her through the intervention of Cardinal Beaufort with parliament. The couple had a large family of seventeen children. Her second husband and her son Sir John Woodville were killed by the Lancastrians (1469), and with the brief return of Henry VI to the throne (1470 – 1471), the duchess removed with the queen and her grandchildren to the safety of the Tower of London, where she was present at the birth of Edward V (1470).
Duchess Jacquetta was accused of witchcraft and making wax figures, but the case was mere slander and collapsed in court. The duchess died (May 30, 1472) in London. Through the second marriage of her eldest daughter, Elizabeth Woodville, Jacquetta became the mother-in-law of Edward IV. She was the maternal grandmother of Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, the two princes murdered in the Tower of London, and was the great-grandmother of King Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). Jacquetta appears as a character in the historical novels The Woodville Wench (1972) by Maureen Peters, and The King’s Grey Mare (1974) by Rosemary Hawley Jarman. Her children were,

Jade, Claude – (1948 – 2006)
French stage, television and film actress
Claude Marcelle Jorre was born in Dijon, Burgundy where she attended the Conservatory of Dramatic Art. She later removed to Paris, where she studied acting with Gerard Depardieu. Claude Jade was discovered by the noted critic and movie director Francois Truffaut (1932 – 1984) when she appeared in the stageplay Henry IV, by Luigi Pirandello. She then appeared as the heroine in Truffaut’s film Stolen Kisses (1968).
Truffaut successfully recommended Jade to the British director Sir Alfred Hitchcock, and she then starred in his film Topaz (1969), which was her most famous role. She continued working in television and the theatre, and she portrayed Inessa Armand in Sergei Yutkevich’s film Lenin in Paris (1980). Claude Jade was elected as Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (1998) and published her autobiography Baisers envoles (Flying Kisses (2004). Jade became the wife (1972) of the French diplomat, Bernard Coste. Claude Jade died of cancer aged fifty-eight.

Jadwiga Jagiella (1) (Hedwig) – (1408 – 1432)
Princess of Poland
Princess Jadwiga was born (April 8, 1408) the daughter of King Vladyslav II Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Lithuania, and his second wife Anna, the daughter of William, Count of Celje (Cilly). She was the great-granddaughter of Kasimierz III, King of Poland. Jadwiga was betrothed firstly to Friedrich of Brandenburg (Friedrich II), son and heir of the elector Friedrich I of Brandenburg, as part of a plan to place her and her proposed husband on the Polish throne, thus disinheriting her legitimate half-brothers by Queen Sophia Holczanska, who were not of the Piast dynasty.
This plans and dynastic intrigues had evaporated by 1425. King Janus of Cyprus was seeking money to secure his embarrassed financial position, and sent Badin de Noves, marshal of Jerusalem and his two sons, together with a Polish knight, Sir Peter de Bnin, who had suggested the plan, to the court of king Vladyslav, with a proposal that Princess Jadwiga should be married to Janus’s son and heir, Prince Johann, with a dowry of two hundred thousand ducats (1431). However, before the negotiations could be fully discussed, Princess Jadwiga died (Dec 8, 1431) at the age of only twenty-four. Rumour accused her stepmother of encompassing her death by poison. The details of the proposed marriage with Cyprus are recorded in the Chronica Polonarum of Matthias de Michavia, amongst other works.

Jadwiga Jagiella (2) – (1457 – 1501)
Princess of Poland
Princess Jadwiga was born (Sept 21, 1457) in Krakow, the eldest daughter of Kazimierz IV Jagiellon, king of Poland (1445 – 1492) and his wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Albert V, King of Hungary and Bohemia. Jadwiga was married (1475) to Duke George of Bavaria-Landshut (1455 – 1503), and was duchess consort (1479 – 1501). Her German subjects called her Hedwig. Duchess Jadwiga died (Feb 19, 1501) aged forty-three and left issue,

Jadwiga of Lithuania    see   Jadwiga Jagiella (1)

Jadwiga of Poland (Hedwig) – (1374 – 1399) 
Queen regnant
Princess Jadwiga was the daughter of Louis I d’Anjou, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and his wife Elisabeth of Bosnia. Of her two elder sisters, Maria ruled as queen of Hungary (1382 – 1395), whilst Catherine died in childhood (1378). With her sisters she was brought up and educated in Vienna and Budapest. In 1378, at the age of four she was betrothed to the Hapsburg duke, William of Austria (1370 – 1406), and in 1382 she succeeded her father as king of Poland. Though King Louis had originally intended Jadwiga to have the Hungarian succession, and her elder sister Maria, the wife of Sigismund of Austria, the Polish this arrangement was eventually reversed.
In 1384, after an interregnum of two years, the Poles accepted Jadwiga as their queen. Jagiello, (1351 – 1434) the Grand Duke of Lithuania offered marriage to the queen on the condition that he should rule as king. Under pressure from the Polish nobility the young queen surrendered her fiancee William of Austria (to whom Poland made a substantial payment in reparation) and married Jagiello (Feb 18, 1386). This marriage consummated the efforts of King Kasimir III to conciliate the pagan rulers of Lithuania. Their joint rule united the two realms, as Jagiello promised to be converted to Christianity, and to unite his grand duchy, three times the size of Poland, with the Polish crown. It also brought Christian conversion to Lithuania, and heralded the prosperity of the Jagiellon dynasty, the greatest two hundred year period in Polish history. Queen Jadwiga devoted her short life to religious ascetism, and gave her fortune to the poor. She was venerated as a saint in Poland, her popular cult being observed (Feb 29) after her death. At patron of learning and the arts, especially church music, she made arrangements to leave her wealth to re-establish the University of Krakow. A cloak she used to cover a coppersmith who had drowned in the river became the banner of the coppersmiths’ guild. At her death, from the effects of childbirth, at the age of twenty-five, in 1399, Jagiello became king and sole ruler of Poland, taking the name of Wladyslaw II (Ladislaus). The queen was interred within the Cathedral of Krakow, where her tomb has always remained a place of religious pilgrimage.

Jaegra – (d. c851)
Spanish virgin Christian martyr
Jaegra was an unmarried woman, perhaps a nun, who was killed in Toledo by the Moors for refusing to abjure the Christian faith. She was honoured as a saint and her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Nov 15).

Jael – (fl. c1180 BC)
Jewish biblical heroine
Her story is recorded in the Book of Judges. She was born into the Kenite tribe. She became the wife of Heber the Kenite. She later killed Sisera, the captain of Jabin’s Canaanite army, and saved Israel from future oppression at the hands of Jabin for four decades. Jael murdered Sisera by driving a tent peg through his head with a mallet. Her story is recorded in the biblical book of Judges.

Jaell-Trautmann, Marie – (1846 – 1925)
French pianist, composer and writer
Marie Trautmann was born in Steinseltz, Alsatia. Marie became the wife of the noted French pianist and teacher, Alfred Jaell (1832 – 1882), whom she survived over forty years. Marie Jaell-Trautmann died (Feb 7, 1925) in Paris.

Jaffe, Rona - (1932 - 2005)
American novelist
Rona Jaffe was born (June 12, 1932) in New York, and worked as an editor with Fawcett Publications. Her first novel entitled The Best of Everything (1958) was made into a film of the same name starring Joan Crawford (1959). Her many other novels included The Last of the Wizards (1961), The Other Woman (1972), An American Love Story (1990) and The Room-Mating Season (2003).
In the 1960's Jaffe was employed as a writer for Cosmopolitan magazine by Helen Gurley Brown. Her novel Mazes and Monsters (1981) dealt with games that caused its players to become violent and suicidal, and created much controversy. Rona Jaffe died (Dec 30, 2005) aged seventy, in London.

Jagny, Guillemette de   see   Beaumont, Guillemette de

Jahan Begum – (1858 – 1930) 
Indian ruler
Jahan Begum was the third woman in succession to rule the state of Bhopal in central India. She was married (1874) to the Nawab Shah Johan Begum (1838 – 1901), whom she succeeded in 1901 despite the fact that her stepsons were grown men. Keenly interested in the education and medical care of women, she also encouraged agricultural and industrial development. The Begum visited Europe in 1911 and 1925, and despite the fact that her two stepsons, who both died in 1924, had left male issue, she managed to secure the succession in Bhopal for her own son Hamidullah Khan Sikander Saulat (1894 – 1960). Jahan Begum lived in truly royal style and maintained a regiment of imperial service cavalry, being entitled to a state salute of 21 guns within, and 19 without her own territory. She later abdicated in favour of her son (1926). She published two volumes of memoirs An Account of My Life (1910 – 1922). Jahan Begum died (May 12, 1930).

Jakobsdottir, Svava – (1930 – 2004)
Icelandic realist story writer and dramatist
Her published works included three collections of short stories 12 konur (12 Women) (1965), Veizla undir grjotvegg (Party under a Stone Wall (1982) and Gefid hvort odru (Each Given to the Other) (1982). She also published the novel Leigjandin (The Lodger) (1969). Svava Jakobsdottir served as a member of the Icelandic parliament (1971 – 1979), and was awarded the Henrik Steffens Prize for literature (1997).

Jakubowska, Wanda – (1907 – 1998)
Polish film producer and director
Wanda Jakubowska studied art in Warsaw and was the co-founder of START (the Society of the Devotees of Artistic Film) (1929 – 1930), of which organization she was later appointed as artistic director (1955). She made documentary films prior to WW II and established her talent with The Last Stop (1948), which dealt with her own hideous personal experiences in the notorious Nazi concentration camps of Ravensbruck and Auschwitz. Other film credits included Soldier of Victory (1953) and It Happened Yesterday (1960).

Jalandoni, Magdalena – (1891 – 1978)
Filippino novelist, poet and short story writer
Magdalena Jalandoni was born into a noble family at Iloilo, in the Western Visayas region. Despite parental oppostion she embarked upon a career as a writer, producing almost seventy novels, as well as collections of verse and stories, all written in her own dialect of Hiligaynon.
Her first novel, published when she was sixteen, was the romance work Ang Tunuk Sang Isa Ka Bulak (The Thorns of a Flower) (1907), whilst Ang Dalang sa Tindahan (The Lady in the Market), was set during the Philippino Revolution (1896). She was an active campaigner for the cause of women’s suffrage.

Jaligny, Elisabeth de – (c1083 – 1154)
French medieval heiress
Elisabeth de Jaligny was the daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Jaligny, and his wife Ermengarde de Bourbon, the divorced wife of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou. She was married to Hugh I, Seigneur de Chaumont (c1065 – c1129) and was mother of Seigneur Sulpice II (c1129 – 1154), who led a revolt against Geoffrey V of Anjou, the father of Henry II of England over control of his mother’s dower estates. Her father had provided Amboise for Elisabeth as her dowry, whilst she inherited the Bourbonnais heritage of Jaligny from her mother. Both her husband and her son Sulpice held Amboise in her right.
During her quarrels with her son Sulpice, her rights as a widow were upheld by the intervention of Geoffrey of Anjou, to whom Elisabeth had appealed personally for help. Details of her life can be found in the surviving panegyric work Traite de l’amour courtois, which recorded the history of the lords of Amboise, and was written by a canon of the collegiate church there, shortly after Elisabeth’s death.
During the last years of her life Elisabeth retired to a small house near the monastery of St Thomas in Amboise. Three of her descendants were killed fighting the English at the battle of Agincourt (1415) and she was ancestress of Claude Maximilien de la Guiche, Comte de Saint-Gerain (died 1659).

Jamali – (fl. c1530 – c1550)
Iranian poet
Sometimes called Hijabi, she was the daughter of Hilali, a wealthy citizen of Herart. She wrote verses (ghazals) and her talent as a poet and composer was widely celebrated by her contemporaries.

Jambrisak, Marija – (1847 – 1937)
Croatian educator and women’s rights campaigner
Maria Jambrisak trained as a teacher in Belgrade, and later taught in a convent school. She attended the First General Teacher’s Conference in Zagreb (1871) where she demanded equal recognition and pay for female teachers. She was later a high-school teacher in Zagreb (1874 – 1892), and later taught histiry at the newly established Girls’ Lyceum. She was a founder member of the Croatian and Slovenian Ladies’ Association for Women’s Work and Education.

James, Alice – (1848 – 1892)
American diarist and letter writer
Alice James was the younger sister to Henry James (1842 – 1910), the noted philosopher and psychologist. She remained unmarried and died of breast cancer. Her personal correspondence with her two brothers William and Henry was later edited and published (1964).

James, Alice Archer Sewall – (1870 – 1955)
American illustrator and poet
Alice Archer James was born in Glendale, Ohio. Her published works included the collection of verse Ode to Girlhood, and Other Poems (1899), The Ballad of the Prince (1900) and The Morning Moon (1941). Alice James died (Sept 20, 1955) aged eighty-five.

James, Bessie Rowland – (1895 – 1974)
American journalist and writer
Bessie Rowland born (July 29, 1895) in Imporia, Texas, and became the wife of the author Marquis James (1891 – 1955). Bessie James herself sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Mary Waterstreet’ and co-wrote several books with her husband such as Six Feet Six (1931), The Courageous Heart (1934), and Biography of a Bank (1954). Bessie James was the author of For God, for Country, for Home (1920) and Happy Animals of Ataghi (1935).

James, Betty – (1918 – 2008)
American toy maker and businesswoman
Betty Mattas was born (Feb 13, 1918) in Altoona, Pennsylvania. She attended the Pennsylvania State University and then married Richard T. James, an engineer. Together with her husband she established the company that made the famous coil-shaped toy known as the ‘Slinky Dog’ which made their first appearance at Gimbel’s department store in Philadelphia (1945), and Mrs James oversaw the running of their business as the chief executive officer for almost four decades (1960 – 1998).
A new version of the toy appeared in the children’s film Toy Story (1995) but the company was eventually acquired by Poof Products of Plymouth (1998). Mrs James was inducted into the Toy Industry Hall of Fame (2001). Betty James died (Nov 20, 2008) aged ninety, in Philadelphia.

James, Charlotte – (c1865 – c1936)
Australian painter
Charlotte James studied art at the National Gallery School, in Melbourne, Victoria, and later studied abroad. She had exhibitions of her work at the Royal Academy in London, and in Paris, and specialized in producing flower paintings and landscapes.

James, Eleanor – (fl. 1688 – 1715)
British printer and political pamphleteer
Eleanor was the wife of a London printer named Thomas James. She suffered a period of imprisonment within the notorious Newgate Prison (1689) for printing subversive pamphlets. With her husband’s death (1711), she carried on the business. Her surviving printsheets reveal that her overall aim and interest was the protection of the Church of England, though she strongly opposed the deposition of James II (1688).

James, Elizabeth Britomarte – (1877 – 1933)
Anglo-Australian religious figure
Elizabeth James was born in Aberystwyth, Wales. She joined the Salvation Army as a young woman (1899) and spent thirty years involved in rural work in various states. She later joined the women’s social department of the Salvation Army (1928) and was noted for her care to young girls in various Army homes. Elizabeth Britomarte James died (Jan 24, 1933) at Burwood in Sydney, New South Wales.

James, Florence – (1902 – 1993)
New Zealand writer
Florence James was born in Gisborne and came to live in Australia as a small child. She studied music and art, and attended Sydney University. There she co-wrote the best-selling novel Come In Spinner, which had to be edited by James before publication (1951) due to strict Australian public decency laws, as well as the children’s book Four Winds and a Family (1947). Florence James later went to England, where she joined the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and accordingly spent some time in Holloway Prison because of her involvement in public protests.

James, Ginnie – (1940 – 2008)
British bullfighter and horse-racer
Rose Virginia Dennistoun was born (May 24, 1940) at Latton, near Cricklade in Wiltshire, the daughter of a racing trainer. Determined to become a female bullfighter (rejoneadora) she travelled to Portugal, where she received her training and was famous as ‘Virginia Montesol.’ She was married (1967) to English jockey Charlie James, and rode the winner owned by Rupert Lycett Green at Musselburgh (1984). During her later years she suffered from multiple sclerosis. Ginnie James died (Jan 7, 2008) aged sixty-seven.

James, Zita Mary – (1903 – 2006)
British socialite and centenarian
Zita Jungman was born (Sept 13, 1903), the daughter of the noted painter Nico Jungman and his British wife Beatrice Mackay. With the divorce of her parents her mother remarried to Richard Guiness. She attended the Queen’s Gate School in London, and was photographed by Cecil Beaton. Zita was pursued by the poet Sacheverell Sitwell and her name linked socially with that of the Italian diplomat, Mario Panza, but Zita married instead (1929) to Arthur James, a grandson of the fourth Duke of Wellington. The couple were later divorced (1932) and there were no children. Zita James typed the manuscript of the History of India, by Sir Denison Ross. Zita James died (Feb 18, 2006) aged one hundred and two, at Leixlip Castle, Kildare.

Jameson, Anna Brownell – (1794 – 1860)
British writer
Anna Murphy was born in Dublin the daughter of an Irish miniaturist, and an English mother. Skilled at linguistics she supported herself by working as a governess, and later married (1825) a lawyer, Robert Brownell, who later served as vice-chancellor of Upper Canada. Brownell was the author of the educational work for children A Mother’s First Dictionary (1825) and also wrote sentimental biographies such as Memoirs of the Loves of the Poets (1829) and Memoirs of Celebrated Female Sovereigns (1831). She also produced a study of the heroines of William Shakespeare entitled Characteristics of Women (1832), which was dedicated to the actress Fanny Kemble.
Anna Jameson was a friend to Ottilie von Goethe and Lady Annabella Byron, Mrs Brownell later became a supporter of the fight for female suffrage, as is revealed in several of her later works such as Sisters of Charity (1855) and The Communion of Labour (1856). Anna Jameson was a founder member of the Society for the Promotion of Employment for Women and established the feminist periodical The Englishwoman’s Journal.

Jameson, Betty – (1919 – 2009)
American golfer and champion
Elizabeth May Jameson was born (May 9, 1919) at Norman in Oklahoma. She was educated at the University of Texas in Austin and played golf from an early age quickly showing professional talent in that sport. She twice won the United States Women’s Amateur Golf Championships (1939) and (1940) before turning professional (1945). She won telve individual tournaments during an eight year period (1947 – 1955) and was one of the women who established the LPGA (Ladies’ Professional Golf Association (1950). She later became a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame. Betty Jameson died (Feb 7, 2009) aged eighty-nine, at Boynton Beach in Florida.

Jameson, Storm (Margaret Ethel) – (1891 – 1986)
British novelist, dramatist, editor and critic
Storm Jameson was born in Whitby, Yorkshire, and was educated privately. She later attended Leeds and London universities, and worked as an advertising copywriter before becoming editor of the New Commonwealth magazine. Her husband was Guy Chapman, a historian at Leeds University. Storm Jameson wrote more than thirty published works, including biographies, literary critisicsm, essays, and poetry.
Her first published work was the novel, The Pot Boils (1919), and had her first success with novel The Lovely Ship (1927). This was followed by titles such as The Delicate Monster (1937), The Black Laurel (1948), A Cup of Tea for Mrs Thorgill (1957) and The White Crow (1968). Jameson produced two volumes of autobiography entitled No Time Like the Present (1933) and Journey from the North (1969). Storm Jameson died in Cambridge.

Jamet, Marie – (1820 – 1893)
French nun and religious founder
Marie Jamet was born in St Servan, Brittany. Determined upon a religious vocation, she became a nun. Marie Jamet was the founder (1840) of the Little Sisters of the Poor, of which order she was appointed to rule as first superior.

Jamison, Cecilia Viets Dakin Hamilton – (1837 – 1909)
American portrait painter and author
Celia Dakin was born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. Cecilia was married firstly to George Hamilton, and secondly to Samuel Jamison. A talented portrait and landscape painter, her earliest written works Something to Do (1871) and Ropes of Sand, and Other Stories (1876) were published anonymously.
Her later works, published under her own name, included The Story of an Enthusiast (1888), Toinette’s Philip (1894) and The Penhallow Family (1905). Cecilia Jamison died (April 11, 1909).

Jamnia (Gamnite) – (d. c177 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian martyr
Jamnia was amongst the large group of Christians arrested at Lyons in Gaul with Blandina and Vettius Epagathus during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). She refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods and was condemned to suffer vicious tortures before she died in prison. Her feast (June 2) was recorded in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum.

Janauschek, Francesca Romana Maddalena – (1830 – 1904)
Czech stage actress
Francesca Janauschek made her stage debut in Prague, Bohemia (1846), and established herself as a leading lady of the Frankfurt theatre in Germany. Janauschek later removed to Dresden in Saxony, and made successful tours of Europe and the USA. She specialized in Shakespearean roles and performed admirably in English. She played great tragic roles such as Mary Stuart and Lady Macbeth, and was famous on an international scale. Francesca Janauschek spent her later years resident in America, and finally sufferred a debilitating stroke (1900). She died four years afterwards.

Jan Begum     see    Dupleix, Jeanne

Jane Grey – (1537 – 1554) 
The ‘Nine Days Queen’ of England
Lady Jane Grey was born (Oct, 1537) in Bradgate Manor, in Leicestershire, the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset, and his wife Lady Frances Brandon, daughter of Charles, Duke of Suffolk, and the niece to Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). Though not a great beauty, Jane was an intelligent and well-educated girl, being tutored under the guidance of the Protestant scholar John Aylmer (later Bishop of London), and proved to be especially talented with languages.
From 1546 – 1548 she resided in the household of Queen Catharine Parr, the widow of Henry VIII, and attended her funeral, acting as chief mourner. Lord Thomas Seymour, the uncle of Edward VI, proposed marrying Lady Jane to the king, but the Lord Protector desired Edward to marry his own daughter, Lady Jane Seymour, instead. With the execution of Thomas Seymour (1549) Jane returned to Bradgate, where she resumed her studies in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, and French. In Oct, 1551 she attended her cousin the Princess Mary, during the state visit to London of the Scottish regent, Mary of Guise.
During the final illness of Edward VI, she was married at Durham House (May 21, 1553), vehemently against her will, to Lord Guildford Dudley (1535 – 1554), fourth son of the Lord Protector, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, as part of his scheme to ensure a Protestant succession. Declared queen on July 10, four days after Edward’s death, Jane appointed Sir Philip Hoby as her ambassador to the court of Brussels, but was rapidly superseded (July 19) by the rightful heir, Edward’s Catholic half-sister Mary I, and was made a prisoner within the Tower of London.
Following a rebellion in her favour, led by Sir Thomas Wyatt, but totally without her privity, and in which her own father, the Duke of Suffolk took part, Jane was beheaded with her husband (Feb 12, 1554) aged only sixteen. They were interred together within the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, with the Tower precints. She was portrayed by Helena Bonham Carter in the film Lady Jane (1985) with Cary Elwes as her husband Guildford Dudley.

Jane Seymour – (1508 – 1537) 
Queen consort of England (1536 – 1537)
Jane was born at Wolf Hall, near Savernake, Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of Sir John Seynour, and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlestead in Suffolk, a descendant of Edward III. In 1514 she accompanied the household of Mary Tudor to the French court on her marriage to Louis XII. Upon her return to England (c1525) there were attempts to arrange a betrothal between Jane and William Dormer, the son of Sir Robert Dormer, but these plans came to nothing. Sir Francis Bryan used his influence on Jane’s behalf, in order to secure a place for her at court, a lady-in-waiting to Catharine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII and was noted for her kindness and gentle nature. She then served in the same capacity to Anne Boleyn, the king’s second wife.
Jane was installed in apartments in Greenwhich Palace with her brother, Edward Seymour and his wife Anne Stanhope, to which apartments King Henry had full access. She refused to become his mistress, but was used as the mouthpiece of the court faction which plotted the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and thus gave tacit permission for the removal of her rival. On the very day of Queen Anne’s execution (May 19, 1536) the king visited Jane and Archbishop Thomas Cranmer provided the king with a dispensation for their marriage without the publication of banns. Jane and Henry were married on May 30 at York Place, in London, and six weeks later Parlaiment officially settled the succession upon her, as yet unborn, issue. The French Cardinal Du Bellay repeated the story that Jane had interceded on her knees before the king, on behalf of the dissolved abbeys, after the Pilgrimage of Grace, but was brusquely told to desist from meddling in such affairs unless she wished to share the fate of her predecessor. Nevertheless it was due to her influence that the king was reconciled to his daughter Mary, and she was formally received by her father at court, and restored to favour.
Jane gave birth to Henry’s long awaited son and heir, Edward (VI), on Oct 12, 1537, at Hampton Court Palace. She present during his christening ceremony, but never properly recovered, and died (Oct 24) following. Her body was embalmed, and she was interred in St George’s Chapel, at Windsor Castle. Henry wore official mourning for her, something he had not done for any other of his wives, and, grateful that she had provided the long awaited heir to the throne was interred beside her at his own death ten years later. A sketch of Queen Jane by Hans Holbein survives, whilst replicas of a half-length portrait survive at Woburn Abbey in England, and in Vienna. Queen Jane was portrayed by actress Anne Stallybrass in the BBC series, The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) with Keith Michell. In the film of the same title (1972) also with Michell, the queen was portrayed by Jane Asher. In the BBC film The Other Boleyn Girl (2003) she was portrayed by Naomi Benson, with Jared Harris as Henry VIII. Queen Jane was portrayed by actresses Anita Briem and Annabelle Wallis in the Showtime television series The Tudors (2007 - 2010) with Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII.

Jane, Calamity      see    Calamity Jane

Jane Frances de Chantal      see     Chantal, Jeanne Francoise Fremiot, Baronne de

Janes, Emily – (c1851 – 1928)
British feminist and advocate for the care of working girls
Emily Janes worked as matron of the Magdalen Hospital in Streatham (1880 – 1881) and as private secretary prior to becoming involved with the women’s suffrage movement. Emily Janes organized the National Council of Women (1895 – 1917) and was the founder of the Distaff Guild in Hampstead, London (1923). Her published works included the workers’ magazine A Threefold Cord (1891 – 1898) and she was the editor of the Englishwoman’s Year Book (1899 – 1908). Emily Janes died (Oct 26, 1928) in Hastings, Sussex.

Janis, Elsie – (1889 – 1956)
American actress, composer, dancer and author
Elsie Bierbower was born (March 16, 1889) in Columbus, Ohio, and appeared on the stage from early childhood. She later came to New York where she achieved success as a stage actress (1905). Janis then came to England where she appeared in The Passing Show (1914) in London, and became instantly successful, as was her atage partnership with Basil Hallam.
During WW I Elsie entertained the troops in France and appeared in Hullo, America! at the Palace Theatre (1918), before appearing in her own La Revue de Elsie Janis in Paris. One of her last stage appearances in London was in Clowns in Clover (1928) at the Adelphi Theatre. Elsie Janis died (Feb 28, 1956) aged sixty-six, in Hollywood, California.

Janitschek, Maria – (1859 – 1927)
Hungarian poet and novelist
Maria Tolk was born (June 22, 1859) into a poor family in Modling, Lower Austria. She was married to the historian Hubert Janitschek. As a widow she resided in Berlin, Prussia before finally settling in Munich, Bavaria (1902). Janitschek wrote articles for popular magazines such as Moderne Dichtung using the pseudonym ‘Marius Stein.’ She was best known for her collections of verse Irdische und inirdische Traume (Earthly and Unearthly Dreams) (1889) and Gesammelte Gedichte (1892). She wrote several novels which dealt with the subject of female suffrage such as Die neue Eva (1902). Maria Janitschek died (April 28, 1927) aged sixty-eight, in Munich.

Janner, Elsie Sybil Cohen, Lady – (1904 – 1994)
British philanthropist and civic leader
Elsie Cohen was born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, where she attended secondary school prior to studying in South Hampstead, London. She became the wife (1927) of Barnett Janner (died 1982), who was created a life peer as Baron Janner. The couple had two children, Greville Ewan Janner (born 1928), the noted barrister, author, and journalist, and Ruth Janner, who was married (1958) to Philip Morris (born 1928), second Baron Morris of Kenwood, and left issue.
Elsie served as captain of the Mechanised Transport Corps during WW II (1939 – 1945), for which she received the Defence Medal. She was a justice of the Peace and was the visiting magistrate at the Holoway Women’s Prison (1950 – 1962). She was particularly associated with various activities for the assistance of the homeless and unemployed. She served as chairman of the Bridgehead Housing Association (1967 – 1975) which organized the acquisition of properties which could be used to house former criminals after their release from prison.
Lady Janner was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1968) in recognition of her valuable work. Lady Janner published a memoir of her husband Barnett Janner – A Personal Portrait (1984).

Jannia – (fl. 489 AD – 512)
Byzantine patrician matron
Jannia became a Christian deaconess and abbess, and was mentioned in the Select Letters of Severus of Antioch. Severus sent Jannia a letter praising the way that she administered her monastery, and proffering her his own advice on that subject.

Janny, Amelia – (1838 – 1914)
Portugese poet
Amelia Janny wrote many works for various magazines such as Almanaque de Lembrancas (Almanac of Memories). She dedicated a poem to the famous Brazilian revolutionary poet Thomaz Antonio Gonzaga (1744 – c1809).

Janotha, Natalie – (1856 – 1932)
German pianist
Natalie Janotha was born (June 8, 1856) in Warsaw, Poland, and was trained under Clara Schumann, Johannes Brahms, and Ernst Rudorff. She made her stage debut at Leipzig in Saxony (1874) and was appointed court pianist to Kaiser Wilhelm I (1885). Apart from gavottes for the piano, Janotha composed Ave Maria and Mountain Scenes, amongst many other works. Natalie Janotha died (June 9, 1932) aged seventy-six, in The Hague, Holland.

Jansson, Tove – (1914 – 2001)
Finno-Swedish children’s author and artist
Tove Jansson was born in Helsinki, the daughter of a painter. She studied at home, then abroad in Stockholm and in Paris. Jansson became best known for her Moomintroll books for children, which began with Trollkarlens hatt (The Magician’s Hat) (1949), and which she illustrated herself. She also produced the psychological thriller Den arliga bedragaren (The Honest Deceiver) (1982).

Januar, Judith    see   Duvanel, Adelheid

Januaria – (fl. c580 – 599)
Sicilian letter writer and religious patron
Januaria was mentioned in three letters written by Pope Gregory I and preserved in his Epistolarum Registrum. When three men attempted to force Januaria from the occupancy of a property, the ownership of which she had long enjoyed, she appealed successfully to the pope (Oct, 598), who ordered his official at Palermo, Faustinus, to assist her in this matter.
Two further letters from Januaria, both dated the same period (July, 599), reveal that she had founded an oratory dedicated to St Severus the Confessor and St Juliana the Martyr, on her own estate, and that she wished the building to be consecrated. Pope Gregory ordered Benenatus, Bishop of Tyndaris, to perform the ceremony for her. Januaria also desired relics for her new foundation, and Gregory successfully applied to Fortunatus, Bishop of Naples, for help with this matter.

Januaria Maria of Brazil – (1822 – 1901)
Princess Imperial
Born Princess Januaria Maria Joana Carlota Leopoldina Candida Francisca Xavier de Paula Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonza at Rio de Janeiro (March 11, 1822), she was the eldest daughter of Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil and his first wife Leopoldine of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Franz II (1792 – 1835). She was titled Princess Imperial of Brazil with the qualification of Imperial Highness, and was heiress presumptive of the Brazilian throne (1835 – June, 1846) until a daughter was born to her brother Pedro II. Januaria Maria was married (1844) in Rio de Janeiro to Prince Luigi of Bourbon-Naples (1824 – 1897), Conte de Aquila, the sixth son of Francisco I, King of Naples. Princess Januaria Maria survived her husband and died (March 13, 1901) aged seventy-nine, at Nice, France. She left four children,

Januschowsky, Georgine von – (1859 – 1914)
Austrian soprano
Georgina von Januschowsky worked as a soprano in operetta in Sigmaringen, Prussia (1875) and then worked as a soubrette in Vienna, Leipzig, and New York. Especially admired for her interpretations of the works of Richard Wagner, Januschowsky was joined the cast of the Imperial Opera in Vienna. She was married to the pianist, violinist, and composer, Adolph Neuendorff (1843 – 1897). Madame Januschowsky died in New York.

Janvier, Catharine Ann Drinker – (1841 – 1923) 
American translator, painter and poet
Catherine Drinker was born (May 1, 1841) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and became the wife of the noted journalist and author, Thomas Allibone Janvier (1849 – 1913). Best known as the translator of Provencal literature, her own considerable collection of Provencal works were bequeathed to the New York Public Library. Janvier was also a talented painter and produced a volume of poems entitled London Mews (1904). Catherine Drinker Janvier died (July 17, 1923) aged eighty-two.

Janvier, Margaret Thomson – (1844 – 1913)
American poet
Margaret Janvier was born (Feb, 1844) in New Orleans, Lousiana, and used the pseudonym ‘Margaret Vandegrift.’ Her collections of verse included Clover Beach (1880), Ways and Means (1886) and The Dead Doll and Other Verses (1889). Margaret Thomson Janvier died (Feb, 1913) aged sixty-nine.

