Fabbiri, Inez – (1831 – 1909)
American soprano
Born Agnes Schmidt in Austria, she trained as an operatic performer, and with some considerable vocal talent, she achieved fame in New York (1866) with a well publicized feud with the Italian soprano Adelina Patti. Inez Fabbiri later performed in Canada and during the 1875 – 1876 season both directed and performed in over sixty separate operas. After her retirement from singing, Inez founded a company of German actors in San Francisco, California.

Faber, Cecilia Boehl von     see    Caballero, Fernan

Fabia Aconia Paullina       see     Paullina, Fabia Aconia

Fabia Ambusta – (fl. 376 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Fabia Ambusta was the elder daughter of Marcus Fabius Ambustus. She was married to the wealthy patrician, Servius Sulpicius, one of the military tribunes (376 BC). Her younger sister, Fabia Ambusta Minor, became the wife of Gaius Licinius Stolo (living 357 BC), who served as tribune of the plebs (376 – 367 BC).

Fabia Eudocia – (593 – 612)
Byzantine Augusta
Fabia Augusta was the daughter of Rogatus, governor of Africa, and became the first wife (610) of the Emperor Heraklius I (575 – 641). She was crowned as Augusta (Oct 7, 610) when she assumed the additional name of Eudocia. Fabia Eudocia was the mother of a daughter, Epiphania Eudocia, who died a nun, and of the future emperor Constantius III (612 – 641). The empress was the matriarch of an Imperial line which ended with Justinian II (711). She died at the Blachernae Palace in Constantinople of an attack of epilepsy, whilst recovering from the strain of childbirth, and was interred in the church of the Holy Apostles. Her funeral was marred by the indiscretion of a servant girl, who unintentionally spat upon the empress’s robes, and she was burned alive on the empress’s tomb for this involuntary insult.

Fabiola – (c340 – 399 AD)
Roman Christian philanthropist and pilgrim
Fabiola was born into the ancient and illustrious gens of the Fabii, and was a member of the strict religious group that gathered around the saintly Marcella ‘the First Nun.’ Fabiola performed public penance at the side door of the church if the Lateran in Rome, after the death of her second husband, from whom she had been divorced, the church having not recognized that divorce. She is chiefly remarkable for having drawn from St Jerome the denouncement of double marriage, the earliest utterance of the church on that subject, contained in his fifty-fifth letter.

Fabiola then sold her estates and with Pammachius, she founded and organized a public hospital at Ostia (Porto), near Rome, the first such establishment recorded in Europe, participating herself in the day to day nursing of patients and other activities. She then visited Palestine (394 – 395 AD) and stayed with Paula in Bethlehem, where she received instruction from St Jerome.

However, the fear of an invasion of Jerusalem by the Huns caused Fabiola to return to Rome, where she established a hospice for Christian travellers and pilgrims, the fame of which reached as far afield as Egypt, Parthia, and Britain. The church honoured her as a saint (Dec 27).

Fabres, Lucia – (fl. c1730 – 1761)
French dancer
Fabres first performed at Covent Garden, London in 1742, dancing the Old Woman and Air in, The Rape of Proserpine. Lucia also danced in the ballet, Mars and Venus, and played a shepherdess in, Rural Assembly. Later Lucia performed at the Drury Lane Theatre in, Les Amant Volages and, The Dragon of Wantley amongst other roles, and gave pantomime performances. She appears to have returned to France (1744), and was part of Destouche’s troupe of dancers at Bordeaux (1748). Her last recorded performance was at Milan, Lombardy (1761).

Fabricius, Anna Cacilie – (1751 – 1820)
German author
Born Anna Cacilie Ambrosius, she was married (1771) to Johann Christoph Fabricius (1745 – 1808), the Danish economist and entomologist. She corresponded with the noted poet, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1724 – 1803). Madame Fabricius was the author of the tragedy Heinrich der Vielgeliebte oder die Wurde der Protestanten (1802), and bequeathed a five decade legacy to the University of Kiel in Holstein (1820 – 1868). Anna Fabricius died (March 3, 1820) at Kiel, aged sixty-eight.

Fabricius, Sara    see    Sandel, Cora

Fabris, Eleanora – (1840 – 1910)
Italian contralto vocalist
Eleanora Dorodi was born in Italy, the daughter of Camillo Dorodi, the famous baritone under whom she trained. She made her stage debut (c1854) at La Scala in Milan, at the early age of thirteen, and worked in Spain for seven years under the direction of Franco Faccio. Eleanora was married to the tenor Cristoforo Fabris, and the couple joined the Lyster Opera Company. In 1876 the couple came to Sydney, Australia with Lyster’s and Eleanora appeared in numerous operatic roles and concerts, being especially noted in the role of Azucena the gypsy in Giuseppe Verdi’s Il Trovatore. Upon her retirement (1890) a benefit concert was held for her at the Sydney Town Hall. Eleanora Fabris died (April 14, 1910) in Sydney, and was interred with her husband in Waverley cemetery.

Fabrizzi, Orsola – (fl. c1790 – 1797) 
Italian vocalist
Her first recorded performance in England was as Lenina in I Traci amanti at King’s Theatre, London (Feb, 1796). Her successive roles included Madame Perlina in, La modista riggiatrice and Limpida in, Il tesoro. Her roles during her second season (1796 – 1797) were not as prestigious, despite the fact that her strong, clear voice, and comic performances were admired by contemporaries.

Faccia, Rina Pierangeli      see     Aleramo, Sibilla

Faccio, Adele – (1920 – 2007)
Italian politician and organization founder
Faccio was born (Nov 13, 1920) in Pontebba, Udine. She established herself in Italian politics and rose to become deputy of the Partito Radicale (Radical Party). Faccio strongly supported the female right to abortion, and was an equally strong beliver in birth control. These beliefs led to her establishing (1973) the Centro d’Informazione sulla Sterilizzazione e sull’Aborto (Information Centre on Sterilisation and Birth Control). Adele Faccio died (Feb 8, 2007) in Rome, aged eighty-six.

Fachiri, Adila Adrienne Adalbertina Maria – (1886 – 1962)
Hungarian-Anglo violinist
Adila d’Aranyi was born in Budapest, the elder sister to Jelly d’Aranyi, being the daughters of Taksony Zranyi de Hunyadvar, they being great-nieces of the noted violinist, conductor, and composer, Joseph Joachim (1831 – 1907).  Adila d’Aranyi was educated in Budapest and in Berlin, Prussia, and studied under her uncle who presented her with a Stradivarius violin. She made her public debut in Vienna (1906), where she performed Beethoven’s Violin Concerto. Adila later visited England and settled in London (1913), where she was eventually married to a lawyer and barrister, Alexander Fachiri (1915). Fachiri performed publicly in many duets with her sister, and they gave together the first performance of Concerto for 2 Violins (1930), which had been especially written for them by the composer Gustavus Holst (1874 – 1934). Adila Fachiri died (Dec 15, 1962) in Florence, Italy, aged seventy-six.

Facinola    see   Felicula

‘Fadette’   see   Reeves, Marion Calhoun

Fadia – (c80 – c48 BC)
Roman Republican patrician
Fadia was the daughter of Quintus Fadius Gallus, a wealthy freedman, and became the first wife (c64 BC) of Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), the future triumvir and lover of Cleopatra VII. Fadia brought Antony an impressive dowry and bore him several children, who all died in infancy. Divorced c55 BC, there is no record of her having remarried. Her family tree and that of Antony’s later wife Fulvia were torn to shreds by Cicero, in revenge for an insult sufferred to Octavian (Augustus) from Antony.

Fadia of Egypt – (1943 – 2002)
Fadia was born (Dec 15, 1943) at the Abidin Sarayi, Cairo, the third and youngest daughter of King Farouk I (1936 – 1952) and his first wife, Farida Hanim, and was half-sister to Crown Prince Ahmed Fouad, the son of Queen Narriman. When her father was ousted from power (1952) she accompanied her father to Italy, though she later was sent to a Swiss boarding school (1954) for her education, and where she studied painting and became an accomplished horsewoman. Fadia was later married in London (1965) to the Russian émigré, Prince Pierre Orlov (born 1938) to whom she bore two sons. He converted to Islam and took the Arabic name of Said. Fluent in several languages such as English, Italian, Spanish, Arabic and French, the princess worked as a translator for the Swiss Ministry of Tourism. She returned to Egypt only once after leaving, in order to attend her mother’s funeral (1988).
Together with her sisters the princess attempted to legally regain possession of one of the royal palaces and of some land in the Nile Delta region, claiming that the properties had once belonged to Queen Farida. However, the court ruled against the family, on the grounds that Queen Farida’s divorce (1948) predated the revolution which resulted in the confiscation of all royal properties. Princess Fadia died (Dec 28, 2002) aged fifty-nine, at Pully, near Lausanne, Switzerland. Her body was taken transported back to Egypt for burial beside her father at the Al-Rifa’i Mosque in Cairo.

Fadilla, Annia Aurelia – (159 – before 213 AD)
Roman Imperial princess
Annia Aurelia Fadilla was one of the younger daughters of the emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina II, the daughter of emperor Antoninus Pius. Sister to the Emperor Commodus, she was married to Marcus Pedicaeus Plautius Quintillus, cos 177 AD. During the reign of her brother Commodus (180 – 192 AD), Fadilla resided in a private palace on the Capitoline Hill, which was later bestowed by the emperor Elahgabalus (218 – 222 AD) upon the mother of one of his favourites. With the help of one of her sisters she uncovered and revealed a palace conspiracy aimed at the removal of her brother (189 AD). She predeceased her sister Cornificia, who was the last surviving child of Marcus Aurelius.

Fadrique, Maria – (1370 – 1395)
Spanish heiress
Maria Fadrqiue was the daughter of Louis Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona, and his wife Helena Asenina Cantacuzena, the daughter of Matthew Cantacuzene, Despot of the Morea, and she inherited the burgraviate of Siderokastron in Greece, and the county of Salona. Maria was engaged to marry four times, firstly to Geoffrey de Rocaberti, then to his brother Bernaduc, thence to Stephen Dukas Nemanjic of Serbia, and lastly Matthew de Moncada. None of these proposed marriages eventuated, and finally, she was given in marriage at Salonika (1395) to the Ottoman sultan of Turkey, Bayazeit I, or, more properly, entered his harem. The union proved short-lived, as Maria died before the end of the same year.

Fagan, Agnes Blanche – (1844 – 1928)
Australian diarist
Agnes Fagan was born into a Catholic family, the daughter of John Thomas Baptist, of Surry Hills, Sydney, New South Wales, and his second wife Emma Phillips. Agnes was educated in Sydney, and remained unmarried till the age of forty, when she was married (1885) to George Lamb Fagan, of West Gosford. They resided at Woollahra in Sydney, and were friends of the poet Henry Kendall. Two sons died in infancy, and only their daughter, Erina Fagan Compton (1889 – 1977) survived to adulthood. She was widowed in 1924. Her diary was an account of a trip to Gosford, and chronicled a three week visit to that NSW town (Sept – Oct, 1885). She revisited in Oct, 1886, and added to her original recollections. Agnes Fagan’s papers were organized for publication by her only grandchild, Keith Compton, edited by Philippe Tabuteau, and were published as, Agnes Fagan’s Diary 1885 (1991). Agnes Fagan died (March 15, 1928) aged eighty-three.

Fagan, Audrey – (1962 – 2007)
Irish-Australian police officer
Fagan was born in Ireland, and immigrated to South Australia with her parents as a child (1971). She joined the AFP (Australian Federal Police) at the age of eighteen (1980) and spent all her subsequent career in the force. Fagan had a highly creditable career in policing and was awarded the Australian Police Medal (2004). Soon afterwards she was appointed as assistant commissioner and Chief Police Officer for the ACT (Australian Capital Territory) (2005). However, despite her excellent record, untrue allegations of corruption brought by irresponsible media and the scrutiny of police treatment of detainees in Canberra cells, led to general questioning of her competency. Due to stress of the situation she committed suicide (April 20, 2007) whilst on a trip to Hayman Island in Queensland.

Fagan, Eleanora    see   Holiday, Billie

Fage, Mary – (fl. 1637)
English writer
Mary was the wife of a gentleman, Robert Fage, the younger. She is remembered as the author of Fames Roule : Or, the names of our dread Soveraigne Lord King Charles, his Royall queen Mary, and his most hopefull posterity : Together with The names of the Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, … of … England, Scotland, and Ireland : Anagramatiz’d and expressed by acrosticke lines on their names (1637). Three of her verses in this work were dedicated to the Stuart princesses, Mary, Elizabeth, and Anne, the daughters of Charles I (1625 – 1649) and his wife, Queen Henrietta Maria (Mary). Some believe that the work, considered of mediocre merit, was acutally written by her husband.

Fagniani, Constanza Brusati, Marchesa – (1747 – 1805)
Italian dancer, singer, and society figure
Constanza Brusati was born (Dec 6, 1747) the daughter of the marchese Gian Pietro Brusati, and stepdaughter of Conte Barbaron, the castellan of Milan Castle. She had performed as a dancer and vocalist with the Italian opera before making a suitable marriage (1767) with Giacomo Fagniani (1740 – 1785), fourth Marchese di Gerenzano, of Milan, Lombardy. They are usually referred to by the Fagniani name. With her husband, the marchesa became a member of fashionable society, and both freely indulged in romantic liasions. The marchesa became the lover of the English Lord Pembroke, before passing into a liasion with William Douglas, fourth Duke of Queensberry, known famously as ‘Old Q’ residing with the old roue in his Piccadilly mansion in London. She was the mother of his daughter, Maria Emilia Fagniani (1771 – 1854), known as ‘Mie-mie,’who later became the wife of the third Marquess of Hertford, though she left the child to be raised by Queensberry’s friend, George Selwyn. Her husband degenerated into insanity, and became blind before he finally died in Milan (1785). The marchesa continued her perapatetic lifestyle as a widow. Her younger daughter, Antonia Fagniani (1778 – 1847) became the wife of Marco Arese Lucini (1770 – 1825), sixth Conte di Barlassina, and left issue. The Marchesa Fagniani died ((Jan 24, 1805) aged fifty-seven, after sufferring a stroke.

Fagniani, Maria Emilia – (1771 – 1856)
Anglo-Italian aristocrat and society figure
Maria Emilia Fagniani was born (Aug 25, 1771), the illegitimate daughter of William Douglas, fourth Duke of Queensberry ‘Old Q,’ the notorious Hanoverian reprobate, and his mistress, Constanza Brusati, Contessa Fagniani. Maria was adopted and raised by the duke’s old friend, George Selwyn, who nicknamed her ‘Mie-Mie.’ An early infatuation with Richard, Earl of Barrymore, did not last, and she eloped with Francis Charles Seymour-Conway (1777 – 1842), then earl of Yarmouth, and later third Marquess of Hertford, and was married to him at Southampton, near London, as his second wife. Though Maria’s father had heartily approved of the marriage, the Seymour family took some time to come around The couple later resided in Paris for several years. During this time her husband took a mistress, and Lady Yarmouth became the particular friend of the Princesse de Talleyrand. A woman of great beauty, but of a promiscuous nature, the Prince Regent is said to have admired her.
Maria returned to London where her son, Lord Henry Seymour was born (1804). Lord Yarmouth accepted the child as his, but he was probably fathered by the French Comte Casimir de Montrond. With the Duke of Queensberry’s death (1810), Lord and Lady Yarmouth inherited all his estates and properties for their lives, and after their deaths, to their daughter, Lady Frances Seymour Conway. On top of this Lady Yarmouth received a personal bequest of one hundred thousand pounds. Lady Yarmouth returned to reside in France, where she became involved in a liasion with the Bonapartist General Andoche, and refused an attempt made by her husband to become reconciled (1811). Her daughter, Lady Frances Seymour-Conway (1797 – 1822), the comtesse de Chevigne died, and then her husband succeeded his father as marquess of Hertford (1822 – 1842). Lady Hertford survived her husband as Dowager Marchioness of Hertford (1847 – 1856), but remained resident in Paris. Lady Hertford died there in the Rue Tailebout (March 2, 1856), aged eighty-four, and was interred in Pere Lachaise cemetery, having left her considerable welath divided equally between her two sons, of whom the elder was Richard Seymour-Conway (1800 – 1870), fourth marquess of Hertford (1842 – 1870).

Fahey, Myrna – (1933 – 1973)
American television and film actress
Born (March 12, 1933) in Carmel, Maine, Fahey worked for a year with the Pasadena Playhouse before getting her first break in television with her first appearance was in Cavalcade of America (1954). Myrna Fahey went on to appear often in various other popular television programs such as, The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show (1958), Gunsmoke (1958), Adventures of Superman (1958), several episodes of Zorro (1958), Bonanza (1960), Surfside 6 (1960 – 1961), 77 Sunset Strip (1958 – 1963), Wagon Train (1960 – 1964), and, Perry Mason (1960 – 1966). Apart from her extensive television career, Fahey also appeared in several films such as, The Story On Page One (1959),  Face of a Fugitve (1959), and the horror thriller, House of Usher (1960) with Vincent Price, in which she played the mentally deranged Madeline Usher, but she remained more successful in television. Myrna Fahey died (May 6, 1973) of cancer, at Santa Monica, California, aged forty.

Fahmi, Nariman    see    Nariman

Fahmy Bey, Marie Margeurite Alibert, Princess – (1890 – 1971) 
French-Egyptian murder trial suspect
Marie Margeurite Alibert was born (Dec 9, 1890) at Montparnasse in Paris, the daughter of a cab driver. Educated by nuns at Montparnasse, she gave birth to an illgitimate child (1906) who was then adopted by her grandmother and aunt. Margeurite worked at the Folies Bergere (1912) and also, reputedly, in a brothel, and was said to have married Charles Laurent. A member of the demi-mondaine society at Deauville and Biarritz, she eventually married (1922) the incredibly rich Prince Ali Kemal Fahmy Bey (1900 – 1923) ten years her junior. In July, 1923 whilst staying at the Savoy Hotel during a visit to London, she gunned down her husband in the hotel corridor. The case generated great public interest, her defense being conducted by Sir Edward Marshall Hall, and the newspapers referred to her as ‘The Tragic Princess.’ With the revelation of sexual details concerning her marriage, and her husband’s marital cruelty, the affair became the most sensational scandal of the decade. Ultimately acquitted, though almost certainly guilty, Margeurite became involved with dubious and unsuccessful schemes to extort money from the relatives of her late husband. Princess Fahmy Bey survived the notoriety of these events by more than fifty years and remained in quiet obscurity. Princess Fahmy Bey died (Jan 2, 1971) aged eighty, at Neuilly, in Paris.

Fahrelnissa Zeid – (1901 – 1991)
Princess of Jordan
Fahrelnissa Zeid was born in Istanbul (Constantinople) into a prominent Ottoman family. Artistically talented, she began to paint at a young age (1915), and became one of the first women to attend the Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul, where she studied under Namik Ismail, and then studied abroad in Paris under Roger Bissiere. Fahrelnissa’s first marriage produced two equally talented children, the painter Nejad Devrim, and the actress Sirin Devrim Trainer. She then remarried (1934) to Prince Zeid el-Hussein of Jordan, the brother of King Faisal I of Iraq, for whom the prince served as minister plenipotentiary in Turkey.
The princess was prominent in the art world during the period of the 1950’s and 1960’s as a talented exponent of the Paris School, and was especially admired for her blend of Islanic and Byzantine art with abstract and other Western influences. She was particularly known for her oil and water colour paintings. One of her larger exhibitions was held at the Hittite Museum in Ankara (1964). Her work was exhibited abroad in New York, Paris and Brussels, and the Royal Cultural Centre in Amman featured a retrospective exhibition of her work (1983). One of the best known of her works was the abstract Break of the Atom and Vegetal Life (1962). The princess died (Sept 5, 1991) in Amman, Jordan.

Fahs, Sophia Lyon – (1876 – 1978)
American religious educator and author
Fahs was born (Aug 2, 1876) and was the author of Uganda’s White Man of Work (1907). Sophia Fahs was later employed by the American Unitarian Association (1937) as the editor for their The New Beacon Series of children’s books. She joined the Unitarian congregation in 1945 and later became a Unitarian minister in Maryland (1959). Her published works included The Church Across the Street (1947), Today’s Children and Yesterday’s Heritage, A Philosophy of Creative Religious Development (1952), From Long Ago and Many Lands (1955) and Worshipping Together with Questioning Minds (1965). Sophia Lyon Fahs died (April 14, 1978) aged one hundred and one.

Faila – (fl. c550 – c600)
Irish virgin saint
Faila was a member of the royal dynasty of Hyfiachra of Connaught, being a descendant of the Irish king Dathy. Faila had three brothers, St Colga, an abbot and disciple of St Columba, and saints Aidus and Iorar. The church of Killfaile (now Killealy) was named in her honour, and was for several centuries the destination of large numbers of pilgrims. The church observed her feast annually (March 3).

Faileuba – (c570 – 595)
Merovingian queen
Faileuba was the daughter of a minor court official, and became the wife (585) of King Childebert of Austrasia, but his son Theudebert II was mothered by a concubine. She was daughter-in-law to the infamous Queen Brunhilda, but the two women appear to have remained on amicable terms, Gregory of Tours recording that the amity that existed between them was unusual enough to provoke comment. At Andelot (587) the properties, revenues and cities of Queen Faileuba and her mother-in-law were guaranteed by decree of King Guntram of Burgundy, as was their free disposal of these properties and received incomes. Gregory of Tours recorded that the queen warned her husband when she was apprised of a plot against herself and Brunhilda, one of the conspirators being Septimina, the nurse of her own children. Husband and wife died at the same time, apparently poisoned according to Paulus Diakonus (Paul the Deacon), though no one was accused of the crime. She was the mother of King Theuderic II of Austrasia (587 – 613).

Failtigerna – (fl. c450 AD – c550)
Irish virgin saint
Failtigerna was amongst those listed in the Acta Sanctorum (March 17). Her feast was also recorded in the Martyrology of Marian Gorman.

Fairbairn, Lorna Bessie Robertson, Lady – (1880 – 1948)
Australian civic leader
Lorna Robertson was born at Coragulac, near Colac in Victoria. An enthusiastic sportswoman, she worked firstly for the British Red Cross (1914 – 1915) as an ambulance driver during WW I, and then with the Canadian Red Cross (1916 – 1918). After the war she returned to Australia where she eventually married (1924) to Sir George Fairbairn. The noted aviator, George Fairbairn (1909 – 1935) was her husband’s nephew. Lady Fairbairn remained a prominent public figure, and apart from being a member of the Victorian League, she was a tireless supporter of Prince Alfred Hospital. Lady Fairbairn died (June 16, 1948) in Melbourne.

Fairbank, Janet Ayer – (1878 – 1951)
American novelist
Janet Ayer was born in Chicago, Illinois, and was elder sister to author Margaret Ayer Barnes. She had attended private schools before enrolling at the University of Chicago. Janet Ayer was married to Kellogg Fairbank, a lawyer, to whom she bore three children. Fairbank joined the women’s suffrage movement, and became incresingly involved in political matters. During WW I she joined the Progressive Party and the National Defense committees, and she also performed valuable hospital work in Chicago. Fairbank is best remembered for her trilogy of historical novels, The Cortlandts of Washington Square (1923), which revealed a woman’s viewpoint to the Battle of Gettysburg, The Smiths (1925), and the dynastic novel, Rich Man, Poor Man (1936). All of her stories were collected and published in, Idle Hands (1927). Janet Fairbank died (Dec 28, 1951), aged seventy-three.

Fairbridge, Dorothea Ann – (1862 – 1931)
South African colonial author, editor, traveller and historian
Fairbridge was the daughter of an eminent politician and was cousin to the Rhodesian poet and educational reformer, Kingsley Fairbridge. An ardent nationalist and conservationist, her life-long work and passion was the creation of a national heritage for the new state of the Union of South Africa (1910). Her first published novel, That Which Hath Been (1910) reflected upon the prior history of the Cape region. This was followed by the novels, Piet of Italy (1913), The Torch Bearer (1915), and, The Uninvited (1926). Fairbridge also produced two travel books including, The Pilgrim’s Way in South Africa (1928) and edited two collections of letters, the diaries of Lady Anne Barnard (1924) and the, Letters from the Cape (1927) of Lady Lucie Duff Gordon. Her historical studies included, Historic Houses of South Africa (1922) and Historic Farms of South Africa (1931) published the year of her death.

Fairbrother, Louisa – (1816 – 1890)
British stage actress and morganatic royal wife
Sarah Louisa Fairbrother was born in Covent Garden, London, the daughter of Robert Fairbrother, a theatrical printer, and was the maternal granddaughter of Thomas freeman, of Wylcot, Shrewsbury. She appeared on the stage from early childhood. Her talent was passable, but mediocre, and her incredible beauty carried Louisa through her stage career. From a romantic liasion she produced two illegitimate children, Charles Manners Sutton Fairbrother (1836 – 1901) and Louisa Katherine Fairbrother (born 1839), who later became the wife of Captain Hamilton. Louisa then became involved in a serious liasion with Prince George of Cambridge (1819 – 1904), the grandson of George III (1760 – 1820) and first cousin to Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) whom she had first met almost a decade earlier at the Drury Lane Theatre (1840).
Louisa bore the prince two sons before they were married secretly and morganatically (1847) in Clerkenwell, London, a step George had always fervently desired, despite the disapproval of the royal family, led by Queen Victoria. After this she was known officially as ‘Mrs Fitz-George.’ She was never received at court and her marriage was never officially recognized, though the careers of their sons were organized by the royal family. Louisa did entertained members of society and royals at her husband’s home in Mayfair, London. When she travelled to the Crimea (1854) in order to nurse her husband, the union came to the knowledge of the queen. Her husband succeeded his father as duke of Cambridge (1850), but Louisa was never accorded the royal title or privileges. She died there (Jan 12, 1890), aged seventy-three, and was interred in Kensal Green Cemetery, where the duke was later interred with her. Queen Victoria sent an equerry to represent her at the funeral. Her three sons were, Colonel George William Adolphus Fitz-George (1843 – 1907) who married and left three children, including Mabel Iris Fitz-George, Princess Vladimir Galitzine, Rear-Admiral Sir Adolphus Augustus Frederick Fitz-George (1846 – 1922), who was married twice and left an only daughter, and Sir Augustus Charles Frederick Fitz-George (1847 – 1933). He died unmarried.

Fairbrother, Sydney – (1872 – 1941)
British actress
Born Sydney Tapping, she was educated at Blackpool, Lancashire, and abroad at Bonn, in Germany. Her first stage appearance was a minor one at the Haymarket Theatre in London (1889), after which she toured with in the USA for several years with the troupe organized by actress Madge Kendal and her manager husband, Willaim Hunter Kendal. Fairbrother then spent several decades performing in music halls, appearing in such popular roles as the skit ‘A Sister to Assist Her’ with Fred Emney senior, and Mahbubah in, Chu-Chin-Chow (1916 – 1920). She also performed Shakespearean roles and appeared in The Ghost Train. The latter part of her career saw Fairbrother expand her talent to become a popular character actress, her best known role being that of Mrs Badger in, The Young Person in Pink. Fairbrother also branched into films, appearing in the silent film, Iron Justice (1916), as well as in many talkies such as, The Third String (1931), the film version of her stage role in, Chu Chin Chow (1933), The Last Journey (1936), King Solomon’s Mines (1936), in which she appeared in the role of Gagool, and, Little Dolly Daydream (1938), amongst others.

Fairchild, Mary Salome Cutler – (1855 – 1921)
American librarian and author
Fairchild was born (June 21, 1855) in Dalton, Massachusetts. She became a pioneer in library organization, and served as vice-director of the New York State Library School (1889 – 1905).
She was the author of Children’s Home Libraries (1894). Mary Fairchild died (Dec 20, 1921), aged sixty-six.

Fairclough, Ellen Louks – (1905 – 2004)
Canadian politician
Ellen Fairclough became the first female member of the Canadian cabinet. She was born (Jan 28, 1905) in Hamilton, Ontario, the daughter of Norman Ellsworth Cook, and attended secondary schools in Hamilton and trained as a public accountant and established her own practice whoch she ran for over two decades (1935 – 1957). She was married (1931) to David Fairclough, and bore an only son. Fairclough became involved in Conservative politics after being elected to the Hamilton City Council as an alderman (1946). Four years afterwards (1950) she was elected to the House of Commons as the member for Hamilton West. A highly popular figure, Fairclough was re-elected to office four times (1953 – 1962), and was finally defeated in 1963.
Fairclough served as secretary of State for Canada (1957 – 1958) and acting prime minister (Feb 19 – Feb 20, 1958), and was the minister for citizenship and immigration (1958 – 1962) and was Postmaster-General (1962 – 1963). Despite being known for her opposition to homosexuals in high office, Fairclough remained a patron of Canadian cultural life, Fairclough supported the Huguenot Society from 1969 and was appointed as chancellor of the Hamilton College of Music (1978 – 1980). She retired from office at the age of over eighty (1986) and nominated Kim Campbell to lead the Progressive Conservative Party (1993). Fairclough’s nomination was instrumental in assisting Campbell to become Canada’s first woman prime minister. Fairclough’s valuable service was publicly recognized when she received the honour of the title of Right Honourable from Queen Elizabeth II (1992). Her memoirs were entitled, Saturday’s Child: Memoirs of Canada’s First Female Cabinet Minister (1995). Ellen Fairclough died (Nov 13, 2004) in Hamilton, aged in her one hundredth year.

Fairfax, Nell Virginia – (1884 – 1956)
Southern American mystery novelist
Nell Randolph was born (Oct 3, 1884) in Nelsonville, Ohio, the daughter of Marion Orlando Randolph, and attended schools and colleges in that state. She was later married (1907) to a physician, Henry Fairfax. For over three decades after her marriage, Nell Fairfax resided in Brookhaven, Mississippi, where she was prominent figure in civic activities. She published half a dozen successful suspense novels, such as, The Camp’s Strange Visitors (1936), Ke Sooni (1947), and, Su Won and Her Wonderful Tree (1949). Using the pseudonym ‘Helen Randolph’ she co-authored three mystery novels with Helen Ripley, such as Crossed Trails in Mexico (1936), The Mystery of Carlitos (1936), and, The Secret of Casa Grande (1936). Nell Fairfax died (Dec 6, 1956) aged seventy-two.

Fairfax, Sally Cary – (1730 – 1811)  
American colonial society figure and letter writer
Sally Cary was born into a wealthy and well connected Cary family, and was made an eminently suitable society marriage, though she and her husband remained childless.  Sally Fairfax remains famous for her platonic romantic liasion with George Washington (1732 – 1799), the future first President of the USA, two years her own junior, who visited her husband’s home at Belvoir for some time. Herself well educated and well read, Sally took an interest in Washington’s and oversaw his own education prior to taking his place in colonial society. Several years later (1755) the couple became romantically linked and she nursed fim at Mt Vernon suring a severe bout of influenza (1757). Their letters from this period survive, and attest that they always retained that affection for each other, though their feelings remained platonic, out of respect for their respective spouses, though their families appear to have been well aware of the liasion.
Sally Fairfax and her husband later sold the estate of Belvoir (1771), Washington buying her bedroom furniture at auction. They travelled to England to reside, and Sally remained there for the rest of her life. She was widowed in 1787 and her financial situation was precarious at the time of her death, over two decades afterwards. Almost one hundred years after her death, extracts from her personal diary (1771 – 1772) were published in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (1903 – 1904).

Fairfield, Cicily Isabel      see     West, Dame Rebecca

Fairless, Margaret – (1895 – 1968)
British violinist
Fairless was born in Northumberland, and received her musical training in Vienna, Austria. She made her first public appearance in London at the Royal Albert Hall, and toured extensively throughout Britain, as well as South and East Africa and in the West Indies. Fairless performed under such famous conductors as Sir Thomas Beecham and Sir Henry Wood, and was especially admired for her renditions of the works of Sir Edward Elgar, who conducted his violin concerto for her on several occasions. During WW II she toured South Africa in concert and played before George VI and Queen Elizabeth during the visit there of the royal family (1947). Margaret Fairless died (March 28, 1968).

Fairless, Michael – (1869 – 1901)
British writer of religious fiction
Born Margaret Fairless Barber in West Yorkshire, she was the daughter of a solicitor. Though born into a comfortable situation in life she sufferred ill-health for most of it. The death of her mother (1891) left her financially independent. Drawn to Roman Catholicism, she only began writing during the last two years of her life, when illness prevented her from more physically strenuous pastimes. She used the pseudonym ‘Michael Fairless’ and is best remembered for the immensely popular work, The Roadmender (1902), the last chapter of which she dictated whilst on her deathbed, to her friend and biographer, Mary Emily Dowson. She also wrote the work, Brother Hilarius (1901), also published posthumously, which dealt with a medieval priest who tended those dying of the plague, before dying in peace himself.

‘Fair Maid of Kent, the’    see   Joan of Kent

Faisst, Clara Mathilda – (1872 – 1948)
German composer and writer
Faisst was born (June 22, 1872) at Karlsruhe, Baden. She received her initial musical training from the Karlsruhe Conservatory. Faisst later travelled to Berlin in Prussia, so she could attend the School of Music in Berlin, Prussia, to study under the famous pianist, Max Bruch (1838 – 1920). She composed over one hundred separate works, including choral pieces, ballads, and sonatas for the piano and the violin. She was the author of, Horst du Tron? (Can You Hear the Note?) (1924). Clara Faisst died (Nov 22, 1948) at Karlsruhe, aged seventy-six.

Faith (Foy) – (c290 – 303 AD)
Gallo-Roman Christian martyr
Faith was arrested at Agen in Aquitaine, Gaul, during the persecutions initiated by the emperor Diocletian, aged only about thirteen, together with St Caprasius. She put to death in the most barbarous fashion, being roasted on a griddle, and then beheaded. Early sympathisers gave her remains honourable burial and a church was built to honour her and Caprasius in the fifth century.
Her relics were removed to the abbey of Conques over three hundred years later (c855), and became the focal point of religious pilgrimages until the Reformation. These pilgrims included crusaders on their way to Palestine, and those travelling to the shrine of St Iago de Compostela in Spain. Many former prisoners attributed their release to the intercession of St Faith, and they left their chains in front of her gold reliquary at Conques, which remains extant.

Faithfull, Emily – (1835 – 1895)
British publisher and feminist
Faithfull was born (May 27, 1835) at Headley, near Epsom, in Surrey, the daughter of a clergyman, Ferdinand Faithfull. She was a founding member of the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (1859) and then established a printing house in London which employed female staff (1860). Faithfull was appointed as printer and publisher to Queen Victoria (1862) and established the Victoria Magazine, which she edited until 1880.
During this time she remained a firm advocate of suitable employment for women. She founded the weekly magazine, Women and Work (1865), and organized the Victorian Discussion Society, which provided a proper forum for women to voice their opinions on a multitude of subjects. Emily Faithfull made three lecture tours of the USA in the eighteen seventies and (1882 – 1883) and produced, Three Visits to America (1884), which described both her visit and the comparable situations of American women, and the novel, Change Upon Change (1868). In recognition of her services to literature Queen Victoria awarded Faithfull a life pension from the Civil List (1889). Emily Faithfull died (May 31, 1895) in Manchester, Lancashire, aged sixty.

Faithfull, Lilian Mary – (1865 – 1952)
British educator and headmistress
Faithfull was born (March 12, 1865) at Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire, the daughter of a merchant clerk. She was educated at Somerville College, Oxford, where she studied English literature, and was then a lecturer at the Royal Holloway College (1889). After this she served as vice-principal of the women’s department of King’s College, London. Faithfull was appointed principal of Cheltenham Ladies’ College (1907 – 1922), being chosen by the foundress, Dorothea Beale, to be her successor. Her contribution to education was recognized when she was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1926). After her retirement Miss Faithfull served as a public magistrate in Gloucester and during WW II she served as chairman of the Food Advisory Group of the Women’s Voluntary Service in that county.  Noticing the need for affordable housing for the elderly poor, Faithfull established the Old People’s Housing Society in Cheltenham. Lilian Faithfull died unmarried (May 2, 1952) at Cheltenham aged eighty-seven.

Faithfull, Lucy – (1910 – 1996)
British government minister
Lucy Faithfull was born (Dec 26, 1910) and attended secondary school in Bournemouth. She then studied social science at Birmingham University in Lancashire, and became a case worker with the Family Welfare Association. Faithfull served as an official with the Birmingham Settlement before becoming the assistant organizer of child care with the London County Council education Department (1935 – 1940). She then served as a regional welfare officer with the Ministry of Health (1940 – 1948) and was an inspector of children’s homes with the Oxford City Council.
Miss Faithfull was appointed as the director of Social Services (1970 – 1974) and in recognition of her valuable service to the community she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) (1972) and then created a life peer as Baroness Faithfull of Wolvercote in Oxfordshire (1975) by Queen Elizabeth II. With her retirement Lady Faithfull served on the finance committee of the Barnardo children’s homes and was a member of the Council of the Caldecott Community Kent School for Maladjusted Children (1979). Lady Faithfull died (March 13, 1996) aged eighty-five.

Faithfull, Starr – (1906 – 1931)
American murder victim
Starr Faithfull was a member of an important family from Manhattan, New York. Her body, expensively dressed, was found washed up on a deserted stretch of Long Beach, Nassau County (June 8, 1931). The case captured the media’s attention for weeks, and her death was cause of much speculation, though suicide was discounted. It was wideley believed that her death had strong connections in political circles, and she had been known to frequent seedy underworld haunts, and the company of known criminals. The discovery of her personal diary, which might have given some clues, only revealed her meetings and assignations with various men, and provided no further information to help the police.
Finally, three weeks after her body was initially discovered, the case of Starr’s murder was closed (June 26), it was said, because of pressure exerted by those in high places, who had much to hide. Her killer was never caught, and the extensive notes made during the case by the New York District Attorney Elvin Edwards, later completely vanished.

Falaise, Maxime de la – (1922 – 2009)
British model, cookery writer, actress and interior designer
Maxine Birley was born (June 25, 1922) in West Dean in Sussex into a prominent family, the daughter of the portraitist Sir Oswald Birley and the Irish horticulturalist and painter Rhoda Lecky Pike, and was educated at Hampstead in London. She was married firstly (1946) to the French peer Comte Alain de la Falaise and adopted the first name ‘Maxime.’ She was the mother of the fashion model Loulou de la Falaise. Her second husband was the art historian John McKendry.
Maxime was a noted model durig the 1950’s and worked with the noted coutouriere Elsa Schiaparelli. She was photographed by Georges Dambier and Cecil Beaton. She later published the cookery books entitled Seven Centuries of English Cooking: A Collection of Recipes (1973), and Food in Vogue (1980). She appeared in Andy Warhol’s video Phoney (1973) which was later included in Andy Warhol’s Video & Television Retrospective (1991). Maxime de la Falaise died (April 30, 2009) aged eighty-six, in Provence.

Falaiseau, Adelaide de Kerjean, Marquise de – (1760 – 1812)
French courtier, émigré, and memoirist
The marquise and her husband attended the court of Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles. With the outbreak of the Revolution (1789) the marquise and her family managed to escape and emigrated abroad. Her private journal and letters were edited and published in Paris, eighty years after her death as Dix ans de la vie d’une femme pendant l’emigration. Adelaide de Kerjean, marquise de Falaiseau, d’apres des lettres inedites et des souvenirs de famile par le vicomte de Broc (1893).

Falaris, Duchesse de    see   Phalaris, Duchesse de

Falbe, Emmeline Maria de – (1828 – 1911)
Australian diarist, traveller, and society leader
Emmeline Macarthur was the daughter of Hannibal Macarthur, and the maternal granddaughter of Sir Philip Gidley King, the governor of the colony of New South Wales. She was raised at Subiaco along the Parramatta River, in New South Wales, and led the life of a privileged colonial family. Emmeline was married (1848) to a squatter named George Leslie, and the couple resided for several years at the station at Canning Downs in the Darling Downs region (1848 – 1852). Her husband’s poor health necessitated a return to Sydney, where George Leslie entered politics, but ulitmately the couple retired to England (1854). With her husband’s death (1860), Emmeline remarried (1865) to a French officer, Captain Vignant de Falbe. Her colourful personal recollections of her youth, written during her last years were entitled My dear Miss Macarthur, were first published in the Bulletin (1954).

Falco, Joao    see   Lisboa, Irene do Ceu Viera

Falcon, Cornelie – (1814 – 1897)
French soprano
Marie Cornelie Falcon was born (Jan 28, 1814) in Paris, and studied singing under Giulio Marco Bordogni (1788 – 1856), and then under Adolf Nourrit (1802 – 1839) at the Paris Conservatory. Cornelie made her stage debut at the Paris Opera in the role of Alice in Robert le Diable (1832). She also performed the roles of Valentine in Les Huguenots (1838) and Rachel in, La Juive. However, despite her excellent successes, illness interfered with her voice, and though she resorted to all sorts of medical treatment, real and fraudulent, she was forced to end her singing career. Falcon retired to her property outside Paris where she resided another six decades. Cornelie Falcon died (Feb 25, 1897) in Paris, aged eighty-three.

Falconar, Maria – (1771 – after 1788)
British poet
Maria Falconar published a collection of poems, which she had written in conjunction with her younger sister, Harriet (born 1774) under the title of, Poems, by Maria and Harriet Falconar (1788). Almost nothing is known of their lives.

Falconbridge, Anna Maria – (1769 – after 1794)
British traveller
Anna Maria was born in Bristol, and was married Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was employed aboard slave-trading ships. From 1791 – 1792 she was in Sierra Leone with her husband. They were recalled to England (1792), but Alexander died of alcohol and fever. Anna Maria remarried to Isaac Du Bois from North Carolina, and the couple returned to England via Jamaica. She left memoirs, Narrative of Two Voyages to the River Sierra Leone, During the Years 1791-2-3 (1794), the first published account of the country written by an English woman.

Falconer, Lanoe – (1848 – 1908)
Scottish-Anglo writer and short story author
Born Mary Elizabeth Hawker, at Inverary, Aberdeenshire, she was the daughter of a soldier, and received an inadequate education. She did travel abroad where she became fluent in French and German but remained resident for the most part at her family’s home in Hampshire, England. Hawker adopted the literary pseudonym of ‘Lanoe Falconer,’ but did not achieve literary recognition until aged over forty, with her popular short story, Mademoiselle Ixe (1890), which dealt with violence directed against women and was greatly admired by the prime minister, William Gladstone. Other works included, Cecilia de Noel (1891), Hotel d’Angleterre and Other Stories (1891), The Wrong Prescription (1893), and the collection of short stories entitled, Old Hampshire Vignettes (1907). Her later years were dogged by increasing ill-health, which interfered with her literary career. Lanoe Falconer died (June 16, 1908).

Falconetti, Marie (Renee) – (1892 – 1946)
Italian stage and film actress
Usually known simply as ‘Falconetti, she was born (July 21, 1892) in Sermano, Corsica. An extrordinarily successful theatre actress, she appeared in several silent films such as, La Comtesse de Somerive (1917), and, Le Clown (1917), as Renee Falconetti. She is best remembered for her only sound film, the very dramatic, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), which is regarded as a movie classic. Marie Falconetti died (Dec 12, 1946) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, aged fifty-four.

Falconieri, Juliana – (1270 – 1341)
Italian nun and virgin saint
Falconieri was born in Florence, and was the niece of Alexis Falconieri, himself venerated as a saint, who founded (1240) the Servite Order (the Order of Servants of Mary). Refusing to marry (1284), Juliana followed in her kinsman’s footsteps, and founded the Servite Third Order, which was devoted to the care of the sick and thepoor. Because she had been borne late in her mother’s life, the two were exceptionally close, and it was not until her mother Ricordata’s death (1304), that Juliana finally joined the community of nuns. Her order later received papal recognition (1424) and was Juliana was later canonized (1737).

Falectrudis of Valence – (fl. c970 – c1000)
French mediaeval nobelwoman
Her family connections remain unrecorded. Falectrudis became the wife of Count Lambert of Valence in Provence. Together with her husband Falectrudis granted property of Felines in Valence to assist with the building of the Abbey of St Marcel (985). This foundation charter, confirmed by an otherwise unknown Duke Conrad Lanbertus et uxor mea Falectrudis had founded the monastery for the souls of Count Lambert’s late parents, Count Gontard of Valence and his wife Ermengarde. They also made grants to the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. Falectrudis was the mother of two sons, Count Ademar of Valence (c975 – after 1037) who left descendants, and Lambert of Valence (c980 – before 1037) who became a priest and was appointed as Bishop of Valence (995). Falectrudis was the grandmother of Pons (c1000 – 1056) the Bishop of Valence (1031 – 1056).

Falk-Auerbach, Nanette – (1835 – 1928)
German musician
Falk-Auerbach was born in Hamburg. She was associated with Rossini and Richard Wagner. Nanette Falk-Auerbach died (May, 1928) in Danzig, Gdansk.

Falkenburg, Jinx – (1919 – 2003)
Spanish-American film and television actress
Born Eugenia Lincoln Falkenburg (Jan 21, 1919) in Barcelona, she was raised in Chile, South America. she moved to the USA as a child with her family, and her later stage name came from the nickname ‘Jinx’ given her as a child by her mother. From her teenage years she was interested in modelling, and she managed to rise to the top of this profession, and she appeared on the cover of many magazine covers. She then worked in film and made over two dozen films as well as appearing on television programs. Falkenburg was married (1945) to radio host Tex McCrary with whom she co-hosted the popular radio show Hi Jinx (1946). Together the couple hosted the show At Home for NBC and she published her autobiography entitled simply Jinx (1951). Jinx Falkenburg died (Aug 27, 2003) at Manhasset, New York, aged eighty-four, only a month after the death of her husband.