Janvrin, Mary Wolcott    see   Ellsworth, Mary Wolcott

Janze, Alice Silverthorne, Comtesse de – (1900 – 1941)
American-French socialite
Alice Silverthrone was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of wealthy manufacturer, William Silverthorne, and was educated mainly in New York. She suffered from consumption from childhood. Alice was married firstly (1922) to Comte Frederic de Janze, the author of Vertical Land, to whom she bore two daughters. She accompanied her husband to Kenya in South Africa (1925) and they divorced not long afterwards (1927).
Beautiful, graceful, and elegant, the Comtesse became involved in a liasion with British expatriate Raymond de Trafford, whom she had originally met on her honeymoon. The couple quarrelled after Trafford’s family refused to hear of their marrying, and Alice shot Trafford at Gare du Nord, in Paris (1927) and attempted suicide. Both survived, and she was acquitted of the charge of attempted murder. They were married in 1932, but seperated after three weeks, being later divorced (1937). Prominent amongst the British society in Kenya, her lovers included Julian Lezard, the disreputable South African Davis Cup tennis player, the notorious Joss Hay, earl of Erroll, and British soldier, Major Richard (‘Dickie’) Pembroke. The Comtesse de Janze committed suicide at Gilgil, Kenya, by shooting herself (Sept 23, 1941), after receiving news that she was suffering from cancer of the womb.

Japha, Louise – (1826 – 1910)
German pianist and opera composer
Louise Japha was born (Feb 2, 1826) in Hamburg, and studied under Robert and Clara Schumann and Friedrich Wilhelm Grund (1791 – 1874). She was married (1858) to the musical writer, Wilhelm Langhans (1832 – 1892), with whom she appeared in concert. Louise Japha died (Oct 13, 1910) aged eighty-four, in Wiesbaden.

Jaquinta of Bari – (c1065 – after 1118)
Serbian queen consort
Jaquinta was the daughter of an Italian lord of Bari, who was the leader of the pro-Norman faction in that city. She was married (1080) to King Bodin-Petar of Diokleia in Serbia and her new subjects called her Jakvinta. She bore her husband six sons.
With her husband’s death she ruled as regent for their eldest son Dobroslav (1101 – 1102) whom she caused to be removed as king and banished to a monastery. She then ruled as regent for her second son King Djordje until he assumed full control of the government (1114). Her son Djordje was eventually deposed as king (April, 1118) and died a prisoner of the Byzantines. Queen Jaquinta was also arrested and sent to Constantinople where she later died.

Jarboro, Caterina – (1903 – 1986)
Black American soprano
Born Catherine Yarborough, despite being refused admission to the New York Opera Association on the grounds of race, she performed in several successful Broadway productions such as Shuffle Along (1921). Adopting the professional name of Caterina Jarboro, she subsequently performed the lead role in Aida (1931), becoming the first black opera performer to appear in New York City. She toured America and performed in London, giving a memorable concert in Carnegie Hall (1944). The Caterina Jarboro Company theatre group was named in her honour (1971).

Jaricot, Pauline – (1799 – 1862)
French Catholic patron and saint
Pauline Jaricot was born at Lyons, Burgundy. She decided upon her religious vocation early in life, and at the age of seventeen took a vow of perpetual virginity (1816). She established the Loretta home, as a hostel for young women. With the assistance of twelve pious laymen from New Orleans, Louisiana, in the USA, she founded the Missionary Society of Lyons, popularly known as the St Francis Xavier Society, which later evolved into the Society for the Propagation of the Faith.

Jarman, Frances Eleanor (Fanny) – (1802 – 1873) 
British stage actress and singer
Frances Jarman was born at Hull (Feb, 1802), the daughter of actors. She made her first stage appearance as a child in Elizabeth Inchbald's play Everyone Has His Fault (1815). Other stage roles included Selina in Tale of Mystery (1818), Jacintha in The Suspicious Husband, Statira in Alexander the Great, Ophelia in Hamlet and Cherry in Beaux Stratagem (1819 - 1820).
Miss Jarman was particularly notable for her looks, graceful manner and beautifully modulated voice. She was particularly admired in the tragic role of Imogen and as Amadis in Nymph of the Grotto (1829) by Dimond, and was the original Alice in Love and Reason (1827).
Frances was married (1834) to fellow actor Thomas Lawless Ternan (1790 – 1846) with whom she toured in America, and was mother to actress Ellen Lawless Robinson. Her other two daughters, Frances Eleanor and Maria Susanna Ternan, also joined the acting profession.
With her husband’s death, the entire family had to work on the stage to earn a living, and with her children, and Fanny Jarman toured the north of England, Ireland, and Scotland. Her later roles included Princess Paulina in the revival by Charles Kean of The Winter's Tale (1855) and as blind Alice in Fechter's presentation of The Bride of Lammermoor (1866). Fanny Jarman died (Oct, 1873) aged seventy-one, at Oxford.

Jaroslava Jaroslavna – (1165 – after 1200)
Russian-Polish princess and consort
Princess Vyatcheslava Jaroslavna was probably the third daughter of Jaroslav Omomsyl, Prince of Galicia (Halicz) (died 1187) and his wife Olga Yurievna, who was the daughter of Yuri I (Georg) Dolgoruky (1099 – 1157), Prince of Rostov and Suzdal. Her mother was a great-granddaughter of Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England (1066).
Princess Vyatcheslava was married (before 1187) to Otto (1145 – 1194), Duke of Poznan and Kaliszt in Poland, to whom she bore three children. Her Polish subjects called her Jaroslava. She survived her husband as Dowager Duchess of Poznan, and may have ruled Poznan briefly as regent for her young son Vladislav. She was still living in 1200 but her date of death remains unrecorded. Her children were,

Jarrell, Helen Ira – (1896 – 1973)
American educator and union leader
Helen Jarrell was born (July 27, 1896) in Georgia, the daughter of a farmer. She later removed with her family to Atlanta, where she was educated. She was appointed as the recording secretary of APSTA (Atlanta Public School Teachers’ Association (1929), and was later elected as president (1936). Possessed of considerable administrative skills, Jarrell was elected as the superintendent of Atlanta schools (1944), and instituted many modern innovations, including the reorganization and decentralization of the administrative processes then in place. Jarrell retired in 1960. Helen Ira Jarrell died (Aug 27, 1973) aged seventy-seven, at Little Rock, Arkansas.

Jarrett, Eleanor Holm    see   Holm, Eleanor

Jarrett, Mary Cromwell – (1877 – 1961)
American social worker and educator
Mary Jarrett was born (June 21, 1877) in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a bookkeeper. After attending college in Baltimore, Jarrett became closely involved with the Boston Children’s Aid Society. She then worked at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital (1913 – 1919), where she established the social service department, and was a talented administrator. She established the Smith College School for Social Work (1918), and together with E.E. Southard, the noted psychiatrist, Jarrett co-wrote Kingdom of Evils (1922).
Jarrett’s later career was associated with organizing health care for those afflicted with chronic health conditions, which she researched herself whilst working for the Research Bureau of the Welfare Council of New York (1927 – 1943). She was the author of Chronic Illness in New York City (1933). Mary Jarrett died (Aug 4, 1961) aged eighty-four, in New York.

Jarrett, Pat Irene Herschell – (1911 – 1990)
Australian journalist
Patricia Herschell Jarrett was born (March 9, 1911) in Melbourne, Victoria, and attended the Prahran Technical School. She was employed as a journalist with the sports department of the Melbourne Herald (1933 – 1940) before travelling to Washington, USA, and India as a member of the private staff of the diplomat Richard Casey (1890 – 1976). Jarrett later worked as the editor of the women’s page for Keith Murdoch’s Sun newspaper, a position she retained for twenty-five years (1948 – 1973). Pat Jarrett died (Aug 28, 1990) aged seventy-nine, in Melbourne.

Jars, Marie de Gournay de    see   Gournay, Marie le Jars de

Jarvis, Anna May – (1864 – 1948)
American suffrage and temperance campaigner and innovator
Anna Jarvis was the originator of the annual ‘Mother’s Day’ celebration (second Sunday in May), which established (1906) in memory of her late mother, Anna Reeves Jarvis (died 1905). The state of Pennsylvania was the first in the USA to make Mother’s Day a state holiday (1913). Anna Jarvis remained unmarried. She died alone and forgotten in a nursing home, regretting the crass commercialism which had overtaken her original idea.

Jaume i Carbo, Quima – (1934 – 1993)
Spanish poet
Jaume was born in Cadaques, Girona, Aragon. Quima Jaume graduated from university with a degree in Catalan philology. She was influenced by fellow female poets Marta Pessarrodna and Rosa Leveroni, and the main theme of her verse was love. Quima was a prominent figure in literary and femninist associations, and was the author of Pels camins remolosos de la mar (1990), and the collection of poems El temps passa a Cadaques (Time Passes in Cadaques) (1986). Quima Jaume i Carbo died in Barcelona.

Jay, Peggy – (1913 – 2008)
British Labour politician
Margaret Christian Garnett was born (Jan 4, 1913) in Manchester, Lancashire, and was raised in Hampstead, London. She later attended New College, Oxford, and then became the wife (1933) of the cabinet minister Douglas Jay, from whom she was later divorced (1972). She bore four children including the noted economist and diplomat, Peter Jay.
Due to the influence of Herbert Morrison, she served as councillor with the London county Council (1934) and entered political life when she was elected as the Labour member for Central Hackney (1938 – 1949) and then North Battersea (1951 – 1967). Prime Minister Harold Wilson appointed her as president of the Board of Trade (1964). Peggy Jay died (Jan 21, 2008) aged ninety-four.

Jayadevi – (c655 – after 713)
Cambodian queen regnant
Jayadevi was the daughter and sole heir of Jayarvarman I, King of Chenla (657 – 681). Though officially designated as her father’s successor, with his death (681) there ensued a period of anarchy and civil unrest due to the lack of a male heir. Her reign is attested by two surviving inscriptions from Angkor, one dated 713, in which the queen mentions the misfortunes of this era in Cambodian history. The queen patronised the religious sanctuary of Siva Tripurantaka.

Jayarajachudamani – (fl. c1160 – c1180)
Cambodian queen consort
Queen Jayarajachudamani was a descendant of King Harshavarman III (1066 – 1080). She was married (c1160) to her kinsman King Dharanindravarman II (c1160 – 1181), the marriage bringing the throne to her new husband’s branch of the family. She became the mother of King Jayavarman VII (c1163 – c1220).

Jeakins, Dorothy – (1914 – 1995)
American costume designer
Dorothy Jeakins studied design at the Otis Art Institute, and then worked as an illustrator for Walt Disney, and various fashion pictorials. She was offered the chance to design costumes for the classic film, Joan of Arc (1948), and she was awarded an Oscar for her work. Dorothy Jeakins worked on other classic films such as Samson and Delilah (1949), the famous musical South Pacific (1958), The Night of the Iguana (1964), The Sound of Music (1965), with Dame Julie Andrews, Christopher Plummer, and Eleanor Parker, The Way We Were (1973) with Barbra Streisand, and On Golden Pond (1981) with Henry Ford and Katharine Hepburn.

Jeanne d’Arc (Joan of Arc) – (1412 – 1431)
French heroine known as ‘the Maid of Orleans’
Jeanne was born in Domremy in Lorraine to a prosperous peasant family. From the age of thirteen she began to hear voices, which she claimed to be those of St Michael, St Margaret, and St Catherine, and became convinced that she had been chosen by God to deliver France from the English. Receiving a call to rescue the city of Orleans, which was being besieged by the English, Jeanne persuaded Robert de Baudricourt, the castellan of the chateau de Vaucouleurs to provided her with an escort to visit the Dauphin (Charles VII) at Chinon Castle (1429). Having managed to convince the prince and his religious advisers of the truth of her call, Jeanne was permitted to join the army at Orleans, where she donned male armour and so inspired the troops that the siege was successfully lifted in ten days.
Jeanne then accompanied an army of twelve thousand men to the ancient city of Rheims, where the Dauphin was finally crowned as king in the cathedral there. She pressed for an advance on Paris, but the king’s dilatoriness caused delays which eventuated in Jeanne’s capture during a campaign to relive Compeigne from the Burgundian forces (May, 1430). The Burgundians then sold her to the English, who had her tried in an ecclesiastical court which was presided over by Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. She was convicted of witchcraft and heresy, despite conducting her own defence with much spirit and skill. She then briefly weakened and recanted, though this recantation was withdrawn almost immediately.
Jeanne d’Arc was condemned to death and was burnt at the stake in the market place of Rouen in Normandy (May 30, 1431). This judgement was finally reversed in 1456, and she was later canonised a saint by Pope Benedict XV (1920). She was the subject of Voltaire’s mock epic La Pucelle (1755).

Jeanne I – (1271 – 1305)
Queen regnant of Navarre (1274 – 1305) and queen consort of France (1285 – 1305).
Jeanne I was born at Bar-sur-Aube in Champagne, the only child of Henry I, King of Navarre and his wife Blanche of Artois. Her stepfather was Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, the younger brother of Edward I. Jeanne was betrothed (1274) to Alfonso, Earl of Chester, the son of Edward I of England, but this match was broken off and she was then betrothed to the future Jaime II of Sicily, which engagement was also broken.
Queen Jeanne was married instead (1284) to her cousin, Philip IV Le Bel (the Fair) King of France (1268 – 1314), which thus united the French and Navarrese crowns. Jeanne was the mother of kings, Louis X Le Hutin (the Strong) (1289 – 1316), Philip V (1291 – 1322), and Charles IV (1294 – 1328).
A noted patron of the arts and of letters, she was the founder of the College of Navarre. Queen Jeanne died at the Chateau de Vincennes, aged thirty-four (April 2, 1305) and was buried in the church of the Cordeliers (Grey Friars) in Paris. Her son Louis X succeeded to the kingdom of Navarre as her eldest male heir. Her third daughter Isabella became the wife to Edward II of England and mother to Edward III, being infamous for her relationship with Roger Mortimer.

Jeanne II – (1311 – 1349)
Queen regnant of Navarre (1316 – 1349)
Jeanne II was born (Jan 28, 1311) the only surviving child of Louis X Le Hutin (the Strong), King of Navarre (1314 – 1316) and France (1314 – 1316), and his first wife Margeurite, the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy. Though her mother’s arrest and divorce for adultery (1314) cast doubts upon Jeanne’s illegitimacy, her father acknowledged her as legitimate on his deathbed (1316). She then passed to the custody of her uncle, Duke Eudes IV of Burgundy, whilst other family members vainly intrigued pressed for Jeanne to be recognized as queen of France.
The Salic Law prevented Jeanne from inheriting the French crown and she renounced the territories of Champagne and Brie to Philip V in return for a large financial settlement. However, with the death of her uncle, Charles IV without a male heir, (1328) she was proclaimed queen regnant of Navarre. Jeanne had been married (1318) to her cousin, Philip de Valois, Comte d’Evreux, whom assumed the royal style as Philip III of Navarre, by her right. They were the first Navarese monarchs to live amongst the Navarese for fifty-five years, and they were warmly received by the populace at the Palace of Pampeluna (March 5, 1328). King Philip was killed at the siege of Algesiras in Grenada (1343), leaving his widow stricken with grief. During the last six years of her life (1343 – 1349) Queen Jeanne ruled Navarre as sole sovereign and governed wisely and ably, being guided by a group of councillors. She sent troops to aid Philip VI of France and endeavoured to arrange peace between her won subjects and the Spaniards on the border of her country. Her eight children included Blanche of Navarre, the second wife of Philip VI, king of France, Maria of Navarre, the first wife of Pedro IV, King of Aragon, and Charles II the Bad (1332 – 1387), who succeeded his mother as King of Navarre (1349 – 1387) and left descendants. Queen Jeanne died of the plague (Oct 6, 1349) at the Chateau de Conflans, near Paris, aged thirty-eight. She was interred within the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims, near Paris, but her tomb was destroyed during the Revolution.

Jeanne III – (1528 – 1572) 
Queen regnant of Navarre (1555 – 1572)
Jeanne III was the only child and heiress of Henry II d’Albret, King of Navarre, and his wife Margeurite d’Angouleme, the sister of Francois I of France (1515 – 1547). Educated at the castle of Plessis-le-Tours, near Amboise in France, Jeanne was married (1548) to Antoine de Bourbon, Duc de Vendome (1518 – 1562) by whom she was the mother of Henry IV of France (1553 – 1610). For nearly all of her reign she attempted to retain the independence of her kingdom against encroachment from the Valois dynasty.
From 1561 she set up her palace in Paris, the Hotel de la Grenelle as acentre for study of the reformed religion, and she travelled to Geneva to attend the funeral of John Calvin (April, 1564). She was later forced by political necessity to take sides in the Third Civil War as a leader of the Protestant Huguenots and Calvinists, and established her own stronghold at La Rochelle (1568). Her influence was thought to be such that Philip II of Spain is said to have devised a plan by which the queen and her son could be abducted from Bearn and brought to Spain to be examined by the Spanish Inquisition.With the death of the Prince de Conde (1569) Jeanne entrusted her son to the care of Gaspard de Coligny, who then became the leader of the Huguenot faction. Despite great personal misgivings she agreed to the marriage of her son (March, 1572) with Margeurie de Valois, the daughter of her enemy, the queen mother Catherine de Medici as a means of bringing a truce to the warring religious factions.
Her death in Paris two months later was said by popular gossip to have been caused by Catherine de Medici, who sent the queen a pair of gloves that had been soaked in poison. However, a post-mortem revealed that the queen had been in an advanced state of consumption and that one of her lungs was useless. The real cause of death was an attack of pleurisy.

Jeanne d’Angouleme    see   Angouleme, Jeanne d’

Jeanne de Valois (1) – (1291 – 1342)
French princess
Jeanne was the eldest daughter of Charles I, Comte de Valois, and his first wife, Margaret of Anjou-Naples, and was the granddaughter of King Philip III of France (1270 – 1285) and his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. Jeanne was married (1305) to William III (1280 – 1337), count of Hainault in Holland, to whom she bore eight children. She later received Queen Isabella, the wife of Edward II of England, and her son Edward III at her court at Valenciennes (1327).
As a widow she retired from the world and became a nun at the abbey of Fontenelle, though when this retreat was fired upon by French troops, the countess emerged in order to intervene to avoid conflict between two opposing armies, appealing on her knees before her brother and King Philip to end the bloodshed. Though her intercession was successful, it achieved only a temporary cessation of hostilities. She was the mother of William IV (1307 – 1345), who succeeded his father as count of Hainault, whilst of her daughters, Margaret became the second wife of the German Emperor Louis IV (1282 – 1347), and Philippa became the wife of Edward III, King of England (1327 – 1377). Countess Jeanne died (March 7, 1342) aged fifty.

Jeanne de Valois (2) – (1464 – 1505) 
French princess, founder and nun
Jeanne was born at Nogent, the daughter of King Louis XI (1461 – 1483) and his second wife Charlotte, the daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne of Lusignan. Lame and hunchbacked her father could not bear the sight of her, and she was forced into a loveless marriage (1474) with her very unwilling cousin Louis, Duc d’Orleans (1462 – 1515), to whom she had been betrothed since infancy.
When Louis succeeded to the French throne as Louis XII on the death of Jeanne’s brother Charles VIII (1498) he obtained a declaration that the marriage was invalid. Pope Alexander VI supplied an annulment after the duchesse was forced to endure a humiliating physical examination. Granted the title of duchesse de Berry, Jeanne retired from the court and founded an order of the Annunciation at Bourges, where she built a convent. She was possessed of a rather difficult character, and was inclined to be autocratic with her nuns, becoming impatient at their slow progress. At the time of the Revolution there were fifty such ‘Annonciade’ convents throughout France. Revered as a saint she was later canonized (1950).

Jeanne of Anjou – (1295 – 1327) 
Queen consort of Armenia (1310 – 1320)
Jeanne was the daughter of Philip I of Anjou, Prince of Taranto, and his first wife Thamara Angelina. Her mother was divorced in 1309 and her father arranged her to become the second wife of King Oshin of Armenia (1310). The queen was conducted from Naples to Armenia by Oshin’s cousin, Oshin of Korcyrus. In Armenia she took the name of Irene, but the marriage remained childless.
With her husband’s death (1320) the throne passed to the young Leo V, Jeanne’s stepson, with the regency invested in Oshin of Korcyrus, who then married Jeanne. This was an astute political move which was thought dangerous by the Armenian nobility. Queen Jeanne died, probably from the effects of childbirth, leaving a daughter by her second marriage Marie (1327 – after 1375) who later became the wife of Constantine V, King of Armenia.

Jeanne of Auvergne – (1326 – 1360)
Queen consort of France (1350 – 1360)
Jeanne was born (May 8, 1326) the daughter of Guillaume XIII, Count of Auvergne and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Louis de Valois, Comte d’Evreux. With her father’s death (1332) Jeanne inherited his extensive properties and estates. She was married firstly (1338) to Philip (1323 – 1346), Count of Boulogne, the son of Duke Eudes IV of Burgundy, to whom she bore three children.
With the death of her husband in battle against the English (1346) Edward III of England is said to have desired Jeanne as a bride for his eldest son, the Black Prince, but nothing came of this plan. She remarried secondly (1350) to Jean (1319 – 1364), Duke of Normandy, son of King Philip VI, as his second wife. King Philip then declared Jean to be the guardian of her children and appointed her to rule Burgundy as regent, though Jean ruled in her right, a cause of mush dissatisfaction to her Burgundian subjects. Jean succeeded his father as Jean II, King of France (1350 – 1364) and the couple were crowned at Rheims (Sept, 1351).
Despite the fact that Jean ruled in the queen’s name charter evidence reveals that Jeanne exercised power in her own right. She founded the Hotel Dieu in Boulogne, and was patron of the convent of Charteux, near Beaune. King Jean was captured by the English at the battle of Poitiers (1356) and Jeanne never saw her husband again. Due to the unstable relationship between Jeanne and her stepson, the Dauphin Charles (V), the queen left Paris and retired to her son’s domains in Burgundy. There she made a successful treaty with the English which safeguarded her estates and the duchy of Burgundy, and fortified the city of Dijon. Queen Jeanne continued to negotiate successfully with the English, and her son Philip I of Burgundy (1342 – 1361) promised not to oppose Edward III being crowned king of France, if that should eventuate. Her second marriage remained childless. Queen Jeanne died (Sept 29, 1360) aged thirty-four, at the Chateau de Argilly, near Nuitz.

Jeanne of Brittany – (1319 – 1384) 
French heiress
Jeanne was the only child of Guy of Brittany, Count of Penthievre and his wife Jeanne d’Avaugour. She was married (1337) to Charles de Chatillon (1320 – 1364) who succeeded his father as Count of Blois (1342). With the death of her childless uncle John III of Brittany (April, 1341) Jeanne laid claim to the duchy of Brittany, but her half-uncle succeeded in gaining the ducal throne as John IV.
With John’s death (1345) her husband tried unsuccessfully to gain the throne from his male successor John V. Charles was killed at the battle of Auray (Sept 20, 1364) and only then did Jeanne relinquish her claim to Brittany (1365). Her daughter Marie de Chatillon (1351 – 1404) became the wife of Louis I d’Anjou, the titular King of Naples (1339 – 1384) and was the ancestress of Margaret of Anjou, the wife of Henry VI, King of England (1422 – 1461). Jeanne of Brittany died (Sept 10, 1384) aged sixty-five.

Jeanne of Burgundy - (1294 - 1348)
Queen consort of France (1328 - 1348)
Jeanne was the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy by his wife Agnes Capet, the daughter of St Louis IX, King of France (1226 - 1270). She was married at Sens (1313) to Philip, Comte de Le Mans (1293 - 1350), who then received the counties of Valois, Maine and Anjou (1327). With the birth of a daughter to Jeanne d'Evreux, the widow of Charles IV (April, 1328) Comte Philip succeeded to the French throne as Philip VI, and he and Jeanne were crowned king and queen at the Abbey of St Denis at Rheims (May 28, 1328) by Guillaume de Trie, Archbishop of Rheims.
Queen Jeanne became involved in litigation begun by Robert III of Artois (1329), who claimed to have a better right to the county of Artois instead of the queen's cousin, Jeanne of Burgundy, the widow of Philip V and her mother the widowed Comtesse Mahaut. When Robert's claims were proved to be forgeries, Queen Jeanne pressed her husband to have Robert summoned before the council of pleas (1331).
Possessed of a strong character and fond of intellectual pursuits, Jeanne employed the friar Jean di Vignai to translate into French Le Miroir Historial of Vincent de Beauvais and the Legende d' Or of Jacques de Voraggio. The queen acquired great influence over husband which she retained until her death.
The Hundred Years' War began (1337) after Edward III of England forwarded his claim to the French throne through his mother Queen Isabella. King Philip had been obliged to appoint his council with nominees of the Duke of Burgundy from 1335, but the Burgundian control of the queen's kinsmen was insufferable to most of the French people, especially in western France.
Queen Jeanne died (Aug 11, 1348) in Paris, a victim of the Black Death. The queen had provided money, food, medicines and physicians to help the poor during this outbreak of plague, and associated herself with the work of the sisters of the Hotel Dieu amongst the stricken populace. Jeanne offerred large rewards to any who would risk their lives in plague stricken houses and hospitals. King Philip gave her the Hotel de Nesle which the queen turned into a hospital, and had herself comforted the dying. Queen Jeanne was interred within the royal abbey of St Denis at Rheims, but her heart was sent to Citeaux to be interred with her ancestors.
Her surviving children were Jean II (1319 - 1364), King of France (1350 - 1364) and Philippe de Valois (1336 - 1375), Duc d' Orleans.

Jeanne of Ponthieu – (1220 – 1279)
Queen consort of Castile and Leon (1237 – 1252)
Jeanne was the daughter and heiress of Simon II of Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu and his wife Marie, daughter of Guillaume II Talvas, Count of Ponthieu and Alencon. Jeanne was heiress of the county of Ponthieu, which she inherited from her mother (1251). Plans during her youth to marry her to Henry III of England fell through, and Jeanne eventually became the second wife (1237) of King Ferdinando III of Castile (1201 – 1252), to whom she bore two children, Infante Ferdinando, Count of Aumale, and Eleanor (Leonor), the first wife of Edward I, King of England.
Queen Jeanne later returned to France where she remarried to a French peer, Jean I de Nesle, seigneur de Falvy and La Herelle, to whom she bore three children. As her son Ferdinando of Aumale had died childless (1256), her daughter Eleanor inherited the county of Ponthieu. Queen Jeanne died (March 16, 1279) aged sixty-eight, at Abbeville, and was interred within the Abbey of Valloires.

Jeanne of Savoy (Joan) – (1312 – 1344)
Duchess consort of Brittany (1329 – 1341)
Jeanne was the only child and heiress of Edward, Count of Savoy and his wife Blanche, the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and his wife Agnes, the daughter of Louis IX, King of France (1226 – 1270). Princess Jeanne was married at Chartres (1329) to Jean III (1286 – 1341), Duke of Brittany, as his third wife, but the union remained childless. Duke Jean died (April 30, 1341) at Caen and was interred in the church of the Carmelites at Ploermel. The duchess, as her father’s only surviving child, vainly made claim to the county of Savoy, which was inherited instead by her uncle, Count Almaric, and his successors. During her short widowhood the duchess resided at the court of Philip VI of France. Duchess Jeanne died (June 29, 1344) aged thirty-two, at the Chateau de Le Blois de Vincennes. She was interred in the Church of the Franciscans at Dijon, in Burgundy.

Jeanne of Toulouse – (1221 – 1270)
French medieval heiress
Jeanne was the daughter and heiress of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, and his first wife Sanchia of Aragon, the daughter of Pedro II, King of Aragon (1196 – 1213). By the agreement known as the Treaty of Paris (1229), Jeanne, her father’s sole heiress, was betrothed to Prince Alphonse (1220 – 1270), brother to King Louis IX. Jeanne’s dowry consisted of the duchy of Narbonne, the southern half of the county of Albi, and the two fiefs of Castres and Mirepoix. She was raised and educated in the household of the queen mother, Blanche of Castile, at the Louvre Palace, in Paris.
Jeanne was married to Alphonse, amidst magnificent celebrations (1238), and he was created count of Poitiers in her right. She and her husband accompanied Louis IX on the Seventh Crusade as far as Egypt, when news of the illness of Jeanne’s father caused their return to Toulouse. With his death, Jeanne and Alphonse were formally installed as the rulers of Raymond’s lands, and received homage and fealty from his barons.
Countess Jeanne and her husband accompanied Louis IX and Queen Margaret on the disastrous crusade to Tunis (1269), and she died at Savona, in Italy, from the rigours of the journey, aged forty-nine (Aug 21, 1270). Alphonse died three days later (Aug 24). The couple had remained childless, and Jeanne left her lands by will to her cousin, Philippa, Comtesse de Limoges. However, the Paris parlement quashed the contents of this will, and these lands reverted instead to the crown (1274).

Jeans, Isabel – (1891 – 1985)
British stage and film actress
Isabel Jeans specialized in portraying society matrons or aristocratic dowagers. She was best remembered for appearances in films such as Tovarich (1938), Gigi (1958) and A Breath of Scandal (1960) with Sophia Loren. She also appeared in Heavens Above (1963).

Jeans, Ursula – (1906 – 1973)
British stage and film actress.
Born Ursula McMinn at Simla, in India, she was educated at a Catholic convent in London. She attended RADA (Royal Academy of Dramatic Art) and made her stage debut in Cobra (1925) at the Theatre Royal in Nottingham. Her first husband was the actor Robert Irvine, as was her second, Roger Livesey. Jeans first appeared on the London stage in The First Mrs Frazer (1929) with Dame Marie Tempest, and worked with Charles Laughton, Flora Robson, and Noel Coward, amongst others.
Her most popular stage roles were Kate Hardcastle in She Stoops to Conquer and Kate in Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew. She appeared in several films such as The Gypsy Cavalier (1931), The Woman in the Hall (1946), The Weaker Sex (1948), The Dam Busters (1955), Northwest Frontier (1959) and The Battle of the Villa Fiorita (1965) amongst others.

Jebb, Caroline Lane Reynolds, Lady – (1840 – 1930) 
American-Anglo society figure, letter writer and philanthropist
Caroline Lane Reynolds was born at Evansburg in Pennsylvania, the daughter of an Episcopalian clergyman, John Reynolds. Her first husband (1856) was the American Civil War general Adam Jacoby Slemmer (1828 - 1868).
Caroline refused offers of marriage from Cornelius Vanderbilt and General Negley, and then remarried in England (1874) as her second husband to the classical scholar Richard Claverhouse Jebb (1841 – 1905), who was later knighted by Queen Victoria (1900). She published her husband's letters with a biography (1907).
When aged almost eighty she refused an offer of marriage from Sir Charles Walpole and later returned to America to reside in Washington D.C. Her correspondence was edited and published posthumously by Mary Read Bobbit as With Dearest Love to All : The Life and Letters of Lady Jebb (1960).

Jebb, Eglantyne – (1876 – 1928)
British philanthropist and founder of the Save the Children Fund
Eglantyne Jebb was born in Ellesmere in Shropshire, the daughter of a landowner. She studied at Lady Margaret Hall at Oxford, and then trained in London and worked as a schoolteacher in Marlborough before ill-health forced her to return to reside back in the family home. At the especial request of her brother-in-law, the politician Charles Buxton, Jebb travelled to Macedonia in Greece (1913) to administer the relief fund established by Britain for the victims of the second Balkan War.
With her sister, Mrs Dorothy Buxton, she established the Save the Children Fund (1919) to finance emergency relief for almost five million children adversely affected by WW I. This organization was re-established by Jebb in Geneva, Switzerland, as the Save the Children International Fund (1920). Her own written draft of a ‘Children’s Charter’ was adopted by the League of Nations (1924) as the ‘Declaration of Geneva.’

Jecholiah – (fl. c800 – c790 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Jecholiah was born in the city of Jerusalem, and was married to Amaziah, King Judah (825 – 783 BC). She was the mother of his son and successor, King Uzziah (c799 – c725 BC). The Bible records these details (Kings II 15: 2).

Jedidah – (fl. c650 – c640 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Jedidah was the daughter of Adaiah of Boscath, and became the wife of Amon, king of Judah (c664 – 639 BC). She was mother to King Joaish (c647 – 609 BC), who was killed at the battle of Megiddo by Pharoah Necho II of Egypt. The Bible records these details (Kings II 22: 1)

Jefferies, Maud Evelyn Craven – (1869 – 1945) 
American-Australian actress
Maud Jefferies was born in Mississippi, USA. A tall, brown-haired, beautiful woman, she established herself as a creditable actress before she came to perform in Australia, where she ultimately remained for the rest of her life. Having performed as a leading lady with such theatrical luminaries as Julius Knight and Wilson Barrett, the role of Mercia in Sign of the Cross was created especially for her.
Other stage credits included The Silver King, Monsieur Beaucaire, The Manxman and The Eternal City. She also performed excellently in Shakespearean plays such as Othello and Hamlet. Famous for her realistic style of acting she achieved critical acclaim for her performance in Resurrection. Maud Jefferies died (Sept 26, 1945) at Gundaroo in New South Wales.

Jeffery, Dorothy     see    Pentreath, Dolly

Jeffreys, Charlotte Herbert, Baroness    see    Herbert, Lady Charlotte (1)

Jeffreys, Dorothy Heseltine, Lady – (1869 – 1953)
British ATS commandant
Dorothy Heseltine was the daughter of John Postle Heseltine, of Walhampton, near Lymington in Hantshire. She was married firstly (1890) to Lionel Sackville-West (1868 – 1890), Viscount Cantelupe, the eldest son and heir of the seventh Earl De La Warr. He died six months later and Dorothy became the Dowager Viscountess Cantelupe. There were no children. Lady Cantelupe remarried secondly (1905) to the first Baron Jeffreys who died the following year (1906) wherepon she became the Dowager Baroness Jeffreys for over four decades (1906 – 1953). During WW II (1938 – 1941) Lady Jeffreys served as a chief commandant with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service). Lady Jeffreys died (May 21, 1953).

Jeffreys, Ellen Penelope – (1827 – 1904)
New Zealand painter and artist
Ellen Valpy was born (Feb 12, 1827) in Hamirpur, India, the daughter of an official of the East India Company. She travelled extensively in Europe and was taught painting in Italy prior to coming to New Zealand with her family aboard the Ajax (1849) and settling in Otago. Ellen was married (1852) to her cousin Henry Jeffreys, to whom she bore several children.
With the death of her husband (1863) she resided in Dunedin. With the death of her eldest son Edmond (1887) Ellen established her own studio in Oamaru in order to support herself by painting watercolours, mainly of local landscapes. Several of her works were preserved in the Otago Early Settlers Museum. Ellen was a supporter of the Salvation Army and the WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union). Ellen Jeffreys died (Sept 8, 1904) aged seventy-seven, at Mornington.

Jeffs, Doreen – (1937 – 1965)
British murderess
Doreen Jeffs resided in Eastbourne with her husband and their infant daughter. Whilst suffering from post-natal depression, Doreen Jeffs killed her month old daughter Linda (Nov, 1960) and then attempted to fake her kidnapping. The body was discovered and Jeffs arrested and charged, though the court took her mental condition into consideration. Jeffs spent several years in a mental institution and was later released on probation. After one failed suicide attempt, she drowned herself (Jan, 1965) after jumping into the sea from Beachy Head.

Jefimija Voinovica (c1348 – c1413)
Serbian princess and poet
Jefimijana Voinovica was the daughter of Vojihna, ruler of the province of Drama. She became the wife (1364) of Prince Iovan Ugljesa Mrnjavcevic, ruling prince (zupan) of Zahumlje, brother to Vukasin Mrnjavcevic, King of Serbia (1365 – 1371). Her husband was killed in battle (1371) and Jelena later took vows as a nun, adopting the name Jefimija. Her two sons died young, whilst her daughter Eupraxia Mrnjavcevica became a nun and was living in 1405. Several of her poems survive including the ‘The Lament Over the Dead Son Overcome by Her Motherly Ways.’

Jehin, Blanche Deschamps – (1857 – 1923)
French mezzo-soprano
Blanche Deschamps was born (Sept 18, 1857) in Lyons, Burgundy. She studied music in Lyons and at the Paris Conservatoire. She made her stage debut in Lecocq’s operetta, Girofle-Girofla (1874) in Brussels. Blanche Jehin appeared in the title role of Massenet’s Herodiade (1881) and sang the role of Uta in Ernest Reyer’s opera Sigurd (1884). She later appeared as Delilah in Samson et Dalila at the Paris Grand Opera (1892), where she remained for a decade as the resident primadonna (1891 – 1902). She was later married (1889) the conductor Leon Jehin (1853 – 1928) and worked for many years at the Monte Carlo Opera. Madame Blanche Jehin died (June, 1923) aged sixty-five, in Paris.

Jehoaddan – (fl. c825 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Jehoaddan was married to Joash (842 – c796 BC), King of Judah, and was the mother of King Amaziah (825 – 783 BC). The Bible mentions the queen in (Kings II 22: 1) and states that she was a native of Jerusalem.

Jehosheba (Jehoshabeth) – (fl. c841 – 835 BC)
Hebrew princess of Judah
Jehosheba was the daughter of King Jehoram and was the sister of half-sister to King Ahaziah (formerly Jehoahaz). Her name meant ‘Yahweh is an oath’ and she became the wife of the high priest Jehoida, their union being the only recorded marriage between a princess of the royal house and a high-priest. With her brother’s death (c841 BC), his mother, Queen Athaliah had all his children killed so that she could take over the throne.
Jehosheba managed to save Ahaziah’s youngest son Joash and his nurse, and with her husband’s help, she hid them safely in the Temple for six years. Finally Jehoida conspired against Athaliah and had her killed where Joash was restored and proclaimed king (835 BC). Jehosheba was the mother of Zechariah, who prophesied against Judah’s later apostasy and was stoned to death by the people. Princess Jehosheba is mentioned in the Bible in (Chronicles 22: 10 – 12) and (Kings II 11: 2).

Jekyll, Dame Agnes – (1861 – 1937)
British social reformer and essayist
Agnes was the daughter of the Scottish Member of Parliament for Glasgow. She was married to Sir Herbert Jekyll of Munstead House in Surrey, the noted woodcarver. Agnes Jekyll was a patron of the arts and established a popular salon at her home, attaining a reputation as an excellent hostess. Because of her various philanthropic activities she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V. Dame Agnes was the author of Kitchen Essays (1922).

Jekyll, Gertrude – (1843 – 1932)
British landscape gardener, artist and writer
Gertrude was born in London, the daughter of an officer in the Grenadier Guards. She studied art and trained as a painter, but was forced to abandon this due to bad eyesight. Gertrude Jekyll was best remembered for her work with the Irish horticulturalist, William Robinson (1838 – 1895) and with the architect, Edward Lutyens (1869 – 1944). She was awarded the Victorian medal of honour and the Veitchian gold medal by the Royal Horticultural Society, and the G.R. White gold medal from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the USA.
Agnes Jekyll contributed articles to periodicals such as Garden and Country Life, and was the author of Wall and Water Garden (1900), Gardens for Small Country Houses (1912) which she co-wrote with Lawrence Weaver, Colour in the Flower Garden (1918) and A Gardener’s Testament (1937).

Jelena    see also     Helena

Jelena of Edessa (Helena) – (c1340 – c1390)
Queen consort of Serbia
Jelena was the daughter of Prince Radoslav, Voivode of Edessa, and became the first wife of Marko Kraljevic (c1335 – c1395), King of Serbia. Marko divorced Jelena in order to take another wife, Teodora. The king later divorced his second wife, and remarried to Jelena, restoring her to royal rank, but she died childless.

Jelena Voinovica   see   Jefimija Voinovica

Jelita – (fl. c1200 – before 1227)
English mediaeval nun
Jelita and Gila were nuns from the abbeys of Margere and Boulogne in France and came to England where they joined the priory of Harrold in Bedfordshire. Jelita became the prioress of Harrold in Bedfordshire (c1200) in succession to Prioress Gila. She is recorded as head of this house, which had connections with the Abbey of Arrouaise in France, in the Victoria History of the Counties of England (1904) and in the published Records of Harrold Priory (1935). She was still prioress in 1210 but had died prior to 1227 when her successor Agnes is listed as the head of the convent.

Jellicoe, Susan (Lady Jellicoe) – (1903 – 1986)
British writer and horticulturalist
Born Ursula Pares she was the daughter of Sir Bernard Pares, KBE (Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire). She became the wife (1936) of the noted landscape artist Sir Geoffrey Alan Jellicoe (1900 – 1996). The marriage remained childless. Lady Jellicoe designed the planting in the gardens organized by her husband at the Hemel Hempstead Water Gardens (1954) and at Sutton Place (1980). She was the co-author with her husband of The Landscape of Man (1975).

Jellinek, Camilla – (1860 – 1940)
Austrian feminist and author
Camilla was born (Sept 24, 1860) in Vienna, the daughter of a physician. She attended college prior to her marriage (1883) to the noted lawyer, Georg Jellinek (1851 – 1911). Jellinek resided in Heidelberg with her husband, where she joined the Federation of German Women’s Societies. She served for over three decades (1900 – 1933) as head of the Women’s Legal Protection Committee, and was the author of Die Frauenbewegung in Deutschland (1921). Camilla Jellinek died (Oct 5, 1940) aged eighty, in Heidelburg.

Jemison, Alice Mae Lee – (1901 – 1964)
American Indian political leader and journalist
Alice Lee was born (Oct 9, 1901) in Silver Creek, New York, a member of the Seneca Iroquois tribe. She worked as a usher and beautician and was married (1919) to a Seneca steelworker, LaVerne Leonard Jemison, to whom she bore two children before their eventual divorce (1928). Alice Jemison became an active campaigner on behalf of her own people, and worked in close association with other Iroquois leaders. She wrote syndicated columns for the North American Newspaper Alliance (1932 – 1934) and went to Washington where she was a determined lobbyist for the Seneca people.
Jemison was then appointed as spokeswoman for the AIF (American Indian Federation) (1935) and was the editor of the organization’s newspaper The First American. Jemison questioned the legality behind the IRA (Indian Referendum Act) (1934) and subsequently suffered government harassment for this stance later in her career. Alice Jemison died (March 6, 1964) of cancer, aged sixty-two, in Washington.

Jemmat, Catherine – (1714 – 1766)
British Hanoverian autobiographer, poet and journal writer
Born Catherine Yeo, she was the daughter of an admiral. Abused by her tyrannical father, she was then abused by her drunken husband. Jemmat was the author of Memoirs (1762) and Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (1766).

Jenckes, Virginia – (1877 – 1975)
American politician
Virginia Jenckes had been a widow for more than a decade when she was elected to the American Congress, becoming the first woman to represent the state of Indiana. She served three terms before finally losing her seat. An active opponent of Communism, Jenckes contributed many articles to the newspapers of Randolph Heart, warning of the infiltration of their ideologies into the American school systems, through the National Student League and college campuses.
Prominently involved with the Hungarian revolt (1956) Jenckes and other supporters assisted five Catholic priests to escape from prison in Budapest and reach safety in the United States. Virginia Jenckes died (Jan 9, 1975) aged ninety-seven, at Terre Haute, Indiana.

Jenkin, Henrietta Camilla – (1807 – 1895)
British novelist and salon figure.
Henrietta was born in Jamaica, the daughter of Robert Jackson, and was married to Captain Charles Jenkin. She became the mother of Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin (1833 – 1885), professor of engineering at the Edinburgh University in Scotland. An accomplished and attractive woman, she took up writing as a respectable means of augmenting the family income. Her first published novel met with little interest, but with her second Cousin Stella (1859), set in the West Indies, gained her literary recognition.
Mrs Jenkin resided in Paris until the revolution of 1848, when she removed to Genoa, where she remained till 1851, a stalwart figure in Liberal political circles. Jenkin later removed to Edinburgh in Scotland (1868), in order to be near her son, who had accepted an academic post at the university there, though her health began to deteriorate (1875). Some of her novels included Skirmishing (1862), Madame de Beaupres (1869) and Jupiter’s Daughters (1874). Henrietta Jenkin died (Feb 8, 1885) in Edinburgh, three days after her husband.

Jenkins, Catherine Minna – (1856 – after 1930)
Anglo-Indian traveller and diarist
Lady Jenkins travelled extensively throughout Somalia in Africa and in India, and was a prominent big game hunter. She travelled by caravan through the north-west regions of Tibet, but was eventually forced to turn back due to lack of supplies and the weather. Lady Jenkins was the author of Sport and Travel in Both Tibets (1909) and provided the illustrations for this work herself. She survived the death of her husband (1930) and resided at Cilbronnau in Cardigan.

Jenkins, Constance – (1883 – 1961)
Australian painter
Constance Jenkins studied art at the National Gallery School, in Melbourne, Victoria. She was married (1913) to Spencer Macky, and was professor of painting at the California School of Fine Arts in the USA. Jenkins was awarded a silver medal for her work at the Exhibition of Women’s Work (1907) and then a National Gallery School Travelling Scholarship (1908). Her work was exhibited for almost five decades through the Australian Art association and the Melbourne Society of Women Painters and Sculptors. Examples of her work are preserved in the National Gallery of Victoria.

Jenks, Betty Ann    see   Wharton, Betty Ann

Jenner, Andrea – (1891 – 1985)
Australian actress and journalist
Dorothy Andrea Gordon was born into a wealthy family at Narrabri in rural New South Wales. She educated at Sydney Girls’ Grammar School before travelling to Hollywood in the USA, where she worked for a decade (1915 – 1925) as an actress, and also as a stuntwoman. After returning to Australia Jenner wrote a popular column for the Sydney Sun newspaper, and during WW II she was sent to Asia (1940) to be a war correspondent.
Captured by the Japanese she spent four years interned in a prisoner of war camp. After the war Andrea made a successful return to journalism before turning her talents to radio, and worked for over a decade for the popular stations 2UE and 2GB. She worked with the Methodist clergyman Ted Noffs to establish the Wayside Chapel in Kings Cross, Sydney (1964). Andrea Jenner died (March 24, 1985) aged ninety-three, in Sydney.

Jennings, Annie Margaret – (1837 – 1857)
British Indian Mutiny victim
Annie Jennings was the daughter of the British chaplain in Delhi. With the outbreak of the Sepoy rebellion, Annie’s father was murdered by insurgents. With her friend and houseguest Mary Clifford, Annie attempted to conceal herself in a large cupboard. Both were discovered and thrown to their deaths from the balcony. Theirs were the first confirmed deaths of British women to be reported home to England.

Jennings, Gertrude Eleanor – (1877 – 1958)
American dramatist and suffrage campaigner
Gertrude was the daughter of a newspaper editor and Member of Parliament, and an actress. Gertrude Jennings produced many one-act plays early in her career. Her later dramatic pieces such as Our Family Affair (1934) and Our Own Lives (1935) proved popular, as did the comedy Husbands For All (1920). She also published the volume of personal reminiscences Happy Memories (1955).

Jensen, Anina    see   Genee-Isitt, Dame Adeline

Jensen, Thit – (1876 – 1957)
Danish novelist and lecturer
Thit Jensen was born in Farso, Jutland, and was sister to the Nobel Prize winning novelist, Johannes Jensen (1873 – 1950). A supporter of suffrage for women, this theme is reflected in her early novels such as Martyrium (Martyrdom) (1905) and Orkenvandring (Through the Desert) (1907). In her feminist novels Gerd (1918), and the sequel Aphrodite fra Fuur (Aphrodite from Fuur) (1925) dealt with the life of the heroine, who forsook the role of wife and mother in order to further her career in politics. She favoured birth control and contraception, and was well known as a controversial public speaker.

Jenti – (fl. c530 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Jenti was born in Vesali and was a member of the Licchavi tribe. She became a nun and though possessed of beauty and arrogance she succeeded in achieving the seven stages of enlightenment. One of her poems in preserved in the Therigatha.

Jephcott, Pearl – (1900 – 1980)
British sociologist
Agnes Pearl Jephcott attended the University College of Wales, at Aberystwyth. She spent some years employed as an organizing secretary for various girls’ clubs in Birmingham, Lancashire, and later published the results of her own observations and interviews as Girls Growing Up (1942) and Rising Twenty: notes on some ordinary girls (1948).
Jephcott worked with academic, Professor Richard Titmuss to produce the report Married Women (1962) at the behest of the London School of Economics. She was later attached to Glasgow University and wrote Time of One’s Own: leisure and young people (1967). One of her last works, written after occupying a high-rise flat for two years, in order to really gain the perspective of a resident was Homes in High Flats: some of the human problems involved in multi-storey housing (1971), in which Jephcott noted most of the problems now commonly associated with high-rise apartment living in poorer areas.

Jere    see    Xiao Duan Wen

Jergens, Adele – (1917 – 2002)
American stage and film actress
Adele Jergens was born in Brooklyn, New York and appeared in musical shows from an early age. Her movie credits included Black Arrow (1945), The Dark Past (1948), Edge of Doom (1950), Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man (1951), Somebody Loves Me (1952) and The Lonesome Trail (1958), amongst others.

Jerichau-Baumann, Elisabeth Maria Anna – (1819 – 1881)
German Romantic painter
Elisabeth Baumann was born (Nov 27, 1819) in Warsaw, Poland, and was raised mainly in Danzig. She trained as an artist in Berlin, Prussia, and in Dusseldorf, and then in Rome. There she married (1846) the Danish sculptor, Jens Adolf Jerichau (1846). The couple later moved to Denmark and resided in Copenhagen. They travelled extensively and Madame Jerichau-Baumann was elected a member of the Copenhagen Academy (1861).
Her best known work was Verwundeter Krieger (The Wounded Warriors) (1868). She published a volume of personal reminiscences entitled Youth Memories (1874). Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann died (Nov 11, 1881) aged sixty-one, in Copenhagen.

Jerina Kantakuzena – (c1398 – 1456)
Queen consort and regent of Serbia
Irena Kantakuzena was the daughter of Theodore Palaeologus Kantacuzena. She became the second wife (1414) of George Vukovic Brankovic (c1375 – 1456), King of Serbia. Her husband’s subjects called her ‘Jerina’ the Serbian version of her name. With the death of her elderly husband, Queen Jerina was installed as regent (Dec, 1456) to rule for her son Lazar Brankovic (c1421 – 1458). However she was murdered at Rudnik six months later (May 3, 1457).

Jeritza, Maria – (1887 – 1982)
Austrian soprano
Born Maria Jedlitzka (Oct 6, 1887) in Brunn, she studied the piano, harp, and violincello at the academy there. She made her stage debut as Elsa in Lohengrin at Olmutz (1905), and then worked as an operetta soprano in Munich, Bavaria. Jeritza performed the role of Blanchefleur at the premiere of Wilhelm Kienzl’s opera Der Kuhreigen (1911) and the emperor Franz Josef arranged for Maria to join the Imperial Opera in Vienna as primadonna. She sang the title role of Richard Strauss’s Ariadne auf Naxos at Stuttgart in Wurttemburg (1912) and that of the empress in Strauss’s Die Frauen ohne Schatten (1919).
Maria Jeritza later performed with the Metropolitan Opera in New York after appearing there as Marietta in Erich Wolfgang Korngold’s Die tote Stadt (1921). She later married the American film mogul William Sheehan and resided thereafter in the USA. After WW II she contributed to the rebuilding of the Vienna State Opera, which had been destroyed during the war. She published her autobiography Sonne und Gesang (1924). Maria Jeritza died (July 10, 1982) aged ninety-four, in Orange, New Jersey.

Jerningham, Frances Dillon, Lady – (1746 – 1825) 
British diarist, traveller and socialite
Lady Frances Dillon was the daughter of Henry, Earl Dillon, and his wife Lady Charlotte Lee, who was herself the granddaughter of King Charles II (1660 – 1685) and his famous mistress, Barbara Villiers. Frances Dillon was married (1767) to Sir William Jerningham (1736 – 1809) to whom she bore four children. Lady Jerningham kept a diary from 1780 until her death. Some of her letters were later published in two volumes in London (1896), together with her correspondence with her daughter Charlotte, Lady Bedingfield, the lady-in-waiting to Queen Adelaide, wife of William IV being entitled The Jerningham Letters (1780 – 1843).Being Excerpts from the Correspondence and Diaries of the Honourable Lady Jerningham and her Daughter, Lady Bedingfield.

Jerome, Clara Hall – (1825 – 1895)
American socialite
Clara Hall became the wife of the prominent millionaire, yachtsman and adventurer, Leonard Jerome (1818 – 1891). An attractive brunette, she became prominent society figure, she became a determined snob. Her two younger daughters were married into the British aristocracy, and through her second daughter she was the grandmother of the future Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. Some of her letters have survived as has her portrait by the Italian painter Schiavione from Trieste. Other portraits of Clara and Leonard Jerome were in the possession of their grandson, Winston. She survived Jerome and was interred with him within the Jerome family vault in Brooklawn Cemetery, Long Island. Her four children were,

Jerrems, Carol Joyce – (1949 – 1980)
Australian photographer
Carol Jerrems was born (March 14, 1949) in Ivanhoe, Melbourne, Victoria, and attended the CAE (Council of Adult Education) in Prahran, where she studied design. She taught photography in Melbourne and Sydney, and established her photographic reputation with her black and white studies which were published in A Book About Women (1974). Examples of her work were preserved at the The National Gallery of Australia in Canberra. Carol Jerrems died (Feb 21, 1980) aged thirty, in Melbourne, having contracted a rare tropical disease.

Jerrold, Mary – (1877 – 1955)
British stage and film actress
Born Mary Allen (Dec 4, 1877), she was the granddaughter of the actor Douglas Jerrold, whose surname she adopted. She toured the provinces in various repertory companies, and achieved acclaim when she appeared at the Duke of York Theatre in London (1910), where she was particularly admired as Rose Sibley in the play Milestones.
Mary Jerrold was best remembered for her appearances in Arsenic and Old Lace, and also played Lady Wrathie in Shall We Join the Ladies? During the latter part of her career she appeared in several films from 1931 such as The Way Ahead (1944), The Queen of Spades (1948) and Top of the Form (1952), where she played mainly pleasant elderly ladies. Mary Jerrold was married to fellow actor Hubert Harben (died 1941). Mary Jerrold died (March 3, 1955) aged seventy-seven, in London.

Jersey, Margaret Elizabeth Leigh, Countess of – (1849 – 1945)
British public figure and author
Margaret Leigh was the daughter of Lord Leigh, and sister-in-law to Hugh Grosvenor, Duke of Westminster. She was married (1872) to the Earl of Jersey, and established herself as a political hostess at their estate at Osterley. Lady Jersey accompanied her husband to Australia (1891 – 1893) when he served as governor-general and was one of the founders of the Victorian League, of which she served as president for over twenty-five years. She was the author of plays for children and of her autobiography Fifty-One Years of Victorian Life (1922).

Jerusha – (fl. c790 – c770 BC)
Hebrew queen consort
Jerusha was the wife of Uzziah (c799 – c742 BC), King of Judah, and was the mother of his successor, King Joham (c742 – c734 BC). The Bible mentions Queen Jerusha in (Kings II 15: 33) and states that she was the daughter of Zadok.

Jesenska, Milena – (1890 – 1944)
Czech journalist and writer
Milena Jesenska was born in Prague, Bohemia, and educated at the Minerva Gymnasium for Girls there. She was married to the Jewish-Polish writer, Ernst Polak, despite the fierce opposition of her family, and removed with him to Vienna, where she was employed as a journalist. Jesenska was introduced through her job to the famous novelist, Franz Kafka, and the couple corresponded together (1920 – 1923) and formed an intimate liasion.
Despite this, Jesenska refused to leave her husband. She opposed the Nazi regime, and was arrested for adopting the notorious ‘Yellow Star’ though she herself was not Jewish, and was deported to the concentration camp at Ravensbruck, where she died. Kafka’s letters to Milena were edited and published posthumously as Briefe an Milena (1952).

Jesse, Fryniwyd Tennyson – (1889 – 1958)
British novelist, dramatist and crime writer
Born Wynifried Margaret Tennyson Jesse at Chislehurst, in Kent, she was the daughter of a clergyman. She was great-niece to the famous poet laureate, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, the favoured bard of Queen Victoria. She studied art in Cornwall, but then turned to journalism. Jesse was employed by the Ministry of Information during WW I, and went to the front where she worked under hazardous conditions as a freelance reporter. She wrote The Sword of Deborah: first-hand impressions of the British Women’s Army in France (1919), and was married (1918) to the noted dramatist, H.M. Harwood.
With her husband she collaborated on several comic plays for the stage such as Billeted (1919) and How To Be Healthy Though Married (1930). Jesse was best remembered for the historical novel set in Burma, the highly popular The Lacquer Lady (1929) and the murder novel A Pin to See the Peepshow (1934), the story for which was suggested by the famous Thompson-Bywaters muder trial (1922).

Jessel, Patricia – (1920 – 1968)
British stage and film actress
Patricia Jessel was best known for her character roles in such movies as The Flesh Is Weak (1957), City of the Dead (1961) and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966).

Jessel, Dame Penelope – (1920 – 1996)
British political official, lecturer and writer
Penelope Blackwell was born (Jan 2, 1920), the daughter of Sir Basil Blackwell and his wife Marion Christine Soans. She was educated at St Andrew’s in Fife, Scotland, before finishing her studies at Somerville College. Penelope was married (1940) to Robert George Jessel, to whom she bore two sons. During WW II she served with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service, later the WRAC) (1941 – 1943) and was a lecturer at the William Temple College (1956 – 1962) and then at the Plater College, Oxford (1968 – 1984).
Widowed in 1954, Jessel was later elected as the International Officer with the Liberal Party (1985 – 1988) and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1987). Dame Penelope was the author of Owen of Uppingham (1965). Dame Penelope Jessel died (Dec 2, 1996) aged seventy-six.

Jessye, Eva – (1895 – 1992)
Black American author, choral conductor and composer
Eva Jessye was born in Coffeyville, Kansas. She was the director of George Gershwin’s popular Broadway production of Porgy and Bess (1935).

Jesus, Carolina Maria de – (1914 – 1977)
Brazilian novelist and chronicler
Carolina de Jesus was born into poverty and resided in San Paulo, where she supported her herself and her children by reselling newspapers. She wrote the personal journal Quarto des despejo – diario de uma favelada (Children of the Dark) (1960). Her second work was Casa de alvenaria – diario de uma ex-favalada (House of Bricks – Journal of an Ex-Slumdweller) (1961).

Jesus, Isabel de – (1611 – 1682) 
Spanish mystic and author
Isabel de Jesus was born in Toledo, the daughter of Blas Diez de Ortega, and his wife Elena de Sosa y Villaquarain. She became a Carmelite nun and left an autobiography Tesorodel Carmelo (Treasure of Mount Carmel) which was published posthumously (1685) by her confessor Manuel de Paredes.
Isabella manipulated traditional religious rhetoric to imitate the manner of St Teresa d’Avila. Her adoption of this manner of discourse was an expression of her personal resistance to the misogynistic attitude to female writing common at this period. This is particularly notable in her symbolic use of the the Devil as the presenter and spokesman of traditional contemporary male views on women.

Jesus, Maria de – (1893 – 2009)
Portugese supercentenarian
Maria de Jesus was born (Sept 10, 1893) at Olival, near Ourem. She became the wife (1919) of Jose dos Santos and was widowed in 1951. Maria became the oldest living person in Portugal (July 25, 2005) and then the oldest in Europe (Aug 12, 2006). Maria de Jesus became the oldest person then living whose details could be verified (Nov 26, 2008). Maria de Jesus died five weeks afterwards (Jan 2, 2009), aged one hundred and fifteen years and 114 days.

Jesus do Santos, Lucia de    see   Marto, Lucia

Jeune, Dame Susan   see   St Helier, Lady

Jevfimija    see   Euphemia Vladimirovna

Jevons, Mary Anne – (1795 – 1845)
British poet
Mary Anne Roscoe was born in Liverpool, the daughter of the historian William Roscoe. She was married (1825) to Thomas Jevons, an iron merchant of Liverpool, to whom she bore eleven children, including the noted political economist and mathematician, William Stanley Jevons (1835 – 1882). Possessed of a handsome person and commanding manner, Mrs Jevons inherited the literary tastes of her father and contributed verses such as Poems for Youth, by a Family Circle (1820) and then Poems by one of the Authors of “ Poems for Youth” (1821). Her works were later collected and published in eight volumes as Sonnets and other Poems, chiefly Devotional (1845). Mary Anne Jevons died (Nov 13, 1845) aged fifty, in London.

Jewell, Isabel – (1909 – 1972)
American film and television actress
Isabel Jewell was a popular platinum blonde leading lady during the 1930’s, but with WW II her fame paled and she appeared mainly in character roles. Her film credits included Manhattan Melodrama (1934), A Tale of Two Cities (1935), Lost Horizon (1937), and Gone With the Wind (1939). Her later film roles included appearances in The Story of Molly X (1948) and Bernardine (1957).

Jewett, Sarah Orne – (1849 – 1909)
American novelist, educator and writer
Theodora Sarah Orne Jewett was born (Sept 3, 1849) in South Berwick, Maine, the daughter of Professor Theodore Jewett, the consulting surgeon of the Hospital of Maine, whom she accompanied around the countryside on his medical rounds. She was educated at home under the guidance of her father and a governess. Her first published work was a story of local Maine life which was published in the Atlantic Monthly (1868).
Sarah Jewett was the author of the series of personal sketches entitled Deephaven (1877) and The Country of the Pointed Firs (1896), and she proved adept at analyzing the feelings of rural women. Jewett was a friend of the salon hostess Annie Fields, with whom she accompanied on a visit to Europe, and her posthumously published Jewett’s Letters (1911). She later served as the first president of the prestigious Vassar College, and published other works such as the novels A Country Doctor (1884) and the historical romance The Tory Lover (1901). Sarah Orne Jewett died (June 24, 1909) aged fifty-nine.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor – (1812 – 1880)
British novelist
Geraldine Jewsbury was born at Measham, in Derbyshire (Aug 22, 1812), the daughter of a merchant from Manchester in Lancashire. She was the younger sister to author Maria Jane Jewsbury and remained unmarried. With the marriage of her elder sister (1832), Geraldine took over the running of the family home. She was a close friend to both Thomas Carlyle, and his wife Jane, and much of their correspondence has survived and been published.
Miss Jewsbury wrote several popular novels such as her first Zoe: The History of Two Lives (1845) which was followed by The Half-Sisters (1848), and Marian Withers (1851). Later titles included The Sorrows of Gentility (1856) and Constance Herbert (1855) and the novelist Charles Dickens regarded her work with great interest.
Jewsbury also wrote several tales for children such as The History of an Adopted Child (1852), and Angelo, or the Pine Forest in the Alps (1855) and contributed more than seventeen hundred reviews for the weekly Athenaeum periodical in London. Geraldine Jewsbury died (Sept 23, 1880) aged sixty-eight, in London, and was interred in Brompton Cemetery.

Jewsbury, Maria Jane – (1800 – 1833)
British author
Maria Jewsbury was born at Measham, in Derbyshire, the daughter of a merchant from Manchester in Lancashire. She was the elder sister to novelist, Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury. With the death of her mother, Maria raised and educated her younger siblings. With her marriage to a man named Fletcher (1832), her sister Geraldine took on this role. She was author of Phantasmagoria (1824) and The Three Histories (1830).

Jewson, Dorothy – (1884 – 1964)
British politician and councillor
Jewson was the daughter of an alderman and attended school in Norwich before attending Girton College at Cambridge. She was elected as the Labour representative for Norwich (1923 – 1924) and was a member of the National Administrative Council of the ILP (Independent Labour Party) for a decade (1925 – 1935). Jewson also joined the Norwich City Council (1927). Dorothy Jewson died (Feb 29, 1964) aged seventy-nine, at Lower Hellesden, in Norwich, Norfolk.

Jex-Blake, Sophia Louisa – (1840 – 1912) 
British physician
Sophia Jex-Blake was born in Hastings, Sussex, the daughter of Thomas Jex-Blake and his wife Maria Emily Cubitt. Her elder brother, Thomas Jex-Blake (1832 – 1915) was headmaster of Rugby, and Dean of Wells. She was privately educated, and held a tutorship in mathematics at Queen’s College, London, for which she was not paid, at her father’s insistence. In 1865 she travelled to America to further observe leading methods, and, on her return she produced A visit to some American Schools and Colleges (1867).
Having done volunteer work in the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston, she became the first woman to register at the Women’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary. However, her father’s death forced Sophia to return to Britain. She managed to study medicine at the Edinburgh Medical School from 1869, but she was under constant harassment and was placed under impossibly restrictive conditions. When she spoke out against this unfair regime, Sophia was sued, but her legal costs were defrayed by supporters. She finally graduated from Bern University in Switzerland (1877) with a thesis on puerperal fever.
Jex-Blake opened a dispensary in Edinburgh (1878) which would eventually become the Edinburgh Hospital for Women and Children, and she was the first female doctor in Scotland. The Edinburgh Medical School finally admitted women through Sophia’s influence (1894). She later retired to Mark Cross in Sussex (1899).

Jezebel – (c890 – 842 BC) 
Hebrew queen consort
Jezebel was the daughter of Ethbaal (Ittobaal), King of Tyre and Sidon (887 – 856 BC), in Phoenikia. She was married in a political alliance, to Ahab, king of Israel, and introduced the cult of her native deity, Baal, to Palestine. Her crimes and iniquities were such that her name became a byword for wickedness or a painted woman.  Queen Jezebel was eventually removed from power in a palace coup, being thrown from her balcony by eunuchs, after she had taunted Jehu, the successful coup leader, for being his master’s murderer. She was then trampled to death under Jehu’s chariot horses. Her remains were eaten by dogs (Kings II 9: 7, 30 – 37). She was the mother of kings Ahaziah (853 – 852 BC) and Jehoram (852 – 841 BC), and of a daughter, Athaliah.

Jezreel, Clarissa – (1860 – 1888)
British religious sect leader
Clara Sawyer was the daughter of Edward Rogers Sawyer of New Brompton, Kent. She was married (1879) to James Jershom Jezreel (1840 – 1885), leader of the Jezreelite sect, born James White, followers of which sect established their beliefs upon the work of Joanna Southcott. After her marriage, Clarissa styled herself ‘Esther, queen of Israel,’ and accompanied her husband on a preaching tour of the USA, where they made numerous converts. With their return to England, they couple established the sect at Woodlands, Gillingham, near Chatham, and built a temple and religious college With her husband’s death Clarissa succeeded as the sect leader, though her right was challenged by Noah Frew, another sect member. Clarissa countered by excommunicating his supporters from the fold. She issued the monthly publication The Messenger of Wisdom and Israel’s Guide (1887 – 1888). Clarissa Jezreel died (June 30, 1888) aged twenty-eight, at Woodlands, and was interred with her husband at Gillingham. With her death the sect quickly declined.

Jiagge, Annie Ruth – (1918 – 1996)
Ghanaian lawyer and social reformer
Annie Jiagge attended the World Council of Christian Youth held in Oslo, Copenhagen (1947) and was a prominent member of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association). She became the first woman to to be appointed as a magistrate on the Supreme Court Bench of Ghana and served as president of the WCC (1975 – 1983). Jiagge spent her later years fighting racisim and served as moderator for the Commission of the Programme to Combat Racisim. Annie Jiagge died (June 12, 1996) aged seventy-seven, at Accra.