Falkenhayn, Benita von – (1901 – 1935)
German traitor
Falkenhayn was born to the upper aristocracy and was a baroness, being related to Erich von Falkenhayn (1861 – 1922), the Prussian chief of General Staff during WW I. Benita was became the mistress of Major Jerzy Sosnowski, a Polish intelligent officer, who was conducting a simultaneous affair with her friend Renate von Natzmer. Both women were apprehended by the Nazi authorities, were found guilty of treason and espionage activities, and were condemned to death. They were beheaded (Feb 18, 1935) at the Plotzensee Prison in Berlin, being the last two persons to be executed in that manner prior to Adolf Hitler changing the law to hanging (1938).

Falkenstein, Gertrude – (1803 – 1882)
German morganatic royal
Gertrude Falkenstein was born (May 18, 1803) at Bonn, the daughter of Gottfried Falkenstein and his wife Magdalena Schulz. She was married firstly to Captain Karl Michael Lehmann, a military officer but this union ended in divorce. Madame Lehmann later attracted the attention of the Electoral Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (1802 – 1875), the son and heir of Elector Wilhelm II (1821 – 1847), who then married her (1831) at Rellinghausen. However the royal family did not recognize the marriage and it was considered morganatic.
Fourth months after the wedding, Gertrude was created Countess von Schaumburg (Oct 10, 1831). Two decades later, after her husband had succeeded his father on the electoral throne as Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (1847 – 1866) Countess Gertrude was then created Princess von Hanau (June 2, 1853) and then Princess von Hanau und zu Horowitz with the qualification of ‘Serene Highness’ (May 19, 1855). Her children inherited Gertrude’s joint titles and became styled the Prince or Princess von Hanau und zu Horowitz and Count or Countess von Schaumburg. Her eldest son Friedrich Wilhelm and his sons were debarred from succession to the electoral throne unless the legitimate line defaulted in male issue.
Her husband lost his throne when Hesse was annexed to Prussia (1866) and they retired to live on their estates in Bohemia. With the elector’s death she became Her Serene Highness the Dowager Princess von Hanau und zu Horowitz (1875 – 1882). Princess Gertrude died (July 9, 1882) aged seventy-nine, in Prague. Her nine children were,

Falkiner, Blanche Call, Lady – (1846 – 1896)
Anglo-Irish baronetess (1867 – 1893)
Blanche Call was the youngest daughter of Sir William Berkeley Call, third baronet, of Whiteford, Cornwall (1791), and was the sister of Sir William Montagu Call, fourth baronet, who succeeded his father (1864). Blanche was married (1865) to Sir Samuel Edmund Falkiner (1843 – 1893), sixth baronet (1867 – 1893), of Anne Mount, Cork, Ireland, whom she survived as Dowager Lady Falkiner (1893 – 1896). Lady Blanche died (May 14, 1896) aged forty-nine. She left two children,

Falkland, Amelia Fitzclarence, Lady – (1807 – 1858)
British vice-regal figure, traveller, and memoirist
Lady Amelia Fitzclarence was born (March 21, 1807) the fifth and youngest illegitimate daughter of King William IV (1830 – 1837), formerly duke of Clarence, and his long-time mistress, the actress Dorothea Jordan (nee Bland). Her eldest brother was George Augustus Frederick Fitzclarence (1794 – 1842), the first Earl of Munster. Amelia was married (1830) to Lucius Bentinck Cary (1803 – 1884), tenth Viscount Falkland, and was the mother of his heir Lucius William Cary (1831 – 1877). Her son was styled master of Falkland, but he predeceased his father. He had married but died childless and the title passed to an uncle.
When her husband was appointed as governor of Bombay in India (1848 – 1853), Lady Falkland accompanied him there. She was intrigued by the life and customs of India, and made several expeditions in the Deccan region. On their return to Britain, the couple visited Egypt and Palestine. Lady Falkland left an account of these travels, which were published in two volumes as, Chow-Chow: Being Selections from a Journal kept in India, Egypt, and Syria (1857). Lady Falkland died (July 2, 1858) aged forty-one.

Falkland, Christina Anton, Lady – (c1775 – 1822)
British peeress and literary figure
Christina Anton became the wife (1802) at the Church of St Clement Danes in Middlesex, London of Charles John Cary (1768 – 1809), the ninth Viscount Falkland and she became the Viscountess Falkland (1802 – 1809). She was the mother of Lucius Bentinck Cary (1803 – 1884) who as a child of six succeeded his father as the tenth Viscount Falkland and held the peerage for almost seventy-five years (1809 – 1884). His first wife was Lady Amelia Fitzclarence, daughter of King William IV (1830 – 1837) and the actress Dorothea Jordan, whilst his second was Elizabeth Catherinem, the Dowager Duchess of St Albans.
Lord Falkland died from wounds received in a duel and Lady Christina survived him as the Dowager Viscountess Falkland (1809 – 1822). Falkland had been a friend to the poet Lord George Byron, and after his death, Byron left Lady Falkland five hundred pounds as a gift when he visited home. He secreted the money in a breakfast cup so that it would not be discovered until after he left, despite that fact that he was in debt himself. However Byron’s generous had caused a result that he had not expected. Lady Christina imagined that Byron was in love with her and she became infatuated with him. When she read his work Childe Harold she deluded herelf that all the love passages in it were directed to her as her letter to the poet revealed when she wrote ‘ Tell me, my Byron, if these mournful tender effusions of your heart to that Thyrza … were not intended for myself.’ She even believed that the ‘Maid of Athens’ was ‘your own Christina.’
Lady Falkland’s infatuation caused Byron some considerable embarrassment, so much so that he eventually handed over her letters to his lawyer, and when Lady Christina was informed that he would neither read nor answer them, her passion did not diminish, and resulted in continued plaintive letters. Lady Falkland died (July 25, 1822) at Vauxhall in London.

Falkland, Elizabeth Tanfield, Lady     see    Cary, Elizabeth

Falk-Mehlig, Anna – (1846 – 1928)
German pianist
Falk-Mehling was born in Stuttgart, Wurttemburg, and studied at the conservatory there under Franz Liszt. She toured Germany as a concert pianist, also making successful tours of Britain and the USA. During the latter part of her career she was appointed as court pianist to the royal family in Wurttemburg. Madame Falk-Mehling died (July 16, 1928) in Berlin, Prussia, aged eighty-two.

Falkner, Anna Maria – (fl. 1745 – 1784)
Irish vocalist and dancer
Anna Maria Falkner was the adopted daughter of the noted Dublin printer, George Faulkner (1699 – 1775). Anna Maria made her stage debut at Covent Garden in London, appearing in the female title role of, Orpheus and Eurydice (1745), and was probably a member of the chorus afterwards, before becoming the principal singer at Marylebone Gardens (1747 – 1752).
Falkner played the goddess Diana in the dramatic dance, Apollo and Daphne (1748), Polly in the ever popular, The Beggar’s Opera, and Margery in, The Dragon of Wantley. She sometimesd appeared under married name after she wed (1748) William Donaldson, the son of a linen draper, to whom she bore a son.
Later, apparently with her husband’s acquiescence, Anna Maria resided with George Montagu (1716 – 1771), second Earl of Halifax, as his acknowledged mistress, and may have acted as governess to his two daughters. He provided her with a house at Hampton Green, where she resided for several years with the two children she bore Halifax. The earl’s patronage and support ended with his death (1771). Over a decade later Donaldson died (1784), and five years later Anna Maria remarried to Colonel Charles Lumm. Nothing is recorded of her life after this date. Her portrait by A. von der Myn, is preserved in the British Museum.

Falkner, Heather – (1941 – 1997)
Australian novelist and magazine writer
Falkner as born in Melbourne, Victoria, but was raised in Clovelly, in Sydney, NSW. After a stint at secretarial college, Heather graduated in English from the Macquarie University. From 1983 – 1990 she was the companion of crime writer Peter Corris, and the couple travelled extensively throughout Europe, Africa and the United States. Involved with the production of the Australian Arlines’magazine Flight Deck, Heather also managed publications for the banks of Shanghai and Hong Kong, and was the founding editor of Travelling Life, which received an international publishing award. Heather also wrote several crime fiction novels, Up All Night (1989), and, Arlett’s Death (1990), which dealt with the seamy and dangerous underworld crime scene in Sydney in the 1980’s. Heather Falkner died of cancer at Bad Aibling, near Munich, Bavaria.

Fallaci, Oriana – (1929 – 2006)
Italian journalist and novelist
Fallaci was born in Florence (July 29, 1929), the daughter if a cabinet maker, and was educated at the Liceo Galileo Galilei. She learnt English during WW II by assisting Allied servicemen to safety.  She originally intended to study medicine, but discovered that journalism was her forte, and became an international correspondent for, L’Europeo. Fallaci acquired a reputation for her feisty interviewing style and refusal to be cowed by political or religious leaders, like Henry Kissinger, and most notably Islamic leaders such as Yasser Arafat and Ayatollah Khomeini.
Fallaci was the author of La rabbia e l’orgoglio (The Rage and the Pride) (2002), which sold a millions of copies, and denounced what she saw as Western kow-towing to Islam. She later covered the Vietnam War and, and wrote the novels Lettera a un bambino mai nato (Letter to a Child Never Born) (1975), and Un uomo (A Man) (1979), which portrayed her lover, the Greek resistance fighter, Alexander Panagoulis. Her work Inshallah (1992) was a fictional account of the Italian-Lebanese conflict during the civil war. Oriana Fallaci died of cancer in Florence (Sept 15, 2006), aged seventy-seven, in the midst of being on trial for inciting racial hatred.

Falleni, Eugenia – (1876 – 1938)
Australian murderess
Born in Florence, Italy she was taken to New Zealand by her parents whilst an infant. She continued to run away from home, and was determined to dress and live as a male. She obtained work thus disguised on board a freighter ship, but her true sex was discovered, and when she arrived in Newcastle, New South Wales, she had a small daughter with her (1898) who was fostered out. Falleni now adopted the identity of ‘Harry Leo Crawford’ and worked various low paid or menial jobs as a man without detection. He made the acquaintance of Annie Birkett, a young widow, whom he married illegally (1913), though it remains unclear whether Annie knew the extent of the deception. Several years later Mrs Birkett disappeared and was murdered in Chatswood (1917), having been battered to death, though the murderer had tried to burn the remains unsuccessfully. By the time Falleni was apprehended (1920) he had remarried another unsuspecting ‘wife.’
Falleni confessed her true sex, was confined in the women’s prison, and the press and media had a field day with the story. Dressed as a woman for her trial, it was alleged that Falleni had perpetrated a sex-fraud, and then murdered Annie Birkett when she had discovered the deception. She proclaimed her innocence, but was convicted and condemned to death, but her sentence was commuted. Released from prison (1931) she assumed the name of ‘Jean Ford’ and worked as a landlady. Eugenia Falleni was struck down by a car in Paddington, Sydney, and died the next day (June 9, 1938)

Falley, Margaret Dickson – (1898 – 1983)
American genealogist and author
Falley was born (Nov 8, 1898) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and established herdelf as the leading authority on Irish ancestry in the USA. Falley was the only American representative on the council of Harleian Society of London, and was the author of the two volume work, Irish and Scotch-Irish ancestral Research: A Guide to the Genealogical Records, Methods, and Sources in Ireland, and Richard Falley and Some of His Descendants, Including Grover Cleveland, amongst other published works. She served as president (1961 – 1963) of the American Society of Genealogists and received the National Genealogic Society’s Merit Award (1963). Margaret Falley died (July 10, 1983) at Lake Forrest, Illinois, aged eighty-four, and donated her extensive genealogical libraries and records to the Northwestern University.

Fallis, Barbara – (1924 – 1980)
American ballerina and dance teacher
Born Barbara Fallis Strong in Denver, Colorado, and later moved to London, England, with her family during childhood. There she studied ballet under Serafina Astafieva, Joan Lawson, and Dame Ninette De Valois, amongst other notable teachers. Whilst she was there she performed (1938 – 1940) with the Vic-Wells Ballet, which later evolved into the Royal Ballet. Fallis returned to the USA during WW II (1941) and joined the Ballet Theater in New York. Especially admired for the purity of her technique, in New York Fallis appeared in such memorable roles as Calliope in George Balanchine’s ballet Apollo, and the Waltz in, Les Sylphides, which was choreographed by Michel Fokine. She later joined the Ballet Alicia Alonso in Havana, Cuba (1948) and appeared in the title role in the ballet Aurora’s Wedding and as Myrtha in, Giselle. She was married to fellow dancer Richard Thomas, to whom she bore two children, including the actor Richard Thomas (born 1951) best known for his role of John-Boy in the popular television series The Waltons (1972 – 1976).
Barbara Fallis and her husband joined the New York City Ballet (1953 – 1958) where she performed solo roles in works such as, Western Symphony by Balanchine, Allegro Brilliante, and the Nutcracker. With Thomas she established their own dance studio, the New York School of Ballet, and their pupils included such figures as Twyla Tarp, Eliot Feld, and Cynthia Gregory. Fallis later served as ballet mistress at the American Ballet Company (1969 – 1980), which had been established by her Feld. Barbara Fallis died of cancer in New York (Sept 5, 1980) aged fifty-six.

Falmouth, Charlotte Godfrey, Viscountess – (1678 – 1754)
Britsh Hanoverian courtier
Charlotte godfrey was the eldest daughter and coheir of Colonel Charles Godfrey, master of the Jewel Office, and his wife Arabella Churchill, who was the sister of the famous general, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and mistress of James II (1685 – 1688). She was married (1700) in Henry VII’s Chapel in Westminster Abbey, to Hugh Boscawen (c1677 – 1734), first Viscount Falmouth (1720). Lady Falmouth served at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne (1702 – 1714). With the accession of George I, Lady Falmouth attempted to bribe Lady Sundon, chief attendant upon Caroline, Princess of Wales, with cash, in order to obtain a place for her in the princess’s household, so that she might be able to influence her husband’s career at court. Her bribe was not successful, and Lady Falmouth’s letters on this subject were printed in Mrs Thomson’s, Life of Lady Sundon. Charlotte survived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Viscountess Falmouth (1734 – 1754). Lady Falmouth died (March 22, 1754) aged seventy-five, and was interred with her husband at the church of St Michael Penkivil, in Cornwall. Her son, Hugh Boscawen (1706 – 1782) succeeded his father as second Viscount Falmouth (1734 – 1782) and left descendants.

Falmouth, Mary Margaret Desiree Meynell, Lady – (1894 – 1985)
British peeress (1918 – 1962)
Mary Meynell was born (Oct 25, 1894) the only daughter of the Hon. (Honourable) Frederick george Lindley Meynell (1846 – 1910) of Hoar Cross, Burton-on-Trent and his wife Lady Mary Susan Felicie Lindsay, the daughter of Alexander William Crawford Lindsay (1812 – 1880), the twenty-fifth Earl of Crawford. She became the wife (1915) of Evelyn Hugh John Boscawen (1887 – 1962) who succeeded as the eighth Viscount Falmouth (1918 – 1962) whereupon the Hon. Mrs Boscawen became the Viscountess Falmouth.
Lord and Lady Falmouth were present at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in Westminster Abbey (1953). During WW II Lady Falmouth worked to organize nursing and ambulance units for the front for which she was appointed O.ST.J (Officer of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem), and Lady Falmouth was also appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1946) in recognition of her voluntary work for the war effort. She survived her husband as the Dowager Viscountess Falmouth (1962 – 1985). Her five children were,

Falsifie of Moncontour – (c1100 – c1163)
French heiress
Falsifie was the daughter of Pierre, seigneur of Moncontour in Poitou, and great-granddaughter of the first seigneur, Robert I (c1035 – 1056). She was married (before 1120) to Geoffrey II de Rancon, Seigneur de Taillebourg in Saintonge. Falsifie bore her husband at least three children, Geoffrey III de Rancon, seignuer de Taillebourg (c1125 – 1153), who went on crusade to the Holy Land (1149), and left issue, and two daughters, Bourgogne (Burgundia) de Rancon, who was married to Hugh VIII de Lusignan, comte de La Marche (c1106 – 1172), and Elisabeth de Rancon, who became a nun at the abbey of Notre Dame at Saintes as a child (1125). Widowed in 1137, with the death of her only brother Robert II (c1160), Falsifie inherited the seigneurie of Moncontour, together with the castle, which had been built by Fulk Nerra (c1000), which passed through her elder daughter into the Lusignan family, and through them, to the Maille, Rouge, and La Haye families until the Revolution.

Faltonia Betitia Proba      see      Proba, Faltonia Betitia

Famosa – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Famosa was arrested and condemned during the persecutions instigated by the emperor Maximian Daia. She was publicly put to death in Constantinople, together with saint Acacius formerly a centurion, and their companion Agatha, whom Acacius had converted during their imprisonment, together with over two dozen other women. Her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 8).

Fanchea – (c460 AD – c510)
Irish nun and saint
Fanchea was born at Rathmore, near Clogher, the daughter of Conall the Red, Prince of Oriel in Ulster and his wife Briga. Her name is variously given as Fainc, Fainche, Faine, or Phaina, and she was sister to the abbot, St Enda (d. 530), and of Darenia, the wife of Angus, king of Cashel. In her youth Fanchea was sought in marriage by Angus, the son of Natfraich, King of Momonia, but she refused his suit, being determined to become a nun. With the assistance of her sister Queen Darenia, Fanchea built a monastery for nuns at Rosairthir (Rossory) on the banks of Lough Erne in county Fermanagh, where she ultimately became abbess. At her death, the people of Meath and Leinster fought for the control of her relics. Fanchea was eventually interred at Kilhaine in Meath and her feast was kept annually (Jan 1).

Fane, Lady Augusta – (1786 – 1871)
British patrician
Lady Augusta was the daughter of John Fane, eleventh Earl of Westmorland and his wife Sarah Anne Child, of Osterley Park, Middlesex. She was married (1804) to Thomas Parker, first earl of Morley (1772 – 1840), and the couple produced an only child, Henry Villiers Parker (1806 – 1817), known as viscount Boringdon, who died at the age of eleven. Her marriage was very unhappy, and Augusta eventually eloped from her husband’s home in Cumberland Place, London, with Sir Arthur Paget (1771 – 1840). She was divorced and remarried two days later (Feb 16, 1809) to Paget, after a verdict awarding ten thousand pounds had been obtained by Lord Morley.
According to the author of More uncensored Recollections, the best-selling novel East Lynne (1861), written by Mrs Henry Wood, was founded on the story of Lady Augusta. She later returned, when her son, Lord Boringdon, was dying (1817), and became his nurse, her grief-stricken former husband recognizing her, but not letting her know that he had done so. Augusta bore Paget seven children, and survived him over thirty years. The children of her second marriage included the diplomat Sir Augustus Berkeley Paget (1823 – 1896), Laura Caroline Paget (1816 – 1871), wife to Henry Spencer Chichester, Lord Templemore, and the beautiful Agnes Charlotte Paget (1831 – 1858), who travelled to the Crimea as the first wife of her cousin Lord George Augustus Paget.

Fane, Augusta Fanny Rous, Lady – (1858 – 1950)
British society leader and memoirist
Lady Augusta Rous was the eldest daughter of John Edward Cornwallis Rous, second Earl of Stradbroke, and his wife Augusta, the widow of Colonel Bonham, and daughter of Sir Christopher Musgrave, ninth baronet. Lady Augusta was married (1880) to Cecil Francis William Fane (died 1914), but their union was later dissolved by divorce (1904). Prior to this Lady Fane had been a prominent figure in London society, and attended the court of the Prince and Princess of Wales at Marlborough House during the latter part of the reign of Queen Victoria. She travelled extensively in Europe and was the author of a volume of reminiscences entitled Chit-chat (1926). Lady Fane died (Feb 10, 1950) aged ninety-one.

Fane, Isabella – (1804 – 1886) 
Anglo-Indian diarist and traveller
Isabella Fane was the only daughter of General Sir Henry Fane by Mrs Isabella Cooke (nee Gorges), who, though she styled herself Lady Fane, had no right to such title. Her brother, Colonel Henry Fane (1802 – 1885), served as ADC to their father in India. Isabella travelled with her father to India (1835) after his appointment as commander-in-chief, and acted as his official hostess until the end of 1838, when she returned to Fulbeck, in Lincolnshire. Isabella’s letters end in April, 1837, and were addressed to her aunt, Mrs Caroline Chaplin, of Blanckney, Lincolnshire. They provided interesting insights to both the British in India, and of the native Indian customs, all written in a free, easy, and slightly caustic style. With the death of her father, financial considerations caused Isabella to retire to Boulogne in France, and later to Aix-la-Chapelle in Belgium (1852 – 1854). A surviving volume of her journal covering this period survives, but deals mostly with personal troubles and her lack of adequate finances. She died unmarried at Pau, in southern France, and was interred there.

Fane, Violet – (1843 – 1905)
British poet and novelist
Born Mary Montgomerie Lamb, at Beauport, Littlehamton, Sussex, she was the eldest daughter of Charles Saville Montgomerie Lamb, and his wife Anna Charlotte Grey. She married firstly (1864) Henry Sydenham Singleton, an Irish landowner, and secondly (1894) Philip Wodehouse Currie, Lord Currie of Hawley. Taking the pseudonym ‘Violet Fane,’ under which all her works were published, she figures as Mrs Sinclair in The New Republic (1877) by William Hurrell Mallock. Her poetic works included, Denzil Place: a Story in Verse (1878), Collected Verses (1880), and, Poems (1892, 2 vols). Her prose works included the, Edwin and Angelina Papers (1878), Collected Essays (1902), and several novels, such as, From Dawn to Noon (1872), The Queen of the Fairies (1877), Sophy, of the Adventures of a Savage (1881), and the immesely popular, Helen Davenant (1889). After her second marriage, Lady Currie accompanied her husband to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where they resided for five years (1898 – 1903), and during which residence she produced another collection of poems, Betwixt two Seas (1900). Violet Fane died of heart failure (Oct 13, 1905) at the Grand Hotel, Harrogate.

Fang – (c1513 – 1547) 
Chinese empress consort
Fang was the third wife of emperor Jiajing (1507 – 1567). A former concubine, the emperor married her in 1534. In 1542 eighteen palace courtiers unsuccessfully tried to murder the emperor. One of the girls warned the empress, who had the other seventeen summarily executed.

Faning, Maud – (1874 – 1945)
Australian vocalist and performer
Faning was born into a theatrical family, the sister of popular cornerman, Charles Faning, and of comedian Edward Faning. Maud appeared on stage with Charlie Fanings Popular Concert Company at the Coogee Aquarium in Sydney, at the National Ampitheatre and the Alhambra Theatre, and established herself as a leading vaudevillian player, famous for her stage interpretation of blacks in productions such as, Maud Faning and Her Picanninies. Faning later appeared with Brennan-Fuller’s Vaudeville Company and in the dramatic production, I May Be Crazy at the Melbourne Opera House, in Victoria (1904). With her eventual retirement from the stage, Faning pursued a career in radio broadcasting. Maud Faning died (Feb 14, 1945) in Sydney, New South Wales aged seventy.

Fannia – (c36 – 107 AD)
Roman Stoic heroine
Fannia was the daughter of Publius Fannius Thrasea Paetus and his wife Arria the younger. She became the second wife of Publius Helvidius Priscus, praetor (70 AD) and was stepmother to Gaius Helvidius Priscus (consul 86 AD). A member of the Stoic group she was persecuted by the emperor Domitian (93 AD), who ordered her banishment and the confiscation of her property, after Herennius Senecius revealed at his trial that he had written a biography of Helvidius at Fannia’s request. The senate ordered the books in question to be destroyed, but Fannia managed to save them, and took them with her into exile.  After Domitian’s assassination, the emperor Nerva rescinded the banishment order and she was permitted to return to Rome, her estates being restored to her. The younger Pliny highly regarded Fannia, and wrote glowingly of her in his letters. Fannia died in Rome from an illness contracted whilst nursing her relative, the Vestal virgin Junia.

Fannia of Minturnae – (fl. 100 – 86 BC)
Roman adulteress
Fannia hospitably entertained the consul Gaius Marius, when he stopped at Minturnae during his flight from Rome (88 BC), despite the fact that he had formerly pronounced Fannia guilty of adultery. Fannia had been married to one Titinnius, who divorced her, whereupon she demanded back her large dowry. Titinnius responded by accusing her of adultery, and the case was tried by Marius (100 BC). The historian Plutarch recorded, ‘In the course of the proceedings it became clear that Fannia had led a dissolute life, but that her husband had known this when he married her and during the long time that he had lived with her. Marius therefore took a severe view of both of them. He ordered the husband to pay back the dowry, and fined the woman four copper coins as a mark of ‘disgrace.’

Fanning, Kay – (1927 – 2000)
American editor and journalist
Born Katherine Woodruff (Oct 18, 1927) in Joliet, Illinois, she attended Smith College. She was married firstly (1950) to the newsman and businessman Marshall Field, of Chicago. She bore him three children before their divorced (1963), after which she remarried (1966) to the Chicago newspaper editor, Larry Fanning. This marriage lasted till Larry’s death (1971). She was married thirdly (1984) to Amos Mathews. With her divorce from Field, Kay removed to Alaska with her children, and remained there. With her second husbnad she purchased and managed the Anchorage Daily News, which she continued to run after his death. Fanning sold this paper (1983) and then became editor of the, The Christian Science Monitor, being the first woman to hold that position, and was also the first woman president of the ASNE (American Society of Newspaper Editors) She taught journalism at Boston University and was a fellow in the Institute of Politics at the Kennedy School at Harvard University. Kay Fanning died in Boston, aged seventy-three.

Fanshawe, Anne Harrison, Lady – (1625 – 1680) 
English Royalist and traveller
Anne Harrison was born in London, the daughter of Sir John Harrison, of Balls. Hertfordshire, and she was married to (1644) Sir Richard Fanshawe (1608 – 1666), the Royalist and diplomat, to whom she bore fourteen children. During a voyage to join the royal court (1646) they were shipwrecked whilst sailing from Land’s End to the Scilly Isles. Herself pregnant, they were robbed of nearly all their possessions, and sufferred fearful privations afterwards. Her husband was actively involved with the Royalist cause, and Anne accompanied him on his travels, to Ireland, France, Holland, and to Spain, and assisted in gaining his release after being captured at the Battle of Worcester (1651). In 1652 the couple retired to Tankersley Park, Yorkshire. With the restoration of Charles II, they were prominent at the court, and Lady Fanshawe accompanied her husband on diplomatic missions to the courts of Spain and Portugal.
With the death of her husband (1666), Anne returned to London. Having been devotedly happy in her married life, Lady Fanshawe later erected an elaborate monument to Sir Richard in the Chapel of St Mary, in Ware Church (1671). She survived him only fourteen years. Her, Memoirs (1665), originally intended only for private family circulation, were written for her only surviving son, Sir Richard Fanshawe (1665 – 1694). Her eldest daughter Katherine remained unmarried, whilst the second, Margaret (1653 – 1705) became the wife of Vincent Grantham, of Golitho, Lincolnshire.

Fanshawe, Catherine Maria – (1765 – 1834)
British poet, author, and painter
Catherine Fanshawe was born (July 6, 1765) at Shabden, near Chipstead, Surrey. Her father John Fanshawe was the first clerk of the board of the green cloth to George III. She and her sisters became their father’s coheirs after the deaths of their two brothers during childhood. Fanshawe remained unmarried but moved in literary circles, and Sir Walter Scott and Mary Berry both admired her verses. She was especially remembered for such poems as, ‘Enigma: The Letter H,’ and, ‘The Abrogation of the Birth-Night Ball,’ which were published in her posthumous collection of verse entitled, Memorials (1865). Several of her works were published in Joanna Baillie’s, Collection of Poems (1823), and others in Locker’s Lyra Elegantiarum. Catherine Fanshawe died (April 17, 1834) at Putney Heath, aged sixty-eight.

Fanshawe, Mary    see   Sarsfield, Mary

Fanshawe, Penelope – (1763 – 1833)
British author and painter
Fanshawe was born at Shabden, near Chipstead, Surrey, the elder daughter of John Fanshawe, clerk of the green cloth to King George III, and his wife Penelope, the daughter and heiress of John Dredge, of Reading. She was elder sister to the poet Catherine Maria Fanshawe. Her younger sister Elizabeth Christianna Fanshawe (1777 – 1856) died unmarried. With the deaths of her infant brothers Penelope and her sisters became the co-heirs of their father’s considerable estate. They resided together at their house in Berkeley Square, London and at Midhurst House, Richmond, where they entertained the literary figures of the period. Possessed of a rather formal manner, Penelope produced several creditable paintings and was a minor author. Penelope Fanshawe never married and died (April, 1833) of influenza, aged sixty-nine. With her parents and siblings, Fanshawe was commemorated by an elaborate tombstone erected at Chipstead, whilst a memorial to herself was set up within the parish church in Richmond.

Fant, Mabel Beckett – (1880 – 1927)
Southern American author and historian
Mabel Beckett was born (May 15, 1880) in West Point, Mississippi, the daughter of a judge. She successfully graduated from the Mississippi University for Women (formerly the Industrial Institute and College) (1899) and was married to Dr John Fant, who served as governor of the university (1920 – 1929). With her husband she produced the educational manual entitled History of Mississippi: A School Reader (1920). Mabel Fant died (March 24, 1927) aged forty-six.

Fantin-Latour, Madame    see    Dubourg, Victoria

Faquilene – (fl. c820 – c840)
Gascon heiress
Faquilene was the last surviving member of the line of Remiston, the son of Duke Eudes of Aquitaine and his wife Waltrude, a member of the Carolingian dynasty. It is believed that Faquilene brought the estates and fiefs that later constituted the county of Bigorre, as her dowry when she married Donat Loup, the son of Loup III Centule, Duke of Gascony. Her sons included counts Dat I Donat (c825 – c867) and Loup Donat (c830 – c910), and she was ancestress of the counts of Faure, and the viscounts of Bearn, Aure, Montaner and Lavedan, amongst others.

Fara, Fare      see     Burgundofara

Farace di Villaforesta, Marchesa     see    Ekaterina Ivanovna (2)

Farailde    see   Pharailde

Farber, Viola – (1931 – 1998)
German-American choreographer and dance director
Farber was born in Heidelburg and immigrated to the USA with her parents (1938). She studied dance under Katherine Litz and music under Lou Harrison, and then joined Merce Cunningham’s dance company (1953 – 1965). Viola Farber was possessed of a highly individualistic and intense style, which was combined with an inbuilt affinity with rythmn. Cunningham created roles in his work Crises (1960), Rune, and, Nocturne, especially for her. Farber was a founding member of the Merce Cunningham Dance Company and was especially remembered for works such as her Legacy (1968) which she choreographed to an etude by Franz Chopin. She founded the Viola Farber Dance Company (1968 – 1985).
Farber received inspiration for her dance routines from the most obvious and ordinary daily problems. Her own fear of certain lanes when driving her car inspired the dance entitled, Route 6, and, Poor Eddie (1973) was inspired by the mechanical safety routines of flight attendants on aircrafts. Her work was especially popular in France where Farber served as the artistic director of the Centre National de Danse Contemporaine in Angers, Anjou (1981 – 1983). Her last public performance was with choreographer Ralph Lemon in, Threestep (Shipwreck) (1995), on which they had collaborated. Viola Farber died (Dec 24, 1998) in Bronxville, New York, aged sixty-seven.

Fargason, Nell Cooke – (1905 – 1972)
Southern American poet
Nell Cooke was born (Jan 21, 1905) at Hernando, Mississippi. She attended schools in Memphis, Tennessee and in Washington, D.C. she was married (1925) to John Thomas Fargason. She was an active member of the National Society of Colonial Dames and the Magna Carta Dames and published the collection of verse entitled, From the Tender Years: Poems (1953). Nell Fargason died (Feb 19, 1972) in Clarksdale, Mississippi, aged sixty-seven.

Farida Hanim – (1921 – 1988)
Queen consort of Egypt (1938 – 1948)
Born Safinaz Zulfikar Hanim in Alexandria (Sept 5, 1921), she was the daughter of the courtier, Yusuf Zulfikar Pasha, vice-president of the Appeal Court in Alexandria, and his wife Zeyneb Hanim Mehmet Sait, a lady-in-waiting to Queen Nazli, the wife of Fuad I (1917 – 1936). Considered to be an oustanding and glamorous beauty, Farida became the first wife (1938) of King Farouk I (1920 – 1965), becoming the mother of three daughters, Feriyal (1938), Fazia (1940) and Fadia (1943 – 2002). Farouk later divorced her because of her failure to produce a male heir (1948). Queen Farida retired to her own residence, the Pyramids Villa, which was later taken over by the Lebanese, and which she never recovered. The queen later went to Europe and resided in Paris and Switzerland, and became famous in her own right as a painter and sculptor of some note. Queen Farida died in Cairo (Oct 10, 1988) aged sixty-seven. Her private letters and collection of paintings have survived.

Faridonji, Rustomji – (1895 – 1956)
Indian social reformer
Faridonji worked with British woman Margaret Cousins, to obtain civil and political rights for Indian women. As well as this, she strongly advocated education as a means to this end, and was founder of Lady Irwin College for Women in Dekhi. Faridonji served for many years as president of the India Education Fund Association.

Farina y Cobian, Herminia – (1904 – 1966)
Spanish author, poet, and dramatist
Farina y Cobian was born in Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia. Actively involved with the literary world from her youth, her earliest work of verse, Cadencias (1922), went through several editions. Herminia married and travelled to the United States, becoming actively involved with Spanish and Latin American publications. Herminia’s second work of romantic poetry, Seara (Harvest) (1924) was her only work to be composed in her native Galician. She alsp produced two plays, Margarida a Malfadada (Margaret the Misfortunate), and, O Saldado froita (Happy Ending?), both of which appeared on the stage before 1930.

Farinato, Vittoria – (1565 – after 1606)
Italian painter
Farinato was the daughter of Veronese artist Paolo Farinato (c1524 – 1606). Taught painting by her father in his own style, Vittoria is only known to have made copies of her father’s works. Farinato named Vittoria as his heir, but only with the proviso that she survived her brothers and their children.

Farjeon, Eleanor – (1881 – 1965)
British novelist and poet
Farjeon was born (Feb 13, 1881) in Hampstead, London, the daughter of the novelist Benjamin Leopold Farjeon. Her first successful novel for children was Martin Pippin in the Apple Orchard (1916), and, in collaboration with her brother she wrote, Kings and Queens (1932), and the play, The Glass Slipper (1944). Her collection of short stories entitled The Little Bookroom (1955) caused her to be awarded the Carnegie Medal (1956) and the Hans Christian Andersen International Medal. One of the most prolific and greatly regarded authors of her era, the annual Eleanor Farjeon Award was established at her death, given by the Children’s Book Circle for services to children’s literature. Farjeon left an entertaining account of childhood in the autobiographical work, A Nursery in the Nineties (1935), which she co-wrote with her brother, the writer Herbert Farjeon. Eleanor fell in love with the poet Edward Thomas, and commemorated his death with the work Edward Thomas: The Last Four Years (1958). Her more serious works included, Pan-Worship (1908), and, Dream Songs for the Beloved (1911). Eleanor was awarded the Regina Medal (1959) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her life-long work with children’s literature. Eleanor Farjeon died (June 5, 1965) in Hampstead, aged eighty-four and the Eleanor Farjeon Award was then established to honour the authors of children’s literature.

Farley, Harriet – (1813 – 1907)
American writer and editor
Farley was born (Feb 18, 1813) in Claremont, New Hampshire, of lower class background, the daughter of a clergyman, and was raised in the town of Atkinson, where she attended the local school where her father was the headmaster. Harriet was first employed as a schoolteacher, but later went to work as a textile worker (1837) in the town of Lowell in Massachusetts. Works written by fellow mill girls were published by in periodical, The Lowell Offering, of which Farley was editor (1841 – 1845). Though her periodical managed to reach an audience outside the USA, Farley was criticized for not allowing the magazine to become involved with the Female Labor Reform Association, but she was determined to keep the content literary based.
Farley was later married (1854) to the noted inventor, John Intaglio Donlevy. Her own published works include, Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius (1847), and, Happy Nights at Hazel Nook (1852). She spent the last five decades of her life in New York. Harriet Farley died (Nov 12, 1907) in New York, aged ninety-five.

Farmaian, Maryam Farman   see   Firouz, Maryam

Farmar, Eliza – (fl. 1774 – 1783)
American revolutionary letter writer and colonist
Her family lived in Pennsylvania, where they sufferred much during the Revolutionary conflict, having to flee before the Royalist army, who then burned their farm. Eliza wrote letters to family members during this period of upheaval, describing some of these events, and recording details of various military battles. These were later published posthumously by the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography as Letters to Her Nephew, 1774 – 1783 (1916).

Farmborough, Florence – (1887 – 1980)
British nurse, braodcaster, and memoirist
Farmborough trained as a teacher and travelled to Russia (1908) where she was employed as a governess and teacher of English. During WW I she trained as a Red Cross nurse and saw active service in the Crimea. When her nusrses were disbanded by the Bolsheviks, Farmborough returned alone to Moscow, and finally returned to England after a harrowing and lengthy journal by overland railway and steamer. Farmborough then went to Spain where she remained some years, and became involved in radio broadcasting against the rising tide of the Communist regime. She was the author of, Life and People in National Spain (1938), which included several of her anti-Comminist declamations. She returned to Britain (1940) and her two travel diaries from Russia were edited and published as, Nurse at The Russian Front: A Diary of 1914 – 18 (1974), and, Russian Album 1908 – 1918 (1979).

Farmer, Emily – (1826 – 1905) 
British painter
Farmer was born (July 25, 1826), the daughter of John Biker Farmer, a merchant of the East India Company, and his wife Frances Ann Frost, and was younger sister to the painter Alexander Farmer (1825 – 1869). Educated by art masters at home, she was taught painting technique by her brother, and specialized in water colours. Emily exhibited her work at the Royal Academy (1847 – 1850) and was later elected a member of the New Society of Painters in Water-Colours (1854). She never married and her last exhibition was held in 1904. Emily Farmer’s works included, Deceiving Granny, The Listener, Kitty’s Breakfast (1883), and, A Dance on the Shore. Emily Farmer died (May 8, 1905) at Portchester House, Portchester aged seventy-eight.

Farmer, Fannie Merritt – (1857 – 1915)
American cookery writer
Farmer was born (March 23, 1857) in Boston, Massachusetts into a poor family. Having sufferred a stroke at the early age of sixteen, she was unable to attend school, so began cooking at home, and later attended Mary Lincoln’s Boston Cooking School. Graduating in 1889, Farmer was then employed there as a director (1891 – 1902) and edited, The Boston Cooking School Cook Text Book (1896), which went through twenty-one editions, though she relied heavily on Mrs Lincoln’s work and never provided acknowledgment of that fact. She was the founder of Miss Farmer’s School of Cookery in Boston (1902), contributed articles to the, Woman’s Home Companion, and was the author of, Food and Cooking for the Sick and Convalescent (1904). Fannie Farmer died (Jan 15, 1915) aged fifty-seven.

Farmer, Frances – (1913 – 1970)
American actress, author, and television host
Farmer trained with the New York Theatre Group. Her film credits included Come and Get It (1936), The Toast of New York (1937), South of Pago Pago (1940), Badlands of Dakota (1941), and, The Party Crashers (1958). Farmer was imprisoned in a mental asylum by her mother, where she was cruelly mistreated and raped. She was later given a lobotomy, with her mother’s permission, in an attempt to curb her wild behaviour, and which ended her film career. She retired from films and later made appearances as a television hostess. Frances Farmer left memoirs entitled Will There Ever Be a Morning (1972). She was portrayed on the screen in the film Frances (1982) by Jessica Lange.

Farmer, Jessie Eleanora – (1881 – after 1947)
Anglo-Australian civic leader
Farmer was born (Sept 3, 1881) at Ramsey, on the Isle of Man, and was educated at Musselburgh in Scotland, and at the convent of Notre Dame at Wrexham in Wales. She was married (1906) to Edward Farmer. Jessie and her husband came out to Australia and settled in Queensland, where she became a founding member of the CWA (Country Women’s Association), of which organization she later served as state president (1928 – 1944). During WWII she served as president of the welfare committee for the Australian Women’s Land Army, and was later vice-president of the Victoria League in Toowoomba. Jessie Farmer was still living just after the war (1947), her date of death remains unknown.

Farmer, Lydia Hoyt – (1842 – 1903)
American author of juvenile historical works
Farmer was born in Cleveland, Ohio. Her published works included, The Boys’ Book of Famous Rulers (1886), The Girls’ Book of Famous Queens (1887), and, A Short History of the French Revolution (1889), amongst others. Lydia Farmer died (Dec 27, 1903), aged sixty-one.

Farmer, Margeurite    see   Blessington, Margeurite Power, Countess of

Farnadi, Edith – (1921 – 1973)
Hungarian pianist
Farnadi was born in Budapest. She entered (1930) the Budapest Academy of Music to study under Bela Bartok and Leo weiner. She made her public debut at the age of twelve (1933) and gave recitals with violinists Bronislav Huberman and Jeno Hubay. Later a teacher at the Budapest Academy, she later taught music at Graz, in Austria, where she died.

Farnborough, Amelia Hulme, Lady – (1772 – 1837)
British horticulturalist and patron of the arts
Amelia Hulme was born (Jan 23, 1772) in London. She became the wife of Charles Long, Baron Farnborough (1760 – 1838), but their marriage remained childless. Lady Farnborough died (Jan 15, 1837) at Bromley Hill Place, Kent, aged sixty-four.

Farnese, Beatrice – (1469 – 1507)
Italian nun and papal sister
Farnese was born at Canino, the second daughter of Pier Luigi Farnese, papal vicar of Canino, and his wife Giovannella Caetani, the daughter of Onorato III, Duca di Sermoneta. She was sister to Alessandro Farnese (1468 – 1549) who became Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549). She was sister to Girolama and Giulia Farnese. Beatrice became a Benedictine nun as a child at the Abbey if San Bernardino at Viterbo (1480). Beatrice later served as abbess of that house (1490 – 1507) and died in office.

Farnese, Clelia – (1556 – 1613)
Italian patrician and courtier
Farnese was born in Rome, the illegitimate child and sole heir of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1520 – 1589) and an unknown mistress. She was the paternal great-granddaughter of Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549). Clelia made two grand marriages, firstly (1570) to Giovanni Giorgio Cesarini (c1545 – 1585), Marchese de Civitanova, and secondly (1587) to Marco Pio di Savoia (1555 – 1599), lord of Sassuolo. Her second husband was murdered in Modena, and Clelia survived him over a decades. Clelia Farnese in Rome (Sept 11, 1613), aged fifty-seven.

Farnese, Constanza – (1501 – 1545)
Italian papal patrician
Constanza Farnese was the daughter of Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549) (Alessandro Farnese) and an unidentified woman from Bolsena. She married firstly Stefano Orsini, from whom she was divorced, and secondly Bosio II Sforza, Conte di Santa Fiora (c1501 – 1545), a relative of the dukes of Milan. Unlike her half-brothers, Constanza was never subsequently legitimated, but nevertheless she received ample gifts from her father when Alessandro ascended the papal throne (1534). One of his first acts was to make two of Constanza’s sons, Alessandro (1534 – 1581) and Guido Asconio Sforza (1518 – 1564) cardinals. Her second husband was also appointed captain of the papal guard, and their descendants were granted large fiefs in Lombardia and Emilia, including the marquisate of Proceno, as well as intermarrying into various prominent aristocratic and European royal houses.

Farnese, Elisabeth/Isabella       see      Elisabeth Farnese

Farnese, Girolama – (1466 – 1505)
Italian papal courtier
Farnese was born at Canino, the eldest daughter of Pier Luigi Farnese, vicar general of Canino (1466 – 1487) and lord of Capodimonte, and his wife Giovannella Caetani. She was the elder sister of Beatrice and Giulia Farnese and her brother Alessandro Farnese (1468 – 1549) became Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549). Girolama was married firstly (1483) to Puccio Pucci (1459 – 1494) the Venetian patrician and ambassador to the Vatican court, and secondly (1495) to Giuliano, Conte dell’ Anguillara. The contessa was murdered at Stabia Castle (Nov 1, 1505), aged thirty-nine, by her stepson, Giovanni Battista dell’Anguillara

Farnese, Giulia – (1475 – 1524)
Italian papal courtier and concubine
Giulia Farnese was born at Canino, the third and youngest daughter of Pier Luigi Farnese, the papal vicar of Canino, and his wife Giovannella Caetani, the daughter of Onorato III, Duca di Sermoneta, and was raised at the family castle at Capodimente. Giulia was the sister of Alessandro Farnese (1468 – 1549) who was elected pope as Paul III (1534 – 1549). She was the younger sister to Girolama and Beatrice Farnese. Giulia was married firstly (1490) in Rome, to Orsino Orsini (1471 – July 31, 1500), Lord of Bassanello, the son of Adriana de Mila, the governess to Lucrezia Borgia, the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, whose close friend Giulia became. She was married secondly (1509) in Rome, to the Neapolitan patrician Giovanni Capece Bozzuto, Baron di Afragola (died 1517). Dark haired and attractive, during the lifetime of her first husband Giulia was the mistress of Pope Alexander VI (1492 – 1503), formerly Rodrigo Borgia, who installed her in a small palace, the Palazzo Santa Maria, near the Vatican. Giulia bore him a daughter Laura (1492) whom he recognized, and who was followed by three other children.