Jiang Qing (Chiang Ch’ing) – (1914 – 1991)
Chinese politician
Jiang Qing was born Lan Ping in Zhucheng in Shandong province (Shantung), the daughter of a carpenter. She was educated in drama and trained to become a film actress before she became the third wife of the Communist leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) (1893 – 1976). During 1966 Jiang Qing began to emerge as a public figure in China in her own right, and took a leading role in the Cultural Revolution. She eventually rose to fourth place in the Politburi and remained a fierce opponent of Zhou Enlai. With the rise of the military during the last years of Mao’s life, her power receded. She was denounced at the 1973 Congress as one of the infamous ‘Gang of Four’ and was demoted from politics. She was given a suspended death sentence after a show trial (1981). Her death in prison a decade later was probably suicide.

Jillson, Joyce – (1946 – 2004)
American astrologer and author
Jillson was born (Dec 26, 1946) in Cranston, Rhode Island. She originally pursued a career with the theatre, appearing in such Broadway productions as The Roar of the Greasepaint – the Smell of the Crowd and appeared as Jill Smith in the popular television serial Peyton Place. Jillson later began providing horoscopes for a Los Angeles television station, and was the official astrologer for 20th Century Fox film studios. She was said to have been consulted by President Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy. This consultation led Jillson to advise the presidential couple to choose George Bush Sr. as Reagan’s running mate, despite Nancy Reagan’s personal antipathy towards Bush. Jillson was the author of the humorous works Real Women Don’t Pump Gas and The Fine Art of Flirting. Joyce Jillson died (Oct 1, 2004) aged fifty-seven.

Jinga Mbande    see    Nzinga, Mbande

Jingo – (c310 – c380 AD) 
Japanese empress regnant
Jingo was the granddaughter of the Emperor Kaikawa (died 323 AD). She was married to Chuai, the fourteenth Mikado, and was mother of the Emperor Ojin (c330 – 395 AD) and grandmother to the Emperor Nintoku (c361 – 428 AD).With her husband’s death (363 AD), Jingo assumed control of the government, and fitted out an army for the invasion of Korea.
The Nihongi (or Nihonshaki) chronicle recounts how she invaded Silla, and how the neighbouring kings of Koryo (or Koguryo) and Pakche rendered her their submission. After this, the empress devoted her energies to the successful repossession of the city of Yamato, which had rebelled during her abscence. Her son, Ojin Tenno, afterwards the fifteenth Mikado, was later canonized as Hichman, the god of war. Empress Jingo ruled over Japan until her death. She has been described as legendary, but the contemporary Chinese annals, though they do not give her name, record that Japan was ruled by a woman at this period.
The political use of the word ‘jingo,’ as indicating an aggressive patriotism, originated during the weeks of national excitement preceeding the dispatch by Britain of her Mediterranean squadron to Gallipoli in Turkey (1877), which frustrated the Russian designs on Constantinople. A bellicose music-hall song, with the refrain ‘We don’t want to fight but, by Jingo, if we do’ was produced in London by the singer known as ‘the Great MacDermott’ and became instantly popular.

Jinnah, Fatima – (1893 – 1967)
Pakistani politician
Fatima Jinnah was born in Karachi. She removed to Bombay as a child (1901), where she resided in the household of her much older brother, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who later served as the first Governor-General of Pakistan (1947). Fatima studied dentistry, and resided in London, England, for five years with her brother. With her return to Pakistan she joined the Muslim League (1934), and supported the abandonment of the old traditional attitudes towards women. She was the first leader of the All India Muslim Women’s Committee, and she founded the Fatima Jinnah Women’s Medical College in Lahore.
During her brother’s period in office, Fatima acted as his public hostess. After her brother’s death she continued to work for the Muslim League and became a firm opponent of the totalitarian East Pakistan government. She became popularly known as Madar-i-Millat (‘Mother of the Country’).

Jinner, Sarah – (fl. c1650 – 1664)
English almanac writer.
Sarah Jinner was a student of astrology and produced An Almanac or Prognostication for the years 1658, 1659 and 1660, An Almanac for 1664, and The Woman’s Almanac or a Prognostication for Ever (1659). Her written works advocated the right of women to have a public voice, though she appeared to have accepted the general view of the female being subordinate to the male. She provided information to help women with menstruation problems and those associated with childbirth. Jinner also recommended an anti-aphrodisiac to prevent promiscuity in young women, which could lead to their ruin (1664).

Joachim, Amalie – (1839 – 1899)
German concert vocalist
Amalie Schneeweiss was born (May 10, 1839) in Marburg. After receiving singing training in her home town, Amalie was engaged as a professional singer in Vienna (1854) and later with the court opera in Hanover (1862). She was married (1863 – 1884) to the noted composer and musician, Joseph Joachim (1831 – 1907), from whom she was later divorced.
Madame Joachim made extremely successful concert tours of Britain and the USA, and was particularly noted for her performances of the works of Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms. The latter part of her career was spent as a vocal teacher in Berlin. Amalie Joachim died (Feb 3, 1899) aged fifty-nine, in Berlin.

Joachim, Marianne – (1921 – 1943)
Jewish-German Resistance heroine
Marianne was born (Nov 5, 1921) in Berlin, Prussia, and was trained as a children’s nurse. According to Nazi dictates she was condemned to forced labour (1940), and was married (1941) to Heinrich Joachim (1919 – 1942). Marianne and her husband were arrested and charged with using their home to host Resistance members. Both were imprisoned at the Plotzensee prison in Berlin. Heinrich was executed there (Aug 18, 1942) and Marianne six months afterwards (March 4, 1943).

Joan    see also    Joanna, Johanna

Joan – (c825 – 858)
Anglo-German female pope
Joan is traditonally said to have been born in Mainz, Germany, of Anglo-Saxon parents, perhaps named Agnes or Gelberda, though by the fourteenth century she was given the name of ‘Joan.’ Joan received an excellent education, and became the mistress of the monk who tutored her. She is said to have adopted male attire, and was in due course made a cardinal in Rome, prior to be elected pope as John VIII (855).
Accounts of her death three years afterwards vary, both agree that she gave birth to a child during a papal procession held near St Peter’s and the Lateran Palace, but some say she died in childbirth, and others that she was stoned to death by the outraged Roman mob. Though her pontificate is dated between those of Popes Leo IV and Benedict III, tradition had it that because of the great scandal her name was expunged from the official papal list and Pope Clement VIII declared the entire story to be a myth (1601). Some historians consider the entire story fictitious, and believe her life to be based on the historical figure Marozia Theophylakta.

Joan Beaufort – (1405 – 1445)
Queen consort of Scotland (1424 – 1437)
Lady Joan Beaufort was the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, and his wife Margaret de Holland, the daughter of Sir Thomas de Holland, second Earl of Kent. Joan was a great-granddaughter of Edward III, being a granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Catherine Swynford. Lady Joan was noticed by James I of Scotland, who had been imprisoned within the Tower of London during the reign of Henry V and Henry VI, and he wrote the poem Kingis Quair in her honour.
Upon his release from captivity they were married in the priory of the Church of St Mary Overy, in Southwark, London (1424), the marriage being made one of the conditions of James's release. They then travelled to Scotland and were crowned together at Scone Abbey in Fifeshire (May 21, 1424). The marriage was a contented one and James had no recorded mistresses. The couple had eight children.
With James’ assassination in Perth (Feb, 1437), Queen Joan was said to have been wounded trying to protect him, but within forty days his murderes were executed. Joan was then installed as regent (1437 - 1440) for their son James II (1437 – 1460). Joan then contracted a secret second marriage (1439) with Sir James Stewart the ‘Black Knight of Lorne’ to whom she bore three further children. Joan and Stewart were attacked at Stirling Castle (Aug, 1440) and Stewart imprisoned and the Queen Dowager removed elsewhere. Perhaps as a condition of their release from captivity Queen Joan was then forced to sign away the custody of her son King James, and her dowry, to Lord Livingstone.
Queen Joan died at Dunbar Castle (July 15, 1445) aged about thirty-nine. She was interred within the monastery of the Charterhouse in Perth. Her daughters included Margaret Stuart, the unhappy first wife of Dauphin Louis of France (later Louis XI), Isabella Stuart, the wife of Francois I, Duke of Brittany, Eleonore Stuart, the first wife of Archduke Sigismund of Austria, and Annabella Stuart, the wife of George Gordon, second Earl of Huntley.
The children of Queen Joan's second marriage were John Stewart of Balveny (1440 - 1512) who was created first Earl of Atholl by his half-brother James II, James Stewart (1441 - 1499), Earl of Buchan, popularly known as 'Hearty James,' and Andrew Stewart (1443 - 1501) who took holy orders and was Bishop of Moray.

Joan de Holland – (1356 – 1384)
Anglo-French duchess consort of Brittany (1366 - 1384)
Lady Joan de Holland (Jane) was the elder daughter of Sir Thomas de Holland, first Earl of Kent, and his wife Joan of Kent, the granddaughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) through his second marriage with Margaret de Valois. With the death of her father (1360) her mother remarried (1361) to the Prince of Wales, Edward the Black Prince, eldest son and heir of King Edward III (1327 – 1377), and Joan and her siblings became members of the royal family. She was half-sister to King Richard II (1377 – 1399).
Her stepfather arranged for Joan to be married (May, 1366) in London, to Jean IV, Duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort and Richmond, as his second wife and became his duchess consort. The marriage was a dynastic one designed to keep power in Brittany and France within reach of the Plantagenet kings by intermarriage.
Later when Breton revolts caused her husband to seek shelter in England, he was forced to leave the duchess behind at the castle of Auray which was besieged by French troops, a fact which weighed heavily against him in England. Joan however, survived these events, and Edward III then regranted to the duke and duchess the entirety of the Richmond estates in England. The marriage remained childless. Duchess Joan, called Jeanne by her Breton subjects died (between Dec 25 – 31, 1384) aged twenty-eight.

Joan of Acre     see    Joan Plantagenet (3)

Joan of Arc    see    Jeanne d’Arc

Joan of Brittany – (1341 – 1402)
Princess Joan was the only daughter of Duke Jean III of Brittany and his wife Joan of Flanders. She was brought to England with her mother as a child (1345). When her mother became deranged and removed to Tickhill Castle in Yorkshire, Joan was raised in the household of Queen Philippa, the wife of Edward III (1327 – 1377). Plans to marry Joan to Charles of Blois (1320 – 1364) came to nothing and the king arranged for her marriage (c1356) with the English nobleman, Ralph Basset (1335 – 1390), third Baron Basset of Drayton, as his second wife. Their daughter, Joan Basset became the second wife of Sir John Stourton (died after 1381), of Preston, Wiltshire, and Stourton, and left issue.
As a widow Lady Basset attended the funeral of Anne of Bohemia (1394), the first wife of Richard II, who four years later granted to Joan, together with Anthony de Rise and Nicholas de Alderwych, the county, castle, town and honour of the earldom of Richmond (1398) making her Countess of Richmond. This grant was either ignored or resumed by King Henry IV (1399). Princess Joan died (Nov 8, 1402) aged sixty-one.

Joan of England    see  also   Joan Plantagenet, Johanna Plantagenet

Joan of Kent – (1328 – 1385)
Princess consort of Wales (1361 – 1376)
Joan was born (Sept 29, 1328), the daughter of Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, the son of Edward I and his second wife Margaret of France, the daughter of King Philip III (1270 - 1285). Her mother was Margaret Wake, the daughter of John, first Baron Wake of Liddell. She was married firstly (1340) to Sir Thomas de Holland (1317 - 1360), to whom she bore five children, and then secondly, and bigamously (1346), to William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury.
Her second union was annulled by the papacy, whilst her first was declared valid (1349) and she was ordered to return to Holland, who was created earl of Kent, in her right (1352). She inherited the barony of Wake from her mother (1349) and was granted a pension of one hundred marks for life from Edward III. Joan, a famous blonde beauty, was remarried thirdly (1361) to her cousin, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, the son of Edward III, by whom she was the mother of Edward of Angouleme (1365 - 1372) and the future Richard II (1367 – 1400).
With her husband’s death at Westminster Palace (1376), Joan and her son resided mainly at Kenninghall Palace, near London. During the Peasant’s Revolt (1381), the princess and some of her household were surrounded by the mob, but managed to escape unharmed, the princess agreeing to provide several ‘kisses’ to the ringleaders in order to escape. Richard II’s brutality in putting down the rebellion is said, in part, to have been because of this outrage to his mother.
Princess Joan died (Aug 8, 1385) aged fifty-six, at Wallingford Castle, Berkshire. She was interred within the Church of the Greyfriars, at Stamford in Lincolnshire. She appears in the historical novel Katherine (1954) by Anya Seton.

Joan of Navarre (Jeanne) – (1370 – 1437)
Queen consort of England (1402 – 1413)
Princess Joan was the daughter of Charles the Bad, King of Navarre and his wife Jeanne, the daughter of Jean II, King of France (1350 - 1364). She was betrothed to the Infante Juan (I) of Castile (1380), whilst her own brother Charles (III) was married to Juan's sister Leonora, but Juan later broke this betrothal (1386) in order to to become engaged to Beatriz of Portugal
. Joan was married firstly at Saille, near Guerrand (1386) to John V (1339 - 1399), Duke of Brittany to whom she bore a large family of nine children. With his death (1399) she ruled Brittany as regent for their son, John VI (1399 – 1401) and then agreed to become the second wife of Henry IV of England (1403). She was crowned queen at Westminster Abbey (Feb 26, 1403). This marriage remained childless. Due to hostilities between England and France at the time, Joan’s position was not always agreeable. Henry IV made his will (1409) in which he stated that Queen Joan's dower should be charged against the revenues of the duchy of Lancaster.
Though she remained on pleasant terms with her stepson, Henry V, with the death of her second husband (1413), difficulties arose because of the queen mother’s relationship with the duke of Brittany. Later, Henry caused Joan to suffer imprisonment at her estate of Havering atte Bower in Essex (1419 – 1422), after accusations of involvement in witchcraft. However, she was well treated and given full freedom after Henry’s death (1422), which had led to the suspicion that her stepson merely wished to gain control of her dower, needing funds to finance his military expeditions in France. Queen Joan died (July, 1437) at her dower house of Pirgo, at Havering-atte-Bower, Essex. She was interred within Canterbury Cathedral, Kent.

Joan of Rouen – (fl. 1250 – 1251)
Norman-Anglo nun
A native of Rouen in Normandy, she was appointed as prioress of the convent of Anckerwyke, in Buckinghamshire, England. This house had been originally founded by Gilbert de Muntfichet during the reign of Henry II (1163).

Joan of Woodstock – (1384 – 1400)
English Plantagenet princess
Joan Plantagenet was the daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Buckingham and his wife Eleanor de Bohun, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex. Her father was the youngest son of Edward III (1327 – 1377) and Joan was first cousin to Richard II (1377 – 1399). Joan of Woodstock was married to Lord Gilbert Talbot (1383 – 1418), but died, probably in childbirth (Aug 16, 1400). She was interred in Walden Abbey, Essex.

Joan Plantagenet (1) – (1265)
English princess
Joan was the second daughter of Edward I, King of England (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor, the daughter of Ferdinando II, King of Castile and Leon. She was born during the summer of 1265, probably at Abbeville, near Ponthieu, the residence of her maternal grandmother, Queen Jeanne, the widow of Ferdinando II. Princess Joan died (before Sept 7, 1265) at Abbeville. Her remains were brought home to England, and she was interred within Westminster Abbey, London.

Joan Plantagenet (2) – (1192 – 1237)
Princess of North Wales
Joan was the illegitimate daughter of John, King of England (1199 - 1216) and his mistress Clementia Pinel. She was raised at court and married (1206) to Llewellyn II ap Iorweth (1173 - 1240), Prince of North Wales, as his second wife, and was the mother of Prince Dafydd II (1208 – 1246).
Joan acted as peacemaker between Llewellyn and her father, and when John led an army into Wales (1211) Llewellyn sent Joan to make peace with him. She succeeded in this mission and the king accepted the prince's submission for the sake of his daughter. When King John planned another assult on the Welsh (Sept, 1212) Joan sent her father a warning of treason amongst his barons and the army was disbanded.
Joan met her half-brother Henry III at Worcester (1224) and again at Shrewsbury (1228), and Joan and her Dafydd did homage to King Henry at Westminster (Oct, 1229), presumably on behalf of Llewellyn. Pope Honorius III declared Joan to be legitimate (1226), without prejudice to Henry III of the realm of England, which fact reveals some hint of her political importance.
Princess Joan was accused (1230) of involvement in a treasonous and adulterous liasion with a marcher lord William de Braose, but her husband protected her from the charges. It would appear that Joan played the part of an accomplice in this affair, as Llewellyn despised Braose as an English spy.
Princess Joan died (Feb 2, 1237) at Aber aged about forty-four, and was buried at Llanvaes in Anglesesy. Her stone coffin was preserved in Beaumaris Church. She appears as a main character in the historical novel Here Be Dragons (1986) by Sharon Penman.

Joan Plantagenet (3) – (1210 – 1238)
Queen consort of Scotland (1221 – 1238)
Princess Joan was born (July 22, 1210) the eldest daughter of King John (1199 – 1216) and his second wife Isabella of Angouleme, the daughter of Aymar I, Count of Angouleme. Philip II of France sought Joan's hand for one of his sons (1214) but King John refused and offerred her instead to the Lusignan family, in a bid to end the feud which had begun in 1200 when John had married Queen Isabella, who had been betrothed to Hugh of Lusignan. However with her father's death (1216) Hugh married Queen Isabella instead, though the Lusignans and Queen Isabella retained custody of the princess until threatened with excommunication by Pope Honorius III, when she was returned to the court of her brother Henry III in England.
Joan was married at York (1221) to Alexander II (1198 - 1249), King of Scotland (1214 - 1249), as his first wife, with a dowry of five thousand marks, but their marriage remained childless. She was present at a meeting with her husband and King Henry at York (1237) when the two monarchs settled their differences concerning the earldom of Northumberland. Queen Joan died (March 12, 1238) whilst on a visit to England, at the manor of Havering atte Bower in Essex, aged twenty-seven, in the arms of her brother Henry III. Queen Joan was interred within Tarrant Crawford Abbey in Dorset.

Joan Plantagenet (4) – (1272 – 1307)
Princess of England
Princess Joan was the second surviving daughter of Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. She was born at Acre in Palestine, hence the popular appellation ‘Joan of Acre’ and was raised for five years (1273 - 1278) in the household of her maternal grandmother Jeanne of Ponthieu, Queen Dowager of Castile. Her father began negotiations for her marriage with Count Hartmann of Kyburg (1263 - 1282), the son of King Rudolf I of Germany, but never took place because of the prince's death (1282).
Joan was married firstly (1290) at Westminster Abbey in London, to Gilbert de Clare (1243 – 1295), Earl of Hertford, as his second wife, and bore him  a son Gilbert, who was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn (1314) and three daughters, the coh-heirs to his vast estates. One of these was Elizabeth de Clare, founder of Clare College, in Cambridge. Lord Hertford left Joan as the heiress of all his estates.
Princess Joan later remarried secretly (1297) to a squire, Sir Ralph de Monthermer (1270 – 1323), who was created Lord Monthermer. King Edward had desired Joan to remarry to Amadeo V, Count of Savoy, and she was forced to reveal her secret marriage. Monthermer was imprisoned and Joan was deprived of her lands. Edward quickly forgave his daughter and her property was restored (1297).
Of her daughters from her second marriage, Mary de Monthermer became the wife of the Scottish peer Duncan, tenth Earl of Fife, and Joan de Monthermer (born 1299) became a nun at the Abbey of Amesbury in Wiltshire. Princess Joan died (April 23, 1307) aged thirty-four, at the Manor of Stoke Clare, Suffolk. She was interred in the Church of the Austin Friars in Clare.

Joan Plantagenet (5) – (1335 – 1348)
Princess of England
Princess Joan was born (Feb, 1335) at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, the second daughter of Edward III (1327 – 1377) and his wife Philippa of Hainault, the daughter of William III, Count of Hainalt. Alfonso XI of Castile arranged with King Edward for the marriage of his only son Pedro (1334 - 1369) (later King Pedro I the Cruel), and Joan was married to Pedro by proxy in England. She then travelled to Spain for their wedding, being accompanied by a large retinue. At the time of these negotiations King Edward described the princess as 'distinguished, notwithstanding her youth, by gravity of manners, and by the comeliness of fitting grace.'
The princess and her entourage then left Espanos to begin the journey to the Castilian court. However, she died of the Black Death (Sept 2, 1348) at Loremo, in Bordeaux, Gascony, aged only thirteen, and was interred in Bayonne Cathedral. Pedro’s daughter by his mistress, Maria de Padilla, later became the second wife of Joan’s younger brother, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. A damaged statue of this princess remains on the south side of Edward III's tomb in Westminster Abbey.

Joan Plantagenet (6) – (1321 – 1362)
Queen consort of Scotland (1327 – 1362)
Princess Joan was born (July, 1321), the second daughter of Edward II, King of England (1307 – 1327) and his wife, Isabella of Valois, the daughter to King Philip IV le Bel (the Fair) of France (1285 – 1314). Joan was offered as a bride to Pedro IV of Aragon (1325) and then to Comte Jean II de Valois, but neither match came to fruition. She was married (1327) to David II of Scotland (1324 – 1371), a political alliance arranged by her mother, Queen Isabella, that failed miserably. Joan was crowned queen at Scone (1331), but the marriage remained childless.
Queen Joan shared David’s exile in France (1334 – 1341), but after his capture at the Battle of Neville’s Cross (1346) and subsequent imprisonment within the Tower of London by order of her nephew, Edward III, she was permitted to visit him there. Joan returned to Scotland and continued to work for her husband’s release, but finally (1353) returned to England and resided at Hertford Castle. When her husband was finally released (1357), he desired a separation, due to his liasion with Lady Catherine Mortimer, and she remained in England for the rest of her life, her brother assigning Hertford Castle as her residence.
Queen Joan died at Hertford Castle, aged forty-one (Aug 14, 1362). She was interred within the Church of the Friars Minor in London, her tomb being destroyed during the Reformation.

Joan Stuart – (1428 – 1486)
Princess of Scotland
Joan Stuart was the third daughter of King James I and his wife Joan Beaufort, the daughter of John Beaufort, first Earl of Somerset, and great-granddaughter of King Edward III (1327 – 1377).  Joan was born deaf and dumb, but was sent to the French court in the train of her sister Margaret Stuart, the dauphine, first wife of Louis XI. She was educated there and only returned to Scotland in 1458. She was betrothed in her youth (1440) to James Douglas, third Earl of Angus, but he died unmarried during her absence abroad (1446).
Joan was married (1459) to Sir James Douglas (c1425 – Oct 22, 1493), who was created first earl of Morton by her brother, James II. The wedding was attended by the princess’s nephew, the future James III., whose own wedding to Margaret of Denmark (1474), the princess and her husband attended. She was long celebrated as the ‘dumb lady of Dalkeith.’ Princess Joan died (shortly after Oct 16, 1486) aged fifty-eight. She was buried in the chancel of Dalkeith Church, where her husband was later buried beside her. Her four children were,

Joanes, Dorotea – (c1555 – 1609) 
Spanish painter
Dorotea Joanes was the daughter of the artist Vicente Juan Mancip. Dorotea and her sister Margarita were taught their craft by their father, and the two sisters also collaborated with him on several work, though it is now virtually impossible to distinguish their works from those of Vicente. Dorotea’s only definitely identified work a Crucifixion, was preserved for over one hundred and fifty years in the church of Santa Cruz, in Valencia. Unfortunately this work perished during the demolition of that building (1869).

Joanes, Margarita – (c1559 – 1613)
Spanish painter
Margarita Joanes was the younger daughter of artist Vicente Juan Mancip, and the sister of Dorotea Joanes. With her sister she collaborated with her father on some of his paintings, though none of her own work is known to have survived.

Joanina – (c517 – 552)
Roman patrician
Joanina was the wife of Caerellius, the magister militum of Italy (559). Her funerary inscription from Odessa in Moesia Secunda survives.

Joanna       see also     Johanna, Juana

Joanna I (Giovanna) – (1326 – 1382) 
Queen regnant of Naples (1343 – 1382)
Joanna I was the daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria and hi wife Marie de Valois, and the granddaughter of Roberto I, King of Naples, whom she succeeded. Her first marriage with Andrew, the son of King Carobert of Hungary, to whom she had been betrothed since 1333 was quickly celebrated. Joanna bore Andrew a son Charles Martel (1344 – 1350) who died in infancy and he was permitted the use of the kingly title. The marriage proved unhappy and when Andrew was murdered (1345) the queen was accused of being party to the crime. She remarried (1347) to Louis of Taranto, a marriage designed to reduce political tension, but this hope did not eventuate and Louis I of Hungary marched on Naples.
The queen fled to Avignon in Provence, and sought protection from Pope Clement VI. He absolved her of any charges relating to her first husband’s death after she sold Avignon to the papacy for righty thousand gold florins (1348). She returned to her court in Naples the same year and she and Louis of Taranto were formally crowned (1352). With Louis’s death (1362), Joanna remarried a third time to Jaime III, King of Majorca, though they rarely lived togther, allegedly because he feared for his life. With the end of the quarrel between the Angevins and the Aragonese over Sicily, Frederick III of Sicily acknowledged himself a vassal of Naples and the papacy, whilst Joanna recognized him as king, and renounced her own claims to Sicily. She recognized the anti-pope Clement VII and Urban VI caused the queen to be excommunicated. Her cousin Charles of Durazzo prepared to depose her. In defense she allied herself with Charles V of France, and adopted his brother Louis as her heir, but Louis did not reach her in time. That same year, while Joanna’s fourth husband Otto of Brunswick was occupied in Puglia, Charles of Durazzo seized Naples, imprisoning the queen in the castle of Muro in Lucania, where she was eventually suffocated in her own bed (May 12, 1382). Queen Joanna was the subject of the historical novel Queen of the Night (1993) by Alan Savage.

Joanna II (Giovanna) – (1371 – 1435) 
Queen regnant of Naples (1414 – 1435)
Joanna II was the daughter of Charles III, King of Naples and Hungary, and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Charles, Prince of Durazzo. She was married (1401) to Duke William of Austria but bore him no children. Joanna succeeded her childless brother Ladislas I as ruler of Naples (1414). The queen proved a fickle, sensual woman, and she became involved in many love affairs and amorous intrigues, including one with grand chamberlain Pandolfo Alopo, who procured the dismissal of Muzio Attendolo Sforza, her later brother’s supporter. Howver, fearing a reprisal, Sforza and Alopo became allies. The Neapolitan barons decided to counteract this situation by providing the queen with a husband, James II, Count of La Marche (1415). He proved himself to be unpopular, condemning Alopo to death, imprisoning Sforze, casting aside Queen Joanna, and even slighting the barons who had arranged his marriage. La Marche was forced to leave Naples (1416) and the queen quickly appointed her new favourite, Giovanni Carraciolo, called Sergianni, grand seneschal of the kingdom.
When Pope Martin V, under the influence of Sforza and others of his clique, nominated Louis III d’Anjou as Joanna’s heir in Naples, she appealed to Alfonso V of Aragon, whom she offered to adopt as her heir. Louis failed to take the city and Alfonso arrived in 1421, but his interference in political affairs enabled Sergianni to persuade the queen that he wished to dethrone her altogether. Sforza was then invited to return as the queen’s protector, and he rescued her from the Castel Capuano (1423). Safe in Aversa she revoked her adoption of Alfonso, and with the death of Sforza (1424) Sergianni remained her most influential adviser. He was eventually assassinated by the Duchess di Sessa (1432). After much prevarication on Joanna’s part Louis of Anjou became her ultimate heir, but in 1434 he renounced this claims in favour of his younger brother Rene d’Anjou. Queen Joanna died several months later (Feb 2, 1435).

Joannia – (fl. c605)
Greek patrician, she was born in Hierapolis in Syria and became the wife of Theodorus, the proconsul of Palestine. She resided with her husband at Caesarea in Palestine and was cured in Alexandria of insanity by the intervention of saints Cyrus and John. According to the Miracula Sanctorum SS. Cyri et Johannes of Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, Joannia’s two jealous sisters had supposedly made her ill with magic spells.

Joannina – (fl. c543 – 548)
Byzantine princess
Joannina was the daughter of the famous general, Belisarius and his wife Antonina, the friend of Empress Theodora, wife of Justinian I. Through the influence of Theodora, Joannina was married to the illegitimate grandson of the empress, but after her death, Antonina caused the couple to be separated.

Jocelin, Elizabeth – (1596 – 1622)
English author
Elizabeth Brooke was the daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, of Norton, Cheshire, and his wife Joan Chadderton, daughter to the Bishop of Lincoln. She was married (1616) to Tourell Jocelin, of Cambridgeshire, and died from the results of childbirth. During her pregnancy, having a premonition of her own death, she composed The Mother’s Legacie to her Unborne Child which was published in 1624.

Jocelyn, Frances Elizabeth Cowper, Lady – (1820 – 1880)
British courtier
Lady Frances Cowper was the youngest daughter of Peter Leopold Cowper, the fifth Earl Cowper (1778 – 1837), and his wife, the Hon. (Honourable) Emily Mary Lamb, who later remarried to Lord Palmerston. A famous beauty, Lady Frances was married (1841) to Robert, Viscount Jocelyn, the eldest son of Robert Jocelyn, the third Earl of Roden, and became the Viscountess Jocelyn (1841 – 1854). They had four children. Her husband predeceased his father so Lady Frances did not become the Countess of Roden, and remained the Dowager Viscountess Jocelyn (1854 – 1880).
As a widow Lady Jocelyn served at court as Lady-of-the-Bedchamber to Queen Victoria. In recognition of her loyal service she was awarded the VA (Royal Order of Victoria and Albert). Her children included Robert Jocelyn (1846 – 1880), who succeeded his grandfather as fourth Earl of Roden (1870), but died unmarried, Hon. Frederick Jocelyn (1852 – 1871), who served at the court as page of honour to the queen, but died young, and Lady Edith Jocelyn (1845 – 1871), who became the first wife of Arthur Saunders Gore (1839 – 1901), Viscount Sudley, and left issue. Lord Sudley later succeeded as the fifth Earl of Arran. Lady Jocelyn died (March 26, 1880) aged seventy-nine.

Jocunda of Tarsus – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Jocunda was a native of Cilicia in Asia Minor. She was arrested in Tarsus during the persecutions initiated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Refusing to make sacrifice to the pagan gods, she was then executed. Jocunda was honoured as a saint, her feast recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 10).

Joel, Grace – (1865 – 1924)
New Zealand painter
Grace Joel was born at Dunedin, and studied art at the National Gallery School, in Melbourne, Victoria, under Fred McCubbin. She completed her studies abroad at the L’Academie Julien in Paris. She painted landscapes, but specialized mainly in group figures of mothers with children. Examples of her work are preserved at the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Johanetta of Wittgenstein – (1632 – 1701)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Eisenach-Marksruhl (1662 – 1686)
Countess Johanetta von Wittgenstein was born (April 17, 1632) the daughter of Ernst, Count von Sayn-Wittgenstein, and his wife Countess Louisa, the daughter of George III, Count von Erbach. Johanetta of Wittgenstein was married firstly (1647) to Landgrave Johann of Hesse-Braubach (1609 – 1651), and became Landgravine consort of Braubach (1647 – 1651). This marriage remained childless, and for a decade Johanetta remained the Dowager Landgravine of Braubach (1651 – 1661).
Due to family dynastic politics and ambitions, the widowed landgravine was remarried secondly to Johann George I (1634 – 1686), the reigning duke of Saxe-Eisenach-Marksruhl, and Johanetta became duchess consort for over twenty years (1662 – 1686). This marriage produced eight children, and she survived Johann George for fifteen years (1686 – 1701) as the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Eisenach-Marksruhl. Through her eldest daughter Eleonore, the Margravine of Ansbach, Duchess Johanetta was the grandmother of Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II, King of Great Britain (1727 – 1760) and ancestress of the present British royal family. Duchess Johanetta died (Sept 28, 1701) aged sixty-nine. Two of her sons and a daughter died in infancy. Her five surviving children were,

Johann, Zita – (1904 – 1993)
Hungarian-American actress
Zita Johann was born (July 14, 1904) at Temesvar, in the old Austro-Hungarian Empire. She came to the USA with her parents as a child. She was married to the producer, John Houseman (1902 – 1988) and starred in many films over a long career including Tiger Shark (1932), Luxury Liner (1933) and Grand Canary (1934). Five decades later, she appeared in the cult classic Raiders of the Living Dead (1989). She appeared in The Struggle (1931), the last film made by W.D. Griffiths, but was best remembered for her appearance as Helen Grosvenor in the classic horror film The Mummy (1932) with Boris Karloff. During the latter part of her life she became an acting teacher and worked with disabled children. Zita Johann died (Sept 24, 1993) aged eighty-nine, in New York.

Johanna of Austria – (1547 – 1578)
Grand duchess consort of Tuscany (1574 – 1578)
Archduchess Johanna was born (Jan 24, 1557) in Prague, Bohemia, the daughter of Ferdinand I of Austria, later Holy Roman emperor (1555 – 1564) and his wife Anna Jagiella, Queen of Hungary (1526 – 1547). Johanna was married in Florence (1565) to Francesco I de Medici (1541 – 1587) as his first wife. She was mother of Marie de Medici, the second wife of Henry IV of France, and maternal grandmother of Louis XIII of France (1610 – 1643).
Her marriage was unhappy because of her husband’s long-standing liasion with his mistress Bianca Capello, whom he later married as his second wife. Grand Duchess Johanna died (April 10, 1578) aged thirty-one, in Florence.