Farnham, Eliza Woodson – (1815 – 1864)
American writer, feminist, and philanthropist
Born Eliza Burhans (Nov 17, 1815) at Rensselaerville, New York, she was the author of Woman and Her Era (1864), which was published in two volumes, amongst other works. Eliza Farnham died aged thirty-nine (Dec 15, 1864).

Farnham, Mateel Howe – (c1886 – 1957)
American novelist
Mateel Howe was born in Atchison, Kansas.
She became the wife of Dwight Thompson Farnham. She wrote Rebellion (1927), Battle Royal (1931), Great Riches (1934), and Tollivers (1944), amongst others. Mateel Farnham died (May 2, 1957).

Farningham, Marianne – (1834 – 1909)
British writer, journalist, and composer of religious hymns
Born Mary Anne Hearn (Dec 17, 1834) at Farningham in Kent, she was raised as a Baptist. She joined the staff of the Christian World newspaper and was the editor of the Sunday School Times publication. Some of her best known hymns, such as, “Just as I Am, Thine Own to Be”, “Let the Children Come, Christ Said,” and, “We Hope in Thee, O God !,” which she composed under the pseudonym ‘Marianne Farningham,’ and which appear in the songbooks printed for the Salvation Army services. Farningham’s published works included Lays and Lyrics of the Blessed Life (1861), Morning and Evening Hymns for the Week (1870), and Songs of Sunshine (1878). She remained unmarried. Marianne Farningham died (March 16, 1909) at Barmouth, Wales, aged seventy-four, and was interred at Northampton in England.

Farquharson, Martha – (1828 – 1909)
American children’s novelist
Born Martha Finely (April 26, 1828) in Chillicothe, Ohio, using the pseudonym ‘Martha Farquharson’ she was published the popular children’s novel, Elsie Dinsmore (1867), and is best remembered for the following Elsie series (1867 – 1905), which consisted of eighteen volumes, and the seven volume, Mildred series (1878 – 1894). Martha Farquharson died (Jan 30, 1909), aged eighty.

Farquharson, Martha Durward – (1847 – 1929)
Australian hospital matron
Farqharson was probably born in Victoria, and was trained to work as a governess and schoolteacher. She went to England and trained as a nurse at the Crumpsall Institute. After returning to Australia, she worked at several pominent hospitals such as the Alfred and the Melbourne Hospital (1895), and was later appointed as matron of the Bendigo Hospital for over a decade (1901 – 1913). With the outbreak of WW I Matron Farqhuarson retired. She remained unmarried. Martha Durward Farquharson died (Aug 12, 1929) in Bendigo, Victoria.

Farquharson, Olive Lanyon – (1908 – 1998) 
British civic leader
Born Olive Gamlin (Oct 19, 1908), she worked tirelessly with the WI (Women’s Institute) organization, and became the first British president of the ACWW (Associated Country Women of the World) (1971). When she paid a visit to South Africa on behalf of the WI she was given the African name Nozizwe (mother of nations) by the Ciskian Zanzele Women’s Association in recognition of her work.

Farr, Florence – (1860 – 1917)
British actress, author, and journalist
Farr was received her education at Queen’s College, Cambridge. She gave up her academic career to become a stage actress. She was briefly, but disastrously married to the actor Edward Emery. Farr became well-known in London literary circles and formed relationships with such luminaries as the Irish poet W.B. Yeats (1865 – 1939), the author and dramatist George Bernard Shaw (1856 – 1950), and the embroidress May Morris. Shaw wrote his work Arms and the Man (1894) especially for her, as did Yeats produce for her his noted work, The Land of Heart’s Desire (1894). Florence Farr wrote her novel, The Dancing Faun (1894), using influences from the works of John Oliver Hobbes and Oscar Wilde, and these were followed by The Solemnization of Jacklin (1912) and Modern Woman: Her Intentions (1910) which was published in London. She travelled to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (1912) in order to take up her appointment as the headmistress of a school for girls.

Farr, Heather – (1965 – 1993)
American golfing champion
Farr was born (March 10, 1965) and attended Arizona State University, where she was a member of the golfing team. She won the United States Girls’ Junior Golf Championship (1982) and then the US Women’s Amateur Public Links (1984). Farr beat several famous records and her early death from breast cancer (Nov 20, 1993) at the age of only twenty-eight, was much lamented. The Heather Farr Player Award was established in her memory (1994).

Farrand, Beatrix Jones – (1872 – 1959)
American lanscape architect and author
Beatrix Jones was born in New York (June 19, 1872), the daughter of Frederick Rhinelander Jones, a wealthy Dutch-Anglo landowner. She was married to Max Farrand, the historian, who was chairman of the history department at Yale University. She was awarded the Garden Club of America Medal of Achievement (1947) and the New York Botanical Gardens Distinguished Service Award (1952). Beatrix Farrand died (Feb 27, 1959) at Bar Harbor, aged eighty-six.

Farrand, Jan – (1928 – 1980)
American stage and film actress
Farrand was particularly remembered for her appearances in Broadway shows such as, The Relapse (1950), in the production of George Bernard Shaw’s play, Misalliance (1953), and in, Tonight in Samarkand (1955). Farrand appeared in several films such as the classic movie, The Detective (1968) with the legendary Frank Sinatra, and was a co-founder of the Little Theater in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Jan Farrand died of cancer (Nov 4, 1980) in New York, aged fifty-two.

Farrar, Eliza Ware – (1791 – 1870)
French-American author
Born Elizabeth Rotch in Flanders, of American parentage, she was later married to John Farrar. She visited Britain during her childhood and attended the court of George III and Queen Charlotte, and recorded her impressions in her memoirs entitled, Recollections of Seventy Years (1865). Eliza Ware Farrar died (April 22, 1870).

Farrar, Geraldine – (1882 – 1967)
American soprano
Farrar was born (Feb 28, 1882) at Melrose in Massachusetts, the daughter of Sydney Farrar, a baseball player, and his wife Henrietta Barnes. Geraldine received vocal training under Trabadello and Lilli Lehmann. She made her stage debut at the Berlin Opera House in Prussia (1901) and the Opera Comique in Paris. Farrar performed at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York for over fifteen years (1906 – 1922), where she created for herself the role of the Goosegirl in Engelbert Humperdinck’s opera, Konigskinder (1910). Well known for her wonderful dramatic gifts and personal charm, Farrar toured wideley throughout America as a concert performer and festival soloist. Farrar was briefly married (1916 – 1918) to the famous Dutch actor, Lou Tellegen, but the union ended in divorce.
Farrar appeared in several silent films, such as, Carmen (1915), Maria Rosa (1916), The Devil Stone (1917), Joan the Woman (1917), and, The Riddle Woman (1920), and toured with her own company, performing her own version of Carmen.which she had performed at the Met with resounding success. After her retirement she sang on radio and acted as a commentator for the Metropolitan Opera broadcast performances (1935). Her own autobiography, The Story of an American Singer (1916), was later revised and re-released under the title, Such Sweet Compulsion. Geraldine Farrar died (March 11, 1967) in Ridgefield, Connecticut, aged eighty-five.

Farrar, Kathleen    see   Fuller, Kathleen Elizabeth Farrar, Lady

Farrar, Margaret Petheridge – (1897 – 1984)
American journalist and author, editor of popular crossword puzzles
Margaret Petheridge was born in Brooklyn, New York and attended Smith College. Margaret became the wife of the publisher, John C. Farrar. Her employment as secretary to the weekend editor of the, The New York World, led to her editing crosswords for the paper, and began her future career in that field. Her crossword puzzles were quickly syndicated in various American newspapers, and she worked as mystery editor at her husband’s publishing company, Farrar, Straus & Giroux in New York (1950 – 1960). After her husband’s death Margaret served as a member of the board of directors (1974 – 1984). For over twenty-five years (1942 – 1969) Farrar was crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times. Margaret Farrar died (June 11, 1984) in Manhattan, New York, aged eighty-seven.

Farrar, Phoebe Elizabeth – (1868 – 1960)
Australian pioneer bushwoman
Born Phoebe Wright at Albury, New South Wales, she spent most of her life in the harsh conditions of the Northern Territory, and with her family, she drove over a thousand miles in a wagon (1882), from Normanton, Queensland, to the Limmen River, where her family established a cattle station. She was married to a cattleman, Robert Farrar, and bore him five children. She was reknowned as an excellent horsewoman, and drove cattle through dangerous regions. Phoebe Farrar died (Aug 19, 1960) in Darwin, aged ninety-two.

Farrell, Glenda – (1904 – 1971)
American film actress and comedienne
Farrell was born (June 30, 1904) in Enid, Oklahoma, and began her career on the stage. After moving to films with Warner Brothers (1929), she was best known for her roles as hard-assed, wiseacre, journalist, Torchy Blane in the film Smart Blonde (1937), a popular character that appeared in several other films such as, Fly Away Baby (1937), The Adventurous Blonde (1937), Blondes at Work (1938), and, Torchy Blane in Chinatown (1939). Farrell appeared in almost eighty films, and early credits included, The Mystery of the Wax Museum (1932), Hi Nellie (1933), and, Heading for Heaven (1947). During the 1950’s she returned to the screen as a character actress in such movies as, The Girl on the Red Velvet Swing (1955) and, The Middle of the Night (1959). Her last film role was as Sarah Harvey in, Tiger by the Tail (1968). Besides films Farrell made almost fifty appearances on popular television programs such as, Kraft Television Theatre, Ben Casey, Dr Kildare, and, Bewitched, amonsgt many others. Glenda Farrell died (May 1, 1971) in New York, aged sixty-six.

Farrell, Kate – (1862 – 1933)
Australian journalist
Mary Catherine Farrell was born at Longford, Tasmania, and began her career working for the Launceston Daily Telegraph newspaper. She was later employed by the Examiner and the Weekly Courier, where she edited the women’s section. Farrell also wrote and published a cookery book. She remained unmarried. Kate Farrell died (July 3, 1933) in Launceston.

Farrell, Myra Juliet – (1878 – 1957)
Irish-Australian inventor
Born Myra Welsh in Dublin, she arrived in New South Wales as a child, and finished her education in Broken Hill, New South Wales. She was married twice, her second husband being William George Farrell, whom she married in Sydney (1919). Farrell was an ingenious and prolific inventor, and her inventions included such varied items as surgical corsets, a wheat sampler and weigher, and automatic air purifier, and a rifle and machine gun shield. Myra Farrell died in (March 8, 1957) in Sydney.

Farren, Elizabeth – (1758 – 1829)
British actress
Farren was the daughter of George Farren, an apothecary and surgeon of Cork in Ireland. She began her stage career touring the Midlands with her mother and siblings. She made her debut at the Haymarket Theatre in London, in the role of Kate Hardcastle in, She Stoops to Conquer (1777). Though Farren dressed in male attire to play Nancy Lovell in Colman’s production of, Suicide (1778), but mainly specialized in aristocratic roles, with characters such as Lady Fanciful and Lady Teazle.
Elizabeth Farren succeeded Fanny Abington in such mature roles at the Drury Lane Theatre, where she had made her first appearance as Charlotte Rusport in the production of the, West Indian (1778). Farren worked steadily at Drury Lane for two decades and played such popular roles as the Shakespearean characters Hermione, Juliet, and Portia, as well as Lydia Languish, Statira, Millamant, and Lady Betty Modish. She eventually retired from the stage after her marriage (1797) with Edward Stanley (1752 – 1834), the twelfth Earl of Derby, whose mistress she had been for a decade. As countess of Derby she organized amateur theatricals at Whitehall in London. Elizabeth Farren died (April 23, 1829) ay Knowsley Park, Lancashire, aged seventy. Her four children included the famous beauty Mary Margaret, Countess of Wilton.

Farren, Mary – (1748 – 1820)
Irish actress
Born Mary Mansell in Limerick, she was the daughter of a councillor. She made her stage debut as Juliet in Dublin (1770), and then went to London, where she made her first appearance at the Drury Lane Theatre in, The West Indian (1772). Mary Mansell was attractive in looks and figure, but her manner of speaking was not particularly polished, and her performances were only considered adequate. She performed at Brighton, Bristol, Bath, and at Edinburgh, Scotland. She was married to the actor Thomas Orton, of Birmingham, Lancashire, but the union proved uncongenial, and Mary left her husband to reside with William Farren (1754 – 1795), an actor attached to Drury Lane, and adopted his surname professionally.
Though she continued to appear in roles such as Queen Anne in, Richard III (1778), Amanda in, A Trip to Scarborough (1780), and Portia in, The Merchant of Venice (1783), she had borne Farren wight children, and her frequent pregnancies severely limited her working capabilities. With Farren’s death, Mary and her children were left well provided for. She survived him over twenty-five years. Mary Farren died (Jan 2, 1820) at Bath, aged seventy-one, having used the name of ‘Mary Bell’ for several years.

Farren, Nellie – (1848 – 1904)
British stage actress
Ellen Farren was born in Liverpool, Lancashire, the daughter of the actor Henry Farren (1826 – 1860), and was niece to actor William Farren (1825 – 1908). Nellie was the paternal granddaughter of the famous actor William Farren (1786 – 1861), and her half-aunt was the noted singer Helena Saville Faucit (Lady Martin) (1817 – 1898), as Nellie’s mother, Harriet Elizabeth Saville had remarried to William Farren after the death of her first husband, the actor John Saville Faucit. Nellie made her first stage appearance at the age of five years (1853), when she appeared as the young and ill-fated Duke of York in Shakespeare’s, Richard III. Farren specialized in comic roles such as Lydia Languish in Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s, The Rivals and Maria in, Twelfth Night, and formed part of a famous burlesque quartet with Edward Terry, Kate Vaughan, and Edward Royce. She appeared at the Gaiety Theatre for over twenty years (1868 – 1891), and was the leading ‘principal boy’ actress of her era, performing such popular roles as Sam Weller and Smike. She was married to the actor Robert Soutar, who was stage manager at the Gaiety.

Farrenc, Louise – (1804 – 1875)
French pianist and composer
Born Jeanne Louise Dumont (May 31, 1804) in Paris, she began learning the piano from the age of six (1810). She was married to the noted teacher and composer, Jacques Hippolyte Aristide Farrenc (1794 – 1865) and she herself became the only woman in the ninteenth century to be appointed as a professor of the piano at the Paris Conservatoire. Farrenc was particularly admired for her work with the sonatas of Ludwig von Beethoven, and was twice awarded the Academie des Beaux Arts Prix Chartier in (1861) and (1869). Louise Farrenc was a much respected teacher and composed mainly chamber music.

Farrer, Dame Frances Margaret – (1895 – 1977)
British public servant and secretary
Farrer was born (March 17, 1895), the elder daughter of Thomas Cecil Farrer (1859 – 1940), the second Baron Farrer (1899 – 1940), a senior civil servant, and his first wife, Evelyn Mary, the daughter of Hon. (Honourable) Thomas Charles William Spring-Rice. Frances was the full sister of Cecil Claude Farrer (1893 – 1948), the third Baron Farrer (1940 – 1948), and was herself never married. Frances Farrer served as general secretary to the NFWI (National Federation of Women’s Insititutes) for three decades (1929 – 1959), her work being recognized by King George VI (1951) when he appointed her DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire). Dame Frances held several other public positions with the Independent Television Authority (1957 – 1961) and was the vice-president of the Keep Britain Beautiful Group (1961). Dame Frances Farrer died at Abinger Hammer, near Dorking in Surrey, aged eighty-two.

Farrer, Margaret Irene – (1914 – 1997)
British gynaecologist
Farrer was born (Feb 23, 1914) and was educated at Poltimore College, at Exeter in Devon. She studied successfully to be midwife, and served as the midwifery tutor at the General Lying-in Hospital (1942 – 1949). She remained unmarried. Farrer was appointed as matron of St Mary’s Hospital in Croydon (1949 – 1956), and then of the Forest Gate Hospital (1956 – 1971), her work being recognized when she was granted the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1970). Margaret Farrer served as the treasurer for the Royal College of Midwives (1967 – 1976) and was the chairman of the Central Midwives Board (1973 – 1979). Margaret Farrer died (July 25, 1997) at Dawlish in South Devon, aged eighty-three.

Farrington, Chisie – (1907 – 1992)
American angler and writer
Born Sarah Chisholm, she was raised in Manhattan and Long Island. She was married (1934) to the famous sportsman and author, Selwyn Kip Farrington, Jr. There were no children. A keen outdoorswoman herself, Chisie Farrington was a pioneer of international big-game fishing, and won seven world records. With her husband she travelled with such famous names as Ernest Hemingway and Alfred Glassell. Besides contributing articles to such magazines as Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, Chisie was the author of Women Can Fish (1951). Chisie Farrington died in New York (April 23, 1992) aged eighty-four.

Farris-Luse, Maude – (1887 – 2002)
American supercentenarian
Born Maude Davis (Jan 21, 1887) in Morley, Michigan, she was raised in Steuben County, Indiana from early childhood. She was married (1903) to a hotel stablehand, Jason Ferris, to whom she bore seven children. The family later moved to Coldwater in Michigan (1925). With the death of Farris Maude remarried a second time, to Walter Luse, and adopted the hyphenated form of her name. Maude Farris-Luse was recognized internationally as the oldest living person in the world (June, 2001) when she was aged in her one hundred fourteenth year. Farris-Luse kept that record until her death (March 18, 2002) when aged in her one hundred and sixteenth year.

Farrokhzad, Forugh (Furugh) – (1935 – 1967)
Iranian poet
Forough was born (Jan 5, 1935) in Tehran, the daughter of a military officer, and was sister to the noted poet and political activist, Fereydoon Farrokhzad. She began writing poetry in the classical style during her early teenage years. Forced to marry a brutish husband, the famous satirist, Parviz Shapour, by her family (1951), the ensuing divorce (1954) caused her to lose the custody of her child. Her first two collections of verse were both entitled, Asir (The Captive), and both published in 1955. Because the author confessed to sexual feelings for a male, her poems caused a scandal and and were revered as modernist. She later spent almost a year living in France (1958), where she became a friend of the film producer Ebrahim Golestan, and received world wide acclaim for the film, The House is Black (1962), made in Tabriz concerning the lives led by Iranian lepers. UNESCO produced a film concerning her life (1964). Forough Forough died (Feb 13, 1967) in Sweden, as the result of a car accident at the early age of thirty-one.

Fars Fausselandry, Louise de Peysac, Vicomtesse de – (1750 – after 1830)
French courtier, émigré, and memoirist
Madame de Fars Fausselandry attended the court of Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles prior to the Revolution. Madame de Fars Fausselandry escaped the Terror and emigrated abroad. Her memoirs were published in three volumes in Paris during her old age under the title Memoires de Mme de la vicomtesse de Fars Fausse-Lendry ou souvenirs d’une octogenaire depuis le regne de Louis XV jusqu’au ministere La Bourdonnaye et Polignac (1830).

Farve, Beatrice Scarlett – (1895 – 2009)
Black American supercentenarian
Beatrice Scarlett was born (April 30, 1895) in Spring Bluff in Camden County, Georgia and spent her teenage years in Brunswick. She was married (1921) to Dennis Farve a former WW I soldier to whom she bore five children. Mrs Farve worked for many years as a hotel cleaning lady in Georgia and drove her car until aged over one hundred (1997). Beatrice Farve died (Jan 19, 2009) aged one hundred and thirteen years and 264 days. She was the second oldest person on record whose dates can be verified and the second oldest recorded Black American.

Fassbender, Zdenka – (1879 – 1954)
Bohemian soprano
Fassbender was born (Dec 12, 1879) at Decin. She received vocal training in Prague, and made her stage debut at Karlsruhe in Baden (1899). Fassbender was appointed as one of the principal singers with the Munich Opera in Bavaria (1913 – 1919) and performed abroad with great success, notably at Covent Garden in London. She was involved in a liasion for many years with the noted Austrian conductor, Felix Josef Mottl (1856 – 1911), and was married to him on his deathbed in Munich. Zdenka survived him forty years. Zdenka Fassbender died (March 14, 1954) in Munich, aged seventy-four.

Fassbinder, Klara Marie – (1890 – 1974)
German educator, translator, and politician
Fassbinder was born (Feb 15, 1890) in Trier, sister to the scholar and author, Franz Fassbinder (1886 – 1960). She published the autobiography, Begegnungen und Entscheidungen (1961). Klara Fassbinder died (June 3, 1974) at Berkum, near Bonn, aged eighty-four.

Fassie, Brenda – (1964 – 2004)
Black South African vocalist and political activist
Popularly known as ‘the Queen of African Pop,’ she was born (Nov 3, 1964) at Langa in Cape Town, daughter of an impoverished pianist. She was trained as a child to sing for tourists in order to bring in money for the family. Fassie travelled to Soweto in Johannesburg (1981) where she pursued her music career and became the lead singer of the band ‘Brenda And The Big Dudes.’ The group became popular and widely respected, producing such songs as, ‘Weekend Special’ and, ‘Too Late for Mama,’ but fame came at a price. Brenda bore a child, and was then divorced (1991) from her criminal husband. Her career spiralled due to drug abuse, she was discovered unconscious near the body of her dead lover (not her fault) (1995), but she managed to retain her popular public profile.With many attempts at rehabilitation Fassie’s career began to turn around, and she produced the solo albums entitled, Now Is The Time (1996), and, Memeza (1997), which became platinum sellers in South Africa. Brenda Fassie died (May 9, 2004) in Johannesburg, aged thirty-nine, after slipping into a coma brought about by an overdose of cocaine.

Fassmann, Augusta – (1808 – 1872)
German soprano, she was born near Munich, Bavaria. Augusta was particularly admired for her roles in operas by Gluck such as Armide, and was a leader of the Berlin Opera (1837 – 1848).
Augusta Fassmann died (May 22, 1872) at Kolberg.

Fastrada – (c767 – 794)
Merovingian queen consort (783 – 794)
Fastrada was the daughter of Radulf, Count of Franconia and Thuringia (eastern Franks), and became the fourth wife (783) of the Frankish king and future emperor, Charlemagne. Though considered beautiful, stories abounded concerning her meanness, pride, and cruelty. Her intrigues were considered responsible for destroying the betrothal of her stepdaughter Rotrude with the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI, as she could not bear that the girl would have a higher rank than her own. She was said to have maltreated her stepdaughters, though never in her husband’s prescence. The two conspiracies against the king in 783 and 792 have been ascribed by the historian Einhard to the queen’s cruelty and baneful influence over her husband. She hated her stepson, Pepin the Hunchback, and, after his abortive rebellion (792), Fastrada is said to have urged the king to have the prince executed. Pepin was instead tonsured as a monk and sent to the abbey of Prum. Fastrada bore no sons herself and championed the cause of her stepson, Louis I the Pious (778 – 840). Queen Fastrada died at Frankfurt, aged about twenty-seven (Aug 10, 794) and was interred in the church of St Alban at Mainz. Her epitaph was written by Bishop Theodulf of Orleans. Of her daughters, the elder Theotrada was appointed abbess of Argenteuil.

Fathia – (1930 – 1976)
Princess of Egypt
Fathia was born (Dec 17, 1930) in Cairo, the fourth daughter of King Fouad I and his second wife, Queen Nazli. With the death of her stepfather (1946) she visited the USA with her mother, and there she made the first acquaintance of Riad Ghali (1919 – 1987), a member of the Egyptian diplomatic corps, and secretary to the Queen mother, whom she became determined to marry.
They were quietly married in San Francisco (1950), but the marriage caused a public outcry in Egypt, because Ghali was a Christian commoner, and the princess a Muslim. Her brother, King Farouk, stripped Fathia of her royal titles and priveliges, togther with their mother, the Dowager Queen Nazli, who had permitted the marriage. The couple removed to the USA, where they resided in Los Angeles, California, and Fathia bore Ghali three children. They later seperated (1965) and the princess was later forced to work as a cleaning lady in order to support her children (1972). Ghali murdered Fathia (Dec 10, 1976) in Los Angeles, aged forty-five, shooting her dead in their apartment. He tried to commit suicide himself, but was saved, sent to trial for murder, and imprisoned. He later committed suicide in prison.

Fatima bin Ali – (1891 – 1967)
Sultana of Oman (1913 – 1932)
Fatima bin Ali was the daughter of Sayyid Ali bin Salim bin Thuwaini, and was born at Zanzibar (May 4, 1891). She was married when aged only ten (1902) to Taimur bin Faisal (1886 – 1965), sultan of Muscat and Oman, as his first wife. She was the mother of Said bin Taimur (1910 – 1972), Sultan of Oman (1932 – 1970). Princess Fatima died (April, 1967).

Fatima Senussi – (1911 – 2009)
Queen consort of Libya (1951 – 1969)
Fatima el-Sharif was the only daughter of Sayyid Ahmed Sharif es Senussi, a religious leader of the Senussi order. She became the wife of Mohammed Idris of Senussi (1890 – 1983) who was the Emir of Cyrenaica 91945 – 1951). When the United Nations established the new kingdom of Libya he was chosen king as Idris I (1951 – 1969) and Fatima became queen consort. Her husband was deposed after a military coup led by Mohammar Qaddafi (Sept, 1959) and the royal family retired to live in exile at Cairo in Egypt. The former queen was tried in absentia in the Libyan People’s Court and sentenced to five years in prison and her property was confiscated (1971). Fatima survived her husband as the Dowager Queen of Libya (1983 – 2009) and remained resident in Cairo during her widowhood. Queen Fatima died (Oct 3, 2009) aged ninety-eight.

Fatimah (Fatima) – (606 – 632)
Arab religious matriarch
Fatimah was born at Mecca, and was the youngest daughter of the prophet Muhammad, and of his first wife Khadijah. She accompanied him from Mecca to Medina (622) and nursed him during his final illness (626). She was married to her father’s cousin, the Shiite Muslim leader, Ali (c600 – 661), to whom she bore two sons and two daughters.
With her father’s death she became involved in a dispute with his successor, Abu-Bakr over family estates, and the Shiites, believing that her husband was the true successor to Muhammad, refused to recognize Bakr’s position as imam. She died young, aged only twenty-five, but was the ancestress of the Fatimid dynasty (969 – 1171), who ruled Egypt, North Africa, and Palestine.
Fatimah’s husband became later became the fourth Caliph of Baghdad (656), and her sons Hasan (c625 – c669) and Husayn (c626 – 680), succeeded as fifth and sixth caliphs.
Fatimah is revered by all branches of the Islamic faith and is the subject of many mysteries and legends.

Fatma Osmanoglu – (1704 – 1733)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Fatma was born (Sept 22, 1704) in Constantinople, the eldest daughter of Sultan Ahmed III (1703 – 1730) and his first concubine, Ayse. She was the half-sister to Sultan Mustafa III (1757 – 1774). Princess Fatma was married twice for political reasons, firstly (1709), when aged only five years, to the Grand Vizier, Komurcu Ali Pasha (c1667 – 1716). She was then remarried (1717) to the Grand Vizier Nevseherli Ibrahim Pasha (c1666 – 1730), who was later executed by order of Sultan Mahmud I (1730 – 1754). She never remarried.
Princess Fatma died (Jan 3, 1733) in Constantinople, aged twenty-eight.

Fattoh – (fl. c1740 – 1765)
Indian regent of Patiala
Fattoh was the daughter of Chowdhari Khan, the zemindar of Kalka, and became the only wife of Ala Singh, Maharaja of Patiala. Their three sons all predeceased their father. Rabi Rattoh was a woman of considerable ability and determination. Upon receiving news of her husband’s death (1765) she travelled immediately to Patiala, where she oversaw the elevation of her eighteen year old grandson, Amar Singh, as the new maharaja, thus completely destroying the plans of the dynastic rival, Himmat Singh, to take over the state.

Faubert, Ida Salomon – (1883 – 1968)
Haitian poet and author
Ida Salomon was born in Port-au-Prince, the daughter of President Lysius Felicite Salomon. She wrote Pour Jacqueline (1912). Ida Faubert died in Paris, France, aged eighty-five.

Faucigny, Charlotte Marie Augustine Brown, Princesse de – (1808 – 1886)
French Bourbon royal
Charlotte Brown was born (July 13, 1808) in London, England, the elder natural daughter of Charles Ferdinand de Bourbon, Duc de Berry, son of King Charles X (1824 – 1830), and his British mistress, Amy Brown. By order of her great-uncle, Louis XVIII, Charlotte who assumed her mother’s surname, was recognized as Berry’s  illegitimate daughter and granted the title of comtesse d’Issoudon (May, 1820). She was married (1825) to marquis Ferdinand Victor de Faucigny-Lucinge (1789 – 1866), who was created a prince (1829) by Charlotte’s grandfather, Charles X. Widowed in 1866, Charlotte survived her husband two decades as the Dowager Princesse de Faucigny (1866 – 1886).
Princesse Charlotte was the mother of Charles Marie Maurice, second Prince de Faucigny-Lucinge (1825 – 1910), who married twice, leaving issue by both marriages, and three younger sons, Louis Charles (1828 – 1907), Henri (1831 – 1899), and Rene (1841 – 1911). Her only daughter, Princesse Margeurite de Faucigny-Lucinge (1833 – 1921) became the wife of the Italian peer Marchese Luigi Pallavincino Mossi (1803 – 1879), and left descendants.Princesse Charlotte died (July 13, 1886) in Paris, on her seventy-eighth birthday.

Faucigny-Lucinge, Diane Marie Violette Francoise de – (1922 – 1973)
French princess and society figure
Diane de Faucigny-Lucinge was born in Paris (July 16, 1922), the eldest daughter of Prince Bertrand de Faucigny-Lucinge (1898 – 1943) by his first marriage with Princesse Paule Caroline Mathilde Murat (1901 – 1937), which was later annulled (1928). She was descended from both the French Bourbons and the Bonapartist Murat dynasties. Diane was married in London (1962) to Ian Ainsley (1914 – 1975), who survived her. The princesse left no children.

Faucit, Helena Saville – (1817 – 1898) 
British actress
Faucit was the daughter of the actor John Saville Faucit and his wife, the actress Harriet Diddear. Helena made her debut (1836) at Covent Garden, London in the role of Julia in, The Hunchback by Sheridan Knowles. Faucit appeared as Belvedera in Otway’s play, Venice Preserv’d (1836), but achieved conspicuous success in Shakespearean roles such as Juliet, Portia, Constance, Rosalind, Desdemona, Imogen and Hermione. Macready engaged her as his leading lady from 1837 at Covent Garden, Haymarket and Drury Lane theatres. She performed Cornelia to his King Lear, Julie to his Richelieu, and Clara to his Alfred Evelyn. Helena Faucit performed before Queen Victoria publicly, and in private at Osborne and Windsor Castle, and was married (1851) Sir Theodore Martin, KCVO (1816 – 1909), the famous biographer. Victoria visited the couple at their home at Llangollen in Wales (1889). Helena Faucit was the author of the work, On Some of Shakespeare’s Female Characters (1884). Her full-length portrait, by John Henry Foley, was exhibited at the Royal Academy (1856).

Faucogney, Beatrix de – (fl. c1180 – c1220)
French mediaeval heiress
Beatrix was the elder daughter and coheiress of Henry de Faucogney, Vicomte de Vesoul in Franche-Comte, who went on the Crusades to Palestine. Her younger sister Osilia was married into the Montfaucon family. At her father’s death Beatrix inherited Faucogney and the viscounty of Vesoul which was held in her right by her husband Hugh de Villersexel (died before 1227). These fiefs, as well as Villersexel then passed to Beatrix’s son Aimon III (died before 1248), Seigneur de Faucogney and Vicomte de Vesoul.

Faucomberge, Anastasia de – (fl. c1306 – 1315)
English patrician
Born Anastasia Neville, she was the daughter of Sir Ralph Neville, of Raby Castle, Durham, and his first wife Euphemia de Clavering. A co-heir of her maternal grandfather, Sir John Clavering, of Warkworth, Northumberland, she was married (c1306) to Sir Walter de Faucomberge, heir to Lord Faucomberge, but the marriage remained childless. Her husband was slain at the battle of Bannockburn in Scotland (1314), but duing his absence Anastasia had become involved in an incestuous liasion with her father, Sir Ralph Neville, the revelation of which caused a major scandal. Neville was convicted of his crime (1313), whilst Anastasia was sent to live in retirement at the estate of Withernwick, in Holdernesse.

Fauconberg, Joan – (1406 – 1490)
English medieval heiress and peeress
Joan Fauconberg was born at Skelton (Oct 18, 1406), the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Fauconberg (1345 – 1407), of Skelton, sixth Baron Fauconberg, and his second wife Joan (died 1409), the daughter of Sir Thomas Brounflete, of Londesborough and Weighton, York. She was the much younger half-sister to Sir John Fauconberg (c1367 – 1405), of Whitton, Lincoln, who predeceased his father, and died childless, where upon Joan succeeded to the feudal barony of Fauconberg, which she held over eight decades (1407 – 1490). Of impaired mental intellect from birth, Joan was married firstly (before 1422) to Sir William Neville, who obtained custody of the castles and manors of her late parents. William’s fealty for these estates was taken by the abbot of Jervaulx. Her husband was summoned to parliament as Baron Fauconberg in her right, and was later created Earl of Kent (1461) by the Yorkist king, Edward IV. The earl died (Jan 9, 1463) at Alnwick in Northumberland. The couple had three daughters, all of whom Joan survived,

With her husband’s death, the countess Joan was remarried secondly to John Berwycke (1399 – 1491), for which marriage she had to receive pardon for marrying without royal permission. Joan Fauconberg died (Dec 11, 1490) aged eighty-six, having survived all her daughters. With her death the barony of Fauconberg fell into abeyance between the descendants of her grandsons, Sir James Strangways and William, first Baron Conyers (c1459 – 1524), until Edward VII (1901 – 1910) determined the abeyance in favour (1903) of Lord Conyers’ descendant, Marcia Pelham (1863 – 1926), Countess of Yarborough. Joan Fauconberg died (Dec 11, 1490) aged eighty-six.

Fauconberg, Mary Cromwell, Lady – (1637 – 1712)
English Stuart courtier
Mary Cromwell was baptised (Feb 9, 1637) in Huntingdon, the third daughter of Oliver Crowell, the Lord Protector of England (1649 – 1658) and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir James Bourchier. Mary was later put forward as a suitable bride for the young George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (1653), as a gesture towards reconciliation with the Royalist, but the match came to nothing, as did a plan to marry Mary to the French Prince de Conde (1654). Eventually she was married (1657) at Hampton Court Palace, to Thomas Belasyse (1627 – 1700), the second Viscount Fauconberg, as his second wife. The marriage remained childless.
Lady Fauconberg vainly interceded with the French Cardinal Mazarin on behalf of Sir Henry Slingsby, who was executed for anti-governmental activities (1657), and with her mother, she attended her father, Oliver Cromwell, during his final illness (1658). After the Restoration of the Stuarts (1660) Lord and Lady Fauconberg remained unmolested by the triumphant royalists, and she became renowned as a great lady at the court of Charles II (1660 – 1685). Bishop Gilbert Burnet recorded of her character that she was, “a wise and worthy woman, more likely to have maintained the post (the Protectorship) than her brothers, according to a saying that went of her that those who wore breeches deserved petticoats better but if those in petticoats had been in breeches they would have held faster.”
Lord and Lady Fauconberg received James, Duke of York and his first wife, Anne Hyde, at their estate at Newburgh (1665), when the royal couple fled the plague in London. She later bribed a soldier to save the corpse of her father from being buried in a common pit after it was exhumed, and interred it secretly at the church in Newburgh. She survived her husband as Dowager Viscountess Fauconberg (1700 – 1712) and attended the court of Queen Anne (1702 – 1714) where her facial similarity to portraits of her late father was noted upon by Dean Swift. Mary Fauconberg died (March 14, 1712) at Sutton House, Chiswick, Middlesex, near London, aged seventy-five.

Faudoas, Marie Francoise de Conflans d’Armentieres, Marquise de – (1713 – 1764)
French Bourbon courtier and society figure
Marie Francoise de Conflans d’Armentieres was the wife (1728) of Francois Charles de Rochechouart (1703 – 1784), Marquis de Faudoas and Comte de Clermont. The marquise attended the court of Louis XV (1715 – 1774) at the palace of Versailles, and died at Bordeaux, Normandy, aged fifty. Her children included,

Faugeres, Margaretta Van Wyck – (1771 – 1801)
American poet and essayist
Faugeres was the daughter of Ann Eliza Bleecker (1752 – 1783) and was the author of Essays in Prose and Verse (1795). She was married but died young.

Faulkner, Ruawahine Irihapeti – (c1810 – 1855)
New Zealand Maori landowner
Ruwahine Irihapeti was the daughter of Tawaho and Parewhakarau, and became an important cultural link between the Maori and the white people (pakeha) in the Tauranga district. Ruawahine met the British boatbuilder from Yorkshire, John Lees Faulkner, and acompanied him on his expeditions. The couple became involved and Faulkner obtained land at Kororareka where they settled. She and Faulkner were eventually married (1842) according to Christian rites and she took the name of Irihapeti (Elizabeth). They later returned to Tauranga and the couple had thirteen children in all. Ruawahine and her husband became important tribal trading figures, and eventually resided permanently at Otumoetai, where they established a waterfront trading post. The marriage proved an advantage to the Maori people because it enabled them to obtain goods from the whites such as guns and agricultural implements, and in turn, Ruawahine’s high standing guaranteed her husband personal and business protection. Ruawahine Irihapeti Faulkner died (Sept 24, 1855) at Tauranga, aged abourt forty-five. Several of her children were married into the leading colonial families of the period.

Fauques, Marianne Agnes Pillement, Dame de – (1721 – 1773)
French novelist and author
Marianne Pillement was born in Avignon, Provence, and was forced to take vows as a nun by her family during her youth, for financial reasons, despite her continued opposition to this vocation. She remained there incarcerated for ten years before she finally won her case and had her vows annulled. Marianne then moved to Paris where she supported herself by her writing. Marianne quickly established her career with three exotic novels Le Triomphe de l’amitie (The Triumph of Friendship) (1751), Abbassai (1753), and Contes du serail (Tales from the harem) (1753). Her moralistic works included Prejudices Defied: Prejudices Sustained (1755), The Animals’ Last War (1758), and The Danger of Prejudices, or The Memoirs of Mlle d’Oran (1774). Madamoiselle de Fauques also produced biographical works on the King of Prussia, Frederick the Great at the Temple of Immortality (1758) and the biography of Louis XV’s famous mistress The Story of Mme de Pompadour (1759). Her final published work was Entertaining Dialogues (1777), a series of prose pieces, which was published posthumously.

Faure-Goyau, Lucie – (1866 – 1917)
French society and salon figure
Lucie Faure was the eldest daughter of the politician and president (1895 – 1899), Felix Faure, who died in the arms of his mistress Margeurite Steinhil in the Elysee Palace (1899). Lucie was a friend to the novelist Marcel Proust (1871 – 1922), who was once considered as a possible husband for Lucie’s younger sister Antoinette, and Comte Robert de Montesquiou, amongst other luminaries of Parisian literary society. Herself a pious Catholic, she debated religion with Proust, and remained his friend all her life. When he died he was interred with the rosary she had brought him from Jerusalem in Palestine.

Fauset, Crystal Dreda Bird – (1893 – 1965)
Black American politician
Fauset was born (June 27, 1893) at Princess Anne in Maryland, the daughter of freed slaves. She became the first black woman in the United States to be elected to the state legislature of Pennsylvania (1938). Fauset was later appointed the personal political adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and during World War II she served in the capacity of race relations adviser to the office of Civil Defense. Crystal Fauset died (March 28, 1965) aged seventy-one.

Fauset, Jessie Redmon – (1882 – 1961) 
Black American novelist and educator
Fauset was born (April 26, 1882) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and graduated from Cornell University (1905) and the University of Pennsylvania (1906). Jessie taught Latin and French before leaving the teaching profession to become literary editor for the Crisis, official pulbication of the NAACP, and aided with the fostering of American Negro culture during the 1920’s. Fauset produced the children’s periodical Brownies’ Book (1920), with W.E.B. DuBois, and in 1921 she went to Paris to cover the second Pan-African Congress. She then studied French at the Sorbonne, and returned to American where she taughtat DeWitt Clinton High School in New York (1926 – 1944). She was later appointed visiting professor of English at Hampton Institute (1949). Her works included There Is Confusion (1924), Plum Bun (1928), The Chinaberry Tree (1931), and Comedy: American Style (1933). Jessie Redmon Fauset died (April 30, 1961) in Philadelphia aged seventy-nine.

Fausta, Aelia (Phausta) – (c630 – after 681)
Byzantine Augusta (642 – 668)
Aelia Fausta was the daughter of Valentinus, an eminent consul and general, who was a descendant of the ancient Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. With the death of the Emperor Heraklius and his eldest son Constantine III (640) the Imperial throne passed to Constantine’s young half-brother Herakloenas under the regency of his mother the Dowager Empress Martina.  When the rumour spread that Martina and her conspirators had caused Emperor Constantine to be poisoned Valentinus led an army against the city of Constantinople. Herakleonas and Martina were deposed, mutilated and exiled, and the throne went to Herakleonas’ younger brother Constans II Pogonatos (630 – 668) under the protection of Valentinus as Comes Excubitorum.
Soon afterwards Valentinus arranged for Constans to be married (642) to his daughter Fausta who was then recognized as Augusta and accorded the Imperial priveliges. Valentinus had tried unsuccessfully to become co-emperor with his son-in-law but this ambition was denied him and he received the command of the army instead. According to the historian Theophanes the Confessor a second attempt by Valentinus to gain the throne ended with his death (644).
Empress Fausta was living (661) when her husband sent her and their three sons to Syrakuse in Sicily for safety, on account of the hatred felt for him in the capital. The family resided there until the emperor’s death. Fausta apparently survived Constans as Empress Dowager, after he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain, though she is not referred too in the sources as a widow. She may have still been alive when her son Constantine IV deposed his two brothers, Heraklius and Tiberius, who had been appointed as co-emperors (681). Empress Fausta was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, which fact was later recored by Emperor Constantine VII in his De Ceremoniis Aulae, in which he describes her as Fausta uxor Constantini Pogonati. Empress Fausta left three sons,

Fausta, Flavia Maxima – (289 – 326 AD)
Roman Augusta (307 – 326 AD)
Flavia Maxima Fausta was the daughter of emperor Maximian II Daia and his wife Eutropia, the former wife of Afranius Hannibalianus. She later became the second wife of the Emperor Constantine I the Great. Faustina was betrothed to Constantine during infancy (293 AD), but the marriage did not take place till 307 AD. She was put to death by being suffocated in her bath, because of her complicity with the death of her stepson, Crispus Caesar. Her mother-in-law, St Helena, is said to have been involved in Fausta’s death because Crispus had been her favourite grandchild. Empress Fausta is well represented by suviving coinage.

Fausta of Cyzicum – (c290 – 303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Fausta of Cyzicum was a native of the former kingdom of Pontus in Asia Minor. She had been raised in the faith, and when the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia reached her region, she refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods. She remained adamant, despite being threatened with dire tortures. Her faith made such an impression upon her judge Evilasius, that he was converted and the two were killed together. Their feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Sept 20).

Faustina I, Annia Galeria – (c94 – 140 AD)
Roman Augusta (138 – 140 AD)
Annia Galeria Faustina the elder was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus, prefect of Rome, and his wife Rupilia Faustina. Faustina became the wife (c110 AD) of Antoninus Pius (86 – 161 AD), who succeeded Hadrian as emperor (138 AD). Of their four children, only Faustina II survived and married (145 AD) to Marcus Aurelius. Regarded a great beauty, and admired for her intelligence and wit. With her death, aged abourt forty-five, and despite the fact that her behaviour had not been entirely circumspect, the emperor founded the Puellae Faustinianae in her memory, a charitable institution which provided dowries for girls from poor families. Antoninus Pius also contructed a shrine in her honour in the Forum Romanorum, known as the temple of Antoninus and Faustina.
Faustina I was well respresented on the coinage such as a brass sestercius issued in Rome to commemorate her death (141 AD). The obverse side portrayed a veiled bust of the empress with the legend DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA. The reverse had an eagle flying to the left, bearing Faustina heavenward. She wore a star-spangled mantle and carried a sceptre, with the legend CONSECRATIO. Another brass sestercius later issued in Rome (c150 AD), had the legend on the obverse, DIVA FAVSTINA, with a bust of the empress, whilst the reverse side portrayed the goddess Vesta standing, holding a torch and palladium. A gold aureus from around the same period had the same obverse sied, whilst the preverse portrayed the goddess Juno standing, raising her right hand and holding a sceptre in her left.

Faustina II, Annia Galeria – (c130 – 175 AD)
Roman Augusta (147 – 175 AD)
Annia Galeria Faustina the younger was the only surviving child of the Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 – 161 AD), and his wife Annia Galeria Faustina I, who was the daughter of Marcus Annius Verus, and his wife Rupilia Faustina. With the death of Hadrian, Faustina was betrothed firstly to Lucius Verus, but her father later broke this betrothal and promised her instead (139 AD) to her cousin Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 AD), who had formerly been betrothed to Ceionia Fabia, the sister of Verus. Marcus Aurelius was adopted by Antoninus Pius as his heir, and succeeded his father-in-law on the Imperial throne (161 AD). Faustina’s former fiancee, Verus, was later married to her own daughter Lucilla. Faustina bore her husband thirteen children, inlcuding the future emperor Commodus (180 – 192 AD).
The empress Faustina had a reputation for sexual licence, even worst than the one ascribed to her mother before her, but the emperor remained ever devoted to her. She was said to have possessed a particular taste for gladiators, and even of committing incest with her son-in-law Lucius Verus. The first rumours of her misconduct began in 164 AD, during her visit to Antioch with her husband and daughter Lucilla. Four Roman nobles, including Tertullus, were especially named in the, Augustan History as her lovers, though this source remains unreliable. She was even accused of having poisoned Verus (169 AD) after he had boasted to his wife of his relations with her mother. Whatever the truth behind these rumours, Faustina accompanied the emperor on many of his military campaigns, particularly in the Danube region of Germany (170 – 174 AD), where she fully shared the hardships of military life. She was awarded the honour of mater castrorum (mother of the camps) and her portrait was placed next to that of the emperors in the chapel where the army worshipped their ensigns. Altars dedicated to Faustina have been found at Aquileia and Iader (Zara).
Empress Faustina died at the village of Halala, at the foothills of the Taurus Mountains in Syria, Asia Minor, aged about forty-five. The village was renamed Faustinopolis in her memory. For reasons that remain unclear, though perhaps in order to secure the heritage of her son Commodus and the Imperial dynasty, she may have been involved in the conspiracy of the ursurper Avidius Cassius, who probably had hoped to marry her and thus seize the Imperial throne. Cassius was later killed in Rome by a centurion. The emperor set up a special altar with a silver statue of Faustina in the temple of Venus, and had a golden statue of her placed on her seat on the theatre whenever he attended performances there. At the emperor’s own request the Senate accorded Faustina divine honours, and his eulogy, which implied ignorance of her supposedly notorious depravity, severely denigrated the gossip of her detractors.
The empress is well represented by surviving coins such as a gold aureus minted in Rome (c165 AD), which has the legend FAVSTINA AVGVSTA with a bust of the empress on the obverse, whilst the reverse portrayed the goddess Cybele enthroned, her hand balancing a drum on her knee, whilst a lion sits on each side of the throne. The legend was MATRI MAGNAE. A bronze medallion issued (164 AD) bore the obverse legend FAVSTINA AVGVSTA with a portrait of the empress, whilst the reverse side portrayed the goddess Vesta seated, holding a sceptre in one hand and offerring (or receiving from) Faustina, statuettes of the Three Graces.

‘Faustina, Signora’     see    Hasse, Faustina

Faustina Mariana of Wurttemburg – (1624 – 1679)
German princess
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Fausta Mariana was born (Aug 2, 1624) at Weiltingen, near Nordlingen in the Hartzfeld region, the third daughter of Duke Julius Friedrich of Wurttemburg-Juliusburg-Weiltingen, and his wife Anna Sabina, the daughter of Johann, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Ploen (1564 – 1622). Faustina Mariana never married and remained under the control of her mother, the Dowager Duchess, until that lady’s death (1659), after which she was granted her own estates, as well as apartments at court, where she attended the household of her brother Duke Sylvius (1651 – 1664). Duchess Faustina Mariana died (April 15, 1679) at Weiltingen, aged fifty-four.

Fauth, Gertrud – (1886 – 1932)
German educator and journalist
Fauth was born (Feb 15, 1886) at Hoxter. She adapted the ancient work, Agamemnon by the Greek author Aeschylus. She also published the novel, Die Leute vom Hadborn (1922). Gertrud Fauth died (June 6, 1932) in Berlin, Prussia, aged forty-six.

Favart, Marie Justine – (1727 – 1772)
French stage actress and vocalist
Born Marie Duronceray (June 15, 1727), she became the wife of the dramatist Charles Simon Favart (1710 – 1792). Madame Favart was remembered for her adaptation of Italian works for the French theatre which saw the rise and popularity of the comic opera in France. She insisted upon realistic stage costumes and produced the play La fille mal gardee. When she received advances from the Comte Maurice de Saxe, her husband’s patron, Marie Justine was installed as his mistress at Vaugiraud, whilst her husband was forced to flee.
Madame Favart proved unfaithful to de Saxe who angrily caused her to spend some time confined within a convent. She remained there until the Comte’s death (1750) after which she returned to the stage at the Comedie Italienne. Madame Favart’s career continued in Paris until her death two decades later and she always remained a favourite with the Parisian audiences. Madame Favart died (April 22, 1772) aged forty-four. Jacques Offenbach’s comic opera Madame Favart (1878) is a fictionalized account of her life.

Favart, Pierette – (1833 – 1908)
French stage actress
Born Pierette Ignace Pingaud (Feb, 1833), she made her stage debut at the Comedie Francaise in Valerie (1848). She adopted the name of Favart after being formally adopted (1862) by a member of that ancient and noble family. Pierette Favart retired from the stage in 1880.

Faveau, Felicie – (c1802 – 1886) 
French sculptor
Faveau received her inspiration from medieval art, and had established herself as a popular artist in Paris, where she became involved in Royalist intrigues. Consequently, after the Revolution of 1830, she was arrested and impriosned for several months, but managed to spend her term in prison working her craft. Eventually she was released, but was deprived of her property and income and was exiled from France. Removing to Florence in Italy, Felicie devoted herself to wood-carving, bronze scupture and modelling in terracotta. So exacting were her standards of work that her famous statue of St Michael was cast seven times until she was satisfied that its bronze casting was in no way inferior to the wax model.

Faverches, Richeldis de – (fl. c1050 – 1061)
English visionary
Richeldis was the wife of the lord of the manor of Walsingham Parva. Left a as a widow with a young son, she experienced a vision at Walsingham in Norfolk, in which the Virgin Mary told her to build a shrine the honour the Annunciation. Richeldis and her descendants built and endowed a chapel there which became one of the most important pilgrimage centres in the medieval world. Her son Geoffrey left instructions for the construction of a priory at Walsingham, which last passed into the care of the Augustinian Canons (1146 – 1174). It was destroyed during the Dissolution (1538) under Henry VIII, but four hundred years later was rebuilt for the use of both Catholics (1897) and Anglicans (1938). Richeldis House was later built at Walsingham (1991) to provide accomodation for religious pilgrims, whilst the Anglican refectory was opened (2001) by HRH Princess Alexandra, cousin to Queen Elizabeth II.

Faviere, Mimi – (fl. 1755 – 1774)
French dancer
Faviere was born in Florence, Italy, the daughter of the dancer, Jean Faviere. She trained as a dancer with the opera and theatre, and was abducted in Paris by the ballet master, Antoine Pitrot, to whom she bore a daughter, Anna. Her daughter later performed on stage with her using the name ‘Nina.’  Mother and daughter were later engaged as performers with the King’s Theatre in London, where they appeared together in the ballet, Orfeo et Euridice (1773). They also appeared together in the Persian pantomime Adventures of the Harem of Ispahan and the ballet, The Tempest.

Fawaz, Florence      see     Austral, Florence

Fawcett, Anne     see   Gaudry, Anne

Fawcett, Farrah – (1946 – 2009)
American film and television actress
Ferrah Leni Fawcett was born (Feb 2, 1946) in Corpus Christi, Texas, the daughter if an oil company contractor. She attended the University of Texas where she studied sculpture but dropped out when she was noticed by a talent scout. She made her film debut in Myra Breckinridge (1970) in which she appeared in a lesbian scene with Raquel Welch, and then appeared in Love Is A Funny Thing (1970) and futuristic movie Logan’s Run (1976).
Tall and blonde Farrah Fawcett became a famous magazine covergirl during the 1970’s, and was best remembered for her success as one of the original Charlie’s Angels (1976 – 1977). She left at the end of the first season after a disagreement concerning finances. She appeared in several television movies such as The Burning Bed (1984) which dealt with domestic violence and in which she gave a memorable performance as the abused wife, Unfinished Business (1986), Between Two Women (1986), Poor Little Rich Girl (1987), A Good Day to Die (1995), and the biopic Margaret Bourke-White (1988). She also appeared in the television series Good Sports (1991).
Fawcwtt’s film credits included Sunburn (1979), The Cannonball Run (1981), See You in the Morning (1988) and The Apostle (1997). Farrah Fawcett was married (1973) to the actor Lee Majors, star of the Six Million Dollar Man series (1973 – 1978), as his fist wife and was then known as Farrah Fawcett-Majors. With their divorce (1982) she resumed her single surname. She appeared in the Playboy video All Of Me (1997) to celebrate her fiftieth birthday but it failed to impress the critics. Farrah had a long liaison with actor Ryan O’Neal and he was at her bedside when she died of cancer (June 26, 2009) aged sixty-three.

Fawcett, Dame Millicent Garrett – (1847 – 1929) 
British suffragette and reformer
Millicent Garrett was born (June 11, 1847) at Aldeburgh, Suffolk, the daughter of a merchant, and was the sister of the famous physician Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. She was married (1867) to Henry Fawcett, the prominent political economist, himself a leading social reformer, and who strongly supported Millicent’s work as a campaigner for the rights of women. She was widowed in 1884.
With Barbara Bodichon and four other women, Millicent formed the first Woman’s Suffrage Committee (1866). She made her maiden speech advocating votes for women (1868) in London. Eighteen provincial suffrage societies joined (1897) to form the National Union of Women Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) and remained the leader of the suffrage movement until 1918, when the Representation of the Peoples Act was finally passed, granting the vote to woman aged thirty and over. Not in favour of the militant strategies of other suffrage campaigners, Millicent and her group aimed at educating the public, and thus converting them to the idea of rights for women. With Henry Sidgwick, Millicent was the co-founder of Newnham College, Cambridge.
Dame Millicent was the author of several historical works such as her, Life of Queen Victoria (1895), Women’s Suffrage (1912), Women’s Victory and After (1918), and a biography of reformer Josephine Butler (1927). She left memoirs, What I Remember (1924), which were published in New York, and was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1925) in recognition of her valuable work on the behalf of women. Dame Millicent Fawcett died in London (Aug 5, 1929) aged eighty-two, and a memorial to her was placed in Westminster Abbey. Her portrait by Annie Swynnerton is preserved in the Tate Gallery, London.

Fawcett, Susan – (1761 – 1797)
British actress and vocalist
Born Susan Moore, details concerning her background are not available. She was first recorded at Covent Garden Theatre, appearing as Queen Statira in, The Rival Queens (1778), when aged seventeen. Between then and 1783 she worked mainly in Edinburgh, scotland, playing both leading and secondary roles, including Miss Hardcastle in the ever popular, She Stoops to Conquer, and Lady Teazle in, The School for Scandal. Moore later became the mistress of the actor, John Mills. She bore him several children, and adopted his surname at times, but they remained unmarried, as his wife was still living. The relationship was known to the Scottish audiences, who appear to have made their disapproval known to the couple. With the death of Mills (1787), Susan quickly remarried at York (1788) to John Fawcett, five years her junior. Despite the variety of roles she played, Susan Fawcett remained a mediocre actress, though Tate Wilkinson, the theatre manager, though highly of her. She continued to play minor roles for the rest of her short career. Susan Fawcett died (before May 1, 1797) at the age of thirty-six.

Fawkes, Sandy – (1929 – 2006)
British journalist, author, and local celebrity
Fawkes was born (June 30, 1929) and abandoned soon afterwards, later adopting the name Sandra Boyce-Carmichelle. Her youth was spent with abusive foster parents and she was married (1949) to the musician and cartoonist Wally Fawkes, to whom she bore four children. Sandy Fawkes was employed by the National Enquirer and became something of a Soho celebrity, due to her forceful and eccentric personality, and the amount of alcohol she managed to consume. When aged in her mid-forties she narrowly escaped the clutches of the American serial killer, Paul Knowles, who had murdered eighteen people, and was shot and killed by police a month after Sandy ended their relationship.

Fawkieh – (1897 – 1974)
Princess of Egypt
Fawkieh was born (Oct 6, 1897) in Cairo, the only daughter of King Fuad I (1922 – 1936) and his first wife Princess Sivekiar Fehmi, the daughter of Prince Ibrahim Fehmi Pasha, from whom he was divorced (1898). She was the elder half-sister to King Farouk I, and had four younger half-sisters, including Queen Fawzia, the first wife of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Emperor of Iran. Princess Fawkieh was married (1919) to Mahmud Fakhry Pasha, the Egyptian minister in Paris, as his second wife, and bore him a son. His first wife had been her cousin Princess Bediha of Egypt (1894 – 1913), the daughter of Sultan Husayn Kamil. Princess Fawkieh died (Feb 9, 1974) in Zurich, Switzerland, aged seventy-six.

Fay, Amy – (1844 – 1928)
American pianist
Amy Fay studied under Carl Taussig and Theodor Kullak, and was also the pupil of Franz Liszt. She was noted for interspersing her concerts with discussions of the music performed. She founded the Artists’ Concert Club in Chicago, and served as president (1903 – 1914) of the New York Women’s Philharmonic Society. Though modestly competent as a pianist, her fame comes chiefly from the publication, in Chicago, Illinois, of her correspondence, which had been written during her years of study in Weimar, Germany (1869 – 1875). This work, Music-Study in Germany (1881) contained the best descriptions of Franz Liszt’s master classes during the period of the 1870’s that has survived. It proved so popular in American that it ran into twenty-one editions.

Fay, Anna Maria – (1828 – 1921)
American letter writer
Fay visited England as a young woman and wrote an account of her experiences. This was published posthumously as Victorian Days in England: Letters of an American Girl, 1851 – 1852 (1923).

Fay, Dorothy – (1915 – 2003)
American film actress
Born Dorothy Fay Southworth (April 4, 1915) in Prescott, Arizona, she was the daughter of a physician, and attended the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. She later travelled to England, where she studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. Faye appeared in about twenty films, including Frontier Scout (1938, in which she appeared opposite George Houston, and, The Philadelphia Story (1940), which starred Katharine Hepburn, Cary Grant, and James Stewart, but was best known for appearing in several westerns with her future husband. These included, Sundown on the Prairie (1939) and, Rollin’ Westward (1939). Her last film role was an uncredited role as a debutante in the Eleanor Powell musical, Lady Be Good (1941) and later became an official greeter at the Grand Ole Opry, after she and Tex moved to Nashville in Tennessee (1965 – 1981). Dorothy Fay became the wife (1941 – 1974) of the famous Country and Western performer, Tex Ritter (1905 – 1974), after which she retired from the movie industry. She was mother of actors Tim (Thomas) (born 1947) and John Ritter (1948 – 2003), and grandmother of child actors, Jason (born 1980) and Stella Ritter (born 1998). Dorothy Fay died (Nov 5, 2003) in Woodland Hills, California.

Fay, Eliza – (1756 – 1816)
British traveller and writer
Born perhaps in Blackheath, near London, she was married (1780) to Anthony Fay. After seperating from her husband (1782) she travelled extensively through France, Egypt, India, Italy, and New York in America. She made several voyages to Calcutta, and left memoirs of her experiences, Original Letters from India (1779 – 1815), which were published in London (1925). Eliza Fay died in Calcutta after her fourth and final voyage there.

Fay, Gaby   see   Holden, Fay

Fay, Maura – (1958 – 2001)
Australian casting agent
Fay was born (March 12, 1958) in Wynyard, Tasmania, the daughter of an Irish veterinary surgeon. She attended secondary school in Wynyard, and finished her education at Trinity College in Dublin. With her return to Australia (1979) Fay worked for several years with the Grundy television organization, and was involved with the production of such popular programs as, Prisoner and, Sons and Daughters. Fay later established her own company, Maura Fay Casting (1987) and provided actors for such television shows as Home and Away, Brides of Christ, and All Saints, amongst others. Flamboyant, witty, and larger than life, Fay was introduced to the lucrative American market by producer Jeffrey Hayes, and this venture proved successful. Maura Fay died suddenly (Oct 20, 2001) in Sydney, New South Wales, aged only forty-three.

Fay, Philippa de – (c1180 – before 1258)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Philippa de Fay was the elder daughter of Guillaume II Jourdain, Seigneur de Fay and de Mezenc in the Haute Loire region who was forced to accept the suzerainty of the Dauphine (1191). Her mother was Metelline de Clerieux, the daughter of Seigneur Roger de Clerieux, of the family of the vicomtes de Beziers. She was the descendant of Comte Raoul de Fay and his wife Adelaide of Poitou, the daughter of Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine (1086 – 1127) and his second wife Philippa of Toulouse, formerly the widow of Sancho V Ramirez, King of Aragon. Her stepfather was Guillaume II de Poitiers, Comte de Valentinois.
A considerable heiress, Philippa brought the fief of Clerieux (Isere) in the Dauphine as her dowry and was styled ‘Dame de Clerieux.’ Prior to 1195 she became the wife of Aymar II de Poitiers (c1170 – c1250) Comte de Valentinois. She was named as the wife of Count Aymar in a surviving charter of the Abbey of Saint-Guy du Puy (1219). Philippa survived her husband as the Dowager Comtesse de Valentinois but when her grandson took control of her properties and estates (1250) Philippa disinherited him in favour of her other grandson Roger Bermond d’Anduze. He ceded these rights to the brothers Roger and Silvion de Clerieux on the griunds that they defend them from Aymar de Poitiers Living in 1251 the countess had died prior to 1258. Philippa de Fay was the ancestress of the famous beauty Diane de Poitiers (1499 – 1566) the mistress of Henry II, King of France (1547 – 1559). Her four surviving children were,

Faydide of Usez – (c1115 – 1154)
French Crusader and countess of Toulouse
Faydide was the daughter of Raymond, Seigneur de Usez. She became the second wife (1130) of Count Alfonso I Jordan of Toulouse (1105 – 1148), to whom she bore six children.
Her husband considered divorcing her in order to make a more politically desirable marriage with Ermengarde, the young viscountess of Narbonne (1142). However, a calition of local feudal lords led by Roger II de Beziers, vicomte de Carcassone, prevented this from happening, and Faydide thus remained countess of Toulouse until her death. A famous beauty, she attended the court of Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and with her husband, she accompanied the royal couple on their crusade to Palestine (1147 – 1148).  Countess Faydide survived her husband, who was murdered at Caesarea (1148), and returned home to Toulouse in France as a widow. Her daughter Laurence became the wife of Bernard de Comminges, Duke of Narbonne.

Faye, Alice – (1912 – 1998)
American film actress and contralto vocalist
Faye was born (May 5, 1912) in New York. Blonde, gorgeous, and talented, she embarked upon an impressive career in movies, and was especially remembered for her appearances in the film, George White’s Scandals (1935), in which she starred opposite Rudy Vallee. Faye was also well remembered in the film, In Old Chicago, and, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, in which she appeared with Betty Grable. The 1930’s remained Alice’s decade, she was seen in such memorable films as the musical, Hello, Frisco, Hello, written by Cole Porter and George Gershwin, in which she sang the Oscar winning song, “You’ll Never Know.” She retired from movies altogether after the end of WW II and survived her years of fame five decades. Alice Faye died (May 9, 1998) in California, aged eighty-six.

Faye, Julia – (1893 – 1966)
American film actress
Faye was born (Sept 24, 1893) in Richmond, Virginia, and began her career as a Max Sennett Bathing Beauty before going on to greater roles under the direction of the famous film maker Cecil B. De Mille in silent films, and with whom she became involved in a romantic liasion. Faye appeared in films such as, It Pays to Advertise (1919), where she played the Comtesse de Beaurien, The Ten Commandments (1923), where she portrayed Pharoah’s wife in the prologue, The King of Kings (1927), where she portrayed Martha, Triumph (1924), in which she played Countess Rika, and, The Road to Yesterday (1925), and the two became involved in a romantic liasion.
Her career in talkies led to appearances in films like Mame in Union Pacific (1939), The Yankee Clipper (1927), in which she portrayed Queen Victoria, Samson and Delilah (1949), A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1949), where she played Lady Penelope, an uncredited role in, Sunset Boulevard (1950) with Gloria Swanson, The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), as Birdie, and the remake of, The Ten Commandments (1956) where she played Elisheba, the wife of Aaron. Her last screen appearance was in a minor role in, The Buccaneer (1958). Julia Faye died (April 6, 1966) in Hollywood, California, aged seventy-two.

Fazan, Adrienne – (1910 – 1986)
American film editor
Fazan was born (May 9, 1910), and was best known for her work with such classic films as, An American in Paris (1951), for which she received an Academy Award Nomination, Singin’ in the Rain (1952), and, Gigi (1958), for which she received an Academy Award. Other film credits included, The Bride Wore Red (1937), Barbary Coast Gent (1944), Between Two Women (1945), Anchors Aweigh (1945), Duchess of Idaho (1950), and, Kismet (1955). Her later work was on such famous films as The Courtship of Eddie’s Father (1962), Where Angels Go, Trouble Follows (1968), With Six You Get Eggroll (1968) with Doris Day, and The Cheyenne Social Club (1970), which was released posthumously. Fazan retired in 1969. Adrienne Fazan died (Aug 23, 1986) in Los Angeles, California, aged eighty-two.

Fazenda, Louise – (1895 – 1962)
American stage and film actress
Fazenda was born (June 17, 1895) in Lafayette, Indiana. She began her career in film as a bathing beauty at Universal Studios from 1913 onwards, when she worked for Mack Sennett. Fazenda worked her way to being a successful commedienne in silent films, of which she made almost two hundred. Her other credits included, The Beautiful and the Damned (1922), Cheaper to Marry (1925), and, The Bat (1926). Her second husband was the independent producer, Hal B. Wallis (1898 – 1986). Fazenda made the transition to sound films, but was mainly renowned as a successful character actress, appearing in films like Noah’s Ark (1929), Cuban Love Song (1931), Alice in Wonderland (1933), where she played the White Queen, Colleen (1936), and many others. She retired from films after appearing as Dora in The Old Maid (1939). Louise Fazenda died (April 17, 1962) in Los Angeles, California, aged sixty-seven.

Fealy, Maude – (1883 – 1971)
American stage and film actress
Maude Fealy was born in Memphis, Tennessee, and was introduced to the stage during her earliest years. She made her stage debut in New York when she appeared in Quo Vadis (1900).
Fealy was then taken on by William Gillette, who took her to England, where she played at the London Lyceum in, Sherlock Holmes (1901 – 1902). She appeared with Sir Henry Irving, appearing in, The Lyons’ Mail and, Louis XI. After this she returned to the USA where she worked continuously till WW I. She made several films, but her foray into movies proved mainly unsuccessful.

Feammor – (fl. c450 AD – c500)
Irish virgin saint
Feammor was probably a religious solitary, who took vows of charity. She was honoured as a saint at Cluain Greanach (Jan 18), together with several other female saints, Scoth, Blath, and Ana.

Fear, Sue – (1962 – 2006)
Australian mountaineer
Fear was born in Sydney, New South Wales, and was raised and educated there. She developed early the love of climbing and high altitudes, which would remain the focus of her interest for the rest of her life. She scaled the Blue Mountains and the Bridabella Range. Fear climbed four of the world’s highest peaks, and her ascent of Mt Everest (2003) made her the first Australian woman to successfully complete this climb, after which the Australian Geographic magazine named her Adventurer of the Year. With fellow mountaineer, Lincoln Hall, she was the author of, Fear No Boundary (2005). Sue Fear died whilst attempting to climb Mt Manaslu in Nepal (May 28, 2006), aged forty-three.

Fearing, Lilian Blanche – (1863 – 1901)
American poet
Fearing was born in Davenport, Iowa, and published several collections of verse including, The Sleeping World, and Other Poems (1887), and, In the City by the Lake (1892). Her collection Asleep and Awake (1893) was published under the pseudonym of ‘Raymond Russell.’

Fearless Nadia – (1908 – 1996)
Australian actress
Born Mary Ann Evans (Jan 8, 1908) in Perth, Western Australia, she was the child of a Scottish army officer and a Greek dancer. She was taken to India by her family (1909), and was raised in Bombay from 1913, during which time she learned to be an expert horseback rider, and studied ballet. Evans adopted the name of Nadia and joined the Zarko Circus (1930). She became a talented singer, acrobat, and horsewoman, and made her movie debut in the Arabic film, Makhazane el ochak (1932). She was introduced to the Hindi audience in, Lal-e-Yaman (1933), which became a huge hit at the box-office, and Nadia reached star status in the Indian cinema after her appearance in the film, The Lady with the Whip (Hunterwali) (1935).  Nadia’s name was linked romantically with many prominent contemporary figures, and she was married twice. She retired prior to 1960, and then married (1961) Homi Wadia, the brother to her producer, J.B.H. Wadia, the founder of Wada Movietone, and devoted her energies to breeding racehorses. She returned briefly to the screen in Ek Nanhi Munni Ladki Thi (1970), and a documentary was later made of her life entitled Fearless Nadia – The Hunterwali Story (1993). Fearless Nadia died (Jan 9, 1996) in Bombay, aged eighty-eight.

Fearn, Anne Walter – (1865 – 1939)
American physician, traveller and memoirist
Anne Walter was born (May, 1865) in Mississippi, and was educated at the Charlotte Female Institute and the Women’s College of Pennsylvania, where she trained as a physician. Walter travelled to China, where she established a medical school at Soochow, and was there married (1896) to an American physician, John Burrus Fearn. Mrs Fearn later removed to Shanghai, where she established her own clinic at the Margaret Williamson Hospital (1915). She only returned to the USA just prior to her death (1938), having lived in China almost five decades. Fearn was the author of memoirs entitled My Days of Strength: An American Woman Doctor’s Forty Years in China (1939). Anne Fearn died (April 28, 1939) aged seventy-three, at Berkeley, California.

Fearon, Mary – (fl. 1770 – 1790)
Scottish stage actress
Mary was wife to the noted actor, James Fearon (1746 – 1789), to whom she bore eight children. Mary and her husband were both members of Samuel Foote’s company at the Theatre Royal in Edinburgh, Scotland. When the couple travelled to London to work, Mary Fearon achieved lasting popularity in the role of the Scotswoman, Lady Catherine Coldstream in, The Maid of Bath (1771) at the Haymarket Theatre, a part she often reprised to great effect. With the death of her husband, Fearon and her children were the recipients of public benefit performances. Her later career remains unrecorded.

Febronia – (c286 – c304 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian saint
Febronia was raised by her Christian aunt, who served as an abbess in Nisibis. During the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia, she was arrested by order of the Roman prefect, Selenus. Selenus eventually offerred Febronia her freedom if she would marry his nephew, Lysimakus. She refused the offer and was handed over to suffer the most frightful and barbarous tortures before being finally killed with an axe. Lysimakus recovered her relics and was converted to Christianity, dying as a monk. Febronia was particularly honoured by the Ethiopian Church (June 25).

Febronia of Byzantium, St    see   Epiphania Eudocia

Fecenia, Hispala – (fl. 190 – 186 BC)
Roman courtesan and political figure
Hispala Fecenia assisted the government during the scandal of the Bacchanalian revolt, and was honoured by the Senate.

Fedchenko, Olga Alexandrovna – (1845 – 1921)
Russian botanist, scientific researcher, and author
Olga was the wife of Alexis Pavlovitch Fedchenko (1844 – 1873), the famous naturalist.

Fedde, Elizabeth – (1850 – 1921)
Swedish-American deaconess and diarist
Fedde worked as a missionary to Swedish emigrant damilies in the USA. Her personal journal was later edited by Beulah folkedahl and was published forty years after her death as, Elizabeth Fedde’s Diary, 1883 – 1888 (1959), in the Norwegian-American Studies and Records.

Fedden, Katharine Waldo Douglas – (1882 – 1939)
American author and translator
Katharine Douglas was born in New York City, and became the wife of Romilly Fedden. Her published works included The Spare Room (1913), The Basque Country (1921), 1900 AD (1931), and Manor Life in Old France (1933). Katharine Fedden died (April 7, 1939).

Feddersen, Helga – (1930 – 1990)
German actress and author
Feddersen was born (March 14, 1930) in Hamburg. She made her stage debut in Strindberg’s, Easter (1949), and with her husband she co-founded the Theater am Holstenwall. Feddersen produced the television script Geschichten aus der Heimat (Stories from the Fatherland) (1985). Helga Feddersen died (Nov 24, 1990) at Hamburg, aged sixty.

Fedele, Cassandra – (1465 – 1538)
Italian scholar
Fedele was the wife of Johannes Maria Mapellus. She corresponded with the humanist writer Laura Cereto.

Fedelmia (Fedelmai) (1) – (d. c433 AD)
Irish virgin saint
Fedelmia was the daughter of King Laoghair and granddaughter to King Niall ‘of the Nine Hostages.’ With her sister Ethnea she was brought up away from the royal court. They were converted from the Druidic religion by St Patrick and his followers. They both died after partaking of communion and were interred at Rathcroghen, where a church was built over them. Fedelmia was recorded as a saint in the Martyrology of Tallaght (Jan 11).

Fedelmia (Fedelmai) (2) – (fl. c487 AD – after 504)
Scottish queen of Dalriada
Fedelmia was the daughter of King Brion of Ireland, the half-brother of Niall ‘of the Nine Hostages.’ She became the wife of the Celtic ruler of Dalriada, King Domangart I (499 AD – 504), whom she survived. She was the mother of Gabran (c490 AD – 560), king of Dalriada and Scotland.

Federn-Kohlhaas, Etta (Marietta) – (1883 – 1951)
Austrian journalist
Etta Federn was born (April 28, 1883) in Vienna, the daughter of Josef Federn, and the younger sister of Karl Federn (1868 – 1943), the author, and of Paul Federn (1871 – 1950), the noted physician and psychoanalyst. Sometimes called Etta Kirmsse, she wrote biographies of Goethe and Vulpius, and translated the works of Andersen, Bang, and William Shakespeare, as well as the verses of the classical Greek poet, Anakreon. Madame Federn-Kohlhaas died (May 9, 1951) in Paris, France, aged sixty-eight.

Fedicheva, Kaleria Ivanovna – (1936 – 1994)
Russian ballerina, choreographer, and dance teacher
Fedicheva was born (July 20, 1936) in Ust’Izhora, and studied dance at the Leningrad Choreographic School. She joined the company of the Kirov Ballet (1957) and performed in such ballets as Hamlet and Swan Lake. She later married an American, with whom she went to live in the USA, and where she continued to perform in ballet and work as a dance teacher.

Fegan, Ethel Sophia – (1877 – 1975)
British librarian and author
Fegan was educated at a secondary school in Blackheath before attending Girton College, where she studied the classics. She was later appointed as librarian to Cheltenham Ladies’ College (1908 – 1917) where she established one of the earliest schools of librarianship in Britain. She remained unmarried. With a friend Fegan co-authored The Cheltenham Classification, and then produced her own School Libraries. After Cheltenham, she was librarian at her old alma mater, Girton College, for over a decade, and did much re-organization of the library system there. With the noted anthropologist, Dr A.W. Haddon, Fegan worked hard to establish the Haddon Library. Fegan later travelled to Nigeria in West Africa (1930) as an anthropologist, and set up a school for Muslim girls at Katsina, under the protection of Emir Al Hajji Muhammad Diko and his wife. She also established schools in housewifery and schoolteachers in Sokoto. After her return to Britain, Fegan performed volunteer work with the Cambridgeshire County Archives. Ethel Fegan died unmarried (Aug 4, 1975), aged ninety-eight.

Fehdmer, Helene – (1872 – 1939)
German stage actress
Fehdmer was born (Jan 10, 1872) in Konigsberg, Prussia, the daughter of a painter. She was best remembered in the role of Luybov Andreevna in Anton Chekhov’s play The Cherry Orchard, and as Frau John in Gerhart Hauptmann’s Die Ratten (The Rats). She was sometimes known by her married name of Kayssler. Helene Fehdmer died (Aug 12, 1939) at Grainau in Bavaria.

Fehling, Ursula – (1928 – 1982)
Austrian fashion designer
Fehling was born (Aug 12, 1928) in Vienna. She became a teacher at the School of Clothing Technique in East Berlin, and was appointed to head the fashion department of the School of Art there for two decades (1961 – 1982). Ursula Fehling died (Sept 15, 1982) in Berlin, aged fifty-four.

Feige, Charlotte – (1788 – 1858)
German stage actress
Born Charlotte Koppe (Dec 3, 1788) in Berlin, Prussia, she was married (1807) to the noted actor and stage director, Karl Feige (1780 – 1862). She performed a wide variety of roles from those of William Shakespeare, Schiller, Heinrich von Kleist, among others, as well as many classical roles. Madame Feige died (Dec 6, 1858) in Kassel, Hesse, aged seventy.

Feiks, Emma – (1899 – 1975)
Austrian writer, novelist, and children’s author
Feiks was born (Nov 10, 1899) at Pottenbrunn in Lower Austria, and studied philology at the University of Vienna. She wrote the novel Siegmund und Margaret (1938), and children’s tales such as Leben am Strom (Life Along the River) (1949). Emma Feiks died (May 4, 1975) in Vienna, aged seventy-five.

Feiler, Hertha – (1916 – 1970)
Austrian stage and film actress
Feiler was born (Aug 3, 1916) in Vienna. She made movies in Berlin with the National Socialist film industry, and appeared in many films, some with her husband, the actor Heinz Ruhmann. Her film credits included Lauter Lugen (Nothing But Lies) (1939), and Charley’s Tante (Charley’s Aunt). Hertha Feiler died (Nov 2, 1970) in Munich, Bavaria, aged fifty-four.

Fein, Maria – (1894 – 1965)
Austrian stage and radio actress
Fein was born (April 7, 1894) in Vienna. She worked as a character actress with Max Reinhardt (1873 – 1943), and performed in Holland after the Nazi takeover (1938). Fein adapted Jean Cocteau’s play Oedipus for the stage in Lucerne, Switzerland (1950). Maria Fein died (Sept 15, 1965) in Zurich, aged seventy-one.

Feitel, Barbara – (1929 – 1993)
American clinical psychologist
Barbara Feitel was born in Manahttan, New York, and attended Hunter College. She gained her doctoral degree in technology at Columbia University’s Teachers College. Attached initially to the faculty of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Barbara later joined the Nathan Klein Research Institute. During the early 1980’s she conducted research at the Rockland County Psychiatric Center in Orangeburg, New York, where she developed a program which enabled therapy aides to be retrained, and organized a half-way house for drug addicts at Phoenix House.

Fel, Marie – (1713 – 1794)
French soprano
Fel was born (Oct 23, 1713) at Bordeaux, Normandy, and made her debut at the Paris Opera (1734). She became famous throughout her career as one of the foremost interpreters of the works. The German born author Melchior Grimm developed a great passion and admiration for Marie, but she preferred the attentions of the painter Maurice Quentin de La Tour, with whom she resided as his mistress. His famous pastel portrait of her remains in the Louvre Museum. Marie Fel died (Feb 2, 1794) at Chaillot, aged seventy.

Felbrigg, Catherine Mallory, Lady – (c1383 – 1461)
English medieval religious benefactor
Catherine Mallory was the daughter of Sir Anketill Mallory, of Winwick, Northampton, and of Kirkby Mallory, Leicestershire, by his wife Alice de Driby, the widow of Sir Ralph, Lord Basset of Sapcote. Through her mother, Catherine was the great-great granddaughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307). Catherine was married firstly to Ralph Grene, of Drayton, Northamptonshire, and was his widow, when she remarried (c1420) to Sir Simon Felbrigg (c1359 – 1442), of Felbrigg, Norfolk, as his second wife. Her second marriage remained childless. Lady Catherine and her husband were benefactors of the Dominican priory of Norwich. With Simon’s death, the estate of Felbrigg was left to Catherine for her lifetime, but in 1450, the reversion of the property was given to Lord Scales, a kinsman, and Lady Felbrigg leased the manor house of Felbrigg to one John Wyndham, who became established there as her tenant. The Wyndham family and their descendants retained the property until 1969, when it was bequeathed to the National Trust. Lady Felbrigg died aged nearly eighty, and was buried beside Sir Simon in the choir of the Dominican priory at Norwich, which later became Blackfriars Hall. A memorial erected to the couple has not survived.

Felbrigg, Margaret von Silesia-Teschen, Lady de – (c1363 – 1416)
Polish-Anglo heiress
Princess Margaret was the daughter of Premislav I Moszak, Duke of Teschen in Silesia, and his wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Bolko, Duke of Beuthen and Kosel. Originally named Elska, she became maid-of-honour to Anne of Bohemia, and accompanied her to England for her marriage to Richard II (1381). Margaret became the first wife of Sir Simon de Felbrigg, of Felbrigg, Norfolk (c1359 – c1443) when she adopted the more English name of Margaret. She left two daughters, Anne, who became a nun at Bruisyard abbey, in Suffolk, and Alana (Helena), who became the wife of Sir William Tyndal of Dene, Northampton (c1374 – 1426).
At her death Sir Simon caused a magnificent brass to be erected to her memory at Felbrigg Church, which the couple had caused to be rebuilt. Lady Felbrigg is portrayed as almost life-sized and is dressed in the elegant court mode of the period, with head-dress and veil, with her little lap dog at her feet. They were surrounded by an impressive double canopy, which also bore the royal insignia of Anne of Bohemia, Lady Felbrigg’s kinswoman. Lady Felbrigg brought to her descendants a nebulous claim to the Bohemian throne, but her great-grandson Sir William Tyndal, of Hockwold, Norfolk, refused to prosecute this claim, when the opportunity arose in the reign of Henry VII (1485 – 1509).

Felder, Katharina – (1816 – 1848)
German sculptor
Felder was born (Jan 15, 1816) at Ellenbogen, near Bezau. She received the patronage of the court painter, Maria Ellenrieder, and then studied at the Munich Academy of Art (1839 – 1848). Felder created sculptures for Rorschach church and Constance Cathedral, and maintained her own studio in Berlin. Katharina Felder died (Feb 13, 1848) aged thirty-two.

Feldern-Forster, Adele    see   Sandrock, Adele

Feldman, Andrea – (1948 – 1972)
American movie actress
Feldman was best known for her appearances in the cult films of pop-artist and film maker Andy Warhol (1927 – 1987) such as The Imitation of Christ (1967), Trash (1969), and Heat (1970). Andrea Feldman committed suicide.

Feldman, Else – (1884 – c1943)
Jewish-Austrian author
Feldman was born (Feb 25, 1884) in Vienna, into a poor family. She gravitated towards social work and attendant issues, and wrote reports concerning the slums inhabited by poor Jewish and other workers. Her serialized novels such as, Martha and Anton, were published in the, Arbeiter-Zeitung (Worker’s Newspaper) (1927 – 1933). Feldman was later deported by the Nazis to the infamous Sobibor concentration camp, where she died.

Feldman, Krystyna – (1916 – 2007)
Polish stage and television actress
Feldman was born (March 1, 1916) at Lvov, in the Ukraine, then part of the Autro-Hungarian Empire. She was trained as an actress and worked in theatre in Lvov until 1944. After the war Feldman continued to work in her native land, performing at Lodz, Opole, and Krakow, amongst other cities. She made her film debut in, Celuloza (1953) by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, and was known for her excellent character and supporting roles, and played the grandmother in the popular television series, Swiat wedlug Kiepskich. Her most acclaimed role was playing the disabled, elderly, male painter Nikifor in Moj Nikifor, for which she received the Best Actress Award (2004) at the Polish Film Festival in Gdynia. Krystyna Feldman died (Jan 24, 2007) aged ninety-one, at Poznan.

Felicia of Barbarano – (1527 – 1553)
Italian nun and mystic
Felicia of Barbarano was born near Rome, and devoted herself to the Franciscan order. She kept religious vigils and survived on alms and coarse food. Felicia died young, worn out by her austerities, at the age of twenty-five. Regarded a saint her Vita was reprinted several times in the decades after her death.

Felicia of Hauteville – (c1078 – 1102)
Queen consort of Hungary (1097 – 1102)
Felicia of Hauteville was the daughter of Roger I, Count of Sicily, and his second wife Eremburga of Mortain, the daughter of Robert, Count of Mortain, who was the younger half-brother of William I, King of England (1066 – 1087). Sometimes referred too as ‘Buzilla,’ this stemmed from a misunderstanding of the word pucelle (virgin) and was not her personal name. When King Koloman of Hungary first sent envoys to the court of Count Roger asking for the hand of his daughter (1096), the count disdained his offer. After the invervention of the Hungarian prelate, Hartvik, Bishop of Cyor, Roger agreed to the proposed marriage, and Felicia was accompanied on her journey to the Hungarian court by her brother-in-law, Duke Almos of Croatia, Koloman’s half-brother, and many highborn Norman lords form her father’s court. Felicia of Hauteville was married on her arrival (1097) to Koloman (1065 – 1114) as his first wife. Their elder son, Stephen II (1100 – 1131), succeeded his father on the throne (1116 – 1131), married twice, and died childless, whilst the younger, Ladislas (1101 – 1112), died a child. Her only daughter Sophia was married firstly to Saul, gespan (governor) of Bihar, and secondly to Vladimirko Volodarovich (c1097 – 1153), Prince of Galicia, and left issue from both marriages.

Felicia of Meda      see    Meda, Felicia da

Felicia of Roucy – (c1054 – 1123)
Queen consort of Aragon (1072 – 1085)
Felicia of Montdidier-Roucy was the daughter of Hilduin IV of Montdidier, Count of Roucy, and his wife Adela, the daughter of Eblus I, Count of Roucy. She was married (1072) to Sancho IV Ramirez (1043 – 1094), King of Aragon, as his second wife. Her husband later divorced her (1085) in order to make a more dynastically important marriage, despite the fact that Queen Felicia was the mother of his three sons, who all ruled Aragon successively as kings, Pedro I (1094 – 1104), Alfonso I (1104 – 1134), and Ramiro II Sanchez (1134 – 1137). Felicia survived her divorce over three decades. Queen Felicia died (April 24, 1123).

Feliciani, Lorenza   see    Cagliostro, Lorenza Feliciani, Contessa di

Felicitas (Felicity) – (c130 – c175 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Felicitas was born into a patrician family, was raised a Christian. Felcitas was married and brought up her seven sons in the faith. The entire family was arrested during the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and her sons were tortured to death in front of her, Felicitas being kept imprisoned for four months, before she was either beheaded or thrown into boiling oil. The church honoured Felicitas as a saint (Nov 23) and she appears in the Roman Martyrology and the Acta Sanctorum. St Felicitas was the patron saint of people desiring male children.

Felicitas Cecilie Alexandrine Helene Dorothea – (1934 – 2009)
Princess of Prussia
Princess Felicitas von Hohenzollern was born (June 7, 1934) in Bonn, the daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and his morganatic wife Dorothea von Salviati, the daughter of Alexander von Salviati. Her father was the eldest son of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, the eldest son of Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany (1888 – 1918). Felicitas and her sister Christa were the great-great-great granddaughters of Queen Victoria of England (1837 – 1901). Her father had renounced his rights to the German throne at the time of his marriage to her mother (1933) and was killed during WW II (1940).
The princesses were raised in Bonn by their widowed mother the Dowager Princess Dorothea von Hohenzollern. She was married firstly in Bonn (1958) to Dinnies Friedrich Karl von der Osten (born 1929), to whom she bore two sons, Dinnies (1962) and Hubertus von der Osten (1964), and a daughter Cecilie von der Osten (1967). Felicitas’s first marriage was dissolved by divorce (1972) and then remarried secondly (1972) to Jorg von Nostitz-Wallwitz (born 1937), the son of General Gustav Adolf von Nostitz-Wallwitz, to whom she bore a daughter Diana Renata Friederike Nostitz-Wallwitz (1974). Princess Felicitas died (Aug 1, 2009) aged seventy-five, at Wohltorf, Germany, and was buried ay Aumuhle, near Hamburg.

Felicula (Facinola) – (fl. c650 – c700)
Frankish virgin saint
Probably from the late Merovingian period, Felicula was born at Gien, in the Orleannais. Perhaps a recluse or anchorite, she devoted herself to the religious life, taking vows of chastity. Felicula was buried firstly at Auxerre in Burgundy, but her remains were later transferred to Gien. She was venerated as a saint (Oct 5) but her relics were destroyed by the Calvinists during the Reformation. St Felicula is thought to be identical with St Facinola (Aug 1) recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Feline, Magdalen – (fl. 1753 – c1762)
British silversmith
Magdalen was the wife of Edward Feline, a prominent plate-worker, who had been apprenticed to Augustine Courtauld (1709), and who ran a profitable business in King Street, Covent Garden. With the death of her husband, Magdalen took over the running of the family business, and had her own trademark registered (1753). A silver George II kettle on a lampstand, commissioned from Mrs Feline (1756) is preserved in the collection of the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C., USA.

Felix, Maria – (1914 – 2002)
Mexican film actress
Born Maria de Los Angeles Felix Guerena (April 8, 1914) in Alamos, she was the daughter of Bernardo Felix, and was raised in Guadalajara. She was discovered in 1940, and began making films in 1942, and possessesd of a forceful, sexy personality, Felix was best remembered for roles in films such as, Rio Escondido (1947), Enamorada (1947), and, Fever Mounts at El Pao (1959), directed by Luis Bunuel. Maria Felix other film credits included, Dona Barbara (1943), which first brought her to public attention, and from which she received her nickname ‘La Dona’ from the character she played in the film, The Kneeling Goddess (1947), Messalina (1952), French Can Can (1953), which was directed by Jean Renoir, La Belle Otero (1954), La Generala (1987), and many others. Felix was also a telanted singer and performer, and the Mexican classic song ‘Maria Bonita’ was composed for her by Agustin Lara. She owned several racehorses and recorded the Latin album Enamorada (1998) at the age of eighty-four. Her third husband (1951 – 1952) was the actor Jorge Negrete. Maria Felix died (April 8, 2002) in Mexico City, on her eighty-eigthth birthday.