Johanna of Brabant (Jeanne) – (1322 – 1406)
Flemish ruler and duchess
Johanna was the elder daughter of John III, Duke of Brabant and his wife Marie d’Evreux, the daughter of Louis I, Comte d’Evreux. Left a childless widow after the death of her first husband William IV of Hainault (1307 – 1345), it was only after the acceptance and rejection of many varied marriage proposals that Johanna was finally married (1352) to Wenceslas, Duke of Luxemburg (1337 – 1383), fifteen years her junior. At her father’s death (1355) the duchy of Brabant passed to Johanna whilst her husband assumed the title of duke in her right and by the sanction of La Joyeuse Entrée, which he swore to uphold (Jan 3, 1356).
Johanna’s title and inheritance was disputed by Louis III, count of Flanders, the husband of her younger sister Margaret, and war broke out (1356) between Wenceslas, supported by the guild, and Count Louis, who upheld the patrician burgher party in the city of Brabant.The matter was eventually settled in Johanna’s favour. With the death of Wenceslas (1383) she continued to rule over the duchies of Luxemburg and Brabant, though she was forced to depend on the support of Burgundy in her contests with the turbulent city guilds, and with her neighbours, the dukes of Julich and Gelderland.
Duchess Johanna finally ceded Brabant to Philip II of Burgundy (1390), the husband of her niece Margaret of Flanders, keeping only the usufruct for herself.  With her death (Dec 1, 1406) at the age of eighty-four, her grand-nephew Anthony of Burgundy succeeded to the dukedom of Brabant.

Johanna of Montferrat    see   Giovanna of Montferrat

Johanna of Pfirt – (c1304 – 1351)
German heiress and duchess consort of Austria.
Johanna was born in Basle, Switzerland, the daughter of Ulrich II, Count of Pfirt and his wife Johanna of Montbeliard. Johanna was married (1324) to the Hapsburg ruler, Duke Albert II of Austria (1298 – 1358), to whom she bore a large family of children. In order to ensure her succession to the fief of Belfort in Alsace the duchess had to purchase the share owned by her sister Ursula (1350), and the Hapsburg family later had to buy the surviving shares held by her half-sister’s daughter Adelaide (1366) before they owned the entire seigneurie. Duchess Johanna died (Nov 15, 1351) in Vienna, aged abourt forty-seven, two weeks after giving birth to her eleventh child. Five of her sons died young before 1337. Her remaining six children were,

Johanna Plantagenet (Joan) – (1165 – 1199)
Queen consort of Sicily (1177 – 1189)
Johanna was born (Oct, 1165) at Angers in Normandy, the third daughter of Henry II, King of England and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. She was raised at the Abbey of Fontevrault. Johanna was married firstly (1177) at Palermo, to William II, King of Sicily (1154 – 1189), she being crowned with her husband by Stephen of Perche, Archbishop of Palermo. Their only child, Bohemond, Duke of Apulia, died in infancy (1181). With William’s death Queen Johanna remained under the control of her brother-in-law, King Tancred, who refused to grant her her dower estates and kept her as an honoured prisoner. Eventually King Richard ‘the Lionheart’ demanded his sister’s release and Tancred permitted the queen to travel to Messina, though he retained her property. She then joined the English fleet and travelled with her sister-in-law, Queen Berengaria to Palestine, before returning to Europe (1192).
Famous for her beauty, her name was linked with that of Philip II Augustus, king of France (1191 – 1192), whilst her brother Richard is said to have once seriously considered marrying her to Saphadin, brother to the Moslem leader and emperor Saladin. The queen is said to have angrily refused to consider such a marriage. Instead she was married secondly (1196) to Raymond V (1156 – 1222), count of Toulouse, as his fourth wife. By him she became the mother of Count Raymond VII (1197 – 1249). Johanna spent the Easter of 1198 with her brother Richard at Le Mans in Normandy, and died (Sept, 1199) at Rouen in Normandy, aged thirty-three, from the effects of childbirth, having been veiled as a nun of Fontevrault during her last hours. Queen Johanna was interred at the Abbey of Fontevrault with her parents and her beloved favourite brother King Richard. She appears in the historical novel Here Be Dragons (1986) by Sharon Penman.

Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein – (1712 – 1760)
German princess consort of Anhalt-Zerbst
Princess Johanna Elisabeth was born (Oct 24, 1712), the fourth daughter of Christian August, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and his wife Albertina Frederica, the daughter of Friedrich VII, margrave of Brandenburg-Durlach. She was raised in the household of Duke Ferdinand II Albert of Brunswick, and became the wife (1727) of Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (1686 – 1746), to whom she bore several children. Despite the differences in age and disposition, the royal couple resided amicably together.
Princess Johanna Elisabeth began the negotiations for the marriage of her eldest daughter, and travelled to the court of the Tsarina Elizabeth in Russia with her (1744). Mother and daughter were formally received in Berlin by King Friedrich the Great and his wife Queen Elisabeth Christina, enroute to the Russian court. Whilst travelling in Russia the princess used the incognito of Countess Rheinbeck. There Sophia was married to the future Tsar Peter III and eventually gained the Imperial throne as Catherine II the Great. Johanna Elisabeth later offended the Empress Elizabeth with her court intrigues, and was accused of suspect political dealings by Freidrich II of Prussia after the death of her husband (1746). Finally the princess and her surviving son were stripped of their possessions in Germany, and were forced to flee to Paris, where Prince Friedrich took service with the Austrian army.  The empress Elizabeth refused all the princess’s requests for the payment of her pension and she accumulated considerable debt in Paris. One of her letters to her daughter in Russia has survived from this period. The noted polemicist Luise Gottsched wrote a birthday ode on her honour (1755). Princess Johanna Elisabeth died (May 30, 1760) aged forty-seven. Her children were,

Johanna Magdalena of Saxe-Altenburg – (1656 – 1686)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Weissenfels (1680 – 1686)
Princess Johanna Magdalena was born (Jan 14, 1656) the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1639 – 1669), and his second wife Magdalena Sophia, the daughter of Johann George I, Elector of Saxony. Johanna Magdalena was married (1671) to the ducal prince, Johann Adolf of Saxe-Weissenfels (1649 – 1697), the heir of Duke Augustus, as his first wife, and bore him a large family of twelve children. Her husband succeeded his father on the ducal throne as Duke Johann Adolf I (1680) and Johanna Magdalena became duchess consort. Duchess Johanna Magdalena died (Jan 22, 1686) aged thirty, from the effects of childbirth. Apart from a stillborn son, and three others who died in infancy, the duchess left seven surviving children,

Johanna Walpurga of Leiningen – (1647 – 1687)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Weissenfels (1672 – 1680)
Countess Johanna Walpurga was born (June 3, 1647) the daughter of George Wilhelm, Count of Leiningen-Westerburg (1619 – 1695) and his wife Countess Elisabeth, the daughter of Simon VII, Count of Lippe-Detmold. Johanna Walpurga was married (1672) to Augustus, the reigning Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, as his second wife. She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (1680 – 1687). Duchess Johanna Walpurga died (Nov 4, 1687) aged forty. Besides a stillborn son she left two other sons,

John, Cecilia Annie – (1877 – 1955)
Australian feminist and pacifist
Cecilia John was born (Nov 5, 1877) in Hobart, Tasmania, the daughter of Welsh emigrants. She studied singing and managed to support herself, and during WW I she co-founded the Women’s Peace Army (1915) with Vida Goldstein. John was a prominent figure at anti-conscription rallies, becoming famous for singing ‘I Didn’t Raise My Son to Be a Soldier’ to great effect until the government had the song publicly banned. She and Goldstein attended the Geneva Peace Conference in Switzerland (1919), and John established the Save the Children Fund in Melbourne. She later returned to England and remained unmarried. Cecilia John died (May 28, 1955) aged seventy-seven.

John, Gwen – (1876 – 1939)
British painter
Gwendolen Mary John was the elder sister of painter Augustus John (1878 – 1961), and began studies at the Slade School in London (1895 – 1899), and then in Paris at Whistler’s Academy, where she worked with Ida Nettleship. She later became a Roman Catholic, and was associated with famous artists and sculptors such as Auguste Rodin (1840 – 1917) and the philosopher Jacques Martain, though the latter’s influence on her work has been much exaggerated.
John exhibited her work at the New English Art Club (1900 – 1911), shared an exhibition with her brother (1903), and exhibited sporadically at the Salon des Tuileries in Paris from 1923 onwards. She collapsed at Dieppe in France whilst travelling, and died there. Examples of her work are preserved at the National Portrait Gallery and the Tate Gallery in London, and at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, USA.

Johnson, Adelaide (1) – (1859 – 1955)
American sculptor and feminist
Sarah Adeline Johnson was born (Sept 26, 1859) in Plymouth, Illinois, the daughter of a farmer, and was educated at the St Louis School of Design, where she was awarded prizes for woodcarving. Known as Adelaide her marriage (1896 – 1908) with the British business man, Alexander Frederick Jenkins, ended in divorce. There were no children. Adelaide studied sculpture in Desden, Saxony, and in Rome under Giulio Monteverde, and maintained studios in Carrara, Italy, London, and in New York.
A firm supporter of the suffrage movement, Johnson exhibited busts of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucretia Mott. Her best known work was producing the monument known as The Women’s Movement, which was commissioned for the United States Capitol (1921). Her later life and career was beset by financial problems. Adelaide Johnson died (Nov 10, 1955) aged ninety-six, in Washington.

Johnson, Adelaide (2) – (1905 – 1960)
American physician, psychiatrist and lecturer
She was born Margaret McFadven and adopted the professional name of ‘Adelaide Johnson.’ Several of her more important articles were published in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly magazine.

Johnson, Amy – (1903 – 1941)
British aviatrix
Amy Johnson was born in Hull, the daughter of a fishmonger, and studied economics at Sheffield University. She worked as a typist before joining the London Aeroplane Club, and gained her pilot’s license in 1928. Johnson became famous internationally for her solo flight, half-way around the world (1930), in her biplane Jason, beating the then record of the Australian pilot Bert Hinkler, which caused the media to christen her the ‘Queen of the Air.’ She flew to Japan via Moscow and back, and then made a solo flight to Cape Town (1932). Amy was married (1932 – 1938) to the Scottish airman James Mollison, from whom she was later divorced. Amy Johnson died when a plane she was delivering crashed at Kidlington.

Johnson, Anna Maria – (fl. 1783 – 1811)
British novelist
She was born Anna Maria Wight in Essex, the daughter of a coal merchant. She attended a local school prior to marriage to a man named Cox, who deserted her and their children. Anna Maria took up writing as a means of supporting herself and her children, using the adopted surname ‘Johnson.’ She also used the surname ‘Mackenzie’ and wrote articles for magazines, as well as publishing of two dozen other works, including several very popular historical romances such as Monmouth (1790). Her volume Slavery (1793), was an attack on that condition.

Johnson, Barbara Ferry – (1923 – 1989)
American historical romance novelist
Barbara Johnson was trained as a teacher, being employed as an English teacher in a high school at Myrtle Beach in South Carolina (1960 – 1962). She then became a member of the faculty of the English Department at Columbia College, South Carolina, for over twenty-five years (1964 – 1989). Her novels included Lionors (1975), Delta Blood (1977), Tara’s Song (1978), The Heirs of Love (1980) and Echoes from the Hills (1983).

Johnson, Bertha Jane – (1846 – 1927)
British advocate for the higher education of women, painter and civic leader
Bertha Todd was born (Jan 20, 1846) in Charing Cross, London, and was educated at home and at the Slade School of Art. She was married (1873) to Arthur Johnson, a clergyman who was a chaplain and tutor at All Souls College, Oxford. She was a talented portraitist and her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy. Bertha Johnson founded the Anglican hostel, Lady Margaret Hall (1878), of which she served as director for over three decades (1880 – 1914). She served as a Poor Law Guardian (1894 – 1927), was a member of the Education Committee of the Oxfordshire County Council (1903 – 1922) and was principal of the Society of Oxford Home Students (1910 – 1921). Bertha Johnson died (April 24, 1927) aged eighty-one, in Oxford.

Johnson, Casey - (1979 - 2010)
American socialite, heiress and author
Casey Johnson was born (Sept 24, 1979) the daughter of Woody Johnson, the owner of the New York Jets. She was a descendant of the noted industrialist Robert Wood Johnson (1845 - 1910), the co-founder of the famous Johnson & Johnson company. Having sufferred from diabetes from childhood, Casey co-wrote the book Managing Your Child's Diets (1993) with her father.
Miss Johnson became a highly visible member of Hollywood society, being friends with the notorious Paris and Nicky Hilton, and Nicole Richie. She was public concerning her lesbianism, and her various antics with female lovers provided fodder for the media. Johnson was arrested for theft (2009) and ten days later announced her engagement to a female lover. Her body was found (Jan 4, 2010) in her home in Los Angeles, California.

Johnson, Dame Celia – (1908 – 1982)
British stage and film actress
Celia Johnson was born in Richmond in Surrey, the daughter of a physician. She was educated at St Paul’s Girls’ School, and later attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Her marriage to the noted writer Peter Fleming lasted for over thirty-five years (1935 – 1971). Celia Johnson made her stage debut in Major Barbara (1928) at Huddersfield, and her London debut in A Hundred Years Old (1930). She was best remembered in her youth for her role in Gerald du Maurier’s famous play Cynara, and she played Ophelia opposite Raymond Massey as Hamlet in New York (1931). Johnson’s later film credits included In Which We Serve (1942), This Happy Breed (1943) and The Astonished Heart (1950), but received outstanding acclaim for the role of Olga in Anton Chekhov’s Three Sisters (1951). She received a British Film Award for her appearance in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969), and later appeared as the distraught Queen Gertrude in Alan Bates’ production of Hamlet (1971), a performance that electrified audiences. Dame Celia Johnson died (April 25, 1982).

Johnson, Edith – (1895 – 1969)
American silent film actress
Edith Johnson was married to actor, director, and screenwriter William Duncan (1880 – 1961), which whom she appeared opposite in many movies. Her film credits include The Flower of Faith (1914), The Aunt (1915) and Where Men Are Men (1921). Johnson also appeared in several popular silent serials including A Fight for Millions (1918) and The Silent Avenger (1920).

Johnson, Ellen Hulda Elizabeth – (1910 – 1992)
American art historian
Ellen Johnson was born (Nov 25, 1910) in Warren, Pennsylvania, and studied at Oberlin College in Ohio prior to travelling abroad in Europe to study in Stockholm in Sweden, and at the Sorbonne in Paris. Ellen Johnson taught at Oberlin College for four decades (1938 – 1976), where she became the professor of art and served as the curator of modern art at the Allen Memorial Art Museum there. She later taught at the Uppsala University in Sweden (1960). A dedicated supporter of contemporary art, Johnson commissioned the work Three Way Plug (1970) from artist Claes Oldenburg for the college campus. Ellen remained unmarried. Her extensive private collection was bequeathed to the Allen Memorial Art Museum. Ellen Johnson died (March 23, 1992) aged eighty-one, at Oberlin, Ohio.

Johnson, Esther – (1689 – 1728)
British literary figure
Esther Johnson was said to have been the illegitimate daughter of Sir William Temple, and is remembered as the especial friend of the author Jonathon Swift, who addressed verses to her under the epithet ‘Stella,’ by which name she is best remembered by history. She resided mainly in Dublin throughout her life, and there were rumours that she and Swift were secretly married, though no evidence for this has been found.

Johnson, Ettie   see   Richmond, Euphemia Johnson

Johnson, Eunice Walker - (1916 - 2010)
American magazine founder
Eunice Walker was born (April 4, 1916) in Alabama, and studied sociology at Talladega College, before going on to further study at the Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois. She was married (1940) to the publisher John H. Johnson, to whom she bore a daughter.
Mrs Johnson was the founder and director of the monthly magazine Ebony, and its weekly companion Jet. She also directed the Ebony Fashion Fair which showcased fashion for African-American women for five decades (1958 - 2009). During the lifetime of this fair, which travelled throught America, and also Canada and the Caribbean, over fifty million dollars was raised for charity. The Fair utilized African-American models and designers, and Mrs Johnson later createdf the Fashion Fair Cosmetics line (1973) especially suited to dark-skinned models. Mrs Johnson died (Jan 3, 2010) aged ninety-three, in Chicago.

Johnson, Florence Ethel – (1884 – 1934)
Australian feminist and educator
Florence Johnson was born (March 26, 1884) in Port Melbourne, Victoria. She trained as a schoolteacher and was appointed as headmistress of the Arcadia South State School (1906). Johnson was a prominent figure within the field of child education. She established the Junior Teachers’ Association (1915) and was the founding president of the Victorian Women Teachers’ Association (1917). She was instrumental in helping to raise the wages for women teachers, which had been well below that of men (1918) and went on to represent women in many other working professions. Johnson failed in her bid to become a candidate in the 1927 Victorian state election. She remained unmarried. Florence Johnson died (Nov 6, 1934) aged fifty, in Malvern, Victoria.

Johnson, Frances – (1725 – 1812)
Anglo-Indian hostess and society figure
Frances Crook was born (April 10, 1725) in Madras, the second daughter of Edward Crook, of Hertfordshire, the governor of Fort St David, on the coast of Coromandel. Her first husband (1738) was Parry Purple Templar (died 1748), the nephew of the fovernor of Calcutta, to whom she bore two children who died in infancy. Frances remarried secondly (1738) to James Altham, of Calcutta, who died of smallpox only a few days after the wedding. Mrs Altham remarried thirdly (c1749) to William Watts, the then senior member of the Supreme Council of Bengal, to whom she bore four children including Sophia Watts (born 1755), later the wife of George Poyntz Ricketts, the governor of Barbados. She was maternal grandmother to Charles Robert Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool.
With the death of Watts (1768) Frances remarried fourthly (1774) to a clergyman, William Johnson, the second chaplain of the Presidency of Fort William. Her last marriage remained childless.
Frances had accompanied her third husband Watts and their children to his posting as chief resident of Cossimbazar, near Murshidabad in Bengal. When the fort there was attacked by Sirajud-doulah, the Nawab of Bengal, who was hostile to the British prescence there, Frances and her family were held as prisoners. The Nawab’s elderly grandmother was moved to pity by the family’s plight, and offered Frances and her children her personal protection, giving them apartments in her palace for a month until she was able to arrange for their safe escort to the French settlement at Saidabad on the Ganges. Soon after wards her husband was also able to affect his release.
After these events the family resided in England for several years, but as a widow she inherited her husband’s property in Calcutta, and returned there (1769) where she resided in a large mansion in the financial quarter of the city. When her last husband retired to England (1788) Frances settled a generous pension on him for his upkeep, but remained herself in India. Because of the favour Frances showed towards the native Indian aristocratic ladies’ and her own adoption of Indian habits in her daily life, she became popularly known as the ‘Begum Johnson,’ though it was always used in terms of the greatest respect. She was especially honoured by society as the grandmother of Lord Liverpool, and because she had had personal experiences of the Battle of Plassey (1757). Her portrait (c1784) has been attributed to the British painter Thomas Hickey. During the scandal which developed from the relationship of Warren Hastings with the German Baroness Imhoff, the Begum’s social acceptance of the Baroness instantly secured her position within Indian society in Calcutta. Frances Johnson died (Feb 3, 1812) aged eighty-seven, in Calcutta. She was interred in the church of St John there.

Johnson, Georgia Douglas – (1877 – 1966)
Black American poet, dramatist and novelist
Georgia was born (Sept 10, 1877) in Atlanta, Georgia, and studied music at Oberlin College and at the Cleveland College of Music in Ohio. However, after winning a poetry prize she eschewed music in favour of writing. Georgia was married to the lawyer and politician, Henry Lincoln Johnson. Georgia Johnson produced four volumes of collected verse including The Heart of a Woman, and Other Poems (1918) and Bronze (1922), a collection of race based poetry. With the death of her husband (1925) Johnson established herself as an eccentric leader of her own literary salon. She kept writing poetry and sometimes used the pseudonyms ‘Paul Tremaine’ and ‘John Temple.’

Johnson, Gertrude Emily – (1894 – 1973)
Australian coloratura soprano
Gertrude Johnson was born (Sept 13, 1894) in Melbourne, Victoria and received her vocal education at the Albert Street and the Melbourne University Conservatoriums. She then studied under Dame Nellie Melba, and became particulalry noted for her renditions of the works of Mozart. Johnson travelled to England, where she appeared with great success at Covent Garden, and performed with Melba at her final farewell performance of, La Boheme, at the Old Vic Theatre (1926). The first operatic performer to sing on radio for the BBC (British Broadcasting Commission), Johnson later returned to Australia (1935) where she founded and directed the National Theatre Movement. Gertrude Johnson died (March 28, 1973) aged seventy-eight.

Johnson, Josephine Winslow – (1910 – 1990)
American novelist and poet
Josephine Johnson was born in Missouri, the daughter of a farmer, and was married to a local editor. She published several short stories in local magazines before achieving fame with her popular novel Now in November (1934), which dealt with the unvarnished rigours of rural life, for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Her other novels included Wildwood (1946) and The Dark Traveller (1963).

Johnson, Katie – (1878 – 1957)
American stage and film actress
Katie Johnson worked on the stage for many years with success and only appeared in films during the latter part of her career. She achieved fame for her splendid character roles in films such as The Ladykillers (1955) and How to Murder a Rich Uncle (1956).

Johnson, Kay – (1904 – 1975)
American stage and film actress
Born Catherine Townshend, she adopted the professional name of ‘Kay Johnson,’ and became a leading lady of the Broadway stage. She decided to appear in films in the 1930’s, but with WW II her career petered out. Her film credits included Dynamite (1929), The Spoilers (1930), Of Human Bondage (1934) with Leslie Howard and Bette Davis, Jalna (1935) based on the novels by Mazo de la Roche and The Adventures of Mark Twain (1944).

Johnson, Lady Bird – (1912 – 2007)
American first Lady (1963 – 1969) and environmental activist
Born Claudia Alta Taylor (Dec 22, 1912) at Karnack, Texas, she was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson Taylor, but was always known as ‘Lady Bird,’ a childhood nickname. She was educated in Dallas and attended the University of Texas in Austin. Lady Bird became the wife (1934) of Lyndon Baines Johnson, the future president, to whom she bore two daughters.
Her family’s money was able to assist Johnson with his political aspirations, and during his presidential campaign she proved successful in winning over Southern audiences to her husband’s Civil Rights stance. Lady Bird Johnson was a tireless campaigner for beautification and was the force behind The Highway Beautification Bill (1965). She was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter (1977) and the Congressional Gold Medal (1988). She published the volume of memoirs A White House Diary. Lady Bird Johnson died (July 11, 2007) aged ninety-four, in Austin.

Johnson, La Raine   see   Day, Laraine

Johnson, Louise – (1920 – 1976) 
American sociologist
Louise Johnson was born in Sturgis, South Dakota, and graduated from the College of St Catherine and St Paul in Rapid City. Johnson worked as a naval inspector in Memphis, Tennessee during World War II, but later on she resumed her studies at Columbia University. Teaching and researching with Professor Paul Lazarsfeld, she eventually joined the faculty of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. There she directed the study that promoted the basis for the sociological work The People of East Harlem: The Needs of the Community and the Resources for Meeting Them (1969). This detailed study had been backed by a grant from the National Institute of Health.

Johnson, Lucy    see    Gardner, Ava

Johnson, Dame Monica    see    Golding, Dame Monica

Johnson, Osa Helen Leighty – (1894 – 1953)
American traveller, explorer and writer
Osa Leighty was born in Chanute, Kansas, and became the wife of the explorer Martin Johnson (1884 – 1937). She made several nature films with her husband including Simba (1928), Congorilla (1932) and Borneo (1938). They were the first to film cannibals and gibbons.

Johnson, Pamela Margaret Elizabeth Hansford – (1914 – 1982)
British novelist, dramatist, poet and critic
Lady Pamela Smith was born (May 16, 1914) in London, into an established theatrical family, being the younger daughter of Frederick Smith (1872 – 1930), the first Earl of Birkenhead. She was educated at Clapham County Secondary School and worked variously in a bank, and as a book reviewer. Pamela Johnson was engaged for several years to the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914 – 1953), but the marriage never took place, and they broke up. She was the author of a volume of verse entitled Symphony for Full Orchestra (1934) and her first novel This Bed Thy Centre (1935) was favourably acclaimed.
Her other published works included An Avenue of Stone (1947) and A Summer to Decide (1948). Johnson later created the comic character Dorothy Merlin, who featured in three successive novels An Error of Judgement (1962), The Honours Board (1970) and The Good Husband (1978).
Pamela Johnson wrote critical essays on British writers which were later published in book form and established herself as a specialist on the French novelist Marcel Proust, writing the radio play entitled Six Proust Reconstructions (1958). She was one of the reporters who covered the infamous ‘Moors murders’ involving Myra Hindley which resulted in the publication of her On Iniquity (1967).
Her first husband (1936) was William Berry (1911 – 1982), the son of the first Viscount Camrose, to whom she bore four children. He was later made a life peer as Baron Hartwell. Her second husband (1950) was the novelist Sir Charles P. Snow (1905 – 1980). Pamela Johnson died (Jan 7, 1982) aged sixty-seven.

Johnson, Pauline – (1861 – 1913)
Canadian poet
Emily Pauline Johnson was born on the Six Nations Reservation near Ontario, the daughter of a Mohawk Indian and an English mother. Her earliest written verses were published in magazines, and later, Pauline gave public readings of her work, dressed in native costume, and using the native name ‘Tekahionwake.’ Pauline Johnson’s poems were published in several collections, including, Canadian Born (1903) and, Flint and Feather (1912), and she was the author of the anthology Legends of Vancouver (1911).

Johnson, Phyllis Sarah – (1917 – 2009)
Australian civic campaigner
Phyllis Sarah Mather was born in Albany, Western Australia, the daughter of a trade union leader. She was educated in Melbourne and went to live in Sydney in New South Wales with her father when she finished her education. She worked there as a business clerk and became quickly involved with the trade union movement, leading a campaign against evictions during the Depression. She became a member of the Communist Party (1937) and attended the International Women’s Day the same year. She was married (1939) to John Johnson, a violin maker, and they adopted several children.
During WW II Mrs Johnson active supported the war effort by campaigning for ‘Liberty Loans,’ and hosted the weekly radio program Women for Victory. She continuously sort to gain equal pay for working women but became nationally prominent due to her involvement with other women in the Campaign Against Rising Prices (1970) in Bankstown, western Sydney. Mrs Johnson and her group organized sit-ins outside supermarkets that dishonestly sold inferior produce to the consumers, and even took her campaign to the Legislative Assembly where she was forcibly removed the house (1973).
Phyllis Johnson then worked with Syd Einfeld, the Labour minister for consumer affairs (1976). Mrs Johnson was the recipient of several awards in recognition of her public service including the Queen’s Silver Jubilee Medal (1977), the Order of Australia (1989), the Syd Einfeld Award (1993) and the Centenary Medal (2008).

Johnson, Phyllis Wyatt – (1886 – 1967)
British figure skater
Johnson as born (Dec, 1886) and became an expert skater from early childhood. She represented England at the 1908 Olympic Games, where she received the silver medal in pair skating with James Henry Johnson (1874 – 1921). Johnson twice won the gold medal of the World Figure Skating Championships (1909) and (1912). With her later partner Basil Williams she won the bronze medal at the Olympic Games help in Antwerp (1920). Phyllis Johnson died (Feb 2, 1967) aged eighty.

Johnson, Rita – (1912 – 1965)
American film actress
Her film credits included Edison the Man (1940), Thunderhead, Son of Flicka (1944), Susan Slept Here (1954) and The Day They Gave Away Babies (1957).

Johnson, Sophia – (1813 – after 1838)
Anglo-Australian colonial diarist
Sophia Johnson was born in Chester. In order to remove her from the attentions of a suitor her parents viewed as unsuitable, she was sent to live in London. When her lover was transported to Australia for seven years for theft, Sophia stole some family money and emigrated there disguised in male attire (1830). Sophia suffered various adventures including being washed ashore on a desert island. Rescued by a Dutch merchant ship she later worked as a chambermaid in Amsterdam before being reunited with her lover, whom she then married, after which they returned to Chester in England. She left an account of her adventures The Surprising Misfortunes of Sophia Johnson, written by Herself (1838) which was published in London.

Johnson, Susannah Willard – (1730 – 1810)
American captive and memoirist
Susannah was the wife of James Johnson, a resident of Charlestown, New Hampshire. During an attack on the town led by the Anebaki Indians, Susannah and her family and several neighbours, were captured and taken into Canada (1754). They were finally sold to French families and were freed. Susannah and two of her children were then reunited with her husband in Quebec (1757), though he died soon afterwards. Susannah returned to Charlestown with her children and later published an account of her adventures in A Narrative of Mrs Johnson (1796). She later remarried and became Mrs Hastings.

Johnston, Betty Joan Harris, Lady – (1916 – 1994) 
British educator and churchwoman
Betty Harris was the daughter of Edward Harris, and was educated at Cheltenham Ladies’ College and at St Hugh’s College, Oxford. She studied jurisprudence and graduated becoming a lawyer at Gray’s Inn (1940). She was married (1947) to Sir Alexander Johnston (1905 – 1994) and the couple had two children. Her interest in the field of education was constant, and Lady Johnston served on many prominent committees concerned with educational standards and reforms. She was appointed chairperson of the Girls’ Public Day School Trust (1975), of the Association of the Governing Bodies of Girls’ Schools (1979), and of the Francis Holland Schools Trust (1978), which was run by the Church of England. Lady Johnston also acted as Standing Counsel to the General Synod of the Church of England (1983 – 1988).

Johnston, Carmen Mary – (1925 – 2003)
Australian nurse and war veteran
Carmen Virgoe was (March 3, 1925) in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of a grazier, and was raised on a property at Casterton, where she became a skilled horsewoman. Her education at St Margaret’s Girls School in Berwick was ended when she joined the CWA (Country Women’s Association) to work on farms in the Western District of Victoria with the Women’s Land Army.
Johnston later trained as a nurse at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne (1948), and was awarded the Louisa Mann Gold Medal. She then embarked upon a highly successful career as a theatre nurse and administrator, and was married to radiologist Norman Johnston and adopted several children. She was later interviewed for the ABC television documentary Thanks Girls and Good-bye (1985) which recorded and assessed the vital importance of the work of the Women’s Land Army during WW II. Carmen Johnston died (Dec 5, 2003) aged seventy-eight, in Hamilton, Victoria.

Johnston, Frances Benjamin – (1864 – 1952)
American photographer
Frances Johnston was born (Jan 15, 1864) in Grafton, West Virginia. She studied art abroad in Paris, at the Academie Julian (1883 – 1885), and later in Washington, D.C. Johnston studied photography under Thomas William Smillie at the Smithsonian Institute, before establishing her own studio in Washington. Frances Johnston established an exhibition of work of over two dozen female photographers, for display at the Exposition Universelle in Paris (1900). She worked as a magazine correspondent, and then collaborated with the famous architectural photographer, Mattie Edwards Hewitt (1913 – 1917). Johnston was best known for her portraits and architectural photography, and for the use of platinum and silver in printing. Frances Johnston died (May 16, 1952) aged eighty-eight, in New Orleans, Lousiana.

Johnston, Henrietta Cecilia West, Lady – (1727 – 1817)
British Hanoverian society figure and letter writer
Lady Henrietta West was the daughter of Earl De La Warr. She became the wife of General James Johnston (1724 – 1797) and was a prominent society and salon figure, her circle of friends including Horace Walpole, Horace Mann, Lady Mary Coke, and Lord Mount Edgecumbe. Her correspondence with Horace Walpole has survived.

Johnston, Henrietta Deering – (c1665 – 1728)
Irish-American painter and artist
Henrietta Johnston is considered to be possibly the first known professional female artist in the history of the USA. She was born in Dublin, where she had some training as an artist, and became the second wife of clergyman. With her husband and stepchildren she immigrated to South Carolina in America (1708). Due to the poor state of the family’s finances, Henrietta Johnston turned her hand at pastel portraits, mainly of prominent citizens of Charleston including that of Colonel Samuel Prioleau (1715), and of which over forty survived.
Henrietta was left in straitened financial circumstances when her husband drowned in Charleston Bay (1716), and she vainly petitioned the Church of England for a widow’s pension. She later visited New York, where she worked producing pastel portraits. Henrietta Johnston died (March, 1728) in Charleston and was buried there.

Johnston, Mary – (1870 – 1936)
American writer and novelist
Mary Johnston was born (Nov 21, 1870) in Buchanan, Virginia. She was the author of many works including Prisoners of Hope (1898), To Have and To Hold (1899), Cease Firing (1912), Croatan (1923) and The Exile (1927). Mary Johnston died (May 9, 1936) aged sixty-five.

Johnstone, Dorothy – (1892 – 1980)
Scottish painter
Dorothy Johnstone was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of artist George Whitton Johnstone, and became the wife (1924) of artist D.M. Sutherland. Educated at the Edinburgh College of Art, she became especially known for her portraits and figure studies. Dorothy was elected Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1962. The Aberdeen Art Gallery and Fine Art Society held a major exhbition of her work in 1983.

Johnstone, Isobel – (1781 – 1857)
Scottish culinary writer, novelist and journalist
Christian Isobel Johnstone was born in Fife. She was the author of several popular historical novels such as Clan Albyn, A National Tale (1815) and Elizabeth de Bruce (1827) the story of the wife of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce. However, her most famous work was The Cook and Housewife’s Manual (1826) which became popularly known as Meg Dod’s Cookery, and which tome provided recipes for Scottish culinary specialites.