Felkin, Ellen Thorneycroft – (1860 – 1929)
British poet and novelist
Hon. (Honourable) Ellen Fowler was born (April 9, 1860) at Wolverhampton, the elder daughter of Henry Hartley Fowler, first Viscount Wolverhampton, and his wife Ellen Thorneycroft. She was educated at home by governesses and later attended the Laleham School in Middlesex. She was the elder sister of the novelist, Edith Henrietta Fowler, and was married (1903) to Alfred Felkin, a school inspector. Felkin’s written works included several collections of verse such as, Songs and Sonnets (1888), Verses, Grave and Gay (1891), and Verses, Wise or Otherwise (1895). She received critical popular acclaim for her first novel, Concerning Isabel Carnaby (1898), and this success was followed by the publication of other successful novels such as, A Double Thread (1899), The Farringdons (1900), and, Fuel of Fire (1902), amongst others. Ellen Felkin died (June 22, 1929) aged sixty-nine.

Fell, Dame Honor Bridget – (1900 – 1986)
British cell biologist
Fell was born (May 22, 1900) at Fowthorpe, near Filey in Yorkshire, the daughter of a soldier landowner. She was eductaed at Wychwood School, Oxford, Madras College, in St Andrews, and graduated from the University of Edinburgh (1924) and became the scientific assistant to T.S.P. Strangeways, with a grant provided by the Medical Research Council. Fell worked with Strangeways until his death (1926), and three years later she obtained the position of director of the Strangeways Research Laboratory in Cambridge, which position she retained for forty years (1929 – 1970). Fell was a Foulerton Research Fellow of the Royal Society (1941 – 1967).
Her own research and investigation into the organ culture method caused great advancement in the study of biochemistry, and Fell proved that an excess of supply of vitamin A could destroy intercellular material in the explanted cartilage of foetal mice. The implication of this discovery was that such organ cultures could be wideley used in ongoing research concerning the physiological effects of vitamins and hormones. Later fields of investigation followed by Fell included research into the pathogenesis of arthritis. Elected a fellow of the Royal Society (1952), she was made DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1963) and served as the Royal Society Research Professor (1963 – 1967).  From 1970 – 1979 Fell conducted research for the immunology and pathology department at Cambridge University with R.R.A. Coombs. She returned to Strangeways and continued to work as a researcher. Dame Honor Fell died (April 22, 1986) aged eighty-five.

Fell, Johanna – (1894 – 1969)
German writer
Fell was born (Jan 31, 1894) at Barth in Mecklenburg, Western Pomerania, and studied at the Berlin School of Art. She published a collection of verse entitled Die Baumfrau (1925), and the play Mitternachtssonne (Midnight Sun) (1954). She sometimes used the pseudonym, Johanna Zaeske-Fell. Johanna Fell died (Aug 5, 1969) at Aachen, aged seventy-five.

Fell, Margaret – (1614 – 1702)
English Quaker leader
Born Margaret Skew at Dalton-in-Furness, Lancashire, she was the daughter of John Askew. She was married to Thomas Fell, a judge, to whom she bore nine children. Mrs Fell, who opened her home of Swarthmore Hall, near Ulverston, to religious clerics of all denominations, was converted by the Quaker leader George Fox (1624 – 1691), founder and leader of the Society of Friends.
With the death of her husband (1658), Fell became more closely involved with Quaker affairs. When Fox was arrested in her house she pleaded his cause with the authorities, and they were eventually married (1669). She was later fined for allowing illegal religious meetings to take place in her home and for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Crown when she was brought to court. Because of this Fell suffered a period of detention in prison. Fell protested against rigid rules of behviour and dress which other Quakers wished to impose of their congregations, and wrote to defend women who spoke in church entitled Women’s Speaking Justified (1666). Other works included A Testimonie of the Touchstone (1656), and A Loving Salutation to the sted of Abraham and the Jewes; An Evident Demonstration to God’s Elect (1660). Margaret Fell died (April 23, 1702) at Swarthmore, aged eighty-seven.

Fell, Sheila Mary – (1931 – 1979)
British painter
Fell was born in Aspatria, Cumbria, the daughter of a miner. She was educated at the Carlisle School of Art and St Martin’s School of Art in London. Sheila Fell had her first one-woman exhibit in London in 1955, which proved a great success, and her artistic talent, especially with landscapes which showcased the wilds of her native Cumbria, was recognized by the painter Laurence Stephen Lowry (1887 – 1976). She received the Boise travelling scholarship (1958) and travelled throughout Europe, visiting France, Italy, and Greece and was later elected as a fellow of the Royal Academy (1974).

Felleman, Hazel – (1891 – 1975)
American editor and book reviewer
Felleman was born in New York City, and she came to work for The New York Times publication as a teenager (1905), employed in the newspaper’s reference library. She was married to Henry Powell (died 1953), a lawyer. Felleman was soon secretary to Edward A. Dithmar, editor of The Book Review, and she served in that capacity to all the following editors until 1943, with great success. For several decades (1923 – 1951) Felleman conducted the Queries and Answers column in The New York Times Book Review as a sideline. For the last eighty years of her career this column was her sole job. Hazel Felleman was the author of the popular anthology, The Best Loved Poems of the American People (1936), which sold half a million copies. Hazel Felleman died (April 29, 1975) in New York, aged eighty-three.

Feller, Elisabeth – (1910 – 1973)
Swiss businesswoman and entrepreneur
Feller was born (April 3, 1910) at Horgen in Zurich Canton. She studied in England at the London School of Economics. A strong supporter of female suffrage and equal rights, she co-founded the Swiss Association for Business and Professional Women (SABPW), and served as president of that organization. Feller later worked for the United Nations (UN) and UNESCO. Elisabeth Feller died (Jan 12, 1973) at Horgen, aged sixty-two.

Fellowes, Daisy – (1887 – 1962)
French-Anglo author and society figure
Margeurite de Glucksberg de Decazes was the daughter of the fourth Duc de Decazes. She was married firstly (1910) to Prince Jean de Broglie (died 1918), and secondly (1919) to the Hon. (Honourable) Reginald Fellowes (died 1953). Daisy published several work such as Cats in the Isle of Man (1929) and Les Dimanches de la Comtesse de Narbonne (1935). Daisy Fellowes died (Dec 13, 1962).

Felseneck, Marie von – (1847 – 1926)
German writer
Born Marie Luise Manche (Nov 29, 1847) at Leipzig in Saxony, she wrote biographies, fairy-tales, and historical essays, as well as over four dozen popular novels for young girls. She sometimes used the pseudonyms, ‘William Forster’ or, ‘Marie Weissenburg.’ She was also the author of, Trotzkopfs Erlebnisse im Weltkriege (1916), a sequel to the work by Emmy von Rhoden. Marie von Felseneck died (Aug 28, 1926) in Berlin, Prussia, aged seventy-eight.

Felser, Frieda – (1872 – 1941)
German soprano
Felser was born (March 3, 1872) in Munich, Bavaria, and studied at the Munich Conservatory. She was best remembered in roles such as Carmen and Nedda in Bajazzo. She was a member of the Vienna Court Opera (1906 – 1908) and afterwards became a highly respected vocal teacher and trainer. Frieda Felser died (Feb 16, 1941) in Cologne (Koln) aged sixty-eight.

Felton, Rebecca Latimer – (1835 – 1930)
Southern American author and memoirist
Felton was born (June 10, 1835) in Decatur, Georgia. Felton wrote My Memoirs of Georgia Politics (1911), and Country Life in Georgia in the Days of My Youth (1919), the first written when she was seventy-five. Rebecca Felton died (Jan 24, 1930) aged ninety-four.

Felton, Verna – (1890 – 1966)
American character actress in movies and television
Felton was born (July 20, 1890) in Salinas, California. Her career on the stage and in radio was considerable, and her first film appearance was in the biblically themed silent movie, The Chosen Prince, or The Friendship of David and Jonathon (1917), in which she played Michal, the daughter of King Saul, and King David’s first wife.  Other later film roles included appearances in, The Gunfighter (1950), Picnic (1955), and, The Oklahoman (1957).  Felton was best known to television audiences for her appearances in the popular programs, December Bride (1954 – 1959), in which she appeared as Hilda Crocker, and, Pete and Gladys (1960 – 1961), a spin-off series, in which she reprised her role as Crocker. Other television program appearances included roles in, I Love Lucy (1953), The Jack Benny Program, and the animated cartoon comedy, The Flintstones (1962 – 1963). Felton was particularly known for her brilliant voiceover work, and she her roles included the voices in various popular Walt Disney films such as, Cinderella (1950), as the Fairy Godmother, Alice in Wonderland (1951) as the Queen of Hearts, and Lady and the Tramp (1955). Her last role was as the voice of Winifred in the animated film The Jungle Book (1967). Verna Felton died (Dec 14, 1966) in Hollywood, California, after sufferring a stroke.

Femie of Caesarea – (c1220 – c1250)
French crusader noblewoman
Perhaps named Euphemia at birth, Femie was the fifth and youngest daughter of Gautier of Beirut, Lord of Caesarea in Palestine, and his wife Margaret d’Ibelin, the widow of Hugh of Saint-Omer, Lord of Tiberias, and the daughter of Balian II d’Ibelin, Lord of Nablus and Ramleh. She was sister to Jean of Beirut, Lord of Caesarea and Constable of Cyprus.
Femie became the first wife of Jean Embriaco (c1200 – 1263), Lord of Jebail (Giblet) and Marshal of Jerusalem (1259). The Lignages d’Outremer identified Femie as sister to the Constable and recorded her marriage with Embriaco. Her ownly child Isabelle Embriaco of Jebail became the wife of Guillaume Felangier (Guglielmo Filangieri).

Fen, Elisaveta   see   Jackson, Lydia

Feng – (442 – 490 AD)
Chinese empress consort and regent
Feng was born into the Xianbei dynasty of northern Wei, the daughter of Feng Lang, Duke of Xicheng, and was granddaughter to the last northern Yan emperor, Feng Hong. She became the concubine of the emperor Wencheng (455 AD) and he granted her the Imperial title and styles (456 AD). With her husband’s death (465 AD), Empress Feng attempted to throw herself on the emperor’s funeral pyre, but was saved by quick thinking Imperial guards. She soon overthrew the unpopular regent, Yifu Hun and established herself as regent for her stepson, the emperor Xianwen. When Xianwen had her lover put to death, Feng had the emperor assassinated and assumed the regency for his son, Xiaowen (476 AD). With the failure of the popular uprising led by the Buddhist monk Faxiu, Imperial official wanted all Buddhist monks to be exterminated, but the Empress Dowager refused to countenance such an action (481 AD). She then commissioned Gao Lu to complete a new criminal law code which advocated clan-slaughter as the penalty for certain treasonous acts. The Grand Dowager Empress retained power for the rest of her life, and Xiaowen remained always under her influence, though he had assumed some government control by 483 AD, when the empress was occupied with the establishement of a school for the Imperial princes within the palace. At her death she was provided with magnificent funerary rites, and Emperor Xiaowen observed a mourning period of three years.

Feng Keng – (1907 – 1931)
Chinese writer
Feng was born in Guangdong Province and became interested in leftist politics whilst a student. She joined the underground Communist Party (1929), but was later caught, tried and executed. Feng Keng wrote poetic verse as well as such stories as ‘The Child Pedlar’ and ‘The Salt Miner.’

Feng Yuanjun – (1900 – 1974)
Chinese writer and scholar
Feng Yuanjun was born in Henan. She trained as a teacher and taught Chinese literature at university. Her written work attacked traditional Chinses themes for women, and dealt with the reality of the themes of marriage and domestic affection. Feng travelled to France where she studied at the Sorbonne, and with her return to China, she worked at Shandong University, where she was later appointed as vice-chancellor. Apart from studies of classical poetry, she was the co-author, with her husband, of several works such as the History of Chinese Poetry and, Short History of Chinese Classical Literature.

Fenn, Eleanor Frere, Lady – (1743 – 1813) 
British children’s author
Eleanor Frere was the daughter of Sheppard Frere, of Raydon, Suffolk. She became the wife (1766) of the antiquarian, Sir John Fenn (1739 – 1794).  Childless herself, Lady Fenn wrote various educational works for children, was active in the Sunday school movement, and was well known in Norfolk as a philanthropist. Using the pseudonyms of ‘Mrs Teachwell,’ ‘Mrs Lovechild,’ and ‘Solomon Lovechild,’ she wrote many books inclucding Cobwebs to Catch Flies (c1783), The Juvenile Tatler (c1783), The Fairy Spectator (1789), and Rational Sports (c1785). Lady Fenn also produced a set of instructive dialogues and the instructive Child’s Grammar and Short Grammar, and a work on natural history entitled Short History of Insects. Her style was livelier than that of her contemporaries within this sphere, and she intended to amuse as well as educate.

Fennena – (1276 – 1295)
Queen consort of Hungary (c1291 – 1295)
Fennenea was the daughter of Ziemovit, Duke of Masovia, and his wife Salome, daughter of the Duke of Pomerelia-Lubschau.  She was the niece of Vladyslav IV (1260 – 1333), King of Poland. Fennena became the first wife (c1291) of Andrew III (1271 – 1301), the last ruler of the Arpad dynasty. Queen Fennena died from the effects of childbirth, leaving an only child, sole heiress of the dynasty, Elisabeth (1295 – 1338), who died a nun and was famous for her religious sanctity.

Fenner, Kathe – (1884 – 1944)
German mezzo-soprano
Fenner was born (Aug 11, 1884) in Brunswick, and received her vocal training in Dresden, Saxony. She was a member of the Brunswick Regional Theatre for over three decades (1912 – 1944). Fenner was particularly remembered for her performances as Suzuki in, Madame Butterfly, and as Magdalene in, Die Meistersinger. Kathe Fenner died (Oct 15, 1944) in Brunswick, being killed during an Allied air raid.

Fenner, Mary – (fl. 1734 – 1757)
British printer and publisher
Mary was married to William Fenner, who established the process of stereotyping in England. With his death (1734), Mary continued with the business in Cambridge. In 1738, due to a disagreement with the landlord, she moved her premises to Gracechurch Street, in London. Her last known work was published in 1757, after which she disappears from the public record.

Fenning, Eliza – (1792 – 1815)
British poisoner
Elizabeth Fenning was born into the lower classes in London, and worked as a servant-girl from the age of fourteen (1806). She was later hired as a cook for the Turner family in Chancery Lane (Jan, 1815). Several weeks afterwards, three members of the family suffered poisoning and died. Eliza was accused of murdering them by placing arsenic in some dumplings they ate for dinner. Despite her continued protestations of innocence, and several appeals made to the Lord Chancellor, she was convicted of murder, and despite having sufferring food poisoning herself, Eliza was publicly hanged (June 26, 1815), at the age of twenty-two. Ten thousand people attended her funeral in London (June 31) and she was popularly believed to have been innocent.

Fenno, Jenny – (fl. 1791)
American colonial essayist and poet
Few details of her life are known apart from the fact that she was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Fenno wrote the devotional work, Original Conversations in Prose and Verse, which expressed the view that women’s writing should remain uncensured.

Fenollosa, Mary McNeil – (c1878 – 1954)
Southern American novelist and poet
Mary McNeil was born in Mobile, Alabama, and was married to an Italian-American, Ernest Francisco Fenollosa. Several of her works were published under the pseudonym ‘Sidney McCall,’ such as Truth Dexter (1901), Red Horse Hill (1909), and Christopher Laird (1919). Under her own name she published the collection of verse entitled Out of the Nest: A Flight of Verses (1899), and the novel The Dragon Painter (1906). Mary Fenollosa died (Jan 11, 1954).

Fenston, Esme – (1910 – 1972)
Australian journalist and writer
Fenston was born in Sydney, New South Wales, and attended Sydney Girls’ High School. She began her career in journalism by organizing the women’s section of the Sydney Daily Telegraph, until she eventually joined the staff of the Australian Women’s Weekly (1938), being later appointed as editor (1950), a position she retained until the end of her career. Esme Fenston died (April 16, 1972) in Sydney, aged sixty-one.

Fenton, Bessie (Elizabeth) – (c1805 – 1876)
Australian colonial diarist
Bessie was married firstly (1826) to a British army officer, Captain Neil Campbell (died 1827), and secondly (1828) to Michael Fenton, a fellow officer of her fist husband, to whom she bore a daughter. Bessie Fenton had arrived in India as a newly married bride, and sailed to join her second husband in Van Diemen’s Land, Australia (1829). The couple established themselves in Hobart before acquiring a property of their own at New Norfolk. Her personally edited private diary, addressed to a friend at home in England, was published posthumously as The Journal of Mrs Fenton: a narrative of her life in India, the Isle of France (Mauritius), and Tasmania during the years 1826 – 1830 (1901).

Fenton, Elizabeth Pierrepoint, Viscountess     see    Pierrepoint, Elizabeth

Fenton, Lavinia – (1708 – 1760)
British actress
Lavinia was the illegitimate daughter of a navy lieutenant. Fenton, whose name she adopted, was her stepfather. Beautiful and vivacious she sang to entertain customers of her mother’s coffee shop near Charing Cross. She made her stage debut as Monimia in, The Orphans (1728) and also appeared in, Beaux Strategem. She also achieved outstanding popular success performing with a coomic group at Lincoln’s Inn Field. Her best remembered role however, was as Polly Peachum in The Beggars’ Opera, which made her the toast of London. Her salary was doubled and Lavinia played the role sixty-seven times during a six-month period (Jan – June, 1728).
Fenton became the mistress of Charles Paulet, third duke of Bolton (1685 – 1754), to whom she bore three sons. With the death of his wife she ran away with him to France, where they were married at Aix, Provence (1751). Particularly admired by lords Bathurst and Granville, Lavinia’s character as a duchess was impeccable, and she won the respect of all. She was left the executor of her husband’s will. Lavinia Fenton died (Jan 24, 1760) at Westcombe Park, Greenwich, and was interred in the Church of St Alphege, Greenwich.

Fenwick, Eliza – (1762 – 1840)
British novelist and author
Eliza Mansell as born in London, the daughter of John Mansell, and she became the wife (1781) of the radical editor John Fenwick. The marriage was not a success, and they later seperated (1800). Eliza was a friend to contemporary women writers such as, Mary Wollstonecraft, at whose deathbed she was present (1797), Mary Hays, with whom she maintained a three decades correspondence, and the actress and dramatist, Mary Robinson, mistress of the Prince Regent. She wrote the Gothic novel Secresy, or the Ruin on the Rock (1795), and the school manual, The Class Book; or, Three Hundred and Sixty-Five Reading Lessons Adapted to the Use of Schools (1806), using the pseudonym, ‘Rev. David Blair. She published several books for children, such as The Life of Carlo, the Famous Dog of Drury Lane Theatre (1804), and, Rays from the Rainbow (1812). Eliza Fenwick later worked in Ireland, where she supported herself by acting as a governess. She later removed to Bardados, where she established a school, and finally immigrated to the USA. Eliza Fenwick died at Rhode Island, aged seventy-seven.

Fenwick, Ethel Gordon – (1857 – 1947)
British nursing reformer
Ethel Gordon was born in Morayshire, Scotland and was educated at home by a governess. She trained as a nurse at the Children’s Hospital in Nottingham and at the Royal Infirmary at Manchester (1878 – 1879) before being appointed as a sister at the London Hospital (1879 – 1881). She quickly rose to be the superintendent of nursing at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London before resigning in order to marry Dr Bedford Fenwick (1887). Fenwick then devoted her considerable energies to advance the cause of nursing in Britain. To this end she founded The British Nurses’ Association (1887), which became the first professional women’s body to receive a royal charter (1893). Fenwick also established the Matron’s Council of Great Britain and the National Council of Nurses. Despite the opposition of Florence Nightingale, Fenwick successfully fought for the establishment of the state registration of nurses (1919). Appointed as a member of the first General Nursing Council Ethel Fenwick was also for many years the editor of the Nursing Mirror.

Fenwick, Kathleen – (1902 – 1974)
Canadian editor
Fenwick founded and edited, Canadian Art (1943), the first periodical devoted to art ever printed in Canada. Apart from serving for forty years as curator of the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Kathleen also served as chairman of the Canadian Film Awards (1958 – 1973) and was appointed director of the International Fine Arts Exhibition at Expo ’67, held in Montreal.

Fenwick, Millicent Hammond – (1910 – 1992)
American politician, Congresswoman, and editor
Millicent Hammond was born in Manhattan, New York, the daughter of Ogden Hammond, the famous financier and state legislator, who served as the US ambassador to Spain. Her mother, Mary Stevens Hammond, perished during the sinking of the Lusitania (1915). Millicent attended Columbia University and was fluent in several European languages. She was married (1932) to a businessman, Hugh Fenwick, to whom she bore two children. The marriage did not survive, and Fenwick eventually inherited funds from her father (1956). Fenwick began her career in politics as a member of the Board of Education in Bernardsville, New Jersey (1936 – 1941). She worked for Harper’s Bazaar and then became editor for Vogue magazine. There she compiled Vogue’s Book of Etiquette (1948), which sold over a million copies.
Millicent Fenwick was later elected to the General Assembly of New Jersey (1969 – 1973) and then a member of the House of Representatives (1975 – 1983). It was due to her leadership and sponsorship that led to the creation of the commission to monitor the Helsinki accords on human rights (1975). Popularly referred to as, ‘the Katharine Hepburn of politics,’ Fenwick was then appointed by President Ronald Reagan as ambassador to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) in Rome (1983 – 1987). Fenwick was the model for the character of Representative Lacey Davenport in the Doonesbury comic strip cartoon, written by Garry Trudeau. She later retired from office. Millicent Fenwick died (Sept 16, 1992) in Bernardsville, New Jersey, aged eighty-two.

Feodora of Leiningen – (1807 – 1872)
German princess, half-sister to Queen Victoria
Born Anne Feodora Augusta Charlotte Wilhelmina of Leiningen at Amorbach (Dec 7, 1807), she was the only daughter of Emich Karl, Prince of Leiningen, and his second wife Victoire, the daughter of Franz Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and the sister of Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg and of Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1830 – 1865). She was named in honour of her maternal aunt Anna Feodorovna (formerly Juliana of Saxe-Coburg), who had married the Russian grand duke Constantine. Her father died (1814) and her mother remarried to the Hanoverian prince, Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George III. She was thus half-sister to Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) and was sought in marriage by the elderly roue, the widowed George IV (1825). To forestall this, her mother arranged her marriage (1828) with Prince Ernst Christian of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1794 – 1860), to whom she bore several children.
Princess Feodora was always beset by financial difficulties, and she welcomed at her court the Baroness von Spaeth, thr former attendant of her mother. She visited England (1838) to attend the coronation of Queen Victoria, and her many letters, preserved in the royal archieves at Windsor Castle, bear testimony to the affectionate relations which always continued between them all their lives. Her daughter Eliza was unsuccessfully sought (1850) as a bride for the French emperor Napoleon III, as was her daughter Ada (Adelaide). Feodora survived Ernst as Dowager Princess (1860 – 1872). Princess Feodora died at Baden-Baden (Sept 23, 1872) aged sixty-four, whilst on a visit to her daughter. Princess Feodora and Prince Ernst had six children,

Feodora Carola Charlotte Marie Adelaide Augusta Mathilde – (1890 – 1972)
Last Grand duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar (1910 – 1918)
HSH (Her Serene Highness) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meininge, who bore the additional title of Duchess of Saxony, was born (May 29, 1890) at Hanover in the Rhineland, the eldest daughter of Prince Friedrich of Saxe-Meiningen (1861 – 1914) and his wife Countess Adelaide von Lippe-Biesterfeld, the daughter of Count Ernst von Lippe-Biesterfeld. She was married at Meiningen (1910) to the Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst (1876 – 1923) of Saxe-Weimar and she was enthroned as Grand Duchess consort. Her husband abdicated after Germany’s defeat in WW I (1918) and the grand ducal couple retired with their children to Heinrichau.
When her husband died several years later, Feodora became the Dowager Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar for almost five decades (1923 – 1972). Despite her youth she never remarried. Grand Feodora’s youngest son George married a commoner and renounced his titles and rank as a member of the Grand Ducal house (1953), and assumed the name of Jorge Brenna, becoming a high-school teacher and a concert vocalist. Grand Duchess Feodora died (March 12, 1972) aged eighty-one, at Freiburg-im-Breisgau. Her children were,

Feodorovna, Alexandra – (1888 – 1972) 
Russian ballerina, choreographer, and teacher
Graduating from the Imperial School at St Petersburg (1902), she joined the company at the Maryinski Theatre, becoming that troupe’s first soloist (1906), and performed roles at the Troitzky Theatre. In 1922 Feodorovna accepted the post of ballet mistress of the Latvian State Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Riga. Fifteen years later Alexandra immigrated to New York, and became an American citizen (1937). Whilst working as choreographer with Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo on tour (1940) her revival of Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker Suite was performed. Her husband Alexander Fokine was brother to the choreographer Michael Fokine. She retired in 1965. 

Ferard, Elizabeth Catherine – (c1810 – 1883)
British deaconess and nurse
Elizabeth Ferard desired to embrace the Anglican religious life, and to this end, visited various deaconess institutions in Germany (1861). She was licensed as the first deaconess by Bishop Tait of London (1862) and worked to serve the poor of King’s Cross in London, before later moving to Notting Hill (1873).

Ferber, Edna – (1885 – 1968) 
American novelist and dramatist
Ferber was born (Aug 15, 1885) in Kalamazoo, Michigan, the daughter of a small businessman. She wrote several earlier works such as, Dawn O’Hara (1911), Roast Beef Medium (1913), Emma McChesney & Co. (1915), and, Fanny Herself (1917) before writing, So Big (1924), for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction (1925). Ferber is best known for three novels, Showboat (1926), which was made into a very successful musical on the Broadway stage by Oscar Hammerstein and the composer Jerome Kern, and was later made into an even more successful film, Cimarron (1930), Saratoga Trunk (1941), and Giant (1953), both made into famous films. She collaborated with G.S. Kaufman to produce the successful play Dinner at Eight (1932), and, Stage Door (1936), and left two autobiographical volumes A Peculiar Treasure (1939), and A King of Magic (1964). Edna Ferber died of cancer (April 16, 1968) in New York, aged eighty-two.

Ferber, Mary    see   Giles, Boronia Lucy

Fercinta – (fl. c550)
Spanish recluse and saint
Her name is also given as Fercincta or Ferrocincta. She resided in Toledo in the mid sixth century. Her sanctity and piety were well known and she was honoured as a saint (Nov 13) in Limousin and Poitou in France.

Ferdinanda Henrietta of Stolberg – (1699 – 1750)
German countess and royal ancestress
Countess Ferdinanda Henrietta of Stolberg-Gedern was born (Oct 8, 1699) the daughter of Count Ludwig Christian I of Stolberg-Gedern (1652 – 1710) and his wife Duchess Christina of Mecklenburg-Gustrow (1663 – 1749) the daughter of Duke Gustav Adolf of Mecklenburg-Gustrow. She became the wife (1719) of Count George Ludwig I of Erbach-Schonburg (1691 – 1758), the son of Count George Albert II of Erbach-Furstenau and his wife Countess Anna Dorothea of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg.
The countess predeceased her husband and left thirteen children. Through her second daughter the Countess of Reuss-Ebersdorff Ferdinanda Henrietta was the direct ancestress of many of the modern royal, princely aristocratic families of Europe. Her descendants included the Duchess of Kent, the mother of Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901), and the descendants of Leopold I, King of the Belgians. Countess Ferdinanda Henrietta died (Jan 31, 1750) aged fifty. Her children were,

Ferentillo, Olga Spada-Veralli, Duchess di – (1855 – 1934)
Italian society figure
Princess Olga Spada-Veralli was the younger daughter of Vincenzo Spada-Veralli, Prince di Castelviscardo (1821 – 1855), and his wife Lucrezia (1822 – 1899), the daughter of Antonio Fieschi Ravaschieri, Duca di Roccapiamonte. Olga was a descendant of Henry VII, King of England (1485 – 1509) and his wife Elizabeth of York, through their daughter Margaret Tudor, and therefor a descendant of Mary, Queen of Scots. She was married (1882) to Astrore Montevecchio Martinozzi Benedetti, Duc di Ferentillo (1853 – 1928), whom she survived as Dowager Duchess di Ferentillo (1928 – 1934). Duchess Olga died in Rome (July 23, 1934) aged seventy-nine. She left four children,

Fergusa – (fl. 781 – c790))
Scottish queen of Dalriada
Fergusa was the daughter of Fergus, King of Dalriada (died 781), and her mother was an unnamed daughter of Foredach Wrold, king of Loarn and Argyll, who was dispossessed of his kingdom (736). Fergusa was married to her cousin, Eochaid IV the Venemous (c735 – 789), King of Dalriada, whom she survived. Queen Fergusa was the mother of Kenneth I MacAlpin, King of Scotland (843 – 858) and Dalriada (844 – 859).

Ferguson, Catherine (Kit Coleman) – (1856 – 1915)
Irish-Canadian journalist and war correspondent
Ferguson was born (Feb 20, 1856) at Castleblakeney. She was married firstly to Thomas Willis, and secondly to Edward Watkins, of Toronto, Canada, and thirdly to Theobald Coleman, of Washington, leaving issue by her first two husbands. She was known professionally as ‘Kit Coleman.’ Catherine Ferguson died (May 16, 1915) aged fifty-nine.

Ferguson, Elsie – (1883 – 1961)
American stage and film actress
Ferguson was best known for her appearances in silent movies such as Barbary Sheep (1917), A Society Exile (1919), His House in Order (1920), and Outcast (1922), amongst many others. She retired from films with the advent of sound.

Ferguson, Harriet Rankin – (1888 – 1966)
American volunteer activist
Harriet Rankin was born (June 16, 1888) in Hartford, Connecticut, the great-granddaughter, through her mother, of Rear Admiral Charles Wilkes, who discovered the Antarctic continent. She became the wife of Charles Vaughan Ferguson, a research engineer, to whom she bore six children. During WW II she served for two years as a member of the Schenectady County War Council, and specialized in civic and social work. Ferguson was alos very active in voluntary and civic organizations, and served as the national president of the Girl Scouts of America (1946 – 1952). Harriet Rankin Ferguson died (Jan 14, 1966) aged seventy-seven.

Ferguson, Jane – (fl. 1735 – 1773)
British stage actress
Ferguson was the daughter of actors, and first appeared on stage with her mother in the play, Zara (1735). Jane appeared in such popular plays as The Beaux Stratgem and The Provok’d Husband, and then worked for John Rich, manager of the Covent Garden Theatre, afterwich she performed mainly in London. Some of her last stage roles included the Duchess of York in Richard III and Isabella in The Conscious Lovers. She later retired from the stage (1773), but no details are recorded of her later life.

Ferguson, Kate Lee – (1842 – after 1917)
Southern American author
Kate Lee was born in Kentucky, the daughter of William Henry Lee and was married to General Samuel Wragg Ferguson. Ferguson accompanied her husband on several of his military campaigns, and after the Civil War the couple resided in Biloxi, Mississippi. She was best known for her popular novel about horse racing entitled, Cliquot: A Racing Story of Ideal Beauty (1889). Her husband died in 1917 and she survived him.

Ferguson, Margaret Clay – (1863 – 1951)
American plant geneticist and educator
Ferguson was born (Aug 20, 1863) at Orleans in New York and attended Wellesley College, where she studied chemistry and botany (1888 – 1891). She graduated from Cornell University (1899) and was then appointed to head the botany department at Wellesley (1902). Ferguson was appointed as a professor (1906) and remained an academic at Wellesley until her retirement over three decades later (1938). Ferguson was the first woman to be elected president of the Botanical Society of America (1929). Her own especial research concentrated on the Petunia genus, and compiled a detailed database of genetic information for plants. Margaret Clay Ferguson died (Aug 28, 1951) aged eighty-eight, in San Diego, California.

Ferguson, Mary Catherine Guiness, Lady – (1823 – 1905)
Irish biographer and author
Mary Guiness was born at Stillorgan in Dublin, the daughter of Robert Rundell Guiness. Her early interest in Irish archaeology and art led to her introduction to Sir Samuel Ferguson (1810 – 1886), George Petrie, and other specialists in that field. Mary was later married to Ferguson (1848). The marriage remained childless. Lady Ferguson entertained her husband’s literary colleagues at their home in George Street, Dublin, and was herself the author of, The Story of the Irish before the Conquest (1868). During her widowhood she produced the two volume memoir entitled Sir Samuel Ferguson in the Ireland of His Day (1896). She was also the author of the, Life of William Reeves, D.D., Lord Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore (1893). Besides these biographical works, Lady Ferguson prepared several of her late husband’s works for posthumous publication. These works included Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland (1887), and the very popular Lays of the Western Gael (1887). Lady Ferguson died (March 5, 1905) in Dublin, and was interred with her husband at Donegore in County Antrim.

Ferguson, Miriam Amanda Wallace (Ma Ferguson) – (1875 – 1961)
American public figure and state governor
Miriam Wallace was born (June 13, 1875) in Bell County, Texas, the daughter of a cattle rancher. She was married (1899) to her cousin, James Edward Ferguson, to whom she bore two daughters. Mrs Ferguson served as first lady of Texas during her husband’s tenure as governor (1915 – 1917). When he was impeached amidst great public controversy, she decided to enter politics herself. She was elected as governor of Texas for two separate terms (1924 – 1926) and again (1932 – 1934), becoming the second woman after Nellie Tayhoe Ross, to hold that position in the USA. She was particularly known for her opposition to the Klu Klux Klan, and tolerance to Catholics and Jews. Ferguson ampaigned for unsuccessfully for relection in 1940, but with the death of her husband (1944) she retired altogether from politics. Miriam Ferguson died (June 25, 1961) aged eighty-six.

Ferguson, Olive Richman, Lady – (1848 – 1882)
Anglo-Indian hostess
Olive Richman was the youngest daughter of John Henry Richman, of Warnbunga, South Australia. In New Zealand she became the second wife (1873) of Sir James Ferguson (1832 – 1907), sixth baronet, of Kilkerran. Lady Ferguson acted as official hostess in Bombay, India, whilst her husband acted as governor of that city. It was during this period that Lady Ferguson was appointed as CI (Lady of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India) by Queen Victoria. However the Indian climate proved dangerous and Lady Ferguson died of cholera (Jan 8, 1882) in Bombay. Her son Alan Walter John Ferguson (1878 – 1909) was married but died childless.

Ferguson, Rachel – (1893 – 1957)
British author and novelist
Ferguson was born (Oct 18, 1893) at Hampton Wick, the daughter of a treasury official. Her paternal grandfather, Dr Robert Ferguson, served at court as physician extrordinary to Queen Victoria. She was raised at Teddington in Kent, and went to live at Kensington in London as a teenage girl. She attended secondary school there and finished her education in Florence, Italy.
As a young woman Ferguson was an avid supporter of the women’s suffrage movement, and was a co-founder of the juvenile branch of the WSPU (Women’s Social and Political Union). She later studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, and embarked upon a career on the stage for three years, appearing at Her Majesty’s and the Court Theatre with the Irish Players troupe, with modest success. During WW I she worked for the war effort with the WVS (Women’s Volunteer Reserve). After the war she worked as a drama critic for the Sunday Chronicle newspaper under the pseudonym ‘Columbine.’ Her published works included False Goddesses (1923), the domestic comedy The Brontes went to Woolworth’s (1931), Nymphs and Satires (1932), Passionate Kensington (1939), and Sea Front (1954). Rachel Ferguson died (Nov 26, 1957) aged sixty-four.

Fergusson, Christina – (fl. c1740 – 1745)
Scottish Jacobite and songwriter
Fergusson was born at Contin, and was the wife of William Chisholm, who was killed fighting for the Stuart cause at the battle of Culloden. She composed the lament ‘Tearlach og Stiubhart ‘(‘O young Charles Stewart’) in memory of her late husband.

Fergusson, Elizabeth Graeme – (1737 – 1801)
American poet, translator, letter writer, diarist
Elizabeth Graeme was born (Feb 3, 1737) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Dr Thomas Graeme, later a Supreme Court justice. Her stepfather was William Keith, governor of Pennsylvania. She became the wife of Henry Ferguson and established herself as a leader of colonial society. She was the aunt of the poet, Anna Young Smith (1756 – 1780). Adopting the pseudonym of ‘Laura,’ several of her works were published in the Columbian Magazine and included the the poem, ‘On a Beautiful Damask Rose, Emblematical of Love and Wedlock.’ She also kept a private journal and translated Fenelon’s epic work, Telemachus. She was a prominent member of literary society in Philadelphia, and was a particular friend to Annis Boutinot Stockton. Elizabeth Graeme was thought to have been informally engaged to William Franklin, the illegitimate son of statesman Benjamin Franklin, but this did not eventuate, and Elizabeth travelled to England (1764). After her return she married (1772) Henry Fergusson, a Scotsman. However, when he was accused of treason during the revolution he fled the country, and returned to England (1779). Because of her husband’s activities, Elizabeth’s estate of Graeme Park was confiscated after the war. Her own correspondence and the intercession of well placed friends insured that her estate was eventually restored to her. Elizabeth Fergusson died (Feb 23, 1801), aged sixty-four.

Fergusson, Erna – (1888 – 1964)
American Red Cross worker, traveller, and memoirist
Fergusson was born (Jan 10, 1888) in Alburquerque, New Mexico, the elder sister to popular novelists Harvey (born 1890) and Francis Fergusson (born 1904). During WW I Erna Fergusson served at the front in Europe with the volunteer ambulance brigade, tending to wounded soldiers. With the end of the war she travelled extensively, and was the author of such works as, Dancing Gods (1931), Fiesta in Mexico (1934), and, Venezuela (1939). One of her last works was, A Mexican Cookbook (1961).

Feria, Felicia Maria Josefa de La Cerda y Aragon, Duquesa de – (1657 – 1709)
Spanish grandee
Felicia de La Cerda y Aragon was born (Sept 5, 1657), the daughter of Juan Francisco de La Cerda, eighth Duque de Medinceli, and sixth Duque de Alcala, and his wife Catalina Antonia Fernandez de Cordova, Duquesa de Segorbe and Cardona. Felicia was married (1675) to Luis II Maurice Fernandez de Cordova y Figueroa (1650 – 1690), seventh Duque de Feria and was duchess consort (1675 – 1690). Felicia Maria survived her husband almost two decades as Dowager Duquesa de Feria (1690 – 1709). Her only child, Maria de la Encarnacion Fernandez de Cordova Velasco (1686 – 1746), became the wife of Pedro Alvarez de Toledo y Portugal (1685 – 1728), fifth marques de Flexilla, and left descendants. Duchess Felicia died (May 15, 1709) aged fifty-one.

Feria, Jane, Duquesa de     see    Dormer Jane

Ferlinda – (c950 – after 1001)
Italian mediaeval countess
Ferlinda was the daughter of Bertario (Bertarius), Count of Bevulco. She became the wife (before 970) of Atto (died 975), Count of Lecco to whom she bore an only son Wido (Guy) who was living in 973 but died young without issue. Ferlinda’s son was the last male heir of his family which was descended from the dukes of Spoleto, the counts of Nantes and the margraves of the Breton Marches. Ferlinda long survived her husband who was interred in the Abbey of Almenno. She was Countess Dowager of Lecco for over twenty-five years. She was living (Oct 14, 1001) and died sometime after this date.

Fermanagh, Mary Verney, Lady – (1737 – 1810)
Irish peeress (1792 – 1810)
Mary Verney was the only child of Hon. (Honourable) John Verney (1709 – 1737), and his wife Mary Nicholson, later the wife of Richard Calvert (c1697 – 1782), of Hall Place, Bexley, Kent.
She was the granddaughter of Sir Ralph Verney, second Viscount Fermanagh and first Earl Verney. She was created Baroness Fermanagh by George III (1792), but remained unmarried. She alienated the Verney family estates prior to her death. Lady Fermanagh died (Nov 15, 1810) aged seventy-three.

Fermo, Minnie – (1896 – 1996)
Anglo-Australian writer, poet and musician
Fermo was born (March 10, 1896) in Bradford, Yorkshire. She was married twice and had two children by her first marriage. From 1923 onwards she resided mainly in Paris, but during WW II she sent her children to safety in South Africa though circumstances prevented her from joining them there. After the war she visited her daughter in Australia, then returned to settle there permanently (1965). At this time she ran a hostel for country girls in Sydney, New South Wales. She wrote poetry and short stories, many of which were published in the British magazine, Country Life. Minnie Fermo died (March 3, 1996) in Sydney, aged ninety-nine.

Fermoy, Catharine Power, Lady – (c1608 – 1649)
Irish royalist
Also called Ellen in some sources, she was the daughter of John Power. Catharine Power became the wife (c1625) of Maurice Roche (c1595 – c1660), Viscount Fermoy, to whom she bore four daughters. Lady Fermoy gallantly defended Castletown Roche against the Parliamentarian forces. Captured, she was condemened for shooting an unknown man on the evidence of a woman of ill-repute and was hanged.

Fermoy, Ruth Sylvia Gill, Lady – (1908 – 1993)
British pianist and courtier
Ruth Gill was the youngest daughter of Colonel William Smith Gill, of Dalhebity, Bieldside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, a wealthy landowner. She was married (1931) to the Irish peer, Edmund Maurice Roche (1885 – 1955), the fourth Baron Fermoy, to whom she bore three children. Through her daughter Frances Shand-Kydd, she was the maternal grandmother of Diana, Princess of Wales. Lady Fermoy, who was an excellent pianist, and had received extensive musical training in childhood, attended the court of George V and Queen Mary. During the latter part of WW II, she served as a Justice of the Peace for the county of Norfolk, for which service she was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1952). Lady Fermoy served in the royal household, and was an extra woman of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, widow of Geroge VI (1956 – 1960) before being appointed as a full-time lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth (March, 1960). Lady Fermoy was also appointed as an honorary Freeman of King’s Lynn, in Norfolk (1962).
The Dowager Lady Fermoy long remained a prescence at the court of Queen Elizabeth II, and a close friend of the royal family. She is credited with assisting in arranging the match between her granddaughter and Prince Charles, son of Elizabeth II, together with Charles’s grandmother, the Queen Mother Elizabeth. Because of this, and her own loyalty to the royal family, Lady Fermoy remained disapproving of her granddaughter’s behaviour and escapades, which she considered undignified and unnecessary. Lady Fermoy died (July 6, 1993) in London, aged eighty-four. Her children were,

Fern, Fanny – (1811 – 1872)
American novelist and journalist
Born Fanny Sarah Payson, she was the daughter of a publisher and was educated at home by a governess. Despite her family’s literary connections, her own desire to write was discouraged at home. The early death of her first husband Willis (1846) left her with two daughters, and bowing to the pressure applied by her family, she remarried. Her second union with Fern (1849) proved uncongenial, and finally she seperated from her husband (1851). Because of this scandal she was denied support by her won family, and was forced to work as a schoolteacher and a seamstress, to provide for herself and her children. Finally her literary success and financial independence was achieved with two published works, Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Portfolio (1853) and the novel Ruth Hall: A Domestic Tale of the Present Time (1855), which mirrored her own unfortunate marital experiences. Fern was later employed as the first female newspaper columnist for the publication, The Ledger (1856 – 1872). Fanny Fern died of cancer.

Fernandez, Flamula – (c870 – after 929)
Spanish royal
Flamula was the daughter of Fernando Munoz ‘Niger el de Castroosiero,’ and his wife, Gutina Diaz, the daughter of Diego Rodriguez ‘Porcellos,’ Conde of Castile. She was married (c888) to Gonzalo Tellez, Conde in Lantaron and Conde in Castile. She is mentioned as his wife in several surviving charters conncected with the Abbey of Cardenas, San Pedro (902) and (915). Flamula survived her husband and made a donation to Cardenas for the benefit of his soul (Nov 24, 929). Her niece Muniadomna became the wife of Garcia I, King of the Asturias and Leon.

Fernandez, Praxedis – (1895 – 1936)
Spanish saint
Fernandez was the wife of an electrician, and his early death (1920) left her with four small sons to provide for. Piously religious, she ministered to the poor and sick and observed the rules of the Third Dominican Order. Praxedis died from an attack of appendicitis, whilst the Communists had taken over her home town. Request for a physician to attend her were refused, and after her death, her body was thrown into a common ditch. Due to the efforts of the people of Oviedo, who had benefitted from her charity, Praxedis was later beatified (1953).

Fernandez-Fojaco, Manuela – (1895 – 2009)
Spanish supercentenarian
Manuela Fernandez-Fojaco was born (June 18, 1895) in Llamas in Aller in the Asturias. Manuela died (Jan 6, 2009) aged one hundred and thirteen years and 202 days, and was the oldest living person on record in Spain at the time of her death, and four days prior to her own death she became the oldest person recorded living in Europe whose dates could be verified.

Fernandine, Catalina de Macade-Aragon, Duquesa de – (fl. c1650 – 1700)
Spanish courtier
Catalina de Macade-Aragon was a descendant of the medieval kings of Aragon. The duquesa served as the chief lady-in-waiting to Queen Maria Anna, the wife of King Carlos II. Her daughter the Marquesa de Manzera indulged in a liasion with Augustus the Strong of Saxony, and was then murdered by her jealous husband (1692). With her daughter, the duchess was patron of the poet and dramatist Juana Asbaje y Ramirez de Santillana.

Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock – (1927 – 2008)
American anthropologist, ethnographer, film producer and writer
Elizabeth Warnock was born (Oct 21, 1927), and attended university in Portland, Oregon. She became the wife of the noted anthropologist, Robert Fernea. Mrs Fernea spent two years (1956 – 1958) living a native Iraqi woman’s lifestyle at al-Nahra in southern Iraq, when she accompanied her husband there. Her level of involvement in local female society enabled her to study close up the roles of Muslim women in the Middle East. She published the works Guests of the Sheikh: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village, Nubian Ethnographies, Middle Eastern Women Speak, and In Search of Islamic Feminism: One Woman’s Global Journey. Elizabeth Fernea also produced the films Living with the Past: Historic Cairo, A Veiled Revolution: Women and Religion in Egypt, and, Some Women of Marrakech.
Elizabeth and her husband eventually returned to the USA (1966), and she held various academic positions at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas in Austin. After being appointed to the staff as a lecturer (1975), she served as the chair of the Women’s Studies Program, and was president of the Middle East Studies Association of North America (1985 – 1986). Mrs Fernea became a professor (1990) and received an honorary doctorate from the State University of New York at Plattsburgh (1994). Elizabeth and her husband both retired (1999). Elizabeth Warnock Fernea died (Dec 2, 2008) aged eighty-one

Fernig, Theophile de – (1779 – c1818)
French letter writer
Theophile de Fernig disguised herself as a soldier and served as aide-de-camp to the royalist General Dumouriez. She later served as an espionage agent to the newly restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII (1814). Nearly two dozen of her letters survive, all addressed to her cousin Isidore Andeval during the period (1797 – 1803). They were published in Paris as Correspondance inedite de mademoiselle Theophile de Fernig, aide de camp du general Dumouriez, suivie de Coup d’etat du 18 fructidor an V apres le journal inedit de La Villeurnoy, agent secret de Louis XVIII et l’un des deported a la Guyane francaise, d’apres les manuscrits autographes originaux (1873).

Ferragamo, Fiamma – (1941 – 1998)
Italian footwear designer
Ferragamo was born in Florence, the daughter of society designer, Salvatore Ferragamo. She inherited the business, founded in 1927, after her father’s death from cancer (1960) and was married to Giuseppe di San Giuliano. Fiamma was awarded the Neiman Marcus Award for Distinguished Service in the Field of Fashion (1967) and built up her father’s already prestigious business into a global concern, establishing boutiques for elegant shoes and leather accessories in world capitals such as Milan, London, Paris, and New York. Ferragamo was a member of the Italian Environmental Fund, which sought to protect and preserve historic Italian mansions. Fiamma Ferragamo died of breast cancer (Sept 28, 1998) in Florence, aged fifty-seven.

Ferra-Mikura, Vera – (1923 – 1997)
Austrian poet and writer
Born Gertrud Mikura (Feb 14, 1923) in Vienna, she worked as a journalist and freelance author. She published a collection of stories entitled, Literarische Luftnumber (1970), and the volume of poetry Melodie am Morgen (1946), as well as writing a number of books for children. Vera Ferra-Mikura died (March 9, 1997) in Austria, aged seventy-four.

Ferrard, Margeurite Josephine    see   Ferrier, Ida

Ferrarese, Adriana – (c1755 – after 1799)
Italian vocalist and soprano
Adriana was trained at the Conservatorio dei Mendicanti in Venice, and was known professionally as ‘La Ferrarese.’  She was married to Luigi del Bene, the son of a diplomat, and was sometimes billed as Signora del Bene. Adriana appeared in Turin, Piedmont, and in London, where she appeared as Barsene in, Demetrio (1785), and sang the role of Mandane in, Artaserse. She performed the works of Handel, Gluck, and Johann Christoph Bach, and also played comic roles such as Bettina in, I viaggiatori felici. Upon leaving England she performed in Milan, Trieste, and Vienna. Adriana was the first to appear in the role of Fiordiligi in, Cosi fan tutte (1790). Her last recorded stage appearance was in 1799. No details are recorded of her life after this date.

Ferrari, Carlotta – (1837 – 1907) 
Italian soprano and composer
Ferrari was born in Lodi. The pupil of soprano Giuseppina Strepponi, the second wife of Giuseppe Verdi, she also studied under Panzini and Mazzucato at the Milan Conservatory from (1844 – 1850). Also a successful composer, Carlotta wrote both the lyrics and music for the operas, Ugo (1857) performed in Milan, Sophia (1866) performed in Lodi, and, Eleonora d’Arborea (1871) performed in Cagliari, Sardinia. She also composed the Requiem for Turin (1868). Carlotta Ferrari died in Bologna, aged seventy.

Ferrari, Gabrielle – (1860 – 1921)
French pianist
Ferrari was born in Paris, and was trained by the Hungarian pianist and composer Heinrich Ketten (1848 – 1883) and the dramatic composer Jules Laurent Duprato (1827 – 1892). Gabrielle was also a pupil of Theodore Gounod and Frederic Leborne. Ferrari made her stage debut in Naples at the age of twelve (1872) and composed the two act opera, Le Colzar which was first performed at Monte Carlo, and later at the Paris Opera (1912). She composed several orchestral suites and many popular tunes. Gabrielle Ferrari died (July 4, 1921) aged sixty-one.

Ferrari, Victoire – (1785 – after 1823)
Italian-Anglo pianist and stage performer
Victoire Henry was born (June 24, 1785) in London, the daughter of Luigi Henry, the noted dancing master. Victoire studied piano under Kreusser and performed for Joseph Haydn at the age of nine (1794). She was later instructed in the violin by the noted german composer and musician, then resident in London, Johann Baptist Cramer (1746 – 1799). Victoire was married (c1804) to the Italian composer, Giacomo Gotifredo Ferrari, and was mother to the vocalist, Adolfo Angelico Gotifredo (1807 – 1870). Her daughter, Sophie Ferrari, also established herself as a singer of some note. Victoire later seperated from her husband, and worked for many years in Brighton, as a successful piano teacher.

Ferrars, Elizabeth – (1907 – 1995)
British mystery and suspense novelist
Born Morna Doris MacTaggart Brown, she adopted the pseudonyms of ‘Elizabeth Ferrars’ or ‘E.X. Ferrars.’ and her earlier novels included such titles Give a Corpse a Bad Name (1940), Don’t Monkey with Murder (1941), The March Hare Murders (1949), Always Say Die (1956) and, A Tale of Two Murders (1959). Ferrars was a founding member of the Crime Writers Association (1953), and later served this organization as chairman (1977 – 1978). She was the recipient of the Crime Writers Association Silver Dagger Award (1981). Her later works included The Seven Sleepers (1970), Last Will and Testament (1978), Experiment with Death (1981), and Root of All Evil (1984). Her last published work was Smoke Without Fire (1990).
Elizabeth Ferrars died at Didcot, Oxon.

Ferraz, Maria Esther Figueiredo – (1916 – 2008)
Brazilian government minister and author
Esther Ferraz was born (Feb 6, 1916) in Sao Paulo. She studied as a lawyer and was appointed as the first woman to chair (1949) the Brazilian Bar Association (Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil – OAB) and was the first female academic to teach at the University of Sao Paulo. After serving on the State Board of Education ferraz was appointed as the director of Higher Education of the Ministry of Education and Culture (1966 – 1967) and later served on the Federal Council of Education (1969 – 1982).
Ferraz entered politics and served in the government of President Joao Figueiredo. She was appointed as the Minister of education and Culture (1982 – 1985) as the successor of Rubem Carlos Ludwig, and becoming the first woman to be appointed as a government minister. She published several books concerning women and prostitution including Protituicao e Criminalidade Feminina. Maria Esther Ferraz died (Sept 23, 2008) aged ninety-one, in Sao Paulo.

Ferrazzi, Cecilia (Chiara) – (1609 – 1684)
Italian social reformer
Ferrazzi was born in Venice into a family of wealthy artisans. The early deaths of her parents meant that there was no impediment to Cecilia’s desire to refuse marriage and take religious vows, though she did not at first become a nun. Cecilia was placed under the spiritual guidance of a confessor, but worked as a governess in the noble Venetian family of Lion (1648). With the help of several sympathetic patrician ladies, Ferrazzi managed to establish several hostels for women, who did not want to become nuns or prostitutes, then the only vocations available for Venetian women outside of marriage. However, she was brought before the Inquisition after being accused of performing the religious office of confessor (1664), a role only permitted to Catholic priests.
The documents of her trial have survived and been translated into English. She was ordered to be imprisoned for seven years, but was released in 1667, due to an appeal to the Vatican on her behalf.

Ferre i Gomis, Adelaida – (1881 – 1955)
Spanish folk-lorist and writer
Ferre i Gomis was born in Barcelona, and received an excellent education, teaching drawing and engraving at the Escuela Municipal de Arte in Barcelona, as well as providing instruction in art history and lace making. Together with several other notable female writers such as Gracia Bassa and Sara Llorens, Adelaida formed a group of specialists in Spanish folk-lore. She wrote articles for various periodicals and lectured ar various educational institutions. A selection of her work was published as De folklore (About Folklore).

Ferreira de la Cerda, Bernarda – (1595 – 1644)
Spanish poet and dramatist
Bernarda Ferreira was the daughter of a Portugese courtier, and resided in Lisbon. Apart from several plays, she produced a volume of lyric poetry entitled, Soledades de Bucao (Bucao Solitudes), and the poem Espana libertada (Spain Liberated) (1618). Her work was said to be much admired by King Philip III.

Ferrer Otero, Monsita Monserrate – (1882 – 1966)
Puerto Rican pianist and composer
Ferrer Otero was born in San Juan, and studied piano under the direction of Rosa Sicardo and Ana Otero. She was taught harmony by Juan Carlos de Arteaga and Aristides Chavier Arevalo, and continued her piano studies under the direction of Gonzalo Nunes in New York, USA, and Jesus Maria Sanroma at the Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico. Ferrer Otero produced chamber and sacred music, as well as piano pieces and lyrics. Monsita Ferrer Otero died in San Juan aged eighty-three.

Ferrers, Anne de – (1438 – 1469)
English medieval heiress
Anne de Ferrers was born (Nov, 1438), the only child and heir of Sir William de Ferrers, Baron Ferrers of Chartley, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Hamon Belknap, of Seintlynge, Kent. She became the first wife (1446) of Sir Walter Devereux (1432 – 1485), to whom she bore five children. In consequence of this marriage her husband was summoned to Parliament (1461) as Baron Ferrers of Chartley (1461 – 1468) in her right, and retained the title until his own death, when the barony passed to their eldest son, Sir John Devereux (1463 – 1501). Her daughter, Elizabeth Devereux (c1463 – 1541) was married firstly to Sir Richard Corbet (1451 – 1493), of Moreton Corbet, Salop, and secondly to Sir Thomas Leighton. Anne de Ferrers died (Jan 9, 1469) aged thirty.

Ferrers, Elizabeth de – (1418 – 1483)
English medieval peeress
Elizabeth de Ferrers held the ancient Barony of Ferrers of Groby. She was the only surviving child of Sir Henry de Ferrers and his first wife Isabel Mowbray, the eldest daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Nottingham. With the death of her father without male issue (c1422) Elizabeth became the heiress of her grandfather, William de Ferrers, Lord Ferrers of Groby (1372 – 1445). Elizabeth de Ferrers was married firstly to Edward Grey, the eldest son of Reginald, Lord Grey de Ruthin. With her grandfather’s death (1445) Elizabeth became the sixth Baroness Ferrers and her husband was styled Lord Grey of Groby in her right by the Parliament (1446). With Lord Grey’s death (1457), Elizabeth later remarried (1462) to Sir John Bourchier.
Her five children included Sir John Grey of Groby (1431 – 1461) who was killed fighting for the Lancastrians at the second battle of St Albans. His widow, Elizabeth Woodville, later became the wife (1464) of King Edward IV. Lady Elizabeth de Ferrers died (Jan 23, 1483) aged sixty-four.

Ferri, Gabriella – (1942 – 2004)
Italian popular vocalist
Ferri began her singing career in a nightclub in Milan (1963) and soon established herself as a popular singer in Rome, one of her most popular hits being the song ‘Sempre’ (Always). Ferri also performed Latin American songs and many of her best loved works were performed on the album, I Grandi Successi Originali. During the decade of the 1970’s she made appearance on several popular television programs. Her death at Corchiano, Viterbo (April 3, 2004), at the age of sixty-one, was believed to be a suicide.

Ferrier, Ida – (1811 – 1859)
French actress
Ferrier was born Margeurite Josephine Ferrard (May 13, 1811) at Nancy, in Lorraine. Small of stature and with thick fair hair, and a lovely complexion, she was not a particularly talented actress, though she appeared on stage with considerable success in the leading roles of, Teresa and, Bathilde. Ida became the mistress (1832), and then wife (1840) of the noted French novelist and dramatist, Alexandre Dumas, the elder (1802 – 1870), who took her to Nohant to meet the celebrated George Sand, and who wrote the poems ‘Obeisance’ and ‘A I …,’ for her. She also appeared on stage in works that he wrote. However, he also squandered her fortune, and the couple later seperated (1845) and Ida went to reside in Italy. There she was supported in some style by her lover, the Prince di Villafranca. Ida Ferrier died at the Picasso Castle in Genoa (March 11, 1859), from cancer of the uterus, aged forty-seven.

Ferrier, Kathleen Mary – (1912 – 1953) 
British contralto
Ferrier was born at Higher Walton, in Lancashire (April 22, 1912), the daughter of a schoolmaster, and was early trained as a telephonist. She did not become a professional singer until she reached the age of thirty. She made her operatic debut in Benjamin Britten’s, Rape of Lucrezia (1946) and became known for her interpretation of the works of Gustav Mahler. Recognized as one of the greatest contraltos of the twentieth century, she performed throughout Europe, appearing in Amsterdam, Salzburg, Milan, and Vienna, with enormous success. Her career was cut tragically short by cancer, though she continued to perform in public during her illness. Because of the purity and sincerity of her performances, and her lack of prima-ballerina airs and graces, Kathleen remained an ever popular performer with the British public. She was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society (June, 1953). Kathleen Ferrier died (Oct 8, 1953) aged only forty-one, in London.

Ferrier, Susan Edmonstone – (1782 – 1854)
Scottish satirical novelist
Ferrier was born (Sept 7, 1782) in Edinburgh, the daughter of a lawyer, who became principal clerk to the Court of Session with the famous novelist, Sir Walter Scott. With her mother’s early death (1797), Ferrier remained at home and ran the household for her father until his death (1829), but because of her family’s connections with Scott she received entrée to Edinburgh’s intellectual society. Ferrier first novel, Marriage (1818), was followed by, The Inheritance (1824), and the popular Highland romance, Destiny (1831). Her books were published anonymously and for some time it was wrongly thought that Sir Walter Scott was the real author. She was later converted to the evangelical movement and became a member of the Free Church. She was afflicted with blindness during her last years, which prevented her writing. Susan Ferrier died (Nov 5, 1854) in Edinburgh, aged seventy-two.

Ferris, Anna – (1815 – 1890)
American Quaker diarist
Anna Ferris was a middle class resident of Delaware, and kept a very complete personal journal throughout the period of the Civil War (1860 – 1865), which kept an account of politics and military activities during this period of social upheaval. This work was later edited by Harold B. Hancock and was published as The Civil War Diaries of Anna M. Ferris.

Ferris, Audrey – (1909 – 1990)
American silent film actress
Ferris was born in Detroit, Michigan, and received extensive musical training in childhood, specializing with the violin. Her early screen career was a musician and dancer. Audrey Ferris achieved fame as the leading lady in the Rin Tin Tin movies of the 1920’s such as Rinty of the Desert (1928). With the advent of sound, she was taken up by Warner Brothers Studios, and appeared in films such as Honky Tonk (1929), Undertow (1930), and Within the Rock (1935), amongst others.

Ferris, Helen Josephine – (1890 – 1969)
American editor and author
Ferris was born (Nov 19, 1890) in Hastings, Nebraska. She was editor of, The American Girl magazine (1923 – 1928), and served for three decades (1929 – 1959) as chief editor of the Junior Literary Guild. Ferris was the compiler of several works such as, When I Was a Girl (1930), Here Comes Barnum (1932), and Tommy and His Dog, Hurry (1944), and edited the collection of poetic verse entitled Favorite Poems Old and New (1957). She left a volume of memoirs, This Happened to Me (1929). Helen Ferris died (Sept 28, 1969) aged seventy-eight.

Ferris, Jeannie Margaret – (1941 – 2007)
Australian Liberal politician and journalist
Ferris was born (March 14, 1941) in Auckland, New Zealand and was employed as a journalist with the, Rotorua Daily Post. She came to Australia (1963) and then studied agricultural econimics at Monash University and joined the Liberal Party of South Australia, and became a senator. Ferris worked firstly as adviser to the South Australian politician, Ian McLachlan (1990). She was later appointed by the parliament of South Australia to work for Senator Nick Minchin after the Liberal party won the 1996 election. She served as Deputy Government Whip in the senate (2001 – 2002) and was then appointed as Government Whip (2003 – 2007), a position she held till her death. Senator Ferris was particularly remembered for her involvement in the resignation of Senator Andrew Bartlett, leader of the Australian Democrats, after an incident at Parliament House, when the said senator was intoxicated. Jeannie Ferris died of ovarian cancer (April 2, 2007) in Canberra, ACT (Australian Capital Territory), aged sixty-six.

Ferron, Marie Rose – (1902 – 1936)
French-Canadian Catholic mystic
Ferron was born (May 24, 1902) at Grantham, Quebec, into a large family. She later immigrated with her parents to the USA, and then settled in Rhode Island. She received the marks of the stigmata and died (May 11, 1936), aged thirty-four, after great personal sufferring, though her claims to holiness were never accepted by Vatican authorities.

Fersen, Charlotte Frederica Sparre, Countess von – (1719 – 1795)
Swedish noblewoman
Baroness Charlotte Sparre was the daughter of Baron Frederic Henry Sparre (1691 – 1764) and his wife Virginia Christina Lilliehook (1686 – 1726), the daughter of Gabriel Lilliehook af Fardala (died 1706). She became the wife of Count Karl Reinhard von Sparre (1716 – 1786) whom she survived as the Dowager Countess von Fersen (1786 – 1795). Her children inlcuded Countess Ulrika Eleonora von Fersen (1749 – 1810) who became the wife of Nils, fourth Baron von Hopken (1749 – 1779) and left descendants.

Fersen, Hedwig Catharina de La Gardie, Countess von – (1732 – 1800)
Swedish courtier and society figure
The daughter of Count Magnus Julius de La Gardie, she became the wife of Count Fredrik Axel von Fersen (1719 – 1794), the noted Swedish soldier and statesman. Her two sons included Count Hans Axel von Fersen (1754 – 1810), famous as the lover of the French queen Marie Antoinette. Her two daughters were Hedwig Eleonora von Fersen (1753 – 1792), the second wife of Thure Leonard Klinckowstrom, and Sophie Piper (1757 – 1816). She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess von Fersen (1792 – 1800).

Fertula – (d. c301 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Fertula was probably a native of Thessalonika. She was put to death there, or at Rome, during the persecutions of the emperor Diolcetian. Refusing to abjure her faith, she was condemned and killed with twenty other Christians, including the women Auceja and Ururia. The church venerated her as a saint (June 1).

Ferval, Claude   see   Harty de Pierrebourg, Baronne de

Fesensaguet, Vicomtesse de    see   Caumont, India de

Fessenden, Clementina – (1843 – 1918)
Canadian patriot and journalist
Born Clementina Trenholme (May 4, 1843), at Kingsey Township, near Quebec, she was the daughter of Anglo-Irish emigrants. She was married to a clergyman named Elijah Fessenden, to whom she bore four sons. An ardent Imperialist, Clementina Fessenden wrote numerous articles for various publications, and was a member of several prominent public organizations including the National Council of Women, the Ontario Historical Society, and the Anti-Suffrage League, but was particularly remembered as the founder of the Empire Day celebration (1897). She received the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire (1913). Clementina Fessenden died (Sept 14, 1918) in Ontario, aged seventy-five.

Festetics von Tolna, Marie   see   Draskovitch de Trakostjan, Countess

Festing, Gabrielle – (c1851 – 1924)
British writer
Festing was born at Kensington, London, the daughter of Major-General Robert Festing and his wife Frances Mary Legrew. Musically inclined she long served as a member of the Bach Choir. Festing was a noted author and published severl works such as, John Hookham Frere and His Friends, From the Land of Princes, and When Kings Rode to Delhi, amongst others. Gabrielle Festing died in London (April 17, 1924).

Fetti, Lucrina – (c1595 – 1651)
Italian painter
Lucrina Fetti was the sister of artist Domenico Fetti. She was originally named Giustina, and was brought to Mantua, where her father became painter to Duke Ferdinando Gonzaga (1614). 
Taught most probably by her mother, she was a talented artist. Sometime before 1619 she became an Ursuline nun, taking the religious name Lucrina, but she was still patronized by the Gonzaga family, for whom she produced portraits. Lucrina also executed two paintings for the chapel of Santa Margaretta, which was attached to the convent of Sant’Orsola, one of which was a depiction of St Barbara. Fetti was also known for a series of religious works, which depict scenes from the New Testament (1629).

Fettiplace, Elinor – (c1570 – c1647)
English author on domestic management and cookery
Eleanor Poole was the daughter of Sir Henry Poole, of Sapperton, near Cirencester, Gloucestershire. With the death of her first husband, Rogers, Elinor remarried to Sir John Fettiplace, of Appleton and Eaton, near Abingdon, in north Berkshire. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I at Woodstock Palace (1575). Lady Elinor was the author of the famous book to aid the Tudor housewife and household manager entitled, The Complete Receipt Book of Ladie Elinor Fettiplace (1604), which was published in Oxfordshire. Apart from recipes this work also contailed detailed advice concerning many domestic issues.

Feucheres, Baronne de      see     Dawes, Sophia

Feudel, Elfriede – (1881 – 1966)
German educator and author
Born Elfriede Thurau (Oct 30, 1881), she studied at the Sophienstadt Conservatory in Berlin. She was married to the painter, Alfred Feudel. Madame Feudel was appointed to head the department of theory and rhythmn at the Folkwangshule in Essen (1935 – 1943), and was a professor at the Leipzig School of Music. She published the manual Dynamische Padagogik (1963). Elfriede Feudel died (March 30, 1966) at Freiburg am Breisgau, aged eighty-four.

Feuer, Kathryn Beliveau – (1926 – 1992)
American academic, essayist and Russian literature scholar
Kathryn Beliveau was born (July 4, 1926) in Brooklyn, New York, and attended Vassar College, after which was published her only novel Strike for the Heart (1946), and then went on to study at Columbia University. She was married (1946) to the noted philosopher and sociologist, Lewis Feuer, to whom she bore a daughter. Feuer visisted Russia twice, (1955) and (1963), being one of the first American exchange visitors permitted during the Cold War era. After her second visit she managed to smuggle a copy of Boris Pasternak’s famous novel Doctor Zhivago into the US. Whilst there she visited Leo Tolstoy’s estate, and was able to study his original manuscripts. She was the editor of Solzhenitsyn: A Collection of Critical Essays (1976). During the decade of the 1950’s Feuer became a Slavic language teacher at the University of Vermont, and was later appointed to head the department of Slavic studies at the University of Toronto in Canada (1966 – 1992). Kathryn Feuer died (March 1, 1992) in Charlottesville, Virginia, aged sixty-five.

Feuerbach, Henriette von – (1812 – 1892)
German author and journal writer
Born Henriette von Heydenreich (Aug 13, 1812) at Ermetzhifen, near Uffenheim in Franconia, she was married to the philologist and archaeologist, Joseph Anselm von Feuerbach (1798 – 1851). Henriette was stepmother to the painter, Anselm Feuerbach (1829 – 1880), and acted as the custodian of her late husband’s literary legacy. She corresponded with George Herwegh, and later went to reside in Ansbach (1880). Her letters were edited and published posthumously in Berlin as Henriette Feuerbach: Ihr Leben in Ihren Briefen (1912). Madame Feuerbach died there (Aug 5, 1892) aged seventy-nine.

Feuge, Elisabeth – (1902 – 1942)
German vocalist
Feuge was born (Aug 15, 1902) at Dessau, Anhalt, the daughter of the noted tenor, Oskar Feuge (1861 – 1913), and his wife, the famous coloratura soprano, Emilie Feuge-Gleiss. Elisabeth studied under her mother and eventually joined the Munich State Opera in Bavaria (1923). She toured Saxony, Holland, and Austria, and performed at the Salzburg Festival (1934), and was particularly noted for her performances of the works of Richard Strauss and Richard Wagner. Elisabeth Feuge committed suicide (July 4, 1942) in Munich, Bavaria, aged thirty-nine.

Feuillere, Edwige – (1907 – 1998)
French stage and film actress
Born Caroline Vivette Edwige Cunati at Vesoul (Oct 29, 1907), she studied drama in Dijon, Burgundy, and then travelled to Paris for further education at the Paris Conservatory of the Dramatic Arts. There she was married to Pierre Feuillere, the union proving less than satisfactory, though she retained her married name for the stage. She adopted the the name ‘Cora Lynn’ and appeared in several stage comedies. Cora later joined the Comedie Francaise (1931), where she appeared as Suzanne in, Le mariage de Figaro. However, she felt restricted by the stage and decided to go into films (1933), first gaining attention in a semi-nude role in Abel Gance’s production of, Lucrece Borgia (1935). She continued her stage career and achieved celebrity in productions such as, Le parisienne and Alexandre Dumas’s La dame aux Camelias (1939) as well as for performances in Giraudoux’s, Sodome et Gomorrhe (1943) and Cocteau’s, L’aigle a’deux tetes (1946).
Edwige toured wideley in Europe, and performed with her own acting troupe in London, and was considered one of the leading actresses and stage performers of the mid twentieth century. Her film credits included Topaz (1933), the film version of L’aigle a’deux tetes (1948), and Patrice Chereau’s La Chair de l’Orchide (1974). She created the lead role in Jean Giraudoux’s, Madwoman of Chaillot (1965), a role she reprised on several occasions. Feuillere finally retired (1992) at the advanced age of eighty-five. Edwige Feuillere died (Nov 13, 1998) in Paris, aged ninety-one, and was interred at Beaugency, near Orleans.

Feversham, Anne Dorothy Wood, Countess of – (1910 – 1995)
British peeress, civic leader, and master of foxhounds
Lady Anne Wood was born (July 31, 1910), the only surviving daughter of Sir Edward Frederick Lindley Wood (1881 – 1959), first Earl of Halifax, and his wife Lady Dorothy Evelyn Augusta Onslow, the younger daughter of William Hillier Onslow (1853 – 1911), the fourth Earl Onslow. Her twin sister Mary Agnes died in early infancy. Lady Anne was married (1936) to Charles William Slingsby Duncombe (1906 – 1963), third Earl of Feversham (1916 – 1963). The couple resided at the Duncombe family estate at Nawton, Yorkshire, and produced an only child, Lady Clarissa Duncombe (born 1938), for whom HRH Princess Marina, the Duchess of Kent, stood sponsor at her christening. Lady Clarissa has remained unmarried.
Lady Feversham was a prominent figure in civic affairs, and became the first woman to be appointed to the Committee of the Masters of Foxhounds Association. She served as a Justice of the Peace in Yorkshire (1958) and was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1979) in recognition of her services to the community. Lady Feversham survived her husband for over three decades as Dowager Countess (1963 – 1995), and never remarried. Lady Feversham died at her home at Fadmoor, near Kirkbymoorside in Yorkshire, aged eighty-four.

Fewings, Eliza Ann – (1857 – 1940)
Anglo-Australian educator
Fewings as born in Bristol, England (Dec 28, 1857), and was trained as a shoolteacher by her brother, himself a headmaster. Eliza became a headmistress in England before coming to Brisbane, Queensland, where she was apoointed as headmistress of the Brisbane Grammar School (1896). Several years later she was immersed in the scandal caused when Fewings was dismissed on the grounds of incompetence (1899). Despite strong public support for her cause, she was not reinstated, and she decided to found her own educational estsablishment, the Brisbane State High School for Girls, later known as Somerville House. She later sold this establishment (1908) and took up her appointment as warden of Alexandra Hall, at Aberystwyth, in Wales. Eliza Ann Fewings died in Bristol (Oct 11, 1940), aged eighty-two.

Fey, Klara – (1815 – 1894)
German Catholic founder
Fey was born (April 11, 1815) at Aachen, the daughter of a textile manufacturer. Having been closely involved in philanthropic work for the benefit of poor girls, Fey founded the Congregation of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus (1848). Klara served as mother superior of the order till her death, though the order was later forced to remove to Simpelveld in Holland. She wrote religious works which were published posthumously. Klara Fey died (May 8, 1894) at Simpelveld, aged seventy-nine.

Fezensac, Alaline de (Adalmura) (c1080 – c1150)
Gascon heiress
Alaline was the only child and heiress of Astanove, Comte de Fezensac. She was married firstly to Bernard III Centule (c1080 – c1113), count of Bigorre, to whom she bore an only childe and successor, Comtess Beatrix II (c1100 – 1114). With her father’s death she succeeded as countess of Fezensac (c1103), and with Bernard’s death she remarried secondly (1119) to Geraud III (died 1160), Comte d’Armagnac, but died several decades afterwards. With the death of her daughter Beatrix, Fezensac was seized by her husband and remained part of the Armagnac lands.

Ffrangcon-Davies, Dame Gwen – (1891 – 1992)
British stage actress
Ffranbcon-Davies was born (Jan 25, 1891) and made her stage debut in Shakespeare’s, Midsummer Nights’ Dream (1911). When she appeared as Juliet opposite John Gielgud as Romeo in Shakespeare’s famous tragedy (1924), she was critically acclaimed as the best in that role of her entire era. Dame Gwen specialized in Shakespearean roles, and these included the classic parts of Lady Macbeth and Queen Cleopatra. Other famous stage roles included Eve in the premiere of George Bernard Shaw’s work, Back to Methuselah and Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde’s, Importance of Being Earnest. Her last public performance was in Anton Chekhov’s play Uncle Vanya in London (1970), when she was almost eighty. Dame Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies died (Jan 27, 1992) in Essex, two days after her one hundred and first birthday.

ffrench, Rose Dillon, Lady – (c1742 – 1805)
Irish peeress (1798 – 1805)
Rose Dillon was the eldest daughter of Patrick Dillon, of Killeen, Roscommon, and his wife Mary, the daughter of Anthony Brabazon, of Beagh, Roscommon. She was married (1761) to Sir Charles ffrench, first baronet, of Castle ffrench, to whom she bore seven children. Widowed in 1784, the Dowager Lady ffrench was later advanced to the peerage of Ireland (1798) by the title of Baroness ffrench of Castle ffrench, co Galway, with remainder to her issue by her late husband. The peerage was conferred in consideration of the service rendered to the government during the Vice-Royalty of Lord Westmorland (1790 – 1794), by her only son, Sir Thomas Hamilton ffrench, a leading and influential member of the Catholic Committee during that period. George III’s personal objection to the elevation of any Catholic to the peerage was the reason for the elevation of the mother (nominally a Protestant), instead of her son (a strict Catholic). As the first Baroness ffrench Lady Rose died in Dublin (Dec 8, 1805) aged in her early sixties. Three of her children were,

Fiano, Maria Francesca Ottoboni, Duchess di – (1715 – 1778)
Italian heiress
Maria Francesca Ottoboni was the daughter of Marco Ottoboni, Duca di Fiano, and his wife Julia Boncompagni-Ludovisi, the daughter of Gregorio, Duca di Sora and d’Arche. Maria Francesca inherited the duchy of Fiano, and married her cousin (1730), Prince Pier Gregorio Boncompagni-Ludovisi (1709 – 1747).  Their children took the surname Boncompagni-Ottoboni, and the duchy was inherited by her eldest son Alessandro (1734 – 1780). He and his brotherAntonio both died childless, and the duchy of Fiano was eventually invested (1803) in Maria Francesca’s fourth son Marco, and his descendants.

Fibich, Judith Berg – (1911 – 1992)
Jewish-American choreographer
Judith Berg was born in Lodz, Poland, and was trained in modern dance there, before studying under Mary Wigman in Berlin. She established her own dance school in Warsaw, where she concentrated on works with Jewish themes, and was married to Felix Fibich, a former student. The couple survived the upheavals of WW II, and after the war they came to the USA (1950), where they resided permanently. The couple travelled the world, working together in South America, Israel, Canada, and in the USSR. They choreographed dance routines for the television programs Look Up and Live and Lamp Unto My Feet, and Fibich organized the choreography for the Jaffa Dance Ensemble of New York (1988). Judith Fibig died (Aug 19, 1992) in New York, aged eighty.

Fibiger, Mathilde – (1830 – 1872)
Danish novelist and feminist
Fibiger was born in Copenhagen and was employed as a governess. Her first work 12 Breve til Clara Raphael (12 Letters to Clara Raphael) (1851), created a controversy in Danish literary circles, but was later accepted as a highly influential text for the women’s movement in her country. Fibiger’s second novel En Skizze efter det virkelige Liv (Sketch from Real Life) (1852), was penned in an attempt to quell the fuss made by her first, but her third novel Minona (1854), which defended female eroticism, created a second wave of moral outrage and indignity. She was also Denmark’s first female telegraphist (1863), employment she had taken on in an attempt to supplement her meagre finances.

Fichtmuller, Hedwig – (1894 – 1975)
German vocalist
Fichtmuller was born (Oct 1, 1894) at Wittingen in Bohemia. She received her singing training at the Vienna Academy of Music. Hedwig was engaged by the court opera in Munich, Bavaria (1917), and was best known for her performances as Marcellina in Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro and Ulrica in Giuseppe Verdi’s Un ballo in maschera. After WW II Fichtmuller became a producer with the Bavarian State Opera (1946 – 1952). Hedwig Fichtmuller died (Dec 3, 1975) at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, aged eighty-one.

Fidler, Kathleen – (1899 – 1980)
British children’s author
Fidler was born in Coalville, Leicestershire, and her first novel, The Borrowed Garden (1944), was not published until she was forty-five. Kathleen Fidler is best remembered for the popular series of children’s novels which dealt with the Brydon family, which appeared in seventeen volumes, beginning with, The Brydons at Smuggler’s Creek (1946), and ended with, The Brydon’s Go Canoeing (1963). Likewise she wrote nine novels which featured the Dean family, such as, The Deans’ Dutch Adventure (1982), which was published posthumously. Fidler also published three volumes of Scottish tales entitled Stories From Scottish Heritage (1951). The Kathleen Fidler Award for children was instituted in her honour (1982) to encourage children to write.

Fiedler, Marianne – (1864 – 1904)
German lithographer and painter
Fiedler was born (April 23, 1864) at Dresden in Saxony. She was the wife (1900) of Johannes Muller. Marianne Fiedler died (Dec 14, 1904) at Mainberg, near Schonungen, in Lower Franconia, aged forty.

Field, Ann – (c1755 – 1789)
British actress, vocalist, and musician
Field was probably the stepdaughter of John Booth, a tailor, and was sister to the actress Elizabeth Field (later Wallack). She first appeared on the stage at Drury Lane in London (1777).
Field’s most popular roles included Rosetta in, Love in a Village, Ann Page in, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Lucinda in, The Conscious Lovers, and the title role in Rosina. She was married to William Forster, and continued to perform at Drury Lane for the remainder of her short career. A surviving engraving portrays field in the role of Ariel from, The Tempest. Ann Field died (July 14, 1789).

Field, Betty – (1918 – 1973)
American character actress
Field was born in Boston, Massachusetts and studied acting at the American Academy of Dramatic Art. Her first husband (1942) was the noted dramatist, Elmer Rice (1892 – 1967) from whom she was later divorced (1956). She was married twice more. Betty Field was best remembered for her portrayals of neurotic or slovenly characters. Her film credits included Of Mice and Men (1939), Kings Row (1941), which featured Ronald Reagan The Southerner (1945), The Great Gatsby (1949), Peyton Place (1957), Butterfield 8 (1960), with Elizabeth Taylor, and Coogan’s Bluff (1968).

Field, Caroline Leslie Whitney – (1853 – 1902)
American novelist and poet
Field was born (Nov 16, 1853) in Milton, Massachusetts. She published the novel, High Lights (1886) and the collection of poems entitled The Unseen King, and Other Verses (1887). Caroline Field died (Dec 1, 1902) aged forty-nine.

Field, Isobel – (1858 – 1953)
American autobiographer
Born Isobel Osbourne, she was the stepdaughter of famous author Robert Louis Stevenson. Her mother had left her husband, Isobel’s father, and taken her children to Europe where she obtained a divorced and remarried to Stevenson. Osbourne was married firstly to the artist and painter, Joe Strong, much against the wishes of her mother. She and Strong then returned to the USA, where Isobel renewed her relationship with her father. They later resided in Honolulu, and were on friendly terms with the royal family there. Her second husband was Salisbury Field. She left memoirs entitled This Life I’ve Loved (1937). Isobel Field died (June 26, 1953) in California, aged ninety-four.

Field, Jessie    see   Shambaugh, Jessie Field

Field, Joanne    see   Milner, Marion

Field, Kate – (1838 – 1896)
American actress, author, journalist, lecturer and diarist
Born Mary Katherine Keemle (Oct 1, 1838) in St Louis, Missouri, her published works included the play Mad on Purpose, a Comedy (1868), Pen Photographs of Charles Dickens’s Readings (1868), and several biographies including a life of the famous Italian soprano Adelaide Ristori (1867). Her private journal and her letters formed the basis for the posthumous memoir by Lillian Whiting entitled Kate Field: A Record (1900). Kate Field died (May 19, 1836) aged fifty-seven.

Field, Margaret Ann – (1842 – 1937)
Scottish-Australian lacemaker and author
Born Margaret Lang, in Kilmarnock, she immigrated to Victoria in Australia with her family aboard the Star of the East (1855). The family settled in Ballarat and Maragret worked as a teacher in the school established by her mother until she was married (1864) to Edwin Field. The couple later went to reside in northern Queensland. Field was the author of Australian Lace Crochet which was published in London and The Stars for Fourpence (1910). Margaret Field died (Jan, 1937) in Melbourne, aged ninety-four.

Field, Mary (Agnes Mary) (1) – (1896 – 1968)
British children’s film producer
Field was born (Feb 24, 1896) at Wimbledon, London, the daughter of a solicitor, Ernest Field, and was educated at Bedford College, in Surbiton, and at the Institute for Historical Research at London University. After a brief stint as a schoolteacher, Field joined the staff of the British Instructional Films company, where she became a director of educational and documentary films. Field also worked for the British Independent Producers (1933 – 1934) and with G.B. Instructional Ltd. She later established (1944) the Children’s Entertainment Films Division for the J. Arthur Rank Organization. Field collaborated with Percy Smith to produce the popular and highly regarded, Secrets of Nature series and, The Secrets of Life. She was made a fellow of the Royal Photographic Society (1955) and a fellow of the British Film Academy (1957) before being appointed as chairman of the International Centre of Films for Children in Brussels, Belgium. The last part of her career was spent as a children’s program consultant with for ATV and ABC Television (1955 – 1963). Her work was recognized when she was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1951). Mary Field died (Dec 23, 1968) at Worthing, Sussex, aged seventy-two.

Field, Mary (2) – (1905 – 1963)
American character actress and comedienne
Field possessed considerable stage experience before she turned her career to movies. She usually appeared in spinterish roles. Her film credits included Ball of Fire (1941), The Affairs of Susan (1945), and Sitting Pretty (1948), amongst others.

Field, Michael    see    Bradley, Katherine Harris   and   Cooper, Edith Emma

Field, Peter    see   Hobson, Laura Zametkin

Field, Rachel Lyman – (1894 – 1942)
American writer and dramatist
Field was born (Sept 19, 1894) in New York City, and was raised in Stockbridge, Massachusetts after the death of her father. She was married to Arthur Pederson. Field was best known for her novel All This and Heaven Too (1938), which was made into a classic film (1940) starring Bette Davis, Charles Boyer, and Barbara O’Neil. Field wrote books for children and was the first woman to receive the Newbery Award (1930) for excellence in children’s literature for the novel Hitty, Her First Hundred Years (1929). Other children’s works included Little Dog Toby (1928), and Polly Patchwork (1928), and several collections of verse including, Points East (1930), Branches Green (1934) and, Fear Is the Thorn (1936). Rachel Field died (March 15, 1942), aged forty-seven.

Field, Sara Bard – (1882 – 1974)
American suffragist and poet
Sara Field was born (June 1, 1882) in Cinncinati, the daughter of a purchasing agent, and was raised in a strict Baptist atmosphere. She graduated from Detroit Central High School (1900), but her father refused her permission to attend university as he feared it would weaken her religious faith. She was instead married to a Baptist minister, Albert Ehrgott, whom she accompanied to India and Burma.
Returning to the USA (1902), she established a soup kitchen and kindergarten in Cleveland, Ohio, and she became involved in local reform activities. She accompanied her husband to Portland in Oregon when he was posted there (1910), and then became involved with female suffrage, joining the Oregon College Equal Suffrage League. She was appointed as state organizer for the campaign that won suffrage in Oregon (1912). Her increasing differences with her husband finally led to the couple being granted a divorce (1914), and she resumed her maiden name.
Field moved to San Francisco in California, where she became involved with the militant suffrage group, the National American Women Suffrage Association. With Mabel Vernon, she travelled across the continent to present a petition to President Woodrow Wilson (Dec, 1915). However, her involvement in a car crash which killed her son and injured her (1918), led to a nervous breakdown and continued ill-health caused her to discontinue her involvement with the suffrage movement.
After meeting the radical anarchist, Charles Erskine Scott Wood, whom she later married (1938), Field produced her first collection of verse, The Pale Woman (1927). Together, the couple sponsored the School of the Arts of the Theater in San Francisco (1923 – 1924) and writers and artists such as Genevieve Taggard, Benjamin Bufano, and George Sterling were frequently entertained in their San Francisco home. Field’s long narrative poem, Barabbas (1932), received the Book Club of California gold medal, and produced a second volume of verse entitled Darkling Plain (1936). Widowed in 1944, she edited her husband’s, Collected Poems (1949), and later moved to Berkeley. Sara Field died (June 15, 1974) at Berkeley, of heart disease, aged ninety-one.

Field, Sylvia – (1900 – 1998)
American atage, film, and television actress
Field was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and made her stage debut on Broadway in New York in the play, The Betrothal (1918), by Maurice Maeterlinck. Other stage roles included appearances in plays such as, The Butter and Egg Man and, Volpone. Field’s movie credits included, Her Primitive Man and, All Mine to Give. She was married to the comic and character actor, Ernest Truex (1890 – 1973), with whom she often worked, but was best remembered for her role as the next door neighbour, Mrs Wilson, in the popular CBS television series, Dennis the Menace (1959 – 1962). Other television sit-com roles included appearances in Petticoat Junction, Father Knows Best, and The Mickey Mouse Club. Sylvia Field died (July 31, 1998) in Fallbrook, California, aged ninety-seven.

Field, Virginia – (1917 – 1992)
British stage and film actress
Born Margaret Cynthia Field in London, she was the daughter of a judge, but had American connections, being a maternal cousin of the famous general, Robert E. Lee. She was educated in London, and then abroad in Vienna, Austria. She chose her stagename of Virginia in honour of the state. Her first stage appearance was in All’s Well That Ends Well, produced by Max Reinhardt, and made several films in England such as, The Lady Is Willing (1934) opposite Sir Cedric Hardwicke, and The Primrose Path (1935). She appeared in the romantic tragedy, Waterloo Bridge (1940) with Vivien Leigh, before going to Hollywood in California after WW II.
There she played mainly secondary lead roles and appeared in many film such as A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur’s Court (1949), with Bing Crosby, Dial 1119 (1950), The Big Story (1958), and The Earth Dies Screaming (1965), though she was well known for her appearances in the Mr Moto series of detective films. She also continued to work on the stage, and appeared on Broadway in the wartime comedy, The Doughgirls (1942). Virginia Field died (Jan 2, 1992), aged seventy-four.

Field, Xenia – (1894 – 1998)
British journalist, horticulturalist and penal reformer
Field was born (Dec 25, 1894). Xenia Field was involved with voluntary public service from 1926, and was later elected as vice-president of the British Red Cross.  After WW II she became involved in local politics, and was elected to the LCC (London County Council) as a Labour councillor, but later lost her seat (1949). After sufferring two more election defeats, Field retired from politics, and wrote a gardening column for the Daily Mirror newspaper for over four decades. She was the author of Window-Box Gardening (1965), and was appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) in recognition of her public work. Xenia Field died (Jan 24, 1998) aged one hundred and three.