Joigny, Charlotte de   see   Chalons, Charlotte de

Joinville, Helvide de – (c1232 – after 1312)
French medieval heiress
Helvide de Joinville was the youngest child of Simon I, seigneur de Joinville (c1168 – 1233), the royal seneschal of Champagne, and his second wife Beatrix, formerly the divorced wife of Aimon de Faucigny, and the daughter of Stephen III of Burgundy (c1173 – 1241), count of Auxonne. Helvide was married (1255) to Jean I de Faucogney (died c1273), Vicomte de Vesoul, whom she survived four decades, still living as his widow in 1312.
Her son, Aimon IV de Faucogney (born c1260) was a minor at his father’s death, and he permitted his mother to keep the use of Vesoul for her lifetime. At her death it finally passed back to the control of Helvide’s grandson, Jean II de Faucogney (c1285 – 1318).

Jolberg, Regine – (1800 – 1870)
Jewish-German educator
Regine Jolberg was born (June 30, 1800) at Frankfurt-am-Main, the daughter of a banker. She later converted to Christianity with her second husband. Jolberg established a school to train children’s nannies in Leutersheim, but was forced to leave the region after the political upheavals of 1848. She later relocated her training service to Nonnenweiler. Regine Jolberg died (March 5, 1870) aged sixty-nine, at Nonnenweiler.

Jolenta/Joletta of Dreux    see   Yolande of Dreux

Jolicoeur, Marie-Ange – (1947 – 1976)
Haitian poet and musician
Renee Marie-Ange Jolicoeur was born at Jacmel (July 20, 1947). She was the author of Guitare de vers (1969), Violon d’espoir (1970) and Oiseaux de memoire (1972). Marie-Ange Jolicoeur died (July 23, 1976) aged twenty-nine, at Lille in Flanders, France.

Joliot-Curie, Irene – (1897 – 1956)
French physicist
Irene Curie was the elder daughter of Pierre Curie and his wife Marie Sklodowska. She was educated at home by her mother, and worked as a hospital radiographer during WW I. Irene began her own research at the Radium Institute (1921), where she worked with her mother, and was married (1926) to the French physicist Frederic Joliot, and the couple collaborated their research.
Irene and her husband created the first artificial radioisotope, which led to the production of a radioactive isotope of phosphorus. She and her husband were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1935). Their discoveries were fantastically important for research, and had vital applications in industry, medicine, and science. During WW II she escaped Paris, and found safety in Switzerland.
With the defeat of the Nazis she returned to Paris and was appointed as director of the Radium Institute (1946), and was a director of the French Atomic Energy Commission. Irene Jolie-Curie died of leukaemia, due to the dangerous nature of her research.

Jolley, Elizabeth – (1923 – 2007)
Anglo-Australian novelist and dramatist
Born Monica Elizabeth Knight (June 4, 1923) at Birmingham in Lancashire, England, she was the daughter of a Quaker. Elizabeth was educated privately at home, and later attended the Quaker school at Sibford in Oxfordshire. She trained as a nurse, married, and produced several children. Jolley immigrated to Australia with her husband and children (1959), and wrote stories for the BBC World Service. She went on to win the State of Victoria competition for short stories (1966), but her first novel Five Acre Virgin (1976) was only published when she was fifty-three.
Elizabeth then lectured in creative writing at the Curtin University in Perth (1978 – 1988).
Her later works included the novels Miss Peabody’s Inheritance (1979), The Newspaper of Claremont (1981), Mr Scobie’s Riddle (1982) which received The Age Book of the Year Award (1983) in Melbourne, Victoria, and The Well (1986) which won the prestigious Miles Franklin award. Jolley was also the author of the trilogy My Father’s Moon (1989), Cabin Fever (1990) and The Georges’ Wife (1993), which was semi-autobiographical, and dealt with the problems experienced by a Quaker woman who immigrated to Australia.
Elizabeth Jolley died aged eighty-three, in Western Australia. The Melbourne Writers Festival established the Elizabeth Jolley Lecture in her honour.

Jollie Smith, Christian Brynhild Ochiltree – (1885 – 1963)
Australian lawyer
Christian Jollie Smith was born (March 15, 1885) in Melbourne, Victoria. She was educated at the Presbyterian Ladies’ College and then studied law at Melbourne University. After establishing herself as a lawyer, Jollie-Smith was a friend of the noted author Katharine Susannah Prichard and the poet and dramatist Louis Esson (1878 – 1943), she later removed to Sydney in New South Wales where she became one of the foundation member of the Communist Party. She acted in several high-profile legal cases, such as that brought by Premier Sir Robert Menzies against the politician Herbert Vere Evatt (1894 – 1965) in his unsuccessful attempt to ban the Communist Party (1951). Christian Jollie-Smith died (Jan 14, 1963) aged seventy-seven, in Sydney.

Jonas, Hildegard – (1915 – 1973)
German soprano
Jonas was born (Nov 2, 1915) in Emmerich, and was trained as a singer in Berlin. She made her stage debut as Siegelinde in Die Walkure in Troppau, Silesia (1940). She sang in opera in Vienna and in Leipzig, Dresden and at Karlsruhe in Baden before joining the Nuremberg opera (1951 – 1967). Jonas was particularly admired in the role of Senta in Die fliegende Hollander. Hildegard Jonas died (Feb 27, 1973) aged fifty-five, at Laufran-der-Pegitz.

Jonay, Roberta – (1922 – 1976)
American dancer, vocalist and choreographer
Roberta Jonay was born (Oct 15, 1922) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She appeared in several films through contract with Paramount Studios (1944 – 1948) in Hollywood. Roberta Jonay died (April 19, 1976) aged fifty-three, in Tarzana, California.

Jones, Agnes Elizabeth – (1832 – 1868)
British nurse and pioneer exponent of workhouse nursing for the care of the poor
Agnes Jones was born (Nov 10, 1832) to Irish parents in Cambridge, the daughter of an army officer. Because of her father’s position she spent six years of her childhood living in Mauritius (1837 – 1843). Reserved by nature and religious by inclination, she attended school at Stratford-on-Avon, but left with the death of her father. She later travelled to Kaiserswerth, on the Rhine, in Germany, where she saw a Protestant sisterhood devoted to the training of nurse. She trained there herself, and on her return to London, wished to join the nurses organized by Florence Nightingale. However, her widowed mother was against this idea, so she sought employment instead with the Bible and Female Domestic Mission in London (1861).
Jones was later able to join Nightingale’s nurses at St Thomas’s Hospital as a probationer (1863) and then joined the staff of the Great Northern Hospital. She was later appointed as matron (1865) of the Liverpool Infirmary, with a staff of over fifty nurses. Agnes Jones died (Feb 19, 1868) at Liverpool, aged only thirty-five, of typhus contracted whilst engaged in her work. She was eulogized as ‘Una’ by Florence Nightingale in her work Good Words (1868).

Jones, Avonia – (1836 – 1867)
American stage actress
Avonia Jones was born in New York and made her stage debut at Cincinnati, Ohio (1858). She later came to Australia (1859), and began a successful season in Sydney, New South Wales (1861). She was married (1861) to fellow actor, Gustavus Vaughan Brooke (1818 – 1866), as his second wife. Avonia Jones died (Oct, 1867) of tuberculosis in New York.

Jones, Barbara Althea – (1937 – 1972)
Jamaican poet
Barbara Jones was born in Trinidad, and was educated there, where she was trained an employed as an agricultural research scientist. She later resigned her career in science and went to live in Canada. She left a collection of verse Among the Potatoes: a collection of modern verse (1967) for which she did the illustrations, and which was divided into four parts. Barbara Jones died at Montreal in Canada.

Jones, Carolyn – (1929 – 1983)
American film and television actress and author
Carolyn Jones was born (April 28, 1929) in Amarillo, Texas. Beautiful with a waif-like quality, she appeared in unusual roles, but was by far best known for her portrayal of Morticia Addams in the popular televison comedy, The Addams Family (1964 – 1966). Her film credits included House of Wax (1953), Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1955), Johnny Trouble (1956), The Bachelor Party (1957) for which she received an Academy Award nomination for her role as a beatnik existentialist, Marjorie Morningstar (1957), King Creole (1958) with Elvis Presley, and The Dance of Death (1968). Jones also appeared in various television films such as Roots (1977) and The French Atlantic Affair (1980). Carolyn Jones published two novels. Carolyn Jones died (Aug 3, 1983) aged fifty-four, in Hollywood, California.

Jones, Cassandra Ides – (1948 – 1997)
American banking official and interior designer
Cassandra Ides was a native of Huntington, Long Island. She was married to Robert Childress Jones. Cassandra Jones served as an official of the Chase Manhattan Bank after a successful sexual discrimination case against the bank (1978) forced that institution to make more open avenues of promotion for women within the organization. She was posted to established credit positions in various European cities. With her retirement from the Chase Manahattan (1988), Jones established her own design firm, De La Verne Design in New York. Cassandra Jones died of breast cancer (Feb 6, 1997) aged forty-eight, in Manhattan.

Jones, Catherine – (c1665 – 1740) 
British literary patron
Lady Catherine Jones was the daughter of Richard Jones, first earl of Ranelagh and his first wife Elizabeth Willoughby, of Parham. She died unmarried. Catherine’s friend, the poet Mary Astell, began a correspondence with the Cambridge Platonist, John Norris, and these letters were published and dedicated to Astell by Lady Catherine (1695).

Jones, Charlotte – (1768 – 1847)
British painter
Charlotte Jones was born in Norfolk the daughter of Thomas Jones, of Cley. She went to London where she established herself as a professional painter. Jones was best known for her miniature portraits and exhibited her work at the Royal Academy at Somerset House (1801 – 1823), and her works include portraits of the noted playwright, William Shakespeare, wearing a black silk doublet and lawn hose (c1801 – 1823), the Prince Regent and Lady Caroline, and an unknown child in the guise of the Greek god Cupid.
Jones also produced twelve portrait studies of the Regent’s daughter, Princess Charlotte, to whom she was appointed as official miniature painter (1808) with the approval of the Prince of Wales and of the princess’s grandmother, Queen Charlotte. During her later years her eyesight began to fail. Charlotte Jones died (Sept 21, 1847) aged seventy-nine, in London.

Jones, Enid Bagnold, Lady     see   Bagnold, Enid Algerine

Jones, Georgeanna Seegar – (1912 – 2005)
American scientist and writer
Georgeanna Seegar was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a physician. She attended Goucher College, where she met her future husband, Howard Jones, then attached to John Hopkins University. Georgeanna Jones trained in scientific medicine and gynaceological research and was appointed (1938) as the director of the John Hopkins reproductive physiology laboratory, and the head of the gynaecological endocrine clinic at the John Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore. She succeeded in establishing the first IVF (invitro fertilisation program) in the USA (1981) after the successful birth of the first ’test tube baby’ Elizabeth Carr. Jones wrote many articles, manuals and textbooks, and with her husband she edited the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Survey. Georgeanna Jones died aged ninety-two.

Jones, Jennifer - (1919 - 2009)
American film actress
Born Phylis Lee Isley (March 2, 1919) in Tulsa, Oklahoma, she was the daughter of travelling actors. She attended the Northwestern University and went on to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Art in New York (1938).
Miss Isley made her film debut in Dick Tracy's G-Men (1939) and The New Frontier (1939) with John Wayne, after which she adopted the professional name of Jennifer Jones. She was then placed under contract by David O. Selznick under whose guidance she achieved international fame as St Bernadette Soubirous in The Song of Bernadette (1943) for which performance she received an Academy Award for Best Actress. Jones was nominated for Academy Awards for her performances in the films Since You Went Away (1944), Love Letters (1945), Duel in the Sun (1946), and Love Is a Many Splendored Thing (1955).
Her other film credits included Madame Bovary (1949), Ruby Gentry (1952), The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit (1956) opposite Gregory Peck, The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1957), A Farewell to Arms (1958), and The Towering Inferno (1974) with Fred Astaire as her love interest, in which she dramatically fell to her death from the scenic elevator, after helping to save two children. This last performance earned her a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress.
Her first husband was actor Robert Walker (1914 - 1951) from whom she was divorced (1945), her second (1949) was producer David Selznick (1902 - 1965), and her third (1971) was the noted industrialist Norton Simon (died 1993). She was the mother of actors Robert (born 1940) and Michael Walker (1941 - 2007). With the end of her acting career Miss Jones remains a virtual recluse and refused to grant interviews. Jennifer Jones died (Dec 17, 2009) aged ninety, in Malibu, California.

Jones, Kate – (1961 – 2008)
British publisher, literary agent and political supporter
Kate Jones organized the estate of the novelist Ian Fleming, originator of the James Bond character. She later organized the contract for the autobiography published by Cherie Blair, the wife of Prime Minister Tony Blair (1997 – 2007).

Jones, Katherine Boyle, Lady (Ranelagh) – (1614 – 1691)
English scholar and patron
Lady Katherine Boyle was the daughter of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork and his wife Catherine Fenton, She was married young (1630) to Arthur Jones, later second Viscount Ranelagh. After the birth of their fourth child, Katherine resided apart from her husband (1641 – 1670). Lady Jones was besieged at Athlone Castle by Irish rebels in 1641, but she managed to obtain a safe conduct to depart with her immediate household, and then travelled to England, where she resided the rest of her life.
In England her home became a haven for Irish Protestants and intellectuals, including the German émigré Henry Oldenburg and the poet, John Milton, who was the tutor to her son. She encouraged the reform of the legal and medical professions, and of the education system. She also patronised the work of her younger brother, the noted scientist, Robert Boyle, for whom she built a laboratory in her own house in Pall Mall, London.

Jones, Dame Katharine Henrietta – (1888 – 1967)
British nurse and military matron
Katharine Jones was born (Feb 3, 1888) the daughter of an official in the Bengal civil service, and was educated at Beccles, Suffolk, and abroad in Germany. Jones trained as a nurse at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London (1913 – 1917) and then joined the Q.A.I.M.N.S. (Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service) and served in France during the Great War. Prior to WW II Jones served with nursing units in Palestine (1937) and with the advent of WW II she was appointed as matron-in-chief by the war office (1940 – 1944). She was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1942) in recognition of her valuable work. Dame Katharine Jones died (Dec 29, 1967) aged seventy-nine.

Jones, Lois Maillou – (1905 – 1998)
Black American painter
Lois Jones was born in Boston, the daughter of a lawyer and a beautician. She had drawing classes from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and had her first exhibition at Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts (1922). Jones taught art at the Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia before joining the faculty of Howard University (1930). In 1934 she began her research and study of African masks, which would later become the central motif of her paintings such as Les Fetiches (1938), an image of five African masks, produced in the modernist style and exhibited in Paris.
Jones married (1953) the Haitian artist Louis Vergniaud Pierre-Noel, and visited Haiti and Africa extensively, documenting the work of artists in the Caribbean and the United States. Some of her pupils included the sculptor Martha Jackson-Jarvis and the painter David C. Driskell. She retired from teaching (1977), but continued to lecture and exhibit her work world-wide. Honoured by President Carter for her achievements in the field of art (1980), examples of her work being preserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, and, the Hirschhorn Museum in Washington.

Jones, Margaret Mary Mackenzie – (1899 – 1999)
Australian physician
Margaret Jones was born at Ultimo in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of a lawyer. She began her eduation at the St Benedict School in Broadway, run by the Good Samaritan Sisters, and won a state bursary to attend the College of St Scholastica at Glebe (1912). She graduated in medicine and surgery from Sydney University (1923).
With the assistance of James Duhig, Archbishop of Brisbane, Margaret was appointed resident medical officer at St Vincent’s Hospital at Toowoomba in Queensland. When she later joined the staff of the Kenmore Psychiatric Hospital in Goulbourn she was paid the same salary as her male colleagues. Jones served with the National Emergency Service during World War II at the Rachel Forster Hospital for Women and Children, and is credited as being the first person to establish part-time working conditions for female physicians. Widowed (1972), she died in Sydney aged almost one hundred.

Jones, Margo – (1912 – 1955)
American theatrical producer and stage director
Margo Jones was born (Dec 12, 1912) in Lexington, Texas, the daughter of a lawyer, and graduated from the College of Industrial Arts in Denton (later the University of Texas). She produced several works by Tennessee Williams for the stage such as You Touched Me (1942) and The Glass Menagerie (1944), and was the founder of Theater ’47 – 50’ in Dallas and was the author of memoirs Theatre-in-the-Round (1951). Margo Jones died (July 24, 1955) aged forty-two, as the result of a freak accident in her own home.

Jones, Mary – (1707 – 1778)
British Hanoverian poet
Mary Jones was the daughter of Oliver Jones, of St Aldate’s, Oxford, and began translating works from Italian in her mid-teens. She never married and resided for most of her life in the household of her brother, Oliver Jones, later the senior chaplain of Christ Church Cathedral. Jones corresponded with a variety of persons, some attached to the royal court, such as Martha Lovelace, Lady Beauclerk, and many of her letters and poems survive. Her most famous works were the ballad The Lass of the Hill (1742) and Epistle from Fern Hill (1750) addressed to her friend Charlot Clayton. With her brother’s death (1775) she was appointed as postmistress of Oxford. Mary Jones died (Feb, 1778) aged seventy.

Jones, Mary Berkeley, Lady see Berkeley, Mary

Jones, Mary Harris – (1830 – 1930)
Irish-American labour leader agitator
Mary Harris was born in County Cork and immigrated to the USA through Canada with her family as a small child (1835). She worked as ateacher in a convent in Michigan, and then worked as a dressmaker in Chicago. Her husband and four children died during a yellow fever epidemic (1867) and Mary Jones then lost her house in the famous Chicago Fire (1871). These personal disasters strengthened her own resolve to work to improve the the labour conditions of the poor, most notably coalminers and child labourers. She travelled greatly and visited the areas of labour unrest, sometimes at peril of her own life.
When she went to Colorado to campaign on behalf of the striking miners there (1904), she was expelled from the state. Popularly known as ‘Mother Jones’ she was even imprisoned on a charge of conspiracy to murder, at the age of eighty-two (1912) though she quickly released by the succeeding governor of West Virginia. She attended the Pan-American Federation of Labor meeting in Mexico at the age of ninety-one (1921), and published The Autobiography of Mother Jones (1925). Mary Harris Jones died in Maryland, Baltimore.

Jones, Ruth    see   Washington, Dinah

Jones, Sheridan     see    Chesterton, Ada Elizabeth

Jonker, Elisabeth Fraser    see    Fraser, Elisabeth

Joplin, Janis Lyn – (1943 – 1970)
American popular vocalist
Janis Joplin was born (Jan 19, 1943) in Port Arthur, Texas. Possessed of great talent and a self-destructive streak, she began her career singing in nightclubs in Houston, before joining Big Brother and the Holding Company, with whom she recorded two albums (1967 – 1968). Considered the finest white female blues singer to ever record, she was best remembered for such popular songs as ‘Me and Bobby McGee’ and ‘Piece of My Heart.’
Though her group was extremely successful, Joplin broke them up in order to form the Kozmic Blues Band (1969), and then the Full Tilt Boogie Band. With the latter she recorded the unfinished album Pearl, which was released posthumously (1971). Janis Joplin died young (Oct 4, 1970), of a drug overdose in Hollywood, California, aged twenty-seven. She was memorably portrayed by actress Bette Midler in the famous film The Rose (1979).

Jorda i Puigmolto, Milagros – (1823 – 1886)
Spanish poet
Milagros Jorda i Puigmolto was born at Alcoy, in Alicante, into a wealthy upper class family. She was educated by nuns at the convent de las Salesas in Orihuela, Alicante. Pious by nature, she was involved in many philanthropic church activities and charitable concerns.
During the latter part of her life, she retired to the convent of the Salesas. Milagros  had contributed poems and tales from local folk-lore to several local Catalan periodicals, and just prior to her death, she arranged for the publication of a collection of religious poems entitled Album poetico dedicado a la Purisima Concepcion de la Fuente Roja, amadisima patrona de Alcoy con motivo de la restauracion de su santuario (1886).

Jordan, Barbara Charline – (1936 – 1996)
Black American politician and Congresswoman
Barbara Jordan was born (Feb 21, 1936) in Houston, Texas, and attended university there and in Boston, Massachusetts, where she was the first black student to enroll at the Boston University Law School (1956 – 1959). Jordan became a lawyer in Texas, and then served in the Texas Senate (1966 – 1972). She was then elected to the US House of Representatives (1973 – 1978), becoming the first woman, and first black woman to address a Democratic National Convention (1976). She was an academic at the University of Texas (1979 – 1982) and was later appointed as special counsel to the House Judiciary Committee (1991) by the governor of Texas. She was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1990) and the African-American Hall of Fame (1993). Jordan published her autobiography Barbara Jordan: A Self-Portrait (1979). Barbara Jordan died (Jan 17, 1996) aged fifty-nine, in Austin, Texas.

Jordan, Dorothea (Dorothy) – (1762 – 1816)
Irish stage actress
Sometimes known as Dorothy Bland, she was born near Waterford, and was the illegitimate daughter of an actor. She made her debut on the Dublin stage (1777) and later worked with the Tate Wilkinson Company at Leeds in Yorkshire (1782). It was at this time, due to the fact of pregnancy, that she adopted the name of ‘Mrs Jordan.’ Jordan appeared at the Drury Lane Theatre in London as Peggy in The Country Girl (1785) and was especially popular in male (‘breeches’) parts such as Sir Harry Wildair, Rosalind, and Viola.
After several years playing on the York circuit (1782 – 1785), she then became famous as the mistress (1790) of Prince William, Duke of Clarence (later King William IV), to whom she bore a large family of children, whom he acknowledged and made suitable provision for, granting them the surname of ‘Fitzclarence’ and granting them the rank of children of a duke. The liasion lasted for several decades, but eventually the couple seperated. Dorothy continued to work both in London and in the rural theatres until 1814, when poverty forced her to retire from Covent Garden, and travel to France, where she died. She was the author of the comic play The Spoiled Child. Dorothea Jordan was painted by Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Romney, amongst other, and her portraits survive.

Jordan, Sara Claudia Murray – (1884 – 1959)
American physician
Sara Claudia Murray was born (Oct 20, 1884) in Newton, Massachusetts, the daughter of a carriage repairman. She attended secondary school in Newton before studying medicine at Radcliffe College. After further study abroad in Munich, Bavaria she was married (1913 – 1921) to a German lawyer, Sebastian Jordan, to whom she bore a daughter. The couple were later divorced.
Sara Jordan was appointed as the director of gastroenterology at the Lahey Clinic in Boston, Massachusetts, and was elected as the first female president of the American Gastroenterology (1942 – 1944). She was the recipient of the Elizabeth Blackwell Citation (1951) and received the Julius Friedenwald Medal (1952) for her work in the field of gastroenterology. Together with Sheila Hibben she co-wrote the cookery book Good Food for Bad Stomachs (1951). Sara Jordan died (Nov 21, 1959) aged eighty-five, in Boston.

Jordan-Lloyd, Dorothy – (1889 – 1946)
British biochemist
Dorothy Jordan-Lloyd was the daughter of a physician academic. She studied at King Edward’s High School, at Birmingham in Lancashire, and at Newnham College, Cambridge. She conducted important bacteriological research for the Medical Research Committee (1914 – 1918), and was awarded the Fraser Moffatt Muir Medal of the Tanners Council of America (1939). She served as vice-president of the Royal Institute of Chemists, and was the author of The Chemistry of Proteins (1926).

Jorre, Claude Marcelle    see   Jade, Claude

Jorre de St Jorre, Danielle Marie – (1941 – 1997)
French diplomat and official
The secretary of Sate for the Department of Planning and External Relations for the Seychelle Islands (1986 – 1997), Jorre de St Jorre was born (Sept 30, 1941) and attended university in Edinburgh, Scotland, and in London, and York, being trained as a schoolteacher. Her marriage produced two children but ended in divorce. Danielle Jorre de St Jorre was appointed as the principal education officer for the Ministry of Education in the Seychelles (1976 – 1977). She then served as the minister of Education and Information (1980 – 1982) and was appointed as ambassador to France, Germany, Greece, and Russia (1983 – 1985). Her published works included Apprenons la nouvelle orthographe (1978) and Dictionnaire Creole Seychellois-francais (1982). Danielle Jorre de St Jorre died (Feb 25, 1997) aged fifty-five.

Jorunn Hermundarsdotter – (c1239 – c1290) 
Icelandic visionary poet (skald)
At the age of sixteen she experienced visions which were responsible for her authorship of eight stanzas of dream verse in Islendinga saga, part of the Sturlunga Saga, written by Sturla Poroarsson. This work was an account of current political events in contemporary Iceland, which was then experiencing the decline of its old republican status. Her surviving verses are the largest known work which can be attributed to any female skald from the Old Norse period, and reveal that Icelandic women continued to practice poetry after their country was converted to Christianity.

Joseph, Mother Mary     see     Rogers, Mary Josephine

Josepha of Benignam   see   Albiniana, Ines

Josepha Amalia – (1803 – 1829)
Queen consort of Spain (1819 – 1829)
Princess Josepha was born (Dec 6, 1803) in Dresden, the fourth and youngest daughter of Prince Maximilian, Duke of Saxony (1759 – 1838), and his wife Princess Carolina of Bourbon-Parma (1770 – 1804), the daughter of Ferdinando, Duke of Parma.  She was sister to King Friedrich II Augustus of Saxony (1836 – 1854). Her full name was Maria Josepha Amalia Beatrix Xaviera Vincentia Aloysius Franziska de Paula, Franziska de Chantal Anna Apollonia Johanna Nepomucena Walburga Theresia Ambrosie, and she was a descendant of both the Hapsburg empress Maria Theresa and of Louis XV, King of France (1715 – 1774).
Princess Josepha became the fourth wife (1819) of King Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784 – 1833). After the proxy ceremony in Dresden, the new queen travelled to Madrid, where she was married to King Ferdinand in person (Oct 20, 1819). The marriage remained childless and was a dynastic failure. The queen was possessed of a fervently pious nature, which did little to endear her to her husband. The American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807 – 1882) described the queen as ‘eaten up with the most gloomy religious frenzy.’ Queen Josepha Amalia died (May 17, 1829) aged twenty-five, at Aranjuez Castle, near Madrid.

Josephine – (1763 – 1814) 
French empress consort (1804 – 1810)
Marie Josephe Tascher de La Pagerie was born at Trois-Ilets in Martinique, the daughter of Joseph Gaspard Tascher de La Pagerie, and his wife Rose Claire des Verges de Sannois. She married firstly (1779) to Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais, to whom she bore two children, Hortense and Eugene. The marriage did not prove congenial and the couple later resided seperately (1785).
After a brief return to Martinique which was experiencing internal slave troubles, she returned to Paris and established her own salon. Her husband had originally served with the Jacobins with the onset of the Revolution, but he fell foul of them and was executed (June, 1794). Arrested herself she survived the threat of the guillotine and remarried (1796) to the Corsican general Napoleon Bonaparte, who was now making a great name for himself. She accompanied him on his Italian campaign the same year, but soon returmed to Paris. Gossip fuelled by Napoleon’s family, most of who hated her, accused her of an adulterous liasion with the famous dandy Hippolyte Charles during Napoleon’s absence in Egypt (1798 – 1799).
With Napoleon’s assumption of the Imperial style, she was crowned empress with him at the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Dec 4, 1804), and attracted a brilliant court around her at the various Imperial residences at the Luxembourg and Tuileries palaces, as well as at her own favourite palace of Malmaison, which helped to consolidate her husband’s power, though she remained hopelessly extravagant. However, she was finally divorced because of Napoleon’s need for an heir (1810), despite his great personal affection for her, which never disappeared. She fainted upon hearing the news.
Josephine retained the title and rank of empress after her divorce and retired to Malamaison, where she maintained her own little court. With the downfall of Napoleon (1814) the empress remained undisturbed at Malmaison under the protection of the Russian tsar Alexander I and died herself soon afterwards (May 29, 1814). She was interred in the grounds of Malmaison. Of her two children, Hortense married Napoleon’s brother Louis, King of Holland and became the mother of the emperor Napoleon III, whilst Eugene was made Duke of Leuchtenburg, and left many descendants.

Josephine of Savoy (Marie Josephine Louise) – (1753 – 1810)
Queen consort of France in exile (1795 – 1810)
She was born Princess Maria Giuseppina Luigia (Sept 2, 1753) at Turin, Piedmont, the second daughter of Vittorio Amadeo III of Savoy, King of Sardinia, and his wife Antoinetta, the daughter of Philip V, king of Spain (1700 – 1746). Her elder sister Carlotta died an infant (1753).  Josephine (as she was called at the French court) was married (1771) at Versailles to Louis, Comte de Provence (1755 – 1824), king of France in exile (1795 – 1814) and in fact (1814 – 1824) as Louis XVIII. She was the sister-in-law to Louis XVI and the ill-fated Marie Antoinette. Her younger sister Marie Therese became the wife of her husband’s younger brother, Charles, Comte d’Artois, later King Charles X (1824 – 1830). Her husband’s sister Clothilde de Bourbon became the wife of her brother Carlo Emanuele IV, king of Sardinia.
Madame de Provence was unattractive, possessed of an unpleasant disposition, and her marriage remained childless. She consoled herself with the rather dubious affections of her companion Madame de Gourbillon to such an extent that Louis XVI ordered the woman from court. The Comte installed his mistress, the Comtesse de Balbi at the Chateau de Brunoy, and the couple resided much apart. She and her husband both shared the royal family’s captivity at St Cloud and the Tuileries during the initial outbreak of the Revoution. At the time of the ill-fated flight to Varennes (1791), the Comte and Comtesse successfully escaped from Paris by emigrating seperately, in order to avoid detection and capture and met at Montmedy. They waited there until they received news of the royal family’s capture, and only then crossed the border, and were escorted to safety in Brussels where Madame de Provence was reconciled with her sister, Madame d’Artois. The couple resided in state in Brussels, and the comtesse received diplomats and other foreign officials.
The Comtesse de Provence became queen of France when her husband assumed the royal title with the death of his nephew, Louis XVII (1795), and their court became the focal point of royalist emigres abroad. The couple resided at Mittau in Kurland (1797 – 1801) and then resided in Warsaw, Poland (1801 – 1804). The Treaty of Tilsit (1807) forced the couple to retire to live in England, the queen travelling there incognito as the Comtesse de Lille, with her household. Queen Josephine joined her husband at Gosfield in Essex, before finally removing to Hartwell in Buckinghamshire. The queen died (Nov 10, 1810) at Hartwell, aged fifty-seven. Her remains rested temporarily in Westminster Abbey, London, before being transported to Sardinia for internment in Cagliari Cathedral.

Josephine Charlotte – (1927 – 2005)
Grand duchess consort of Luxemburg (1964 – 2001)
The princess was born Josephine Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Marie-Jose Margeurite Astrid (Oct 11, 1927) at Laeken Palace in Brussels, the only daughter of Leopold III, King of the Belgians and his first wife Astrid of Sweden. She was sister to two Belgian kings, Baudoin I and Albert II, and was raised at Stuyvenberg Castle. The princess was later kept a prisoner with her family in Germany during the latter part of WW II (1944 – 1945), after which they family resided in Pregny, Switzerland.
Princess Josephine finished her education at the University of Geneva, and was then married (1953) to Grand duke Jean (born 1921), who later abdicated (2001) in favour of their eldest son Henri (born 1955). Her daughter Marie Astrid (1954), who married the Hapsburg archduke Lorenzo, was long touted as the future bride of Charles, Prince of Wales, son and heir of Queen Elizabeth II. As grand duchess she served as the president of the Luxembourgian Youth Red Cross (1959 – 1970) and was president of the Luxembourgian Red Cross for almost four decades (1964 – 2001).
The Grand Duchess, whose health had deteriorated after sufferring a stroke, gave filmed interviews for the six-part television serial of the history of the descendants of Christian IX of Denmark (1863 – 1906) entitled A Royal Family (2004), produced by Marcus Mandal and Anna Lerche. Grand Duchess Josephine Charlotte died (Jan 10, 2005) aged seventy-seven, at Fischbach Castle, Luxemburg.

Josephine Ferdinanda Johanna Ambrosia – (1775 – 1777)
Hapsburg archduchess of Austria and princess of Lorraine
The archduchess was born (May 13, 1775) at Milan in Lombardy, the third daughter of Archduke Ferdinando, Duke of Modena, and his wife Maria Beatrice d’Este, the daughter of Ercole III, duke of Modena. She bore the additional imperial titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Modena. Archduchess Josephine died (Aug 20, 1777) aged two years, in Milan.

Josephine Maximiliane Eugenie Napoleone – (1807 – 1876)
Queen consort of Sweden (1844 – 1859)
Josephine was born (March 14, 1807) in Milan, Italy, the daughter of Eugene de Beauharnais, duke of Leuchtenberg, the son of the empress Josephine, and the stepson of Napoleon I. Her mother Augusta Amalia of Bavaria was the daughter of Maximilian I, King of Bavaria. Josephine was the niece of Queen Hortense of Holland and the first cousin of the last French emperor, Napoleon III. Josephine was married (1823) at Leuchtenberg Palace to Crown Prince Oskar (1799 – 1859), who succeeded his father Carl XIV Johann Bernadotte as King of Sweden and Norway (1844). Princess Josephine herself was a descendant of Gustavus I, king of Sweden of the ancient Vasa dynasty, and she bore her husband five children, including two kings, Karl XV (1826 – 1872) and Oskar II (1829 – 1907). Josephine survived her husband as Queen Dowager (1859 – 1876). Some pieces of her jewellery form part of the Royal Collection in Stockholm. Queen Josephine died (June 7, 1876) aged sixty-nine.