Field-Hyde, Margaret – (1905 – 1996)
British soprano and violinist
Field-Hyde was born in Cambridge, the daughter of an accomplished music teacher. She studied the piano and violin before training as a singer. For many years she performed on the violin with the orchestra of the Cambridge University Musical Association. She made her debut (1928) in a Cums production of Henry Purcells’ work, King Arthur, and was always remembered as an accomplished interpreter of the works of Purcell. She played Ariel in Shakespeare’s, The Tempest at Stratford-on-Avon (1935). She created for her self the role of Angelica in Ralph Vaughan Williams’s work, The Poisoned Kiss (1936), and appeared at Glyndebourne.
Field-Hyde sang in the first radio broadcast of the Vespro della Beata Vergine of Monteverdi (1947) and appeared as the Empress Poppaea, wife of Emperor Nero, in the concert performance of, L’Incoronazione di Poppaea (1948). She formed the singing group the, Golden Age Singers for the Festival of Britain (1952), with whom she made several recordings. Margaret Field-Hyde died aged ninety.

Fielding, Daphne Winifred – (1904 – 1997)
British author
Fielding was born (July 11, 1904), the daughter of Lord Fielding, and married firstly (1927 – 1953) Henry thynne, Lord Weymouth (later sixth marquess of Bath) from whom she was divorced, and secondly (1953 – 1978) to the author Xan Fielding, whom she survived twenty years. Daphne, a prominent society figure in London for several decades, was the biographer of prominent British social characters such as the hostess Lady Emerald Cunard, and her daughter Nancy entitled Emerald and Nancy (1968), Iris Tree (1974) and Gladys Deacon, Duchess of Marlborough entitled, The Face on the Sphinx (1978). Evelyn Waugh dedicated his work The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold (1957) to her, and she herself wrote the memoirs Mercury Presides (1950), and, Before the Sunset Fades (1951), a historical account of Longleat House, as well as the novel The Adonis Garden (1961). Her best known work was The Duchess of Jermyn Street (1964), a biography of Rosa Lewis. Daphne Fielding died (Dec 5, 1997) aged ninety-three.

Fielding, Marjorie – (1892 – 1956)
British stage and film actress
Fielding was born in Gloucester, the daughter of John Fielding, and was educated at Cheltenham Ladies’ College. She appeared in stage productions of His House in Order (1913), The Chiltern Hundreds, by Douglas Home, and, The Silver Cord (1932), as Mrs Phelps. Fielding work with munitions during WW I, and later joined the company of the Bristol Little Theatre (1924) and then the Repertory Company at the Playhouse in Liverpool (1926 – 1934). She toured Canada with Raymond Massey and Dame Gladys Cooper, but was best admired in the role of Mildred Royd in the productions of Quiet Wedding (1940) and, Quiet Week-End. Her film credits included The Demi-Paradise (1943), Quiet Weekend (1946), The Lavender Hill Mob (1951), and Rob Roy (1953). Marjorie Fielding died (Dec 28, 1956) in London, aged sixty-four.

Fielding, Sarah – (1710 – 1768)
British novelist and translator
Sarah Fielding was born (Nov 8, 1710) at East Stour, Dorset, the younger sister to the novelist Henry Fielding (1707 – 1754) and was raised in a boarding school in Salisbury after the death of their mother, and their father’s remarriage (1719). Sarah contributed to her brother’s work, Joseph Andrews (1742), but financial considerations caused her to write novels, the most famous of which was, The Adventures of David Simple (1744). Her brother is said to have assisted her with writing the sequel, Familiar Letters Between the Principal Characters in David Simple, and Some Others (1747), which she followed with the third volume in this series, David Simple, Volume the Last (1753).
Fielding also wrote The Governess, or the Little Female Academy (1749), which was one of the earliest books for young girls. A close friend to the author Jane Collier, the two women collaborated to publish The Cry: A New Dramatic Fable (1754). Fielding also wrote several fictional biographies such as, The Lives of Cleopatra and Octavia (1757), Countess of Dellwyn (1758), and The History of Ophelia (1760) and produced a translation of Xenophon’s’ Memoirs of Socrates (1762), the only one of her many works which was published under her own name. Sarah Fielding was buried (April 14, 1768) at Charlcombe Church, near Bath, aged fifty-seven.

Fields, Annie Adams – (1834 – 1915) 
American author, salon hostess, and biographer
Annie Adams was born (June 6, 1834) in Boston, Massachusetts, and she became the second wife of the poet James Thomas Fields (1817 – 1881), the publisher and editor of The Atlantic Monthly (1861 – 1871). A well-known literary hostess in Boston society, she was a friend and companion to Sarah Orne Jewett. Her own works included, Under the Olive (1881), Whittier (1893), A Shelf of Old Books (1894), Authors and Friends (1896), The Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe (1897), and, The Letters of Sarah Orne Jewett (1911). She also produced a biography of her husband entitled, James T. Fields: Biographical Notes and Sketches (1893). Fields kept a social diary which, together with her personal letters from the period 1863 – 1913 entitled, Memories of a Hostess: A Chronicle of Eminent Friendships. Drawn chiefly from the Diaries of Mrs James T. Fields, which were edited and published in Boston by M.A. DeWolfe (1922). Annie Adams Fields died (Jan 5, 1915) aged eighty.

Fields, Dorothy – (1904 – 1974)
American dramatist and lyricist
Fields was born (July 15, 1904) in Allenhurst, New Jersey, the daughter of the vaudeville comedian and theatre manager, Lew Fields (1867 – 1941). She became the wife of fellow songwriter Herbert Fields (1897 – 1958), and the two collaborated together. Fields was best known for her collaboration with the lyricist Jimmy McHugh (1895 – 1969), with whom she wrote the popular song ‘I Can’t Give You Anything But Love, Baby,’ for the Cotton Club revue Blackbirds of 1928. Their International Revue (1930) included another famous classic, ‘On the Sunny Side of the Street.’ Fields produced other songs for famous films such as, Annie Get Your Gun (1946), A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1951), and perhaps her best-known of all, ‘Big Spender,’ from, Sweet Charity (1966) with Shirley MacLaine, and made famous in Britain by Dame Shirley Bassey. She received an Academy Award (1936) and an Antoinette Perry Award (1959). Dorothy Fields died (March 28, 1974) aged sixty-nine.

Fields, Dame Gracie – (1898 – 1979)
British vocalist, actress, and comedienne
Born Grace May Stansfield at Rochdale in Lancashire (Jan 9, 1898), she was the daughter of an engineer. She was employed in her youth in a cotton mill and as a drapery assistant, but having appeared in amateur shows since childhood, she joined a travelling acting troupe, where she met her first husband, Archie Pitt, who wrote the successful revue, It’s a Bargain, especially for her.
After achieving her first important stage success in, Mr Tower of London (1918 – 1925), at the Alhambra Theatre in London, she became one of the most popular music hall and comic stars, adored by the British public because of her charm and personality, as well as her excellent singing voice. She appeared in the popular film, Sally (1931), and as ‘Our Gracie’ she beceame something of a national heroine. Created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1938) by King George VI, she worked to entertained the British troops during WW II.
After the war and her unpopular divorce from Pitt, she remarried to an Italian-American film director, Monty Banks, and worked for the war effort in the USA. With the death of Banks (1950), Gracie retired to the Isle of Capri, and eventually reamrried a third time. She later returned to Britain, where she was warmly received at her appearances at Royal Command Performances, and at concerts, being publicly acclaimed as ‘Our Gracie.’ She was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1979) in recognition of her services to entertainment, and published her autobiography, Sing as We Go (1960). Dame Gracie Fields died (Sept 27, 1979) at Capri, aged eighty-one.

Fields, Marje – (1920 – 1998)
American talent agent
Marje Fields began her impressive career with various talent agencies in New York, prior to joining the staff at the Charles B. Tranum Agency. Marje Fields spearheaded the new concept of using famous actors in television commercials, which has proved both popular and profitable. Fields later operated (1971 – 1994) her own agency, Marje Fields Inc., during which times she represented such famous people as John Travolta, Nancy Walker, and Ted Danson, amongst others. It closed with her retirement (1994). Marje Fields died (Jan 27, 1998) in Manhattan, New York, aged seventy-seven.

Fields, Verna – (1918 – 1982)
American film editor
Verna Fields worked on such movies as The Savage Eye (1960), Medium Cool (1969), What’s Up Doc? (1972) with Barbra Streisand and, American Graffitti (1973). She also edited the classic horror flick Jaws (1975) which won an Academy Award.

Fiennes, Dame Alice    see    Fitzhugh, Alice

Fiennes, Anne    see   Dacre, Anne Sackville, Lady

Fiennes, Bridget – (c1604 – before 1646)
English Stuart dedicatrix
Bridget Fiennes was the daughter of William Fiennes, first Viscount Saye and Sele, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of John Temple, of Stow, Bucks. Bridget was married (c1621) to Theophilus Clinton (1600 – 1667), fourth Earl of Lincoln, as his first wife, and bore him several children. The child management manual entitled, The Countess of Lincolne’s Nurserie (1622), written by her mother-in-law, the Dowager Countess of Lincoln (nee Elizabeth Knyvett), was dedicated to Lady Bridget. Her children included,

Fiennes, Celia – (1662 – 1741)
British traveller and author
Celia Fiennes was born (June 7, 1662) at Newton Toney, Wiltshire, into a Puritan family at Newton Toney, near Salisbury, the granddaughter of William Fiennes, first Viscount Saye and Sele, a leading Parliamentarian figure from the Civil War. Celia never married and with the death of her mother (1691) she moved to London, to be nearer her family. Celia travelled extensively throughout England and Scotland (1685 – 1703), ostensibly for the benefit of her health, using various conveyances, such as coaches and horseback, and stayed at inns or with reltives along the way, leaving vivid descriptions of her interesting journeys. Her travel diaries were first published one hundred and fifty years after her death under the title Through England on a Side Saddle in the time of William and Mary (1888). Celia Fiennes died (April 10, 1741) at Hackney, London, aged seventy-eight.

Fiennes, Joanna de – (c1274 – 1309)
English Plantagenet courtier
Joanna (Joan) de Fiennes was the daughter of Sir William de Fiennes (died 1302) and his wife Blanche de Brienne, Dame de Loupelande, the daughter of Jean de Brienne (died 1296) and his second wife Jeanne de Chateaudun. Her sister Margaret de Fiennes was the wife of Edmund de Mortimer, Lord Mortimer of Wigmore. She was kinswoman to Eleanor of Castile, the first wife of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and served as demoiselle in her household. Details of her life at court can be found in the Liber Garderobe, the surviving wardrobe account of Queen Eleanor.
Joanna was married (c1288) to John Wake (1268 – 1299), first Baron Wake of Liddell, a descendant of Llewellyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales and of Joan Plantagenet, the illegitimate daughter of King John (1199 – 1216). Lady Joanna received new robes for several important court festivities (1289 – 1290) and also for two weddings of the king’s daughters in 1290 which she attended. Identical letters were sent to Joanna and Lady Mortimer by Edward, Prince of Wales (II) (1305). She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Wake of Liddell (1299 – 1309).
Lady Joanna died (before Oct 26, 1309). She left two surviving children,

Fiennes, Margaret – (c1540 – 1611)
English peeress (1604 – 1611)
Margaret Fiennes was the eleventh holder of the ancient feudal barony of Dacre of Gilisland. She was the daughter of Thomas Fiennes (died 1541), ninth Baron Dacre of Gilisland and his wife Mary Nevill, the daughter of George Neville (1468 – 1535), fifth Baron Abergavenny. Margaret Fiennes was married to Samson Lennard (died 1615), of Chevenning, the High Sheriff of Kent (1591) under Queen Elizabeth I, to whom she bore a large family. With the death of her childless brother, Gregory, tenth Baron Dacre (1594), Mrs Lennard claimed the barony from Queen Elizabeth, who referred the claim to the lords Burghleigh and Howard, who admitted the claim, but the matter being not quite concluded before the queen’s death (1603), it was again laid before the commissioners early in the reign of James I, and was finally allowed (Dec 8, 1604). Lady Dacre died (March 16, 1611) aged about seventy. Her surviving children were,

Fierz, Mathilde – (1873 – after 1902)
Swiss painter
Fierz was born (Feb 18, 1873) in Zurich, and was best known for her still-life Fruits, which was exhibited at the Swiss Regional Exhibition (1896). From 1902 she resided in Santiago, Chile, in South America.

Fieschi, Beatrice – (c1230 – 1283)
Italian countess consort of Savoy, in Piedmont
Beatrice Fieschi was the daughter of Tedisio Fieschi, Count of Lavagna. She had strong papal connections, being niece to Pope Innocent IV (Sinibaldo Fieschi) (1243 – 1254), and sister to Ottobone Fieschi, who became Pope Adrian V (1276). Beatrice made an important dynastic marriage with Tommaso II (1199 – 1252) count of Savoy, whom she survived three decades as Dowager Countess (1252 – 1283), and became the mother of Count Amadeo V (1252 – 1323). This marriage aligned the Fieschi family with the major ruling houses of Europe, but with the death of Adrian V, their political prominence declined. The noted mystic Caterina Fieschi (1447 – 1510), who was later canonized (1737), was the descendant of Beatrice’s brother, Niccolo Fieschi.

Fieschi, Caterina – (1447 – 1510)
Italian saint
Known as St Catherine of Genoa, she was the daughter of Giacomo Fieschi, Conte di Lavagna, Viceroy of Naples under King Rene d’Anjou, and his wife Francesca di Negrone. Pious from childhood, she was intially refused admission to a convent because of her delicate health (1460), and was married (c1463) to Giuliano Adorno, a young patrician. The marriage was initially unhappy, but Caterina eventually converted Giulianao by her own example, and he became a penitent of the Third Order of St Francis before his death (1497) after a painful illness.
During widowhood Caterina devoted herself to the care of the sick and the poor at the hospital of Genoa, where she lived as a mother superior. Her charity was extended to all lepers, and other indigent and sufferring persons, and employed agents to discover them. Caterina herself was not deterred from having to render the ill and sufferring the most revolting personal services.
Her health gave way completely in 1507, and the final years of her life were spent in great agony. Among the physicians who attended her was Giovanni Battista Boerio, who became the principal physician to Henry VII of England. Beatified (1737) by Pope Benedict XIV, the Genuensis Illustrata contains an account of her doctrine and a panegyric of her life. Venerated as a saint (March 20 and 22), she is usually represented in religious art holding a burning heart and a crucifix. Caterina Fieschi wrote several treatises notably, On Purgatory and, A Dialogue. The subject of the latter is divine love and the happiness it brings to the faithful.

Fieschi, Isabella – (d. after 1349)
Italian patrician and murder suspect
Isabella Fieschi was a descendant of Niccolo Fieschi, the brother of Pope Adrian V (1276). She became the third wife of Luchino Visconti (1287 – 1349), lord of Milan. A woman of unsavoury reputation, she was said to have poisoned him. The result of these accusations was that Isabella’s son, Luchino Novello Visconti was excluded from the government of the city, his legitimacy being popularly viewed as extremely dubious.

Fiesel, Eva – (1891 – 1937)
German-American scholar and ancient linguistic specialist
Born Eva Lehmann (Dec 23, 1891) at Rostock in Mecklenburg, she immigrated to the USA and worked at Yale University (1934 – 1936). Fiesel wrote the dissertation, Das grammatische Geschlecht im Etruskischen (The Grammatic Gender of Etruscan) (1920). Eva Fiesel died (May 27, 1937) in New York, aged forty-five.

Fiesque, Gilonne Marie Julie d’Harcourt-Beuvron, Comtesse de – (1619 – 1699)
French courtier and salonniere
Gilonne d’Harcourt-Beuvron was the daughter of Jacques II d’Harcourt, marquis de Beuvron, and his wife Eleonore Chabot-Jarnac. She was married firstly to Louis de Brailly, Marquis de Pienne (died 1640), and secondly to Charles Leon de Fiesque, Comte de Fiesque and de Lavagne (died 1658). Together with Madame de Frontenac, Madame de Fiesque served as a lady-in-waiting to La Grande Madamoiselle, the cousin of Louis XIV, and was an enemy of Cardinal Mazarin. Called the princess’s ‘aide-de-camp,’ by her father, Duke Gaston d’Orleans, the comtesse attended the court of Versailles.

Figliuoli, Gemma (Gemma of Foligno) – (c1379 – 1435)
Italian nun and saint
Born Gemma Letto in Sulmona, she became the wife of Francesco Figliuoli of the same city. With her husband’s death, Gemma became an Augustinian nun in Sulmona, with her daughter and her niece. Because of troubles within the convent, the three women later left Sulmona, and the Bishop of Foligno gave them the empty and neglected abbey of St Lucia in that town for their use. The nuns were generously assisted by a local lord, Conrad Trinci, who granted the nuns a tower and a private garden for their own use. Gemma was never abbess, but was greatly respected for her religious sanctity. Gemma Figliuoli was revered as a saint (April 24).

Figner, Medea Ivanovna – (1858 – 1952)
Italian-Russian soprano
Born Zoraide Amedea Mei (April 3, 1858) in Florence, she trained under Carlotta Carozzi-Zucchi and others in Florence, and made her stage debut as Azucena at Sinalunga (1875). Medea was married (1889) to the noted Russian tenor, Nikolai Nikolaievitch Figner (1857 – 1918), from whom she was later divorced (1903). She was personally coached by Tchaikovsky in the role of Liza for his work, The Queen of Spades, which she sang at the premiere performance in St Petersburg (1890), her husband performing the role of her stage lover.  Madame Figner was later a member of the Mariinski Theatre in St Petersburg until her retirement (1912). She later immigrated to Paris (1930). Medea Figner died (July 8, 1952) in Paris, aged ninety-four.

Figner, Vera Nikolaievna – (1852 – 1942)
Russian revolutionary activist and political agitator
Figner was born into an aristocratic family in Kazan, and was educated privately at home by a governess and then attended the Rodionovsky Institute there. After her marriage with a lawyer, Alexei Filippov (1870) she managed to persuade her husband to permit her to study medicine. Figner soon became involved with political activists, and soon discarded medicine, and decided to become and agent for the growing revolutionary movement, and was elected as a committee member of the Narodnaia Volia (The People’s Will Party) (1879). She quickly became leader of the party (1881). Vera Figner was arrested by order of Tsar Alexander III (1883) and spent two decades in solitary confinement. With her subsequent release (1905) she toured the world, giving public lectures on the evils of tsarism. With the revolution (1917) and overthrow of the Tsar Nicholas II, she became the president of the Political Red Cross. Figner was the author of reminiscences entitled Memoirs of a Revolutionary (1927).

Figuero, Ana – (1908 – 1970)
Chilean feminist and political activist
Figuero was born in Santiago and after completing her secondary education, she studied at the University of Chile. During WW II she visited the USA where she studied at Columbia University and at the Colorado State College. With her return to her homeland, Figuero became a prominent and vociferous campaigner for political suffrage and equal rights for Chilean women. Her own career was impressive and she began as director of the National School System, and was appointed to head the Woman’s Bureau in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, before being appointed as special envoy for Chile to the United Nations (1951). Ana Figuero became the first woman to hold several prestigious UN appointments, including that of assistant Director-General of the (ILO) International Labour Organization until her eventual retirement (1967).

Figueur, Therese    see    Sutter, Therese

Fikentscher, Jenny – (1869 – 1959)
German painter and draughtswoman
Born Jenny Nottebohn (June 1, 1869) in Kattowitz, she produced lithographs of flowers and landscapes, and her work was exhibited at the Dresden Art Exhibition (1899) and at the Munich Glass Palace in Bavaria (1900). She was the wife (1891) of Otto Fikentscher (1862 – 1945), whom she survived. Jenny Fikentscher died (April 26, 1959) at Gernsbach, aged eighty-nine.

Filagonia – (d. c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Filagonia was arrested in Italy during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to abjure her faith, and was condemned to death. Her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (March 6).

Filkins, Delina Ecker – (1815 – 1928)
American super centenarian
Delina Filkins was born (May 4, 1815) and died (Dec 4, 1928). She was the first known USA citizen to reach the age of one hundred and thirteen years and two hundred and fourteen days, whose age was genuinely authentic and verifiable by public record.

Filleul, Anne Marie – (1752 – 1794)
French painter and portraitist
Born Anne Marie Bocquet, she perished under the guillotine during the Terror.

Filleul, Emilie Adelaide – (c1759 – after 1802)
French Bourbon royal and courtier
Emilie Filleul was the illegitimate daughter of King Louis XV (1715 – 1774) and a minor mistress. She was married firstly (1779) to Comte Alexandre de Flahault de La Billarderie, and secondly (1802) to Baron Jose de Souza. Emilie’s youthful romantic liasion with Charles Maurice, Prince de Talleyrand (1754 – 1838), the famous minister and politician, resulted in the birth of an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Joseph, Comte de Flahault (1785 – 1870), who in turn fathered Charles Auguste, Duc de Morny through his liasion with Queen Hortense, the stepdaughter of the emperor Napoleon I. Emilie survived the horrors of the Revolution, though her last years remained shrouded in obscurity.

Filleul, Jeanne – (1424 – 1498)
French poet
Filleul served at the Valois court as lady-in-waiting to the Scottish dauphine, Margaret, the daughter of James I, and the first wife of the future Louis IX of France (1461 – 1483). Jeanne was patron of the medieval poet, Alain Chartier (1385 – 1423), and one rondeau of her own verse survives.

Fillol, Katherine de – (1501 – 1535)
English Tudor gentlewoman and scandal figure
Katherine was the daughter and coheiress of Sir William de Fillol (1453 – 1527) of Woodlands in Horton, Dorset and Fillol’s Hall in Langhen Walsh, Essex by his wife Dorothy Ifield of Standon in Hertfordshire. She was married (c1517) to Sir Edward Seymour (1500 – 1552) (later Duke of Somerset), the eldest son of Sir John Seymour, of Wulf Hall in Wiltshire. Lady Seymour became involved in an incestuous relationship with her father-in-law Sir John, who fathered her eldest son Sir John Seymour (1518 – 1552).
The chronicler Peter Helleyn (1600 – 1662) stated that Edward Seymour estranged himself from Katherine’s society, and they resided apart though they were not divorced. Her father Sir William de Fillol disinherited both Katherine and her son John in his will (1527), except for an annuity of one hundred and forty pounds a year ‘as longe as shee shall lyve virtuously and reside in some house of religion of wymen.’ Later evidence would seem to indicate that she was reunited with Edward who fathered her second child Edward (1529). However later evidence revealed that she was involved in further misconduct during Sir Edward Seymour’s absence in France (1532).
Lady Seymour died aged thirty-four. By a later Act of Parliament (1540) Seymour disinherited both of Katherine’s sons in favour of his children by his second marriage with Anne Stanhope. Similar clauses were also introduced into the patent fir Seymour’s subsequent dignities and grants of land. Her two sons were Sir John Seymour who died in the Tower of London after sharing his father’s imprisonment, and Sir Edward Seymour (1529 – 1593) of Pomeroy in Devon who was knighted at the battle of Pinkie Cleugh (1547). He was restored in blood by Act of Parliament (1553) before his younger half-brothers. He was the ancestor of Edward Seymour (1695 – 1757) who became the eighth Duke of Somerset.

Fillunger, Marie – (1850 – 1930)
Austrian vocalist
Fillunger was born (Jan 27, 1850) in Vienna, and studied singing under Clara Schumann and Mathilde Marchesi, the teacher of Dame Nellie Melba. Marie Fillunger died (Dec 23, 1930), aged eighty, at Interlaken, Bern Canton, Switzerland.

Filosova, Anna Pavlovna – (1837 – 1912)
Russian feminist
Born Anna Diagileva in St Petersburg, she was the daughter of a nobleman, Pavel Diagilev, and was eductaed at home under the direction of a governess. Together with Maria Trubnikova and Nadezhda Stasova she became increasingly involved in philanthropic activities, such as organizing housing and employment for poor women and campaigning for education as a means of improving their lot. This work led to the introduction of general educational courses for women in St Petersburg (1872), and the Bestuzhev Advanced Courses (1878). Filosova was a prominent figure within the women’s suffrage movement, and served as vice-president of the International Council of Women (1899), but during the earlier revolution (1905 – 1907) she advised women not to join the ranks of revolutionaries. One of her last public appearances was as chairwoman of the first All-Russian Women’s Congress (1908).

Filson, Minnie Agnes May – (1898 – 1971)
Australian poet
Born Minnie Cole (May 3, 1898) at Wyalong, New South Wales, she was later married (1924) to Arthur Johnstone Filson. Afflicted with paralysis, Minnie Filson dictated her poetic verses using the pseudonym of ‘Ricketty Kate.’ Her published collections include Out of the Dust (1939), and Brolgah: a Legend (1944). Minnie Filson died (Nov 7, 1971) in Sydney, aged seventy-three.

Finale, Ginevra di Bentivoglio, Marchesa – (1503 – 1534)
Italian courtier
Ginevra di Bentivoglio was born in Milan, Lombardy, the daughter of Alessandro di Betivoglio, Conte di Campagna. She was married (1524) in Milan to Giovanni II del Carretto, marchese di Finale and Noli (1502 – 1535), who served as Imperial Vicar of Northern Italy. The Marchesa died at Finale, aged only thirty, from the effects of childbirth, leaving five children,

Finaly, Eugenie – (1850 – 1938)
French salon figure
Born Eugenie Ellenberger (Dec 31, 1850) in Budapest, Hungary, she was the was niece to Horace, Baron de Landau, from whom she inherited the estate of Les Fremonts at Ostend. She became the wife of the rich Jewish banker, Hugo Finaly, and was the mother of the financier, Horace Finaly, and of Mary Finaly, who was admired by Marcel Proust. Eugenie Finaly died (Oct 24, 1938) at Neuilly, near Paris, aged eighty-seven.

Finaly, Mary – (1873 – 1918)
French literary figure,
Finaly was born (Aug 20, 1873) in Budapest, Hungary, the daughter of a Jewish banker. She was sister to Horace Finaly (1871 – 1945), the noted financier, and niece to Horace, Baron de Landau. Mary was admired by the novelist Marcel Proust, whom the family entertained at Ostend (1889), and she inspired him to write ‘Sonate clair de lune’ in Les Plaisirs et les jours. She also served as one of the earliest models for the character of Albertine in A la Recherche. Mary was married instead (1897) to Thomas de Barbarin. During WW I she volunteered to work as a nurse, caring for wounded soldiers. Mary Finaly died (Oct, 1918) during the epidemic of Spanish flu, aged forty-five.

Fincana – (fl. c650)
Scottish virgin saint
Fincana was possibly the daughter of Donald I Brek, King of Scots, and sister of King Domangart II. She was sister to St Findoca, and had seven other sisters. With the death of their mother, the sisters retired to Abernethy, where they resided with their father, and devoted themselves to the religious life. All the sisters were generally known as the ‘Nine Maidens,’ a name often applied to the natural features of the region such as hills and wells. Bishop Forbes believed that this Fincana was identical with St Fincana (Oct 13), the patron of Echt.

Finch, Anne      see    Winchilsea, Anne Kingsmill, Countess of

Finch, Charlotte Fermor, Lady – (1725 – 1813)
British Hanoverian courtier
Lady Charlotte Fermor was the second daughter of Thomas Fermor, first Earl of Pomfret. She was married (1746) to William Finch (died 1766), a younger son of Sir Daniel Finch, seventh Earl of Winchilsea (1647 – 1730), and brother to Daniel Finch (1689 – 1769), eighth Earl of Winchilsea, and to whom she bore five children. Lady Charlotte served as court for three decades (1762 – 1792), as governess to the large family of fifteen children of George III (1760 – 1820) and his queen, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. These included the future Prince Regent (George IV), Frederick, duke of York, William, duke of Clarence (William IV), Charlotte, the Princess Royal and queen consort of Wurttemburg, and King Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1837 – 1851). She was much respected by the king and queen, and retained the affection of her royal charges all her life. She is mentioned in the memoirs of the novelist, Fanny Burney, who also served as lady-in-waiting, and is mentioned in the correspondence of the famous antiquarian, Sir Horace Walpole.
Lady Charlotte survived her husband for five decades. She died (July 11, 1813) in her apartments st St James’s Palace, London, aged eighty-seven. According to the account of her funeral at Ravenstone provided by the Gentleman’s Magazine, her coffin was followed by carriages sent by five of the royal dukes. Her monument, a kneeling figure by Chantry, survives in the church of Burley-on-the-Hill. Her children were,

Finch, Florence – (1893 – 2007)
Anglo-New Zealand supercentenarian
Finch was born in London (Dec 22, 1893). She lived the first seven decades of her life in England, before immigrating permanently to New Zealand (1969) at the age of seventy-five. Nearly deaf and blind at the end of her life, she she died at Hastings (April 10, 2007) aged one hunderd and thirteen years. Florence Finch held the record for longevity in New Zealand and at the time of her death was the sixth known oldest person on verifiable record in the world.

Finch, Katharine – (fl. 1695 – 1718)
British Stuart and Hanoverian stage actress
Finch was a member of Christopher Rich’s company at the Drury Lane Theatre, in London. Her first recorded role was as Flavia in, The Mock Marriage (1695). After a gap in her career of several years, when she may have gone on tours throughout the counties, Finch appeared in London as Olimpia in, The Loyal Subject (1705). Other plays included The Fatal Marriage, All for Love, and, The Spanish Fryar. Finch later worked at Lincoln’s Inn Fields appearing in The Perjurer and, Tartuffe, amongst other favourites. Her last recorded stage performance was in 1718, but nothing is recorded of her after this date.

Fincher, Phillippa Doreen – (1943 – 1999)
Australian painter and activist
Fincher was born at Kweilinn in China. She lived briefly in Hong Kong before emigrating to Chatswood, Sydney, Australia with her mother and siblings. Fincher studied to become a successful scientist, she was also a conservationist and well known activist for causes as diverse as nuclear testing at Pine Gap, sanctuaries for local fauna, or organizing a protest against a proposed Mcdonald’s restaurant in the Blue Mountains. Famous for her floral paintings, she was well known as a local Bohemian figure in the Blackheath area. Phillippa Fincher died of lung cancer.

Finck, Adele von – (1871 – 1943)
German artist and painter
Fink specialized in landscape and genre paintings, and was born (Feb 6, 1871) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Her best known works were Der Grune Hut (The Green Hat) (1909), and Unschuld und Lebewelt (1910). Adele von Fink died (Nov 22, 1943) in Berlin, Prussia, being killed during an Allied bombing raid, aged sixty-two.

Findlater, Jane Helen – (1877 – 1946)
Scottish author and biographer
Jane Findlater was the daughter of a clergyman. She was the younger sister of Mary Findlater, and like her, was educated at home. Her first published novel was The Green Graves of Balgowrie (1896), and she co-wrote several novels such as Tales that are Told and Content with Flies (1916). Like her sister she was known to various famous literary figures such as May Sinclair, and Kate Douglas Wiggin, with whom she and her sister collaborated to wrote the novel The Affair at the Inn (1904).

Findlater, Mary – (1865 – 1963)
Scottish author
Mary Findlater was born in Lochearnheard, Perthshire, the daughter of Reverend Eric Findlater, and received her education at home, under the guidance of her father. She was the elder sister of Jane Helen Findlater. Mary was author of the published collection, Sonnets and Songs, and six novels such as Over the Hills, The Rose of Joy (1903), and, Tents of a Night (1914). With her sister she co-authored several novels including Crossriggs (1908), Penny Monypenny (1911), and Beneath the Visiting Moon (1923). She was a friend of Virginia Woolf and Rudyard Kipling, and a member of that literary coterie. Mary Findlater died unmarried (Nov 22, 1963) at Comrie, Perthshire, aged ninety-eight.

Findlater, Mary Hamilton, Countess of – (c1644 – 1705)
Scottish peeress
Lady Mary Hamilton was the third daughter of William Hamilton (1616 – 1651), second Duke of Hamilton and his wife Elizabeth Maxwell. She became the wife (marriage contract dated Aug, 1663) of Alexander Livingston, second Earl of Callendar and became the Countess of Callendar. She survived Livingston as the Dowager Countess of Callendar (1685 – 1703) and remarried (1690) to Sir James Livingston of Westquarter (died 1701). The countess became involved in a territorial dispute with the Duke of Hamilton which caused the duke to call her ‘the strangest unworthy person in the world’ blaming the influence of her second husband Livingston over her as the cause of her behaviour. The duke also believed that they had married secretly.
Lady Callendar remarried thirdly (Oct, 1703) to James Ogilvy (died 1711), the third Earl of Findlater and became the Countess of Findlater. Despite the fact that she was then in her sixties Mary eloped with Lord Findlater, whilst humorously confessing to her elderly beau that she was more fit for a funeral rather than a wedding ceremony. Lady Findlater died (Aug, 1705).

Findlay, Helen – (1909 – 1992)
American art gallery director
Findlay was born in Kansas City, Montana, a descendant of William Wadsworth Findlay. She attended Vassar College after which she joined the family business at the Findlay Galleries in Kansas City. After the foundation by her brother of the Wally Findlay Gallery in Chicago, Illinois (1932), Helen Findlay became involved in that branch of the business, and was later appointed as director of the gallery. An energetic fundraiser for the arts and other charitable and philanthropic concerns in Chicago, The Municipal Art League voted her Woman of the Year (1959) and the city annually observes Helen Findlay Day (Dec 16) in recognition of her contribution to the arts. She remained unmarried. Helen Findlay died (Sept 14, 1992) in Chicago, aged eighty-three.

Findoca (Findocha) – (fl. c650)
Scottish virgin saint
Sometimes also called Fyndoc or Frudoche, she was honoured as a saint in Scotland with Fincana (Oct 13), who was her sister. With the death of their mother, Findoca and her sisters retired to Abernethy and devoted themselves to the religious life. Her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Fine, Vivian – (1913 – 2000)
American composer and pianist
Fine was born in Chicago, Illinois, and attended the Music College there (1913 – 1919). She then went on to study at the American Conservatory in Chicago, under the instruction of Ruth Crawford-Seeger (1926 – 1928). Fine studied music composition with Roger Sessions, and became the wife of the noted sculptor, Benjamin Karp. She herself taught music at the New York University and at the prestigious Juilliard School there, before teaching composition at Bennington College, in Vermont (1964 – 1987). Particularly known for her discordant style, she performed the piano solo in the piece, Poetic Fires (1985) when aged over seventy. Her orchestral piece entitled, Drama, was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize (1983).
Vivian Fine received numerous impressive awards, including from the Elizabeth Sprague Coolodge foundation, and was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Fine Arts and Letters (1980). Other compositions included Suite in E Flat (1940), Concertante for Piano and Orchestra (1944), and the chamber operas The Women in the Garden (1978), and the Memoirs of Uliana Rooney (1994). Vivian Fine died (March, 2000) aged eighty-six.

Fingall, Daisy Burke, Countess of – (1863 – 1944)
Irish society figure and memoirist
Elizabeth Mary Margaret Burke was the eldest daughter of George Edmund Burke, of Donesfield, Galway, by his wife Theresa Quin, of Waterville, Limerick. Known as Daisy she was raised mainly in Dublin and learnt fluent French.  Daisy was married (1883) to Arthur James Plunkett (1859 – 1929), eleventh Earl of Fingall, to whom she bore four children, including Oliver James Horace Plunkett (1896 – 1984), who succeeded his father as twelfth Earl of Fingall (1929 – 1984), with whose death the peerage became extinct. After her marriage she was closely associated with Victorian high society. She was a keen horsewoman, and Edward VII referred to her as that ‘Jolly little lady.’Lady Fingall left memoirs entitled Seventy Years Young, in which she provided interesting insights intp Edwardian society, and the personalities concerned. She survived her husband as Dowager Countess (1929 – 1944). Lady Fingall died (Oct 28, 1944) aged eighty-one.

Fini, Leonor – (1908 – 1996) 
Argentinian-French painter
Leonor Fini was born in Buenos Aires, and was raised with by her maternal family in Trieste (1919 – 1937) before finally settling in Paris. Fini formed part of the circle that surrounded the famous Surrealist group of painters in Milan and Paris, such as Max Ernst, Paul Eluard, and Salvador Dali, and her work was exhibited publicly with theirs. During WW II Leonor resided firstly in Monaco, and then in Rome, where she lived with the artist Stanislau Lepri. She returned to France after the war (1947) and became a stage and costume designer for the famous La Scala Opera House in Milan. Her paintings included Capital Punishment (1960), and The Lesson on Botany (1974), and Fini also produced illustrations for several books such as Edgar Alan Poe’s, Tales of the Grotesque (1953).

Fink, Agnes – (1919 – 1994)
German stage, film and television actress
Fink was born (Dec 14, 1919) at Frankfurt-am-Main, and worked with the Bavarian State Theatre and at the Zurich Playhouse in Switzerland. She appeared in films after 1956. Agnes Fink died (Oct 28, 1994) in Munich, Bavaria, aged seventy-four.

Fink, Kitty   see   Thompson, Kay

Finkenstein, Jettka – (1865 – after 1914)
Jewish-Polish vocalist
Born Jettka Karfunkelstein (March 22, 1865) at Seni, in Poznan, she was the daughter of a church official. She studied singing under Anna Schulze-Asten at the Berlin School of Music in Prussia, and under the great diva Pauline Viardot. She adopted the less clumsy name of Finkenstein for the stage, and made her debut at the court theatre at Darmstadt, in Hesse (1881), and was then appointed as a court singer. Finkenstein was particularly admired in the roles of Frau Reich in Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor, and Amneris in Aida. She performed in London and was married to the noted conductor Benno Pulvermacher. At the outbreak of WW I she was working as a vocal teacher in Breslau.

Finkenzeller, Heli (Helene) – (1914 – 1991)
German stage and film actress
Finkenzeller was born (Nov 17, 1914) in Munich, Bavaria. She studied acting under Otto Falckenberg in Munich, and was taught by Therese Giehse. Finkenzeller performed on stage in Berlin and Munich, and made appearances in films such as, Der Mustergatte (1937), and, Kohlhiesels Tochter (1943). She later appeared in many popular television programs. Heli Finkenzeller died (Jan 14, 1991) in Munich, aged seventy-six.

Finklea, Tula Ellice    see   Charisse, Cyd

Finlay, Isis Margarita – (1934 – 2007)
Cuban beauty queen
Finlay was born in Cuba, the great-great niece of the famous physician, Carlos Finlay (1833 – 1915). Trained for the beauty pageant circuit, she was the winner of the Miss Cuba competition (1954). After this she travelled to Long Island in California to appear in the Third Miss Universe Pageant. She married and had children, and travelled tirelessly for five decades. Isis Finaly died (May 24, 2007) at Miami, Florida, aged seventy-two.

Finley, Evelyn – (1916 – 1989)
American actress and stunt woman
Finley sometimes used the name Eve Anderson, and was born in Douglas, Arizona. Between 1940 and 1956 she made sixteen films, her first role was as Honey Lane in Arizona Frontier (1940).
Finley retired from being an actress after her appearance in the role of Donna Blaine in Perils of the Wilderness (1956), in which she was billed as Eve Anderson. Other film credits included the films Valley of Vengeance (1944), Sheriff of Medicine Bow (1948), and, The Diamond Queen (1954) in which she played a slave girl. From the mid 1930’s she pursued a career as a stunt double for actresses such as Jean Parker (The Texas Rangers, 1936), Loretta Young (Along Came Jones, 1945) and Maria Elena Marques. Her last stunt role was in the 1985 film, Silverado, when she was aged almost seventy. Evelyn Finley died of a stroke in Big Bear City, California.

Finley, Martha     see    Farquharson, Martha

Finley, Ruth Ebright – (1884 – 1955)
American author and editor
Ruth Ebright was born (Sept 25, 1884) in Akron, Ohio, and became the wife of Emmet Finley. She was the author of Old Patchwork Quilts and the Women Who Made Them (1929), and of the biography The Lady of Godey’s: Sarah Josepha Hale (1931). Ruth Finley died (Sept 24, 1955), the day before her seventy-first birthday.

Finnghuala – (fl. c1050 – 1057)
Queen consort of Scotland
Finnghuala was the daughter of Sinill, Earl of Angus, and became the wife of Lulach (1031 – 1058), King of Scotland (1057 – 1058), the stepson of Macbeth. Her name remains uncertain, and her marriage and children are all that is known for certain of this lady. She was the mother of Malsnechtai (c1053 – 1085), earl of Moray, who did not succeed to the throne. He died a monk. Finnghuala’s daughter, whose name is not recorded, was the wife of Aedh (Hugh), earl of Moray, and left descendants.

Finnis, Valerie – (1924 – 2006)
British horticulturalist and garden photographer
Finnis was born (Oct 31, 1924) in Crwoborough, Sussex, the daughter of an army officer. She was married (1970) to Sir David Montagu-Douglas-Scott (1887 – 1986), cousin to the Duke of Buccleuch.  With her husband she established a wonderful plantsman’s garden at the residence known as the Dower House, at Boughton House, Northamptonshire, which belonged to the Buccleuch estate. She herself was a specialist in alpine plants such as Kabschia and the Engleria saxifrages, and received the VMH (Victorian Medal of Honour) (1975), the highest accolade of the Royal Horticultural Society, and several plants were named in her honour. Valerie Finnis died aged eighty-one.

Finnsdottir, Steinunn – (c1640 – c1710)
Icelandic poet
Steinunn Finsdottie was the first female verse writer whose work has survived. These included two rimur cycles Hyndlu rimur and, Snaekongs rimur. She also composed verses and poems concerning medieval heroes.

Finsecha – (fl. c450 AD – c500)
Irish virgin saint
Finsecha was interred at Trim (formerly Athrumia), together with Loman, the first Bishop of Trim, the nephew to St Patrick, and his successor, Bishop Fortchern. Finsecha was commemorated as a saint in County Cavan (Feb 19).

Finselberger, Erni – (1902 – 1993)
German social worker and politician
Erni Finselberger was born (Sept 11, 1902) in Hildesheim, and studied commerce at college. She later studied law in Leipzig, Saxony and in Berlin, and was then employed as a teacher in western Prussia during WW II (1940 – 1945). Finselberger joined the committee of the League of Expellees and the Disenfranchised (1950), and was elected to the Landtag of Lower Saxony before finally entering the German Bundestag (1953). Erni Finselberger died (May 24, 1993) at Hanover, aged ninety.

Fioramonda, Ippolita – (fl. 1516 – 1529) 
Italian heroine
Ippolita Fioramonda was of a noble family from Pavia, in Lombardy and married to the Marchese Scaldasole. A famous beauty, admired by Baldassare Castiglione, Paolo Giovio recorded that she wore a satin vest embroidered with gold butterflies, as a warning to her lovers not to approach too closely, lest they be scorched by the flame of their desires. During the siege of Pavia the marchesa was actively involved with the defence of the city, and the French captain, M de Lescun, who had long admired her, actually died of his battle wounds in her palazzo. Castiglione long remained her friend, and one of his letters to her survives. She was one of the ladies to whom Baldassare sent a copy of his famous work Cortegiano (1527).

Firmina (1) – (c282 – c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Firmina was considered to be the patron of the Italian cities of Amelia and Civita Vecchia. Though of high birth, Firmina left home (c298 AD) in order to minister comfort to imprisoned Christians, who were forced to work as quarry convicts. She was finally arrested during the persecution of the emperor Diocletian, and is said to have converted her judge Olympiades, to the faith. However, the judge appointed to replace Olympiades, ordered he and Firmina to be arrested and condemned to death. Firmina was suspended by her hair over burning lamps until she died. Her feast is recorded in the Roman Martyrology (Dec 1).

Firmina (2) – (fl. c490 AD – 508)
Roman literary figure
Firmina was referred to by Pope Gelasius I as, Firminae illustri feminae in a surviving letter in which he thanked her for restoring the the church several estates that had been lost during King Theodoric’s conquest of Italy. Firmina was a friend, or possibly relative, of Ennodius, Bishop of Ticinum, who styled her ‘magnitudo vestra’ and ‘culmen vestra’ in a letter written some years later (508). He also wrote two poems in her honour included in his Epistulae, namely demurena inlustris Firminae and, de anulo Firminae inlustris feminae.

Firnberg, Hertha – (1909 – 1994)
Austrian politician
Firnberg was born (Sept 18, 1909) in Vienna, the daughter of a physician. She studied law and economics at the University of Vienna and at Freiburg. Prior to WW II she worked as a publisher and a journalist, and after the war she served as head of the department of statistics for the Austrian Workers’ Chamber. Having joined the Social Democratic Party as a young woman, she was later appointed chairwoman of the Federal Women’s Committee of the Social Democratic Party. Firnberg later served as minister of science and research (1970 – 1983). Hertha Firnberg died (Feb 14, 1994) in Vienna, aged eighty-four.

Firouz, Louise – (1923 – 2008)
American-Iranian horse breeder
A member of the Iranian royal family she became an international specialist regarding the famous Caspian horse breed, which had been believed extinct until Firouz rediscovered the bride in existence in a remote party of Iran (1965). She believed the Caspian to be the ancestor of the Arab breed. She resided for over five decades of the latter part of her life in Iran. Louise Firouz died aged seventy-four, in Gonbad.

Firouz, Maryam – (1914 – 2008)
Iranian princess
Princess Maryam Farman Farmian was born in Teheran, the daughter of Prince Abdul Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and his wife Batoul Khanum. She received an excellent education at home from a governess, and then made a suitable marriage for her rank with Noureddin Kianouri, the descendant of a Shite cleric. The princess created controversy when she decided to disavow her father’s family name after she had become imbued with the philosophies of communism. She then adopted her grandfather’s surname and became Maryam Firouz. Her husband was later implicated in a conspiracy against Mohammad Reza Shah (1949), and both were forced into hiding in fear of their lives. Firuz later founded the women’s section of the communist party in Teheran. Maryam Firouz died (March 23, 2008) in Teheran.