Joshee, Anandabai – (1865 – 1887)
Indian physician
Anandabai Joshee was the daughter of Ganpatrao Johsi, a wealthy landowner of Pune. She was married (1874) to a postal clerk, who took over her education. With the death of their only child, she decided to study medicine and sailed to the USA alone (1883). She attended the Women’s Medical College in Philadelphia, and was the first Hindu Indian woman to receive a medical degree (1886). She was appointed as the resident physician at the Albert Edward Hospital in Kolhapur, but died of tuberculosis.

Joshi, Kalpana – (1913 – 1995)
Indian political activist and freedom fighter
Kalpana Dutt was born in Bengal, the daughter of Binodbehari Dutt. She attended college where she became involved with the revolutionary movement aimed as ousting British rule. She was a participant in the famous Chittaging Armoury Raid (1933), for which she sufferred several years imprisonment. She later joined the Communist Party (1942).

Jotuni, Maria – (1880 – 1943)
Finnish novelist and dramatist, she was born Maria Tarkiainen in Kuopi and studied literature. She adopted the literary surname of ‘Jotuni.’ Her first work Suhteital (Relationships) (1905) was a collection of stories which dealt with contemporary village life. This was followed by the collection of short stories entitled, Tytto ruusutarhassa (The Girl in the Rose Arbour) (1927). Her published plays included Vanka koti (The Old Home) (1910) and Kultainen vvasikka (The Golden Calf) (1918).

Jourdain, Emily Margaret – (1876 – 1951)
British interior designer
Emily Jourdain established herself as a leading popular authority on furniture and household decoration.

Jourdemain, Margery – (c1380 – c1444)
English witch
Margery Jourdemain was popularly known as the ‘witch of Eye,’ and was arrested as a criminal accomplice of Eleanor de Cobham, mistress and then second wife of Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, brother to Henry V. She was tried and condemned, being publicly burnt alive.

Journalgyaw Ma-Ma Lay – (1916 – 1985)
Burmese writer and novelist
Journalgyaw Ma-Ma Lay was born in Pyapon. As well as becaming the publisher and editor of the weekly newspaper and of the Peoples’ Forum Daily Literary Journal, she was elected as president of the Burmese Writers’ Association (1955).

Journel, Emilie – (1774 – after 1836)
French émigré, traveller and memoirist
Born Emilie Millon d’Ailly de Verneuil, she was raised near the court of Louis XVI at Versailles. The family later immigrated to the USA for a brief period (1799) before returning to France. Emilie was married three times and bore several children, and later spent several years in Holland. Her memoirs of the period were published posthumously as Papiers et souvenirs de famille. Le fond de mon tiroir, Cahiers confidentiels de Madame Journel nee Millon d’Ailly de Verneuil, de 1774 a 1833 (1940).

Joy, Leatrice – (1893 – 1985)
American film actress and author
Born Leatrice Joy Zeidler, she appeared in both silent films, mainly with her first husband, actor John Gilbert (1895 – 1936), and later managed the transtion to sound movies. Her silent credits included The Marriage Cheat (1921), The Ten Commandments (1923) and Dressmaker from Paris (1925). Her later film credits included First Love (1939) and Love Nest (1952).

Joyce, Adrien     see    Eastman, Carole

Joyce, Alice – (1899 – 1955)
American movie actress
Alice Joyce was best known for her appearances in silent films such as The Lion and the Mouse (1919), Cousin Kate (1921), The Green Goddess (1923) and Song O’ My Heart (1938).

Joyce, Brenda – (1917 – 2009)
American film actress
Born Betty Leabo (Feb 25, 1917) at Excelsior Springs in Missouri, she became a model before appearing in films. As ‘Brenda Joyce’ was a leading lady during the 1940’s. She made her film debut as Fern Simon in The Rains Came (1939) with Myrna Loy and Maria Ouspenskaya. This led to roles in films such as Maryland(1940), Private Nurse (1941), Whispering Ghost (1942), The Postman Didn’t Ring (1942), Strange Confessions (1945) and The Enchanted Forest (1946).
However she was best known for playing the role of Jane in several of the Tarzan films. She appeared as Jane with Johnny Weissmuller in Tarzan and the Amazons (1945), and reprised this role with Lex Barker in the title role in Tarzan and the Huntress (1947) and Tarzan’s Magic Fountain (1949). After her retirement from the movie industry Joyce joined the civil service and was employed by the immigration department. Brenda Joyce died (July 4, 2009) aged ninety-two, in Santa Monica in California.

Joyce, Eileen Alannah – (1912 – 1991)
Australian concert pianist
Eileen Joyce was born at Zeehan, Tasmania, and was educated at the Loreto College in Perth, Western Australia. She was a child prodigy and her exceptional talent was discovered by the composer Percy Grainger (1882 – 1961). She studied in Leipzig, Saxony, under the noted Austrian composer and pianist, Arthur Schnabel. The famous British conductor, Sir Henry Wood (1869 – 1944), assisted in organizing her career as a concert pianist. During WW II she gave radio concerts and travelled to entertain in towns that had sufferred during the bombings. She worked in collaboration with the conductor Malcolm Sargent (1895 – 1967) and with the London Philharmonic Orchestra. Joyce composed mucial soundtracks for several popular films such as Brief Encounter (1945) and The Seventh Veil (1945), and performed works by John Ireland (1879 – 1962) and Dimitri Shostakovich (1906 – 1975), amongst others.

Joyce, Yootha – (1927 – 1980)
British film and television character actress
Born Yootha Joyce Needham in London (Aug 20, 1927), she was married to actor Glynn Edwards (1956 – 1968) from whom she was later divorced. Joyce joined the Joan Littlewood Theatre Group, from whence she made her film debut in appeared in Sparrows Can’t Sing (1962). Other film credits included The Pumpkin Eater (1964) and Burke and Hare (1971).Best known for her appearances in the popular television comedies such as Me Mammy (1968 – 1971), A Man About the House (1973 – 1976) and George and Mildred (1976 – 1980) with Brian Murphy as her constantly disappointing husband.
Her last work was the feature film George and Mildred (1980). Yootha Joyce died (Aug 24, 1980) aged fifty-three, in London, after a long battle with alcoholism. A photograph of Yootha covered the sleeve of the music single Ask (1986) by the British band The Smiths and a tribute commentary entitled The Unforgettable Yootha Joyce (2001) was produced in her memory.

Joynt, Evelyn Gertrude – (1919 – 1991)
British director of the Girl Guides
Evelyn Joynt was born (Sept 5, 1919) in Dublin, Ireland, the daughter of a clergyman. She was educated at Enniskillen and then attended the Bainbridge Academy. During WW II she worked with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial service) and later transferred to the WRAC (Women’s Royal Army Corps) (1952 – 1967), serving for many years in the Middle East and achieving the rank of major. Joynt never married and served as the national general secretary of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) (1968 – 1971). Evelyn Joynt served as the director of the World Bureau of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (1971 – 1979).

Juana Manuel – (1339 – 1381)
Queen consort of Castile (1369 – 1381)
Infanta Juana Manuel was the daughter of Infante Juan Manuel of Castile (1282 – 1349), and his second wife, Blanca Nunez Lara de La Cerda. Through her parents, Juana was heiress to the estates of Escalona, Villena, and Pennafiel, which she received at the death of her niece, Blanca Fernandez Manuel (1361), and was also heiress of Lara and sovereign lady (senora soberana) of Vizcaya in the Basque region.  Juana was married (1350) to Don Enrique (1333 – 1379), the eldest illegitimate hafl-brother of Pedro I ‘the Cruel,’ King of Castile and Leon. Her husband became king in 1369, after deposing Pedro. She survived her husband as Queen Dowager (1379 – 1381), and died at Salamanca, aged forty-one (March 27, 1381). With her death Vizcaya became permanently united to the Spanish crown. Her children were,

Juana of Aragon (1) – (1455 – 1519)
Queen consort of Naples
Infanta Juana was the daughter of Juan II, King of Aragon and his second wife, Juana Enriquez, and was sister to King Ferdinand V, the husband of Queen Isabella. She was the paternal niece of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England (1509 – 1547). Juana was married (1476) to Ferrante I, King of Naples (1423 – 1494) as his second wife. She bore him an only daughter, Giovanna of Aragon (1478 – 1518). She was the stepmother of King Alfonso II (1494 – 1495) and King Federigo IV (1495 – 1501), who both abdicated before their deaths.
With her husband’s death the queen retired to her estates in Naples, surviving on a pension granted by her brother Ferdinand. When Henry VII of England was considering remarriage after the death of his queen, Elizabeth of York (1503) Juana’s daughter was suggested as a possible bride by her sister-in-law, Queen Isabella. The negotiations came to nothing and Giovanna was married to her nephew, Juana’s stepgrandson, King Ferrante II (1495 – 1496).

Juana of Aragon (2) – (1479 – 1555) 
Queen regnant of Castile (1504 – 1555) and of Aragon (1516 – 1555)
Infanta Juana was born at Toledo, the second daughter of Ferdinand V, King of Aragon, and his wife Isabella I, Queen of Castile. Considered the beauty of the family, her parents arranged her marriage (1496) with Philip ‘the Handsome’ of Burgundy, and the couple held their court at Ghent in Flanders. Their sons were the future Holy Roman emperors Charles V (1500 – 1558) and Ferdinand I (1503 – 1564).
With the death of Queen Isabella (1504), Juana succeeded her, and she and her husband removed to Spain (1506). Philip died soon afterwards and Juana, whose mental condition had always been unstable, now gave in completely to her grief-stricken melancholia, keeping constant vigil by his corpse, and her counsellors were only able to arrange for proper burial by stealing the king’s body as she slept. Henry VII of England sued unsuccessfully for her hand (1509), despite knowing of her condition, but soon afterwards she was declared unfit to govern and was placed under care in the castle of Tordesillas, with Philip’s embalmed body kept close by, whilst her father ruled Castile as regent in her staid. Her youngest child, the Infanta Catalina was born posthumously at Tordesillas. Her lunatic condition did not abate and she was popularly known as ‘Juana La Loca’ (Juana the Mad), which the English translated as ‘Crazy Jane.’
With her father Ferdinand’s death (1516) Juana’s claims were overlooked, and she was not released. She remained at Tordesillas for the rest of her long life, and died there a complete lunatic (April 11, 1555). Her grandson Philip II later had her remains interred in the Escorial Palace in Madrid (1574). Queen Juana’s long captivity had proved so suspicious a mystery that later revolts against her son Charles were organized on the premise that the queen was not insane at all. When Juan Padilla, a leader of the Comuero movement captured Tordesillas in order to get Juana to sign a document which would grant her consent to the movement, she implacably refused. During her later years her mad utterances aroused the interest of the Inquisition itself, and only the direct intervention of her son the emperor prevented Juana from being interrogated by them. Her tragic condition has been the subject of many contemporary and modern writers and biographers.

Juana Ines de la Cruz – (1648 – 1695)
Mexican feminist, poet, scholar and dramatist
Born Juana Ines de Asbaje y Ramirez de Santillana in San Miguel Nepantle, at Amecameca, near Mexico City, she was well educated at home then left to join the household of the Spanish vicereine, the Marquise de Mancera, in Mexico City. Disgusted by the frivolity of court life, and having no desire to marry she joined the Hieronymite convent in the city (1678), mainly so that she could pursue her studies without interruption.
Her work Respuesta (Response) (1691) was penned in reply to a bishop who though such scholarly pursuits infitting for a woman. She later sold all her personal effects in order to care for the poor during an epidemic of plague, which killed her. Sister Juana Ines is considered the first important literary figure in the New World, and was popularly referred to as the ‘Phoenix of Mexico’ and ‘the Mexican Nun.’

Jubitana – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
She perished in Nikomedia, Asia Minor, with many other Christians during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Jubitana was honoured as a saint, her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Feb 24).

Juch, Emma Antonia Joanna – (1863 – 1939)
Austrian soprano
Juch was born (July 4, 1863) in Vienna and studied singing in New York, USA. She made her operatic debut in London at Her Majesty’s Theatre (1882), and became a leading concert performer. Juch was then employed by the American Opera Company (1886 – 1887) before founding her own company. She performed in concert throughout the USA and Mexico. Emma Juch died (March 6, 1939) aged seventy-four, in New York.

Juda, Adele – (1888 – 1949)
German physician and neurologist
Juda was born (March 9, 1888) in Munich, Bavaria. She studied medicine and assisted the noted psychologist Ernst Rudel at the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich. Her research dealt particularly with heredity mental disorders. She established the Centre for Family Biology in Tyrol. Adele Juda died (Oct 31, 1949) aged sixty-one, in Innsbruck, Austria.

Judd, Winnie Ruth – (1905 – 1998)
American killer famous as the ‘Trunk murderess’
Dark-haired and attractive she was a married woman in Phoenix, Arizona, who murdered her two housemates, Agnes LeRoi and Hedwig Samuelson, after being aroused to jealousy by the attentions paid them by her won lover. Judd caused their remains to be dismembered and then placed into a large travelling trunk, which she sent to Los Angeles. Judd’s behaviour aroused suspicion when she came to collect the trunk, and she fled by car. When the trunk was forced open, she was arrested and charged with murder. Her story that she killed both women inself-defence was not believed, and she tried without success to make the court believe she was insane. Sentenced to life imprisonment, Wiinie Judd escaped several times before being released in parole (1971). She later worked as a housekeeper.

Judith – (fl. c550 BC)
Jewish heroine
Judith was the beautiful daughter of the wealthy Merari, and was married to Manasseh. When Palestine was overrun by the Babylonian troops of King Nenuchnezzar, she penetrated the enemy camp, and killed their general Holofernes whilst he slept, thus saving her hometown of Bethulia, and bringing general peace to Israel.

Judith of Altdorf – (805 – 843)
Holy Roman empress (819 – 840)
Judith was the daughter of Welf, Count of Altdorf in Bavaria, and his Saxon wife Heilwig of Engern. She became (819) the second wife of the Emperor Louis I the Pious and was mother of emperor Charles II ‘the Bald’ (877 – 879) and of his sister Gisela, who married Duke Eberhard of Friuli, of the Unruoching dynasty, and was mother to the emperor Berengar I of Friuli (843 – 924).
Her much older husband allowed her too much influence over political affairs, which became dangerous for her stepsons, after she gave birth to her son Charles. The empress was eventually (c829) accused of adultery with Duke Bernard of Septimania, and temporarily lost her Imperial titles and position, being immured withing a convent. Her husband quickly procured her release and reinstatement at court (830). Widowed in 840, Empress Judith died (April 9, 843) aged thirty-seven, at Tours, and was buried in the basilica of St Martin there.

Judith of Austria (Jutta, Guta) – (1271 – 1297)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1285 – 1297)
Princess Judith was born (March 13, 1271), the daughter of Rudolf of Austria, King of Germany, and his first wife Anna of Hohenberg. She was married (1285) to Wenzel II, King of Bohemia (1271 – 1305), as his first wife. The Bohemians called her Jutta. Her husband founded and gave to her as a gift, the ancient Bohemian town of Dvur Kralove (Koniginhof), situated on the left bank of the Elbe river in northeast Bohemia, which derived its named, which means ‘the court of the queen’ from that same gift. Queen Judith died aged twenty-six (June 18, 1297), from the effects of childbirth. Her children included,

Judith of Backnang – (c1052 – 1091)
German heiress and margravine of Verona
Judith was the daughter of Hesso, Count of Sulichgau and lord of Backnang. Sources which connect her with the family of the counts of Calve are incorrect. She was married (c1067) to Herman I of Carinthia, margrave of Verona and count of Bresigau, who became a monk shortly before his death at the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy (April 26, 1074). She survived her husband as the Dowager Margravine of Verona (1074 – 1091), and never remarried. She had brought the lordship of Baden to her eldest son Hermann, as his inheritance. It had formed part of the ancient Gallo-Roman province of Aurelia Aquensis. Judith was the mother of Hermann II, margrave of Verona (c1069 – 1130), and Lord of Baden (from 1112), married with issue. Judith died at Salerno in Sicily, aged about thirty-nine (Sept 27, 1091).

Judith of Bavaria – (919 – 987)
German heiress
Princess Judith was the daughter of Arnulf I, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Gerberga of Wurzburg, the daughter of Rudolf, Count of Wurzburg. She was married (936) to Henry of Saxony (917 – 955) the younger brother of the emperor Otto I. With the death of duke Arnulf (937) and Judith’s brother Berthold, Otto transferred the duchy of Bavaria to his brother Henry, who became duke of Bavaria in her right. With her husband’s early death (955) Judith took over the regency government for her five year-old son, Henry II the Quarrelsome (950 – 995).
The duchess was highly regarded by her contemporaries because of her beauty and religious piety. Judith’s policies forged dynastic links between Bavaria and the duchy of Swabia, and the kingdom of Burgundy. Prior to 973 the duchess travelled to Jerusalem in Palestine on a pilgrimage. With the failure of her sons’ first revolt against his cousin Otto II, Judith retired to the abbey of Neidermunster in Regensburg, Bavaria. Duchess Judith died (July 27, 987). She left six children,

Judith of Boulogne    see   Ida of Boulogne (1)

Judith of Brittany – (c982 – 1017)
Duchess consort of Normandy (c996 – 1017)
Judith was the daughter of Conan I le Tort (the Red), Duke of Brittany (990 – 992), and his second wife Ermengarde Gerberga, the daughter of Geoffrey I Grisgonelle (Grey-Gown) of Anjou. Her father was killed in battle at Conquereuil (992), and with her mother’s subsequent remarriage, Judith became the stepdaughter of William II (Guillaume) Taillefer, Count of Angouleme. Judith was married (c996) to Duke Richard II (982 – 1027) duke of Normandy (996 – 1026) as his first wife, around the same time that Richard’s sister Havisa (Hawise) became the wife of Judith’s only brother, Duke Geoffrey I Boterel, in a double dynastic alliance aimed at cementing the ties between the two ducal families. She and bore him several children.
Duchess Judith was the mother of dukes, Richard III (1027 – 1028) and Robert I the Magnificent (1028 – 1035) through whom she was the grandmother of William I the Conqueror, King of England (1066 – 1087), and thus ancestress of all his descendants. Among the possessions of the duchess was a large fief in the Lieuvin region, which formed part of her dowry. She established the Abbey of Bernay, which was completed shortly before her death (1016), and much of her estate was bequested by the duchess to Bernay in her will. Duchess Judith died (June 16, 1017) aged about thirty-five. She was interred within the basilica of Notre Dame de La Coutoure, near Bernay.

Judith of Ethiopia    see   Zauditu

Judith of Evreux – (c1044 – 1076)
Countess consort of Sicily (1072 – 1076)
Judith was the daughter of William, Count of Evreux in Normandy and his wife Hawise d’Enghien. Due to the early deaths of her parents she was placed under the guardianship of her half-brother, Robert de Grandmesnil, abbot of Saint-Evroul-sur-Ouche. When her brother quarrelled with William II of Normandy, he fled the country with Judith and two of their siblings, and made for Rome, where Robert de Grandmesnil hoped to procure them assistance from the papacy.
From there they travelled to Apulia, where Robert Guiscard built the abbey of Santa Eufemia in Calabria for Robert, and caused Judith to be married to his younger half-brother, Count Roger I of Sicily (de Hauteville), as his first wife. The marriage took place at San Martino d’Agri (1061). When Roger left her at Troina the following year, whilst he went on campaign in Sicily, the citizens attempted to make Judith a hostage. Roger returned and besieged Troina for four months before it was successfully lifted and Judith restored to him. Countess Judith left four children,

Judith of Neustria – (843 – c880)
Carolingian princess and Anglo-Saxon queen consort
Judith was born (Oct, 843), the eldest daughter of the Carolingian king (855 – 877) and later emperor (875 – 877), Charles II the Bald, and his first wife Ermentrude of Orleans, the daughter of Count Eudes (Odo). She was married firstly (856), at Verberie-sur-Oise, to the elderly widower, Aethelwulf, king of Wessex (c800 – 858), and became briefly the stepmother of Alfred the Great. She bore Aethelwulf a daughter Judith, who married Count Eticho of Ammergau, as his second wife. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle called her ‘Iothete.’
Aethelwulf was forced to abdicate (856) in favour of his eldest son Aethelbald (830 – 860), but with his death (Jan 13, 858), Aethelbald married his youthful stepmother. The church and public outcry was such that this marriage was annulled on the grounds of consanguinity (860). Queen Judith and her daughter returned to the French court. There she eloped with Baldwin Bras-der-Fer (Iron-Arm) and they were secretly married at the monastery of Senlis. Due to the intervention of Pope Nicholas I, King Charles accepted the marriage and appointed Baldwin as count of Flanders. With Baldwin’s death at Arras (879), Judith ruled briefly as regent fot their son Baldwin II (865 – 916), but appears to have died soon afterwards.

Judith of Oeningen – (c956 – c1033)
German mediaeval countess
Countess Judith was the daughter of Count Kuno of Oeningen in Boden, and his wife Richilda of Saxony, the illegitimate daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I (962 – 973). She was married firstly (c969) to Count Ludwig of Dagsburg (c935 – c980), a descendant of King Edward the Elder of England (899 – 924) and secondly (c981) to Adalbert II of Metz (c964 – 1033), Duke of Lorraine. Her second husband died at Bouzonville whilst returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and the countess died around this time also. She was the mother of Gerhard III of Metz (c983 – 1045), Duke of Upper Lorraine who left many descendants.

Judith of Roucy – (c989 – after 1035)
French aristocrat
Sometimes called Yvetta, she was the daughter of Giselbert of Roucy, Count of Rheims (967 – 990), and his wife Adela, the daughter of William II of Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine. Judith was married firstly to Manasses I, Count of Rethel, as his second wife, and became the mother of Count Manasses II (c1010 – 1081). Her second marriage (c1026) with Count Hermann of Grandpre produced five children including Count Henry Hescelin II (c1028 – 1097) and Richard de Grandpre (c1032 – after 1113) who was appointed as Bishop of Verdun.

Judith of Saxony – (1047 – before 1096)
Queen consort of Hungary (1063 – 1074)
Princess Judith was the second daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich III (1039 – 1056) and his second wife Agnes of Poitou, the daughter of William V of Poitou, Duke of Aquitaine. She was married firstly (1063) to Salamon (1053 – 1087), King of Hungary, their earlier betrothal (1059) being recorded in the Annales of Berthold. Her Hungarian subjects called her Sophia which fact is recorded in the Gesta Hunganorum. This marriage produced an only daughter Sophia of Hungary (c1069 – 1110) the wife of Count Popp of Berg.
When Salamon lost his throne to his kinsman Geza I (1074) after being defeated in battle and deposed, the king and queen retired into exile in Germany. Queen Judith and the royal household were then established at the Abbey of Admont in Styria. Salamon later returned to Hungary in order to conspire against his cousin Ladislas I but was apprehended and confined within the Tower of Viszegrod (1077 – 1083). During this period Queen Judith resided with her household at Regensburg in Bavaria. When Salamon was later released and went to visit the queen at Regensburg she refused to see him and he returned to Hungary and Italy, where he ultimately died being killed in battle (1087).
As Dowager Queen of Hungary Judith then became the third and last wife (1088) of Vladislav I Herman (1043 – 1092), Duke of Poland (1079 – 1092) and became his duchess consort. This marriage is confirmed by the chronicae Poloanorum which described her as ‘sororem imerpatoris tertii Henrici, uxorem prius Salernonis Ungariae Regis.’ She was living as Dowager Duchess of Poland in 1092 but had died before 1096 and was interred within the Abbey of Admont. Her death was recorded in the necrology of the Abbey of St Emmeram in Regensburg which called her ‘Iudite regina.’ Judith left four daughters from her second marriage,

Judith of Schweinfurth – (1013 – 1058)
Queen consort of Hungary (1055 – 1058)
Judith was the daughter of Henry of Schweinfurth, Margrave of Nordgau, and his wife Gerberga of Henneberg. She was married firstly (1029) to Bretislav I the Warrior (1005 – 1055), Duke of Bohemia, who broke down the door of the convent in which she had been educated, in order to have her as his bride. She bore him several children.
With Bretislav’s death Judith remarried secondly (1055) to Pietro Orseolo (died 1059), king of Hungary, as his second wife. Her second marriage remained childless. Queen Judith’s children by her first husband included Vladislav II (1032 – 1092) who became king of Bohemia (1086) and left descendants, and Jaromir of Bohemia (c1037 – 1090) who became a priest and was Bishop of Prague (1068 – 1090). Queen Judith died aged forty-five (Aug 2, 1058). She was interred within the monastery of St Veit in Prague, Bohemia.

Judith of Thuringia – (1137 – after 1174)
Queen consort of Bohemia (1158 – 1173)
Judith was the daughter of Louis I, Landgrave of Thuringia, and his wife Hedwig, the daughter of Giso IV, Count of Gudensberg. She was married (1153) to Vladislav II, king of Bohemia, whom she survived as Queen Dowager. Judith was the mother of Ottokar II Przemysl (1155 – 1230), King of Bohemia, who left numerous descendants.

Judith Premyslid – (1056 – 1086)
Queen consort of Poland (1079 – 1086)
Judith was the daughter of Vratislav II, Duke of Bohemia and his first wife Adelaide Arpad, the daughter of Andreas I, King of Hungary. She was married (1079) to Vladislav I Herman (1043 – 1102), king of Poland, as his second wife. She was the mother of King Boleslav III Wrymouth (1084 – 1138). Queen Judith died (Dec 25, 1086) aged thirty.

Judson, Ann Hasseltine (Nancy) – (1789 – 1826)
American missionary
Mrs Judson was one of the very first women to be trained as an overseas missionary to Asia. Her private journal was published posthumously as the Memoir of Mrs. Ann H. Judson, Late Missionary to Burma (1829).

Jugan, Jeanne – (1792 – 1879)
French religious founder
Jugan was born into a poor family at Petites-Croix, Brittany. She was employed as a domestic servant, and worked with the sick in public hospitals. With two friends, Jugan founded the order known as the Little Sisters of the Poor, which specialized in the care of the elderly and infirm. She was removed as superior in 1843, and permitted no further part in her order’s development, despite the fact that it encompossed well over one hundred and fifty separate homes that proved aged care. Jeanne Jugan was beatified by Pope John Paul II (1982).

Juhacz, Marie – (1880 – 1956)
German socialist, politician and feminist
Marie Juhacz was born near Brandenburg in Prussia, into a poor family, and originally went to work in a factory as a teenager. She was then trained to work as a seamstress in Berlin, where she came into contact with the growing women’s suffrage movement.
Juhacz joined the Social Democratic Party, and was elected to the National Assembly (1919). Several years afterwards she became a member of the Reichstag (1923). Marie remained a member until the rise of Adolf Hitler to power (1933). She fled abroad, and spent the war years in France and the USA before finally returning to her homeland (1949).

Juillerat-Chasseur, Suzanne – (1773 – 1850)
French revolutionary memoirist
Born Suzanne Chabaud de Latour in Nimes, she was born into a Protestant family. Her memoirs left descriptions of the events which he affected her own family (1790 – 1794). They were published posthumously as Une episode de la Terreur a Nimes, extraits des Souvenirs personnels de Madame Juillerat-Chasseur (1902).

Julia, Francisca – (1871 – 1920)
Brazilian poet
Born Francisca Julia da Silva Munster, she adopted her second Christian name as her literary surnname. She wrote articles for several newspapers in Sao Paulo and was best remembered for her poem ‘Musa impassivel’ (Impassive Muse) which appeared in the collection of verse entitled Marmores (Marble) (1895). After finally marrying (1909) she retired from literary life.

Julia, Vipsania (Julia Minor) – (19 BC – 28 AD) 
Roman Imperial princess
Vipsania Julia was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and his wife Julia, the only child of the Emperor Augustus. Julia was involved in a palace conspiracy which involved the poet Ovid (8 AD), and resulted in Julia giving birth to an illegitimate child. The child was exposed on the emperor’s orders, whilst the two were exiled from Rome, Ovid to Tomis on the Black Sea, whilst Julia was imprisoned on an island, where she was maintained through the generosity of Livia, her stepgrandmother, the widow of Augustus. Neither term of exile was ever rescinded. 

Julia Agrippina    see   Agrippina, Julia

Julia Antonia Eurydice – (fl. c100 – c130 AD)
Roman patrician
Julia Antonia Eurydice was attested by a surviving inscription from Nysaea in Asia Minor, which styled her femina nobilis and recorded that she was the great-great-granddaughter of Polemo I, King of Pontus and his wife Queen Pythodoris I, the daughter of Pythodorus Nysaeus, archon of Tralles, and his wife Antonia Euergitia, the daughter of the famous Roman triumvir Marcus Antonius.
Julia Antonia was married to Sextus Julius Maior, consul suffect (126 AD), an Imperial legate of the IIIrd Augustan legion in Numidia, Africa, who later served as legate to Syria and proconsul of Africa. She bore him two children, including the senator Sextus Julius Maior Antoninus Pythodorus. She may have been the mother of an attested Marcus Julius Maior Maximianus, who was attested by an inscripton from Pergamum.

Julia Balbilla      see    Balbilla, Julia

Julia Caesaris Maior – (c108 – after 84 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
The sister to Julia Caesaris Minor, Julia Maior was the elder daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar and his wife Aurelia Cotta. She was the eldest sister of Julius Caesar. She was married firstly to the patrician Lucius Pinarius, who was possessed on a humble fortune. Through him Julia was the grandmother of Lucius Pinarius Scarpus (living 44 BC). With the death of Pinarius (84 BC) Julia‘s brother Caesar arranged for her to marry Quintus Pedius, a knight of Campania. By him she was the mother of Quintus Pedius, consul suffect (43 BC).

Julia Caesaris Minor – (c106 – 51 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Julia Minor was the sister of Julia Caesaris Maior, and the younger daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar and his wife Aurelia Cotta. The elder sister to Julius Caesar, she became the wife of senator Marcus Atius Balbus (died 52 BC) to whom she bore three daughters. Julia was called upon to give an account of the preceedings at the defiled ceremonies of the Bona Dea goddess at her mother’s house, which led to her brother’s divorce from his wife Pompeia (61 BC). Her grandson Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) the son of her second daughter Atia Balba Caesonia, spoke her public funeral oration, this being the first public duty of his long life.

Julia Cornelia Paula – (fl. 218 – 221 AD)
Roman Augusta (219 – 220 AD)
Julia Paula was the daughter of senator Julius Paulus, the noted lawyer and jurist, whose family originated in Patavium (Padua). She was married with great magnificence (July, 219 AD) to the youthful emperor Elahgabalus (218 – 222 AD) as his first wife, the marriage being arranged by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, in a bid to connect the new dynasty with the aristocracy in Rome.
There were no children of her Imperial marriage and Elahgabalus later divorced her on the grounds of sterility (221 AD), after which she retired to private life.
The empress is attested on surviving coins minted in Alexandria and at Tripolis in Phoenica (220 AD). A billon denarius minted in Rome (219 – 220 AD) shows an unattractive portrait of the empress on the obverse with the legend IVLIA PAVLA AVG, whilst the reverse shows the deity Concordia enthroned, holding a patera. A bust, believed to be of Julia Cornelia Paula, remains part of the Borghese collection in the Louvre Museum in Paris, and portrays her as a woman of dignity and refinement.

Julia Domna – (c165 – 217 AD)
Roman Augusta (193 – 211 AD)
Julia Domna was the daughter of Julius Bassianus, king of Emesa in Syria, and his wife Julia Soaemis, and was originally named Martha. She became the second wife (187 AD) of the future emperor Septimius Severus (193 – 211 AD). The mother of emperors Geta (211 – 212 AD) and Caracalla (211 – 217 AD), her sister Julia Maesa was grandmother of the emperors Elahgabalus and Alexander Severus. With the downfall of Didius Julianus (193 AD) her husband became emperor and Domna was granted the Imperial titles and styles.
A woman of refinement and culture, she restored the temple of Vesta in the Forum (204 AD) and gathered a salon of philosophers and literary men around her. She persuaded the Greek Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana and was a patron of Origen. Julia Domna later accompanied her husband to Britain (208 AD), where she interested herself in the habits and religious beliefs of Caledonian prisoners.  With her husband’s death the empress was unable to prevent the escalating rivalry between her two sons, and the elder, Caracalla, murdered his brother in her arms as she vainly attempted to shield him with her own body. Whilst Caracalla was absent with the army, the empress acted as her son’s chief of staff, and dealt with the correspondence and government of the empire, proving herself a most capable administratrix.
When Caracalla was assassinated and the throne taken by Macrinus, the empress retired to Antioch in Syria and assumed the name of Julia Piadomna. Her death there was said to be suicide, because she was dying from breast cancer. Julia Domna was later deified. A billon coin issued in Rome (207 AD) has the legend IVLIA AVGVSTA on the obverse, and a bust of the empress, holding in her right hand a statuette of the goddess Concordia with patera and cornucopia, and in her left hand a cornucopia. The reverse portrays Julia Domna with attendants sacrificing in front of the Temple of Vesta and the legend VESTA MATER.

Julia Drusilla     see      Drusilla, Julia

Julia Maesa – (c163 – 226 AD) 
Roman Augusta (218 – 226 AD)
Julia Maesa was the daughter of Julius Bassianus, king of Emesa in Syria, and elder sister to the Empress Julia Domna. She was married (c180 AD) to the senator Julius Avitus, and produced two daughters, Soaemias Bassiana and Julia Mamaea, through whom she was grandmother to the emperors Elahgabalus (218 – 222 AD) and Alexander Severus (222 – 235 AD). From 197 AD she and her family joined the Imperial household in Rome, where she amassed an enormous fourtune and was a patron of the arts.
With the accession of her nephew Caracalla she was forced to retire with her daughters and grandsons to Antioch in Syria. With the death of her husband (215 AD) Maesa plotted to install her grandson Varus (Elahgabalus) on the Imperial throne, using her large fortune to accomplish his popularity with the troops. After Elahgabalus was proclaimed (218 AD) Maesa received the Imperial title and styles. She ruled creditably for her son, organizing the administration of the empire, but her grandson turned a deaf ear to her pleas to moderate his excessive behaviour. With the emperor’s eventual removal (222 AD), Maesa and Mamaea ruled as joint regents for Alexander Severus.
Unlike her daughters and grandsons, Julia Maesa died peacefully in her bed in the Imperial palace in Rome. A brass sestercius issued in Rome (c220 AD) has a bust of Maesa on the obverse with the inscription IVLIA MAESA AVG, whilst the reverse showed the deity Pietas standing, patera in right hand, opened box in her left hand, and before her a lighted altar.

Julia Maior – (39 BC – 14 AD) 
Roman Imperial princess
Julia Maior was the only child of the emperor Augustus (Octavian) (27 BC – 14 AD) and his third wife, Scribonia Caesaris. She was married firstly to her first cousin, Claudius Marcellus but there were no children. Julia was then married to Marcus Agrippa to whom she bore several children, including Lucius and Gaius Caesar both considered their grandfather’s heirs at different times, and Vipsania Julia, later exiled for adultery. With Agrippa’s death, reputedly poisoned by Livia, Julia’s stepmother, she was married to her stepbrother, the future emperor Tiberius. There were no surviving children, and the marriage remained unhappy. They later separated and Tiberius left Rome, retiring to Rhodes.
Julia was known for her wayward life, indulging in many flagrant sexual liasions. However, her involvement with Iullus Antonius, the son of Mark Antony, had stong political overtones. He was executed, and she was banished to the island of Pandateria. She was later permitted to return to Rhegium in Italy, but only under supervision, and her father never saw her again. She survived his death at Nola, but Tiberius is believed to have ordered her starved to death. She was portrayed by actress Frances White in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series I Claudius (1976) with Brian Blessed as Augustus, Sian Phillips as livia and George Baker as Tiberius.

Julia Mamaea – (c182 – 235 AD) 
Roman Augusta
Julia Avita Mamaea was the younger daughter of senator Julius Avitus and his wife Julia Maesa, daughter of Julius Bassianus, king of Emesa in Syria. She was mother to the emperor Alexander Severus (222 – 235 AD). Julia Mamaea was involved in the conspiracy which resulted in the assasination of Elahgabalus and her sister, and saw her own son placed on the Imperial throne. For the first few years her mother, Julia Maesa, controlled the government, but after her death (226 AD), Julia Mamaea became the paramout influence behind the emperor.
Known for her greedy and avaricious nature, she brought about the downfall of her first daughter-in-law, Barbia Orbiana. She accompanied her son on his successful campaign in Persia (230 – 233 AD) and then went with him to join the legions at Moguntiacum on the Rhine. She was killed by the soldiers with her son at Vicus Britannicus (March 18 – 19, 235 AD). A gold aureus coin minted in Rome (c225 AD) shows a bust of Mamaea on the obverse with the legend IVLIA MAMAWA AVG, whilst the reverse shows a standing Vesta holding palladium and sceptre and the legend VESTA. A bronze medallion issue later (c230 AD) shows the empress enthroned on the reverse side, with her left arm resting on a cornucopia. Behind her are two standards and in front of her stands the deity Pietas, dropping incense on a lighted altar, and holding an open box in her left hand.

Julian of Norwich – (1343 – 1443)
English mystic and religious author
Julian was born in Norwich, Norfolk, and was probably educated by the Benedictine nuns at Carrow. She remained unmarried, and became an anchorite, with a cell attached to the Church of St Julian at Norwich, after recovering from a severe illness (1373). Julian was the author of the Revelations of Divine Love which proved highly popular, due to her use of everyday imagery, and her development of the feminine part of the divine and human. She appears in the historical novel Katherine (1954) by Anya Seton.

Juliana – (fl. c530 – c572)
Byzantine princess
Juliana was the daughter of consul Magnus (518) and was related to the Emperor Anastasius I (491 AD – 518). When her father was exiled, possibly being associated with the fall of Hypatius (532) Juliana accompanied him. She then became the wife of Prince Marcellus (c513 – c582) brother to the Emperor Justin II and became a staunch supoporter of the Monophysite heresy. During the reign of her brother-in-law Juliana was persecuted for this religious adherence and with her friend Antipatra was exiled to a monastery in Chalcedon (c571) where they were forced to perform lowly and menial work. Eventually Juliana pretended to reject her beliefs and was permitted to return to Constantinople. These details concerning Juliana were recorded in the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus.

Juliana, Anicia – (c463 AD – 528) 
Roman Imperial princess
Anicia Juliana was the daughter of the Emperor Olybrius (472 AD) and his wife Aelia Placidia, younger daugher of the Emperor Valentinian III. Offerred as abride to the Ostrogothic king Theodoric (478 AD), this match never eventuated and Juliana became the wife (c479 AD) of Flavius Areobindus Dagalaiphus Areobindus (c440 AD – c512), military commander in the East, who was emperor of Byzantium for a single day (512). She left two sons, of whom the younger Areobindus later married the sister of the Byzantine emperor Justin II.
Juliana possessed a keen interest in religion, and was the friend of prominent theologians such as St Sabas. She devoted her fortune to supporting monasteries and religious foundations, and in benefactions to the poor. She founded the church of St Maria at Petra, and in gratitude for her generosity, the townspeople commissioned a copy (c512) to be made of the five volume work De materia medica written by the pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides in the first century AD, which described plants, herbs and poisonous snakes useful in the practice of medicine. She later corresponded with Pope Hormisdas and assisted in bringing about the end of the Acacian schism.

Juliana Alexandrovna    see   Uliana Alexandrovna

Juliana of Cornillon – (1192 – 1258)
Flemish nun and saint
Juliana was born at Retiennes, near Liege. She was left an orphan at an early age and was raised by the canonesses of Mount Cornillon. Upon reaching the required age Juliana took vows as a nun and was later appointed as prioress (1222). Juliana was said to have experienced mystic visions, and permitted the celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi within her convent. For this irregulariy she was accused of financial dishonesty and was removed from office. The Bishop of Liege reinstated Juliana in office, but with his death she was again expelled. Juliana then joined the Beguines at Salzinnes, Namur, under abbess Imaine, but later joined the convent of Saint-Feuillon at Fosses. After her death Pope Urban IV affirmed the Corpus Christi feast as part of the Catholic calendar (1264).

Juliana of Hesse-Philippsthaal – (1761 – 1799) 
German ruler
Princess Juliana was the daughter of William, landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal and his wife Ulrica of Hesse-Barchfeld. She became the second wife (1780) of Count Philip Ernest II of Schaumburg-Lippe (1723 – 1787). With her husband’s early death Juliana ruled Lippe as regent for their son George William (1784 – 1860). The landgrave of Hesse-Kassel claimed that because of Juliana’s supposed morganatic ancestry she was not suitable to claim the inheritance for herself and her children.
The landgrave put himself forward as the lawful claimant to Schaumburg-Lippe and invaded the country, occupying all of it apart from the fortress of Wilhelmstein, situated on an island on the Steinhuder Meer. However, despite Hesse-Kassel’s claims, the rights of the countess-regent and her son were recognized by the Imperial court in Vienna, and the landgrave was ordered to cease his illegal invasion and withdraw his troops, which he did, after a two month occupation. Princess Juliana died (Nov 9, 1799) aged only twenty-eight.

Juliana of Nassau-Siegen – (1587 – 1643)
German princess consort
Countess Juliana was born (Sept 3, 1587), the daughter of Johann, Count of Nassau-Siegen, and was granddaughter to William I the Silent, Prince of Orange, being named in honour of William’s mother, the redoubtable Juliana of Stolberg. Juliana was married (1603) to Moritz (Maurice) (1572 – 1632), the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, as his second wife, and was Landgravine consort for almost thirty years (1603 – 1632). Juliana bore her husband a large family of children, and survived Moritz for a decade as the Dowager Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel (1632 – 1643).
Landgravine Juliana died (Feb 15, 1643) aged fifty-five. She bore fourteen children, of whom one son and three daughters died in infancy. Her surviving ten children were,

Juliana of Viazma – (c1380 – c1406) 
Russian saint
Juliana was the wife of Simeon Mstislav, Prince of Viazma. A woman of great beauty, but greater virtue, her husband’s friend Yuri, Duke of Smolensk desired her, and schemed to bring this about. Failing to seduce her, Yuri invited Simeon and Juliana to a banquet at his palace at Torzok. During the ensuing festivities he stabbed and killed Simeon, hoping thus to gain Juliana for himself. The princess herself seized a knife, in a vain attempt to kill her husband’s murder, but suceeded only in wounding him. Overcome with anger and rage, Yuri pursued Juliana into the courtyard of the palace, where he brutally murdered her, throwing her body into the river. Her body was recovered and given proper burial at Torzok. The Russian Orthodox Church regards her as a saint, and she was comemorated annually (Dec 21). Yuri’s friends and followers were so horrified by this crime, that he was forced to flee to the Mongol court, and finally died as a monk in the Abbey of Rezan some years later.

Juliana Felizitas of Wurttemburg – (1619 – 1661)
German duchess of Holstein-Gottorp (1640 – 1655)
Princess Juliana Felizitas was born (Dec 19, 1619) the eldest daughter of Julius Friedrich (1588 – 1635), Duke of Wurttemburg-Juliusburg, and his wife Anna Sabina (1593 – 1659), the daughter of Johann (1545 – 1622), Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg. She was married (1640) to Duke Johann of Holstein-Gottorp (1606 – 1655), a younger brother of the reigning Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, to whom she bore several children. Juliana Felizitas survived Johann as Dowager Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp (1655 – 1661). Duchess Juliana Felizitas died (Jan 3, 1661) aged forty-one. Her four children were,

Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina – (1909 – 2004)
Queen regnant of the Netherlands (1948 – 1980)
Princess Juliana was born (April 30, 1909) at The Hague, the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and her husband Prince Hendrik of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She studied law at Leiden University. Juliana was married (1937) to Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, to whom she bore three daughters, her successor, Queen Beatrix (born 1938), who married Claus von Amberg, and left issue, Irene Emma Elisabeth (born 1939), wife of (1964) Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, by whom she left issue, and Margriet Francisca (born 1941), wife (1967) of Pieter von Vollenhoven, and Maria Christina (born 1947), wife (1975) of Jorge Guillermo, who also left children.
With the German invasion of Holland (1940), Juliana escaped to Britain with her daughters, and later resided in Canada. She returned to Holland at the end of the war (1945), and with the abdication of her mother, Queen Wilhelmina (1948), Juliana ascended the Dutch throne. Her second daughter Irene married the son of the Catholic Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne, Prince Xavier, against her wishes, and foeitied her rights to the succession. Juliana abdicated in favour of her daughter Beatrix (1980), taking the official title of ‘Princess’ Juliana. Princess Juliana died March 20, 2004) aged ninety-four, at her residence, the Soestdijk Palace, in The Hague.

Juliana Maria of Brunswick - (1729 - 1796)
Queen consort of Denmark (1752 - 1766)
Princess Juliana Maria was born (Sept 4, 1729) at Wolfenbuttel, the sixth daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel-Bevern, and his wife Antoinette Ernestina of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Her sister Elisabeth Christina was the wife of Friedrich II the Great, King of Prussia.
Attractive but possessed of a retiring disposition, various marriages were projected for her during her youth, but eventually Juliana Maria became the second wife of Frederik V (1723 - 1766), King of Denmark (1746 - 1766) at Fredensborg (1752). Their only child Frederik was born in 1753. As queen she surrounded herself with etiquette that raised a large difference between the throne and her Danish subjects, and she was never popular. She possessed no political influence over the king, the reigns of power being firmly held by Frederik's mother, the Dowager Queen Sophia Magdalena, an extremely capable woman. Both of these ladies welcomed Princess Caroline Matilda of England to Denmark (Nov, 1765) for her marriage with Juliana Maria's stepson, the unstable Christian VIII.
With her husband's death (1766) Juliana Maria and her young son retired to the palace of Fredensborg, though she also resided at Fredensborg with the elder queen dowager, with whom she remained on cordial terms until that lady's death (1770). The Queen Dowager stood godmother to Queen Caroline Matilda's second child Princess Louisa Augusta (1771). Until the recovery of her daughter-in-law from her confinement Juliana Maria took over the queen's official duties as first lady of the court.
Soon afterwards Count Karl von Rantzau-Ascheburg induced the queen dowager to approve of his plot for Caroline Matilda's removal due to her adulterous relationship with Count Struensee, by means of forged evidence of a conspiracy between them against her stepson Christian VIII. The details of this scheme were settled at Fredensborg with Juliana Maria's privity (Jan 15, 1772). The next evening, under cover of a masked ball at the Christiansborg Palace, the revolution was successfully carried out. Struensee and others were arrested and executed, whilst Queen Caroline Matilda was imprisoned at Kronberg, near Elsinore. The queen's two children, Frederik (VI) and Louisa Augusta were then placed in the queen dowager's care.
Queen Juliana Maria then reluctantly held the reigns of power for a period before eventually retiring to her quiet life at Fredensborg. Queen Juliana Maria died (Oct 10, 1796) aged sixty-seven, at Fredensborg. Her son Frederik (1753 - 1805) was the father of the future King Christian VIII (1786 - 1848).
Many of the horrible charges laid aganst the queen dowager by contemporaries, notably her attempts on the life of her stepson whom she wished to see replaced on the throne by her own son, and her persecution of Caroline Matilda (who was definitely guilty of adultery) remain unsubstantiated by any facts. These crimes were attributed to Juliana Maria many years after her death by supporters of Caroline Matilda, whom they wished to portray as a spotless martyr. In actuality she was a woman of quiet disposition whom the events of 1772 placed in the limelight, very much against her will. She appears in the historical novel The Third George (1969) by Jean Plaidy.

Juliana Maria of Denmark – (1784)
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Juliana Maria was born (May 2, 1784) in Copenhagen, the third daughter of Prince Frederik of Denmark (1753 – 1805), the younger half-brother of King Christian VII (1766 – 1808).Her mother was Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the daughter of Duke Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and his wife Charlotte Sophia of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was named for her paternal grandmother Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, the second wife of Frederik V (1746 – 1766). Princess Juliana Maria died (Oct 26, 1784) aged only six months, in Copenhagen.

Juliana Sophia of Denmark – (1788 – 1850)
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Juliana Sophia was born (Feb 18, 1788) in Copenhagen, the fourth daughter of Prince Frederik of Denmark (1753 – 1805) and his wife Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the daughter of Duke Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Charlotte Sophia of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was the paternal granddaughter of King Frederik V (1746 – 1766) and sister to King Christian VIII (1839 – 1848). Juliana Sophia was married (1812) to Wilhelm (1786 – 1834), Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthaal-Barchfeld and became landgravine consort. There were no children. She survived her husband as the Dowager Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthaal-Barchfeld (1834 – 1850). The princess died (May 9, 1850) aged sixty-two, in Copenhagen.

Julia Sabina, Flavia – (64 – 90 AD)
Roman Augusta
Flavia Julia Sabina was the daughter of the Emperor Titus (79 – 81 AD) and his frist wife, Arrecina Tertulla, and was the niece of the Emperor Domitian (81 – 96 AD). Her father accorded her the Imperial title and styles (80 AD), and she was associated on the coinage with the goddesses Venus and Vesta. Julia Sabina was offerred to her uncle Domitian, who refused her, and she was then married (c79 AD) to her cousin consul Titus Flavius Sabinus (c53 – 83 AD). This marriage remained childless, but her uncle was then happy to seduce her after the death of her husband, and she shared the palace with his wife, the empress Domitia Longina.
Her death is said, according to the contemporary historians Juvenal and Pliny the younger, to have resulted from an abortion the emperor forced upon her and she was then deified as Diva Julia Augusta. She is attested by surviving coinage, most notably a brass dupondius issued in Rome during her father’s reign. The obverse has a bust of Julia with the legend, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, whilst the reverse shows a seated goddess Vesta holding palladium and sceptre with the legend VESTA.

Julie Clary – (1771 – 1845)
Queen consort of Naples and Spain
Born Marie Julie Clary in Marseilles (Dec 26, 1771), she was the daughter of Francois Clary, a prosperous silk merchant, and his second wife, Francoise Rose Somis. She was sister to Desiree Clary, who later became the wife of Marshal Jean Bernadotte, and was queen consort of Sweden. Julie was married at Cuges, near Marseilles (1794) to Joseph Bonaparte (1768 – 1844), the elder brother of Napoleon I, who created him king of Naples (1806) and king of Spain (1808 – 1813). The couple had two surviving daughters.
Small and possessed of no great beauty and a retiring personality, Julie brought Bonaparte an immense dowry, most of which Joseph profitably invested in the prosperous mercantile business run by Julie’s brother, Antoine Antoine (later Baron de Saint-Joseph). She was a train-bearer to the empress Josephine, at the Imperial coronation (Dec, 1804).
When Joseph was appointed king of Naples, Julie prevaricated from joining him there so for long, that eventually Napoleon ordered her departure from Paris, and she arrived in Naples in April, 1808. She lived a retiring life, but her tact and kindliness towards the ladies of Neapolitan society that called on her, won Queen Julie the esteem of all. Her departure from Caserta to France (July, 1808) was much regretted by her Neapolitan subjects. The unsettled situation in Spain deemed it wise for the queen and her household to reside at the Chateau de Mortefontaine. She refused to join him in Madrid, but when he lost the Spanish throne (1811), Julie tried ineffectually, to intercede with Napoleon on his behalf.
With the failure of the Hundred Days (1814), Julie retired to live at Frankfurt-am-Main. Crippled with rheumatism, she refused to join Joseph in the USA, pleading ill-health. She later removed to Florence, where Joseph later rejoined her (1841), after a seperation of twenty-six years. Queen Julie died there, aged seventy-three (April 7, 1845), and was buried in the chapel of the church of Santa Croce in Florence.

Julie of Dormois – (c950 – 1004) 
French ruler
Julie was the wife of Marc, Count of Dormois and Astenois, in Champagne. At her husband’s death, the countess took control of the two counties, and ruled them herself, with her capital at Doulcon. However, at her death, apparently without issue, there ensued struggles for control of the two counties, which were eventually seized by the Grandpre family.

Julitta (Dawlitta) – (c300 – c325 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Julitta is said to have been a descendant of an ancient royal dynasty in Asia Minor. When she was young widow, with an infant son, Cyriacus, residing in the city of Ikonium in Cilicia, she fled with him and some servants to Seleucia, and then Tarsus in Cilicia, to avoid the Christian persecutions in her own city. In Tarsus she was arrested and her servants abandoned her.
Mother and son were killed by order of the local governor, Julitta being beheaded, whilst her son had his brains dashed out. Her Acts were compiled from authentic records in the reign of emperor Justinian I (527 – 565). The church honoured mother and son together as saints (June 16), and they are patrons of the French city of Issoudoun, whilst Cyriacus is the specific patron of the dyers of Liege.

Jullien, Rosalie – (fl. 1785 – 1793)
French revolitonary supporter and memoirist
Born Rosalie Ducrollay, she was a member of the bourgeoise, and received an excellent education. Her husband served as deputy of Dauphine to the Legislative Assembly. Her letters were later published posthumously as Journal d’une bourgeoise pendant la Revolution, 1791 – 1793 (1881).

Julyan, Mary – (fl. 1863 – 1866)
Irish artist and painter
Mary Julyan was born in Dublin. She worked in London and exhibited her work as an unmarried lady at the Royal Academy and at the Suffolk Street Gallery. She specialized in watercolour paintings of flowers.

Jung, Emma – (1882 – 1955)
Swiss scholar and lecturer
Born Emma Rauschenbach, she was the wife of the famous psychoanalyst Carl Jung (1875 – 1961).

Jung, Frieda – (1865 – 1929)
German educator and poet
Jung was born (June 4, 1865) at Kiaulkehnnen, near Gumbinnen. She worked as a kindergarten teacher till 1900, and afterwards as a writer. During WW I she was forced to flee her homeland and published the collection of verse Aus Ostpreussens Leidenstagen (1916). Jung also published childhood memoirs In der Morgen sonne (In the Morning Sun) (1911 – 1913). Frieda Jung died (Dec 14, 1929) aged sixty-four, in Insterburg.

Jung-an (Ku Lun Kung Chu) – (1855 – 1875)
Chinese Manchu princess
Jung-an was born in Peking (Beijing), the younger daughter of the Emperor Tao-Kuang (1850 – 1861) and a concubine. She was the younger sister of Princess Jung-Shou. Princess Jung-an was married (1873) to a military nobleman, lieutenant-general Prince Fu-Chen (Ku Lun E Fu), a descendant of Tulai, who held an Imperial post as superintendant of livestock (1889). Princess Jung-an died two years after her marriage, aged barely twenty.

Junghans, Sophie – (1845 – 1907)
German author
Junghans was born (Dec 3, 1845) in Kassel, Hesse, and went to England to work as a teacher (1864). Sophie later returned to Germany (1871) and resided in Berlin. Junghans began her literary career in England, but only achieved recognition with her novel Kathe. Geschichte eines modernen Madchens (1876), and also produced poetry and fairytale dramas. Seperating from her husband (1880) she resided in England again before settling in Gotha, Thuringia (1883). Sophie Junghans died (Sept 16, 1907) aged sixty-one, at Hildburghausen.

Jung-shou (Ku Lun Kung Chu) – (1854 – 1911)
Chinese Manchu princess
Jung-shou was born (Feb, 1854) in Peking (Beijing), the elder daughter of Emperor Tao-Kuang (1850 – 1861) and a concubine. She was the elder sister of Jung-an. She was raised at the court of her aunt, Ci-xi, who eventually adopted her, making her sister to the Emperor T’ung-Chih (1861 – 1875). She was married (1866) to Prince Chih-tuan, whose early death (1871) left her a childless widow. She never remarried. Princess Jung-shou died aged fifty-seven.

Jungst, Antonie – (1843 – 1918)
German novelist and educator
Jungst was born (June 13, 1843) at Werne, Westphalia. She was raised by foster parents in Munster and attended an Ursuline boarding school at Aachen. Together with Christoph Schluter she translated much English verse into German, and wrote historical novels and short stories. She published the epic Maria von Magdala (1909). Antonie Jungst died (June 8, 1918) aged seventy-four, at Munster.

Junia Silana Maior – (76 – after 30 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Junia Silana Maior was the eldest daughter of Decimus Junius Silanus, consul (62 BC), and his wife Servilia, the mistress of Julius Caesar, and daughter of Quintus Servilius Caepio, consul (106 BC). She was the half-sister of Brutus, the assassin of Ceasar. Junia became the wife of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul (46 BC). She was the mother of Quintus Aemilius Lepidus and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c57 – 30 BC).

Junia Silana Minor – (74 – after 30 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Junia Silana Minor was the second daughter of Decimus Junius Silanus, consul (62 BC), and his wife Servilia, the mistress of Julius Caesar. She was the sister of Junia Silana Maior and Junia Silana Tertia. She was married (c59 BC) to Publius Servilius Isauricus, consul (48 BC). Involved in a vague conspiracy against Octavian (later Augustus), then the husband of her daughter Servilia Isaurica (31 – 30 BC), Junia appears to have survived these events.

Junia Silana Tertia – (73 BC – 22 AD)
Roman Republican and Imperial patrician
Junia Silana Tertia was the third and youngest daughter of Decimus Junius Silanus, consul (62 BC) and his wife Servilia, the mistress of Julius Caesar. She was the younger sister to Junia Silana Maior and Junia Silana Minor. Junia Tertia was married (c59 BC) to Gaius Cassius Longinus, but their marriage apparently remained childless. Her husband committed suicide after the battle of Philippi (42 BC), but Junia never reamrried and survived her husband another six decades, dying in the reign of the emperor Tiberius, aged ninety-five.
Her will left legacies to almost every man of distinction in Rome, with the notable exception of the emperor himself. Tacitus recorded in his Annales that, “Her will caused much discussion, because although she was very rich and included complimentary references to almost every leading Roman she omitted the emperor. However he showed no autocratic resentment, and did not refuse her a ceremonial funeral, including a eulogy from the official dais. The effigies of twenty highly distinguished families, Manlii, Quinctii, and others equally aristocratic, headed the procession. But Cassius and Brutus were the most gloriously conspicuous – precisely because their statues were not to be seen.”

Jurgens, Helen    see   Twelvetrees, Helen

Justa of Castile – (c880 – after 924)
Spanish condesa
Her parentage is unknown, but Justa became the wife of Rodrigo Diaz el Abolmondar Conde of Castile (885 – after 930), to whom she bore three sons, Diego, Mario, and Feles Rodriguez. Condesa Justa was mentioned with her sons in the surviving charter (Dec 29, 924) which recorded her donation to the monastery of San Juan de Tabladillo, near Silos.

Justina – (fl. 527 – 545)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Justina was the daughter of Prince Germanus and his first wife Passara, being born in 527, and was the sister to Justinianus, the magister militiae of the East (575 – 577). They were closely related to the emperors Justinian I (518 – 527) and Justin II (527 – 565). Justina had remained unmarried at the age of eighteen mainly because of the Empress Theodora’s hostility to her father, which state of affairs rendered it difficult to secure her a suitable husband. Her father however, in spite of the empress’s opposition, managed to marry Justina (545) to Joannes, the magister militium of Illyricum (550 – c553), the son of one Vitalianus, a marriage considered below her station in life. These details are recorded by the historian Prokopius in his Anecdota sive Historia Arcana. Nothing is known of her later life.

Justina, Aviana – (c332 – 391 AD)
Roman Augusta (c350 – 353 AD) and (368 – 375 AD)
Aviana Justina was born in Sicily, the daughter of Justus, governor of Picenum, and was probably the granddaughter of Vettius Justus, consul (328 AD) during the reign of Emperor Constantine I (306 – 337 AD). Her brothers were Constantianus who served as tribunis stabuli (director of the Imperial stables) in the West (c369 AD) and Cerealis who also served as tribunis stabuli in the West (c369 – c375 AD).
The historian Sokrates recorded that her father was executed by the Emperor Constantius III (361 AD), after disclosing a dream in which Justina gave birth to the Imperial purple. Justina was married firstly (c350 AD) to the usurper Emperor Magnentius (c303 – 353 AD) and was accorded the rank of Augusta. Magnentius committed suicide after his retreat to Lugdunum in Gaul. The Empress Justina, who had borne no children, was then stripped of her Imperial rank and entered the household of the Empress Valeria Severa (Marina), the first wife of the Emperor Valentinian I (321 – 375 AD).
Though by all accounts a great beauty, Justina did not attract Valentinian’s attention until 366 AD, when he repudiated Valeria Severa, the mother of the Emperor Gratian. Valentinian then married Justina (368 AD) who was then accorded the Imperial titles and styles for a second time. Her son Valentinian was born at Treveri in Germany (371 AD), and Justina also bore Valentinian three daughters. The Emperor Valentinian arranged that on his death the Imperial crown would pass jointly to his two sons, Gratian and Valentinian II.
Valentinian I died (Nov 17, 375 AD) at Brigetio, whilst the empress and her children were residing near Murocincha. Justina’s brother Cerealis then took Valentinian to the military camp at Aquincum in a litter where he was proclaimed as joint emperor by the troops (Nov 22). Justina’s stepson Gratian regarded his younger half-brother with affectionate regard, keeping watch over his education, against the wishes of the boy’s mother who mistrusted Gratian’s intentions.
In Milan the empress ruled as regent for her son but she soon clashed with St Ambrose, the bishop of that city, the friend and adviser to her late husband. Open conflict between the two erupted when Ambrose publicly referred to Justina as ‘Jezebel’ (383 AD). During the lifetime of Valentinian I Justina had concealed her attachment to the Arian faith, but as a widow she placed herself at the head of the Arian party at the Imperial court. Though this was numerous and influential body Ambrose had caused all Arian places of worship to be closed or reclaimed as Orthodox, and Justina asked Ambrose for the use of two churches, one inside and one outside the city walls. When he refused her request the empress caused the basilica of St Maria Maggiore to be surrounded by Imperial troops, but they melted away when he threatened them with excommunication. Despite this religious controversy, Ambrose twice crossed the Alps to treat with the usurper Magnus Maximus in Gaul on behalf of Valentinian II, before he finally invaded Italy (387 AD).
The Dowager Empress, with her son and daughters, and members of the Imperial court fled firstly to Thessalonika in Greece before traveling by sea to the court of the Emperor Theodosius I in Constantinople, where Justina implored the emperor’s help to regain her son’s throne. She presented herself and her daughters before him in tears, and Theodosius immediately agreed to come to her aid, sealing this agreement by marrying Justina’s eldest daughter Galla (387 AD). With the restoration of Valentinian Justina returned to Italy, where she was restored to her estates and resided in Milan until her death (391 AD). Her children were,

Justina of Arezzo    see   Francuccia, Giustina Bezzola

Justina of Padua     see      Giustina

Juta, Rene – (1887 – 1940)
South African novelist and feminist
Rene was sister to the famous artist and miral painter Jan C. Juta (1895 – 1990). Her novel The Tavern (1920), was based upon the life of Miranda Stuart, who adopted male attire as James Barry in order to work as a physician.

Jutta    see also    Judith

Jutta of Asseburg – (fl. c750 – c760)
German Carolingian countess and dynastic figure
Jutta was the daughter of Count Dietrich (Theodoric) of Asseburg. She became the wife (c755) of Bruno I (died after 775), Count of Engern in Westphalia and Lord of Brunisberge-am-Hoxter. She may have been the heiress of the comital family of Asseburg. Countess Jutta was the mother of Bruno II (c756 – c813), Count of Engern who married the daughter of the Saxon hero Widukind and left issue. Through her granddaughter Heilwig of Engern, the wife of Welf II, Jutta was the great-grandmother of Judith of Altdorf, second wife of Emperor Louis I the Pious (816 – 840) and mother of Emperor Charles II the Bald (875 – 877).

Jutta of Disibodenberg    see    Jutta of Spanheim

Jutta of Mecklenburg     see   Militza of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Jutta of Sangerhausen – (c1205 – 1264)
German ascetic and saint
Jutta was born in Saxony into a noble family. After the death of her husband in Palestine, Jutta raised their children, who all entered the religious life. She experienced mystical visions and devoted herself to the care of lepers and the sick.
Due to the invasions of the Tartars Jutta later travelled to Kulm in Masovia, Poland, where she resided as a recluse in the forest for several years prior to her death. Jutta was interred within the Church of the Holy Trinity in Kuluza. She was later canonized as a saint, her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 5). Jutta of Sangerhausen was regarded as the patron saint of the states of Prussia and Masovia, and was admired by Mechtild of Magdeburg.

Jutta of Spanheim – (c1070 – 1136)
German nun, educator and saint
Jutta was of noble birth, the sister of Count Meginhard of Spanheim. She never married and became a nun, being eventually appointed as abbess of the nuns at the convent of Disibodenberg at Bingen. There Jutta became the teacher of the famous mystic St Hildegard (1098 – 1179) who succeeded her as abbess. Jutta was later revered as a saint (Dec 22).

Juvenal, Catherine – (c1590 – 1643)
French heiress
Catherine Juvenal de Trainel was the elder daughter of Christopher Juvenal, Seigneur de Trainel and the sister of Francois II Juvenal (died 1650), Marquis de Trainel. She became the wife of Claude de Harville, Seigneur de Palaiseau and their son Antoine de Harville de Palaiseau was the father of Francois de Harville (died 1701) who inherited, through his grandmother Catherine, the fief of Trainel in Champagne which remained in possession of the Harville line until 1763 when it was sold to the Terray family.

Juvenalia – (fl. c490 – c494 AD)
Roman patrician of senatorial family
After his accession in 493 AD, Juvenalia complained to the new Ostrogothic ruler, Theodoric the Great, concerning the duration of a lawsuit she had been conducting against one Firmus. The king ordered an immediate investigation of the matter, and the litigation was decided by the judges to the mutual satisfaction of both Juvenalia and Firmus within two days, after the suit had already lasted three years.

Juvencula – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Little is known of her life. Juvencula was arrested in Africa with several other Christians during the persecutions established by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to abjure her faith and was executed. She was honoured as a saint, her feast recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (March 9).

Juvonen, Helvi – (1919 – 1959)
Finnish lyric poet
Helvi Juvonen worked as a schoolteacher and a translator. Her work was greatly influenced by religious themes, and her first published work was the collection of melancholy verse entitled Kaapiopuu (The Dwarf Tree) (1949). Later collections such as Pohjajaata (Deep Ice) and Paivasta parvaan (From Day to Day) (1954) were composed along simple ballad lines.

Jyeshtharya – (fl. 803 – 830)
Cambodian queen of Chenla
Jyestharya was the granddaughter of Nripendradevi, and the great-granddaughter of King Indraloka. She became the chief wife of King Jayarvarman II, who reigned (802 – 850), and is attested from an inscription dated 803, which reveals that the queen made some sort of official royal endowment at Sambor. She was not the mother of her husband’s successor King Jayarvarman III (850 – 857).