First, Ruth – (1925 – 1982)
South African writer and revolutionary
Ruth First was the daughter of Jewish parents who immigrated to Africa from northern Europe. She attended Witwaterstrand University, and there became a member of the Communist Party.
First actively campaigned for the cause of black farm workers during the miner’s strike (1946) and became secretary of the Party Central Offices in Johannesburg. There she edited journals such as the Guardian and the literary magazine, Fighting Talk. A friend of the activists Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu, she was married to the labour organizer Joe Slovo. She and her husband were later arrested on charges of treason, but were acquitted of all charges at their very public trial (1956).
Together with Mandela and Sisulu First and her husband were amongst the first white members of the African National Congress, and she was the author of South West Africa (1963). In the same years she was arrested and held in solitary confinement for six months. With her release from prison First left South Africa went to Kenya. There she wrote a harrowing account of her experiences in prison in 117 Days (1965). First and her husband later went to England, where she worked at the University of Manchester (1972), and was later a teaching instructor in sociological underdevelopement at the University of Durham (1973 – 1979). Her published works included The South African Connection: Western Involvement in Apartheid (1972), and a biography of the author Olive Schreiner (1981). Ruth First was killed in Mozambique by a letter bomb.

Fischel, Luise – (1891 – 1978)
German art historian
Fischel was born (Jan 14, 1891) at Bruchsal, and studied philosophy under Rudolf Krautzsch in Freiburg im Breisgau. Dismissed from her post as director of the State Art Gallery in Karlsruhe, Baden, because of her Jewish background, after the war she was appointed as chief curator of the State Art Gallery (1952 – 1956). Luise Fischel died (Dec 28, 1978) at Karlsruhe, aged eighty-seven.

Fischer, Annette – (1945 – 1992)
Danish peace activist
Annette was trained as a librarian and became the wife of Karl Fischer. Annette Fischer was a strong campaigner for human rights around the world and was appointed to head the women’s section of Amnesty International (1986 – 1989) and was elected to chair that organizations’s governing council (1991). Fischer and her husband were killed (July 11, 1992) in a car accident in Florence, Italy. Annette Fischer was forty-six.

Fischer, Annie – (1914 – 1995)
Hungarian pianist
Annie Fischer was born of a Jewish background in Budapest. She received her musical training at the Budapest Academy of Music, where she studied under the famous pedagogue, Ernst von Dohnanyi (1877 – 1960) and Arnold Szekely. Anna Fischer made her public debut performance in 1922, and performed throughout Europe almost continuously between 1926 and the beginning of WW II (1939). She was particularly admired for her performances of works by Robert Schumann, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and was the winner of the first International Liszt Competition held in Budapest (1933).

Annie was married (1936) to Aldat Toth, and with the rise of the Third Reich and Nazism, she and her husband fled to Sweden, where they survived the war, and she taught music to support them. With their return to their homeland after the war (1946), Annie Fischer resumed her impressive musical career, and made several successful international tours. She was awarded the Kossuth Prize on three separate occasions, and was appointed as a professor of the Budapest Academy of Music (1965).

Fischer, Kitty    see    Fisher, Kitty

Fischer, Margarita    see   Fisher, Margarita

Fischer, Marjorie – (1903 – 1961)
American author
Her published works included Palaces on Monday (1936), All On A Summer’s Day (1941), and Mrs Sherman’s Summer (1960). Marjorie Fischer died (Nov 2, 1961) aged fifty-eight.

Fischer, Marthe Renate – (1851 – 1925)
German writer
Fischer was born (Aug 17, 1851) at Zielenzig, the daughter of a landowner. She was the author of such novels as Patenkind (1907), and Die aus dem Drachenhaus (1910), which borrowed largley from her childhood memoiries of the Thuringian forests. Marthe Fischer died (June 17, 1925) in Rudosltadt in Schwarzburg, aged seventy-three.

Fischer, Minnie – (fl.1878 – 1913)
Australian vocalist
Minnie Fischer was born in Tanunda, South Australia. She received vocal training in Adelaide, and then trained under Lucy Chambers in Melbourne, Victoria. Minnie performed opera in New Zealand with Fanny Simonsen and visited Austria with Emily Soldene, where she studied under Julius Stockhausen. She appeared in public concert in London, and later supported herself as a vocal teacher. She was married (1908) to the noted musician George Clutsam (1866 – 1951) and was living just prior to WW I.

Fischer, Res – (1896 – 1974)
German contralto vocalist
Maria Theresa Fischer was born (Nov 8, 1896) in Berlin, Prussia. Res received singing training in Prague, Bohemia, and in Berlin. She made her stage debut at Basle, in Switzerland (1927), and later joined the Stuttgart State Opera in Wurttemburg (1941). Fischer performed at Covent Garden in London and at La Scala in Milan with great success. Fischer was best remembered in the role of Mary in the opera Der fliegende Hollander (The Flying Dutchman), which she performed at the Salzburg Festival in Austria (1959 – 1961). Res Fischer died (Oct 5, 1974) at Ruit, near Esslingen, aged seventy-seven.

Fischer, Wilhelmina Jenny – (1834 – 1896)
Anglo-Australian educator and music critic
Fischer was born in Gloucester and immigrated to Melbourne in Victoria (1856). She was married twice, and was eventually appointed as headmistress of a school for girls in Geelong (1870). Fischer wrote articles concerning music and drama criticism for several prominent Melbourne newspapers. She continued this career in Sydney after 1879, and also wrote articles for women in the Sydney Morning Herald. Wilhelmina Fischer died (Oct 6, 1896) in Sydney, aged sixty-two.

Fischer-Achten, Caroline – (1806 – 1896)
Austrian vocalist
Fischer-Achten was born (Jan 29, 1806) in Vienna, the daughter of a military officer. She received vocal training from Aloysia Weber (nee Lange), the sister-in-law of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and she specialized in performing his works. Caroline was best known for her performances as Pamina in Die Zauberflote and Zerlina in Don Giovanni. Caroline Fischer-Achten died (Sept 13, 1896) near Graz, aged ninety.

Fischer-Duckelmann, Anna – (1856 – 1917)
Swiss physician and gynaecologist
Fischer-Duckelmann was born (July 5, 1856) at Tagwein, in Lower Austria. She received her doctorate from the University of Zurich (1896) and then established herself in public practice in Dresden, Saxony as a gynaecologist. Anna was a firm believer in the combining of conventional medicine with natural remedies. She was the author of Das Geschleschtsleben des Weibes (1900). Anna Fischer-Duckelmann died (Nov 5, 1917) at Monte Verita, near Ascona, Italy, aged sixty-one.

Fischer-Schwarzbock, Beatrix – (1806 – 1885)
German operatic soprano
Fischer-Schwarzbock was born (Feb 6, 1806) at Temesvar, Hungary. She was the first singer to perform the role of Leonore from, Fidelio in German, and afterwards appeared as the countess in Le nozze di Figaro. She retired in 1854. Beatrix Fischer-Schwarzbock died (Sept 16, 1885) at Baden-Baden, aged seventy-nine.

Fish, Anne Harriet – (1892 – 1964)
British painter and artist
Fish was born at Maidenhead, and studied in London at the New School of Art. She finished her education abroad in Paris. She was married (1918) to Walter Sefton (died 1952) and left no children. Anne Fish exhibited her works at the Royal Academy and the Fine Art Society, and specialized in watercolours and oil paintings, as well as with textile design. She produced drawings for several notable publications such as Vanity Fair, Harper’s Bazaar, and, The Tatler, amongst others. She was a member of the Newlyn Society of Artists, and survived her husband by more than a decade. Anne Fish died (Oct 10, 1964) aged eighty-two, at St Ives, Cornwall.

Fish, Mamie Stuyvesant – (1853 – 1915)
American socialite and famous hostess
Born Marian Graves Anthon (June 8, 1853) on Staten Island, New York, she was the daughter of William Henry Anthon, a wealthy criminal lawyer. She made a socially important marriage (1876) with the banker, Stuyvesant Fish, a member of one of the oldest Dutch colonial families in New York State. The couple had four children. Prior to 1900, Mamie Fish entertained lavishly at her home in Grammercy Park, but later moved to the exclusive summer resort of Newport, where she built her residence ‘Crossways,’ and entertained every season on a grand scale, and worked hard to break down the barriers erected by society’s famous ‘Four Hundred’ families.
Easily bored, her dinners were always enlivening and interesting, her guests being entertained by the famous actress, Marie Dressler, the Australian soprano Nellie Melba, and the dancers, Vernon and Irene Castle, amongst many others. Mamie Fish could behave in an extremely eccentric manner, and she one brought a full-size portrait of a Spanish Infanta to dinner as her guest, and dressed her friend Harry Lehr up in costume, in order to pass him off as the Russian grand duke, Boris Romanov.  Famous for her caustic wit and imperious nature, Mamie Fish came to be regarded on the same level as such famous society leaders as Alice Vanderbilt, Alva Erskine Belmont, and Caroline Astor. Mrs Stuyvesant Fish died (May 25, 1915) at Glencliffe, aged sixty-one.

Fishback, Margaret – (1904 – 1985)
American writer and poet
Margaret Fishback was born in Washington, D.C., and became the wife of Alberto Antolini. She also had an impressive career as an advertising executive. She was the author of several works such as Safe Conduct: When To Behave – And Why (1939), and the collection of verse entitled Look Who’s A Mother (1945).

Fisher, Ada Lois – (1924 – 1995)
Black American social activist, lawyer, and segregation reformer
Born Ada Sipuel (Feb 8, 1924) in Chickasha, Oklahoma, she was the daughter of a clergyman. Her married name was Fisher. After completing her secondary education, Ada was refused permission to enroll at the University of Oklahoma, because of race (1946) the matter went to the Supreme Court, which ruled that the state of Oklahoma had a legal duty to provide equal educational for all students, black and white (1948). She was finally admitted as student by the University of Oklahoma Law School (1949), becoming the first African-American woman to attend an all white school in the South, and beinmg pregnant at the time. Despite being welcomed by the other faculty and students, she was kept visibly seperate from the white students. She graduated successfully, and practised as a lawyer in Chickasha (1952).  Four decades later she was appointed as one of the Board of Regents at the University of Oklahoma (1992) and was made a professor of Langston University. Ada Fisher died (Oct 18, 1995) aged seventy-one.

Fisher, Andrea – (1955 – 1997)
American-Anglo sculptor, author, lectuer, installation artist and painter
Fisher studied sculpture at St Martin’s in London, and then attended Leeds University. Andrea Fisher specialized in multi-media installations, which combined real objects, with painted works, and photographs. She wrote the work Let us Now Praise Famous Women: Women Photographers for the US Government (1987), and assisted as curator for an exhibition of the same name held at the National Museum of Photography. Andrea Fisher died young from cancer, aged only forty-one.

Fisher, Catherine Maria    see   Fisher, Kitty

Fisher, Doris – (1915 – 2003)
American vocalist
Fisher was born (May 2, 1915) in New York City, the daughter of lyricist Fred Fisher. She performed with big bands on the radio, with the Eddie Duchin Orchestra, and was leader of the popular group, ‘Penny Wise and Her Wise Guys.’ Fisher wrote the popular songs, ‘You Always Hurt the One You Love,’ and ‘Put the Blame on Mame,’and assisted Slim Gaillard with the classic song, ‘Tutti Frutti.’ She retired in 1949 to Detroit, Michigan. Doris Fisher died (Jan 15, 2003) in Los Angeles, California, aged eighty-seven.

Fisher, Doris Mary Gertrude – (1919 – 2005)
British politician
Doris Fisher was born (Sept 13, 1919) and served as a Labour member of parliament (1970 – 1974) and for a further four years as a member of the European Parliament. In recognition of her service she was created a Life Peer as Baroness Fisher of Rednal (1974) by Queen Elizabeth II.

Fisher, Dorothy Canfield – (1879 – 1958)
American novelist and writer
Born Dorothea Frances Canfield (Feb 17, 1879) in Lawrence, Kansas, her popular works included Gunhild (1907), The Montessori Mother (1913), Rough-Hewn (1922), Her Son’s Wife (1926), Bonfire (1933), American Portraits (1946), Paul Revere and the Minute Men (1950), Vermont Tradition: The Biography of an Outlook on Life (1953), and, Memories of Arlington, Vermont (1957), amongst others. Dorothy Canfield Fisher died (Nov 9, 1958) aged seventy-nine.

Fisher, Kitty (Catherine Maria) – (1738 – 1767)
British dancer and courtesan
Kitty Fisher is believed to have had German background as her name is sometimes spelt Fischer. She began her career as a millinier’s apprentice, and was firstly the mistress of an army officer, the future Lieutenant-General Anthony Martin (died 1800), who introduced her to society. Once established in the fashionable world, Kitty’s lovers included such famous persons as Admiral Lord George Anson, General John Ligonier, and Prince Edward, Duke of York, the younger brother of George III. Beautiful, vivacious, intelligent, admired as a skilled horsewoman, Kitty demanded steep fees for her services, at one time receiving one hundred guineas for a single night. Sir Johsua Reynolds painted her portrait twice, the second time as the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. She was later married to John Norris, of Hempsted Manor, Benenden, Kent, a member of parliament for Rye, despite the vehement objections of his family. The character of Kitty Willis in Hannah Cowley’s play, The Belle’s Stratagem, is based on her. Fisher died at Bath, Somerset, aged only twenty-nine. She was buried (March 23, 1767) at Benenden.

Fisher, Margarita – (1886 – 1975)
American silent film actress
Born Margarita Fischer (Feb 12, 1886) in Missouri Valley, Iowa, into a family of German immigrants, she altered her surname to the more American ‘Fisher’ during WW I due to anti-German sentiment. After an unspectacular stage career, Fisher began making films, her her earliest films included, Over the Hills (1911), The Rose of California (1912), Sally Scraggs: Housemaid (1913), in which she appeared in the title role, The Pearl of Paradise (1916), and, Robinson Crusoe (1917). Fisher played the role of Molly Malone in, Molly of the Follies (1919), and Trixie Darling in, Trixie from Broadway (1919). Her later credits included, K – The Unknown (1924) and, Any Woman (1925). Margarita appeared as Eliza in, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1927), a role she reprised from 1913. With the advent of sound films, Fisher retired from the film industry. She survived her film career by almost five decades. Margarita Fisher died (March 11, 1975) at Encinitas, California, aged eighty-nine.

Fisher, Maria – (1903 – 1991)
American actress and patron of the arts
Born Maria Wollenweber, in Wittenberg, Germany, she was educated in Witteneberg where she received some vocal training. Her family later lived in England where Maria was employed as a soprano with the London Opera Company under the name of Maria de la Hull, and also with the Columbia Opera Company in Washington, USA. With the end of World War II, she immigrated to America with her family (1945). An actress of note, she appeared in more than five dozen films before her marriage with lawyer Clarence Milton Fisher (1955). Fisher founded the American Opera School (1963) which awarded scholarships to promising vocal students, aas well as establishing annual piano competition and music scholarships for talented young people. Fisher organized the Beethoven Society of America (1974) which presented classical concerts of the general public at affordable prices. A patron of the Callaudet College for the Deaf, in Washington, Fisher founded the Thelonius Monk Institute (1986), the first music conservatory devoted to jazz music. Maria Fisher died (July 11, 1991) in Washington, D.C. aged eighty-seven.

Fisher, Maria Anna – (1819 – 1911)
Black American baker and businesswoman
Maria Anna Fisher began her career at fifteen (1834) selling homemade biscuits door to door in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Maria Anna never raised the reasonably cheap price of her biscuits, and managed her finances so well that she was eventually able to purchase herself a large house, followed by the purchase of over two dozen other properties, from which se derived rent to support her. At her death she left requests to the Hampton Institute and the Tuskegee Institute.

Fisher, Marie Claire – (1931 – 2008)
Australian educator
Marie Callinan was born in Sydney, New South Wales, into a poor family. She attended secondary school and studied as a teacher at the University of Sydney. She taught English and history at Bourke in the far-west of NSW, where her student including Aboriginal children. She later visited Europe and then returned to Australia where she married (1960) a grazier named Dugald Fisher to whom she bore three children, and resided on a sheep and cattle station. Marie Fisher joined the Labour Party and served as secretary of the local Labour state electoral council. She was elected to the NSW Legislative Council under Premier Neville Wran (1978) and chaired the committee organized to inquire into the problems endured by rural NSW (1981). Fisher later served on the Council of the University of Armidale. Marie Fisher died aged seventy-seven.

Fisher, Mary – (1623 – 1698)
English Quaker missionary
Mary Fisher was born in Yokshire, and was converted by the preaching of the famous Quaker leader, George Fox (1652). Soon afterwards she was imprisoned for breaking the public peace, when she interrupted a church meeting. Whilst incarcerated she wrote False Prophets and False Teachers described (1652). After her release from prison (1654), Fisher travelled to Cambridge with another female Quaker, Elizabeth Williams, and the two women began public preaching there, only to be stoned and whipped for their pains. Fisher continued to preach in public and sufferred two more periods of lengthy imprisonment, at York Castle, and again in Buckinghamshire (1655).
Fisher travelled to the West Indies and to New England in the American colony, again accompanied by a female Quaker companion, Anne Austin, they being the first Quakers to visit these places. Whilst in Boston, Massachusetts, they were arrested and only narrowly escaped the penalty imposed for witchcraft. Fisher later travelled to Adrianople, where she obtained an interview with the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed IV. Both her husbands were Quakers, and with the death of her second husband, John Cross, she resided in Charleston, South Carolina.

Fisher, Mary Frances Kennedy (M.F.K. Fisher) – (1908 – 1992)
American culinary writer
Mary Kennedy was born in Albion, Michigan (July 3, 1908), the daughter of a newspaper publisher. She was educated in various states because of her family’s movements and also studied abroad at Dijon, in Burgundy, France. She was married to an academic named Al Fisher. The couple resided in France for several years, but were divorced (1936) not long after they returned to the USA to settle in California. Fisher became interested in all forms of cookery and recipes, past and present, and this resulted in the publication of her first work entitled Serve It Forth (1937), for which she adopted her signature initials (M.F.K. Fisher) so that readers would not be aware it had been written by a woman.
With the death of her second husband (1941) Fisher wrote full time in order to support herself financially, her own books dealing with almost every aspect dealing with the preperation and enjoyment of food, and included reminiscences and anecdotes. Fisher much admired the work of the famous French lawyer and mayor of Belley, near Chambery, Anthelme Brillart-Savarin (1755 – 1826). He was the author of a rather witty treatise concerning gastronomy entitled, La Physiologie du Gout (The Physiology of Taste) (1825), which Fisher translated into English. Her later works included, The Art of Eating (1976), and, With Bold Knife and Fork (1979). She left a memoir of her Quaker childhood entitled Among Friends (1970) and also wrote the children’s book, The Boss Dog (1991). M.F.K. Fisher died (June 23, 1992) aged eighty-three, at Glen Ellen, California.

Fisher, Ruth – (1875 – 1959)
British missionary
Born Ruth Hurditch, she was trained as a missionary by the Church Missionary Society. The Society sent her to Toro in Uganda as a missionary (1900) where she later married (1902) a fellow missionary named Fisher. In Uganda Fisher worked tirelessly as a teacher and nurse, training missionary recruits at the Toro mission, and also organizing the successful building of cathedral. With her husband she travelled extensively throughout the four Ugandan kingdoms and settled amongst the Bugandan tribesmen of Bunyoro (1904). Fisher later wrote two books on her experiences in Africa On the Borders of Pigmy Land (1905), and Twilight Tales of the Black Baganda (1911). Her work is uniquely free of missionary input, and she was soley concerned with the recording of Bugandan tribal customs and traditions before they became obliterated by the advances of white missionaries.

Fisher, Sarah Logan – (1751 – 1796)
American colonial Quaker and diarist
Sarah Logan was the wife of loyalist Thomas Fisher. She was present in the city of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, when it was attacked by revolutionary forces. Sarah Fisher was forced to evacuate with the rest of the population, whilst her husband and father were arrested. Extracts from her own diary formed the basis of the narrative A Diary of Trifling Occurences: Philadelphia, 1776 – 1778, which was edited posthumously by Nicholaus Wainright and published by The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1958).

Fisher, Sylvia Gwendoline Victoria – (1910 – 1996)
Australian soprano
Fisher was born (April 18, 1910) in Melbourne, Victoria and studied singing at the Melbourne Conservstorium of Music and under Adolf Spivakovsky. Sylvia Fisher made her stage debut in 1932, and then performed for the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) until she travelled to Europe after WW II (1947). There she performed at the Royal Opera House and at Covent Garden (1948 – 1958), where she became the principal soprano. Fisher was best remembered for her performances in Richard Strauss’s, Der Rosenkavalier and as Siegelinde in Wagner’s Ring cycle. Fisher made highly successful tours of Australia, Europe and the USA, and was particularly admired as Queen Elizabeth I in Benjamin Britten’s Gloriana. Sylvia Fisher died in Melbourne, aged eighty-six.

Fisher, Sophie Therese Ada – (c1845 – after 1911)
British author
Sophie Fisher was born in Birmingham, Lancashire. She co-wrote It Happened This Way (1895) with the actress Rose Eyetinge, and was herself the author of The Imprudence of Prue (1911).

Fisher, Welthy Honsinger – (1879 – 1980)
American missionary, devotional writer and lecturer
Welthy Honsinger was born (Sept 18, 1879) in Rome, New York, the daughter of Abram Walker Honsinger, and attended Syracuse University. She became the wife of a clergyman, Frederick Bohn Fisher. Mrs Fisher accompanied her husband to China, where she established the Baldwin School for Girls in Nanchang, and served as principal (1906 – 1917), and later worked in India, where she founded Literacy House in Allahabad (1953). Mrs Fisher was the author of several works such as A String of Chinese Pearls (1924) and Freedom: The Story of Young India (1930). She also published a biography of her husband entitled Frederick Bohn Fisher, World Citizen (1944) and wrote the, Handbook for Minister’s Wives (1950). Welthy Fisher visited China when aged ninety-nine (1978), and left a volume of reminiscences entitled To Light a Candle (1979). Welthy Honsinger died in Southbury, Connecticut (Dec 16, 1980) aged one hundred and one years. The Indian government honoured her memory by issuing a commemorative stamp with her portrait.

Fisher Prout, Margaret    see   Prout, Margaret Fisher

Fishman, Barbara White – (1939 – 1999)
American art director, advertising executive and philanthropist
Barbara White was born in New York City, and attended the Cooper Union School of Art. She then designed textiles and fabrics, before securing work with various advertising agencies. She was married to Jack Fishman, a physician, to whom she bore several children. Having sufferred herself from breast cancer, Fishman became a patron and benefactor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, and established the Barbara White Fishman Counseling Program at the centre. She later donated five million dollars to renovate and redesign the Women’s Inpatient Center for the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological cancers which bears her name (1997). Barbara Fishman died (Aug 19, 1999) aged sixty, in Manhattan, New York.

Fisk, Sarah Ellen – (1885 – 1976)
American educator of challenged and retarded children
Sarah Fisk was born (Jan 21, 1885) in Kansas, and attended secondary school in Minnesota. During this time, and despite her youth, she was placed in charge of a class of retarded children, which stimulated her interest in social and educational reform in this field. After this she received specific training in order to teach ‘difficult’ children, at the Minnesota State Normal School. During WWI Fisk worked in various factories in order to discover what sort of employment would be available to handicapped girls. She worked an elementary school teacher before coming to New York, where she was employed by the Board of Education to teach ungraded classes for mentally challenged children, in a program established by Elizabeth Farrell. She later donated her extensive library concerning the education of retarded children, to the Board of Education (1946). Fisk retired in 1954. Sarah Fisk died (Jan 9, 1976) in New York, aged ninety.

Fiske, Fidelia – (1816 – 1864)
American missionary
Fidelia Fiske was born in Shelburne, Massachusetts, and was niece to the famous pioneer missionary, Pliny Fiske (1792 – 1825). She attended Mount Holyoke Seminary before being appointed to mission work at Lake Urmia in Persia, becoming the first single Christian woman to enter Persia in the role of a missionary. The American Board to the Near East sent Fiske there (1842) to work amongst the women and young firsl in the region surrounding the newly established central mission there. She worked there tirelessly for over a decade, but eventually ill-health forced Fiske to return to the USA (1858). She was later offerred the principalship of her old alma mater, Mount Holyoke, but refused the honour, being always hoping to return to Persia, a wish that was never granted.

Fiske, Minnie Maddern – (1865 – 1932)
American actress and theatrical director
Born Maria Augusta Davey in New Orleans, Louisiana, she was the daughter of Thomas Davey, and was raised in a theatrical background. Minnie made her stage debut at the early age of three years (1868), using the surname of Maddern, her mother’s maiden name. Minnie Maddern made her stage debut in New York (1882), being already acredited in adult roles. However, after her marriage with drama critic, Harrison Grey Fiske, she retired from the stage for several years (1890 – 1893). After her return to theatre life, her first appearance being in, Hester Crewe (1893), a work written for her by her husband, Fiske not only became a distinguished and admired actress, but was equally talented as a theatrical director and administrator. Maddern made a name for herself playing various heroines from the works of the Danish dramatist, Henrik Ibsen, as well as playing various Shakespearean roles, and appearing in the title role in Becky Sharp, the play adapted from the famous novel Vanity Fair, by William Thackeray. One of her last popular roles before she retired was that of Mistress Page in a revival of The Merry Wives of Windsor (1927 – 1928).

Fitch, Florence Mary – (1875 – 1959)
American educator and author
Fitch was born (Feb 17, 1875) in Stratford, Connecticut. She studied theology and was appointed professor of philosophy and biblical literature and Oberlin College for over thirty-five years (1904 – 1940). Fitch’s published works included, One God: The Ways We Worship Him (1944), Allah, The God of Islam (1950), and, The Child Jesus (1955). Florence Fitch died (June 2, 1959) aged seventy-four.

Fittko, Lisa – (1909 – 2005)
Jewish-German war heroine
Fittko was born in Austria. During WW II she worked with the underground against the Nazi occupation. She worked with many others to bring many refugees and members of the anti Adolf Hitler resistance from hiding in France, to cross the Pyrenees into safety in Spain (1940 – 1941). She later went to the USA and left memoirs. Lisa Fittko died (March 12, 2005) in Chicago, Illinois, aged ninety-five.

Fitton, Dame Doris Alice – (1897 – 1985)
Australian actress and theatrical founder and director
Doris Fitton was born (Nov 3, 1897) in Manila, in the Philippines, of Anglo-Australian parentage. She was brought to Australi at the age of five (1902) and was educated with the Loreto nuns at Ballarat in Victoria. Fitton studied drama under the noted actor and producer, Gregan McMahon (1874 – 1941) and then joined the J.C. Williamson repertory company. Fitton later broke away to form her own group, and established the Independent Theatre in Sydney (1930) under her own direction and management.
Fitton gave great encouragement to local Australian talent, as well as producing pieces by modern dramatists, such as the Irish Samuel Beckett (1906 – 1989) and the British playwright Harold Pinter. Several noted Australian actors such as Ruth Cracknell, Helen Morse, and John Meillon begun their acting careers under her direction. Eventually continuing financial difficulties caused the close of the Independent (1977). Doris Fitton published her autobiography Not Without Dust and Heat (1981), and was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1982) in recognition of her services to the arts.

Fitton, Mary – (1578 – 1647)
English courtier and literary figure
Mary Fitton was born at Gawsworth in Cheshire (June, 1578), the younger daughter of Sir Edward Fitton, the younger (1546 – 1606) and his wife Alice, the daughter and sole heiress of Sir John Holcroft, of Holcroft, Lancashire. Her paternal grandfather was Sir Edward Fitton (1527 – 1579), the elder, lord president of Connaught in Ireland. She later came to the court of the elderly Queen Elizabeth I to serve as lady-in-waiting (1595).
Mary became the mistress (1600) of the poet William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke (1580 – 1630), who was banished from court by the queen after Mary bore him an illegitimate child (1601). She was also said to have borne two illegitimate children to Sir Richard Leveson. Mary Fitton was long believed to have been the ‘dark lady’ of William Shakespeare’s sonnets, though it remains extremely uncertain whether Mary actually knew him. Also, a surviving portrait, identified as that of Mary Fitton, reveals her to have been fair and not swarthy complexioned. Mary Fitton’s illegitimate child by Herbert died in infancy in 1603 or 1604, and she was later married twice, firstly (1607) to Sir William Polewhele, who died in 1618, and secondly to to an Irish captain named Lougher (died 1636).

Fitzalan, Margaret – (c1470 – before 1528)
English Tudor courtier
Lady Margaret Fitzalan was the eldest daughter of Thomas Fitzalan (1456 – 1524), tenth Earl of Arundel and his wife Lady Margaret Woodville, the sister of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, the wife of Edward IV (1461 – 1483). She became the wife of the Yorkist leader John de La Pole (1462 – 1487), Earl of Lincoln, the nephew of Edward IV. There were no children of this marriage and Lady Margaret survived her husband over forty years as the Dowager Countess of Lincoln. As a childless widow the countess posed no dynastic threat to either Henry VII or Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) and was left unmolested.

Fitzalan, Philippa – (c1361 – 1399)
English medieval heiress and aristocrat
Philippa Fitzalan was the daughter of Sir Edmund Fitzalan (1327 – c1378) and his wife Sybil de Montagu the daughter of Sir William de Montagu, first Earl of Salisbury and Earl Marshal of England. Through her father, the son of Richard Fitzalan (1313 – 1376), third Earl of Arundel, Philippa was a descendant of Edward I (1272 – 1307), through his daughter, Joan of Acre, Countess of Gloucester, and she was ancestress of the Tyrell family of Essex.
Philippa was married firstly (before 1378) to Sir Richard Cergeaux (died 1393) of Colquite in Cornwall, the Sheriff of Cornwall, and secondly to Sir John Cornwall (c1370 – 1443), later Lord Fanhope, as his first wife. Lord Fanhope’s second wife was Elizabeth of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt, and granddaughter of Edward III (1327 – 1377). Lady Philippa Cornwall died (Sept 13, 1399) aged about thirty-eight. By her first husband she left five children including three daughters,

FitzCharles, Lady Catharine – (1658 – 1759)
English Stuart royal
Lady Catharine FitzCharles was the illegitimate daughter of Charles II (1660 – 1685) and his mistress Catharine Pegge, the daughter of Thomas Pegge, of Yeldersley, Derbyshire, and later the wife of Sir Edward Green. She was the full sister of Charles FitzCharles (1660 – 1681), earl of Plymouth, who died without heirs. Catherine was raised as a Roman Catholic and never married. She retired to France during her childhood, where she was became a nun at Dunkirk, Normandy, as Dame Cecilia. She survived in her convent until the end of the reign of George II (1727 – 1760), dying at the age of over one hundred.

FitzForne, Edith – (c1090 – after 1135)
Anglo-Saxon royal mistress
Edith FitzForne was the daughter of Forne FitzSigulf, lord of Greystoke in Cumberland, and tenant-in-chief in York, and was the granddaughter of Sigulf FitzForne, of Nunburnholme, Yorkshire. Edith became the mistress of Henry I, king of England (1100 – 1135), whose death she survived, and was the mother of his son, Robert FitzRoy (c1110 – 1172), who was married to the Norman heiress, Maud du Sap. With the end of their relationship King Henry caused Edith to be married off to Sir Robert d’Oilly (died 1142), of Hook Norton, Oxford, the constable of Oxford Castle. She bore him two sons, Henry and Gilbert, whilst their daughter, Edith d’Oilly was married to Gilbert Basset. During the anarchy which followed the king’s death, her royal son loyally supported his royal half-sister, the Empress Matilda. According to the mediaeval historian Dugdale, Edith influenced her son Robert to found the abbey of Oseney.

FitzGeorge, Rosa Frederica – (1854 – 1927)
British aristocrat
Rosa Baring was born (March 9, 1854), the daughter of William Baring, of Norman Court, Hants, and his wife Elizabeth Hammersley. Rosa was married firstly to Frank Wigsell Arkwright, of Sanderstead Court, Surrey, from whom she was later divorced, prior to her remarriage in Paris (1885) to George FitzGeorge (1843 – 1907), the great-grandson of King George III, being the son of the Duke of Cambridge and the actress Louisa Fairbrother, whom she survived. Mrs Fitz-George died (March 10, 1927) aged seventy-three, in Cannes, France. She left three children,

FitzGeorge, Sophia Jane Holden, Lady – (1857 – 1920)
British aristocrat
Sophia Holden was born in Hull, the daughter of Thomas Holden, of Winestead Hall, Hull. Sophia became the first wife (1875) at Hessle, in Yorkshire, of Sir Adolphus Augustus Frederick FitzGeorge (1846 – 1922), son of the Duke of Cambridge and his morganatic wife, the actress Louisa Fairbrother. Her husband was the great-grandson of King George III and cousin to Queen Victoria. Lady FitzGeorge died (Feb 3, 1920) aged sixty-two, in London. She left an only child Olga Mary Adelaide FitzGeorge (1877 – 1920), who was married firstly to Sir Archibald Hamilton (1876 – 1939), by whom she left issue. They were divorced. Lady Hamilton remarried to Robert Charlton Lane (1873 – 1943) and had further issue.

Fitzgerald, Bridget – (1589 – 1662)
Irish countess of Tyrone and poet
Lady Bridget Fitzgerald was born ay Maynooth Castle, Kildare, the daughter of Henry Fitzgerald, twelfth Earl of Kildare. She was married (1604) to Rory O’Donnell, who was later created Earl of Tyrone by James I (1603). Her mother was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I. After her husband’s rebellion against the English, her husband and several followers fled Ireland, taking Bridget’s infant son Hugh (Aedh) with them. She was interrogated by the English authorities, but saved herself by denying all knowledge of Rory’s activities, and by publicly denouncing them, possibly in an attempt to have the earldom restored for their son. Rory died in Italy (1608).
The countess returned to England, and attended the court of King James, where she unsuccessfully pleaded for the restoration of the family estates. Bridget returned to Ireland where she remarried to Sir Nicholas Barnewall, viscount Kingland. Through her second marriage she became the mother-in-law of Luke Plunkett, Earl of Fingall. After the conquest of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan army (1649), Bridget was not forced to remove to Connaught, because of her great age. She exchanged poetic verses with Cuchonnacht Og Mahuire, chieftain of Fermanagh, which have survived.

Fitzgerald, Catherine   see   Desmond, Catherine Fitzgerald, Countess of

Fitzgerald, Catherine Vesey   see    Vesey, Catherine

Fitzgerald, Cathleen – (1932 – 1987)
Irish-American educator and editor
Fitzgerald was born (July 1, 1932) in Dublin, the daughter of a civil servant. She attended the University College in Dublin and trained as a teacher in Ireland and England, before removing to New York in the USA (1954). In New York Fitzgerald work for the Grolier publishing firm, and was later appointed as managing editor of the, New Book of Knowledge (1964 – 1971) and then editorial adviser for the Japanese Book of Knowledge (1971 – 1972). She was appointed an executive of Grolier International (1973), and published two books for young teenagers Let’s Find Out about Words (1971), and, Let’s Find Out about Bees (1973). Cathleen Fitzgerald died (Jan 11, 1987) in New York, aged fifty-four.

Fitzgerald, Cissy – (1873 – 1941)
British stage and film actress
Fitzgerald was born (Feb 1, 1873), and after having established herself as a successful stage actress, she made appearances in over forty silent films, the first of which concerned her Cissy Fitzgerald (1896). Other films in this series included, How Cissy Made Good (1914), Curing Cissy (1915), Keep Moving (1915), and, Cissy’s Innocent Wink (1915). Fitzgerald played a burlesque queen in, A Woman Who Sinned (1924), and a Polish countess in, The Love Thief (1926). With the advent of sound films, Fitzgerald continued to make films, but appeared mainly as wealthy socialites or titled dowagers. Such films included, His Lucky Day (1929), The Masquerader (1933), and, Patricia Gets Her Man (1937), in which she played a duchess. Cissy Fitzgerald died (May 10, 1941) at Ovingdean, Sussex, aged sixty-eight.

Fitzgerald, Lady Eleanor – (1495 – after 1539)
Irish guardian
Lady Eleanor Fitzgerald was born ay Maynooth Castle, Kildare, the daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare. She was married (1513) to Domhnall Mac Carthaigh Riabhach, Prince of Carberry in Cork, but the union remained childless, and he died a few years afterwards. The union a political alliance which made Eleanor the representative of her father’s power in the south-west, which is borne out by the fact that Eleanor’s marriage contract guaranteed her not only the right to half her new husband’s lands, but the right to dismiss his mercenary soldiers if they did not obey her.
With Domhnall’s death, Eleanor remained resident at Kilbritten Castle in Cork. With the massacre of the male Fitzgeralds instigated by Henry VIII (1537), Eleanor secreted the heir, her twelve year old nephew, at Kilbritten. Manu O’Donnell, Lord of Tyronnel, proposed a diplomatic marriage between himself and Lady Eleanor, promising to protect her nephew. They were married in Donegal which ceremony formally sealed the first Geraldine League (1538). However, O’Donnell sent Gerald to safety in France, without Eleanor’s consent, and then became one of the first Irish lords to recommit to the authority of the English crown. Lady Eleanor then retired to Kildare, and never received her second husband again. She is thought to have predeceased her nephew’s restoration to the earldom by Edward VI (1552).

Fitzgerald, Eleanor – (c1744 – 1772)
British vocalist and stage actress
Born Eleanor Radley, she made her first appearance in the theatre as Nysa in, Midas (1767). Eleanor Radley first appeared at Drury Lane Theatre as Leonora in, The Padlock (1768), which was to become one of her favourite roles. Eleanor appeared with Sophia Baddeley in, The Jubilee, and Baddeley was so impressed with her performance that she made a gift to the girl of the jewels she was wearing. Shakespearean roles followed, and she was married (1771) to the musician, William Fitzgerald (died 1780). Contemporariesd were much impressed by her vocal talent, and the Gentleman’s Magazine called her the ‘songstress of nature.’ She continued to work though she was sufferring from dropsy. Eleanor Fitzgerald died (Aug 11, 1772) at Richmond.

Fitzgerald, Elizabeth – (1528 – 1589)
English beauty and poetic muse
Better known as the ‘Fair Geraldine,’ she was born at Maynooth, Kildare, the youngest daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl of Kildare, and his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Grey, marquess of Dorset. Brought to Beaumanoir Palace, Hertfordshire, England by her mother (1533) she joined the household of the Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, at Hunsdon (1538). Later she served as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Catharine Howard (1540 – 1542) at Hampton Court. There she renewed an earlier association with Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. In 1540 Surrey began the series of songs and sonnets first printed in Miscellany (1557), in which he praised her beauty and poured out his love for her. One sonnet, referring to her education, is entitled, Description and Praise of his love Geraldine. Their relationship imitated Petrarch’s platonic association with Laura Noste. Surrey wrote a romance entitled, The Unfortunate Traveller, or the Life of Jack Wilton, and Drayton utilised these stories in his beautiful poetical epistle, The Lady Geraldine to the Earl of Surrey, first published in his Heroicall Epistle (1597).

Elizabeth married (1543) the elderly and wealthy Sir Anthony Browne (1483 – 1548). The wedding was attended by Henry VIII and Princess Mary, whilse the sermon was preached by Bishop Ridley. She later remarried to Edward Clinton, first earl of Lincoln (1512 – 1585). She was greatly in her husband’s confidence, but was on bad terms with her stepchildren. With her husband she attended upon Queen Elizabeth during her visit to Theobalds (1583). At her death, she was interred in St George’s Chapel, in Windsor Castle, Berkshire.

Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Amelie – (1920 – 1997)
British painter, printmaker, and educator
Fitzgerald was born (Oct 26, 1920) in London, a godchild of King Manoel II of Portugal and his queen, Marie Amelie d’Orleans. She was educated in London convents. During WW II she did volunteer factory work. After winning a scholarship from the London Art School in Kensington she taught briefly in a convent in Weybridge, Surrey, before she joined the staff of the City and Guilds of London Art School (1948). She served for several years as registrar and was eventually appointed as principal (1967 – 1973). After this she supported the leadership of Roger de Grey, who succeeded her in office, but his untimely death (1995) meant that Fitzgerald, already ill, had to stand in as briefly as acting principal. Elizabeth Fitzgerald died (Nov 9, 1997) in Salisbury in Wiltshire, aged seventy-seven.

Fitzgerald, Ella – (1917 – 1996)
Black American jazz and ballad vocalist
Fitzgerald was born (April 25, 1917) in Newport News, Virginia, and was raised in New York City. Fitzgerald began her career by winning a talent contest (1934), and then sang with Chick Webb’s band, performing in cabaret and with orchestras. With his death, Fitzgerald took over as bandleader for two years, before becoming a solo performer in the 1940’s. Fitzgerald received her first world wide acclaim when she performed as the leading vocalist with Norman Ganz’ Jazz at the Philharmonic series of concerts during the 1950’s.
Fitzgerald recorded many albums, both as a solo artist and together with such famous jazz musicians and singers as Louis Armstrong (1900 – 1971). Her greatest musical achievement came with a series of ‘Songbooks’ albums which showcased the works of George Gershwin, Cole Porter, and Rodgers and Hart, amongst others. Fitzgerald also appeared and sang in various films over a period of five decades including Ride ‘Em Cowboy (1941), Pete Kelly’s Blues (1955), St Louis Blues (1956), Let No Man Write My Epitaph (1960), and Listen Up: The Lives of Quincy Jones (1990). Ella Fitzgerald died (June 15, 1996) at Beverly Hills, California, aged seventy-nine.

Fitzgerald, Geraldine – (1913 – 2005)
Irish-American stage and television actress
Geraldine Fitzgerald was born in Dublin, the daughter of a solicitor, and was niece to famous actress, Shelagh Richards. Fitzgerald made her first appearance in movies in the British film, Turn of the Tide (1935), and was married to her first husband, the patrician Edward Lindsay-Hogg. Fitzgerald moved with him to reside in New York permanently (1938), and went to California in the USA to make films. They were later divorced (1946) and she remarried to Stuart Scheftel (died 1994). With the beginning of the 1960’s Fitzgerald made a comeback career as a folk-singer, her show, Streetsongs being very popular in Broadway theatres. She still made appearances on stage, and in film and television as in, The Pawnbroker (1965), Rachel, Rachel (1969), and, Echoes of Summer (1976).
Early British film credits included, The Mill on the Floss (1936), Dark Victory (1939), as the best friend of Bette Davis, and as Isabella Linton in, Wuthering Heights (1939) for which she received an Academy Award nomination. In America she made appearances in films such as, Watch on the Rhine (1943), Wilson (1944), as the First Lady, Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, Nobody Lives Here Forever (1947), Ten North Frederick (1958), and, Arthur (1981). She also appeared in several television films, Yesterday’s Child (1977) and, The Quinns (1977).
Fitzgerald was much admired for her stage role of Mary Tyrone in a revival of Eugene O’Neill’s play Long Day’s Jounrey Into Night (1971), opposite Robert Ryan, and was nominated for an Antoinette Perry Award (Tony) for her direction of the O’Neill play, Mass Appeal (1982). Apart from cameo appearances in such popular sit-coms as The Golden Girls, as an eccentric escapee, one of her last film roles were as the psychic grandmother in Poltergeist II: The Other Side (1986), and the ruthless grandmother in the musical comedy, Arthur 2: On the Rocks (1988) with Dudley Moore, Liza Minelli, and Sir John Gielgud, famous for the line “Don’t fuck with us Arthur, we’re ruthless people! ”  Geraldine Fitzgerald died in New York, aged ninety-one.

Fitzgerald, Marion – (1860 – 1918)
Irish war activist
Born Marion Harte, at Battlefield House, County Kerry, she was married (1878) to Robert Fitzgerald, to whom she bore two sons.  Marion Fitzgerald was involved in various philanthropic causes and was president of the Women’s National Health Association and was secretary of the Red Cross Association of Tralee. She was the Kerry VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) commandant during WW I, and for this service she was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1920). Marion Fitzgerald died (Feb 11, 1928) in Kensington, London, aged sixty-seven.

Fitzgerald, Mary Hervey, Lady – (1725 – 1815)
British society figure
Mary Hervey was the second daughter of John Hervey, Lord Hervey of Ickworth, and was sister to the second, third, and fourth Earls of Bristol. Her mother, Molly (Mary) Lepell, served at court as maid-of-honour to Caroline of Ansbach, the wife of King George II (1727 – 1760). Mary was married to an Irishman, George Fitzgerald, but the marriage remained childless, and proved so uncongenial, that Lady Mary finally seperated from her husband (1754). She later became involved in a platonic romantic liasion with John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich, whom she first met in 1759. Such was his liscentious reputation, that Lady Mary at first would have nothing to do with him, but eventually her curiosity prevailed, and she was somewhat flatterred by his continued pursuit of her. She remained aloof enough never to become Lord Sandwich’s mistress in the sexual sense, though their strange liasion lasted until she reached the age of forty (1765). Lady Fitzgerald died (April 9, 1815), aged eighty-nine, being burnt to death in a fire.

Fitzgerald, Lady Pamela (Nancy) – (1773 – 1831)
Canadian-Irishcourtier and romantic figure
Born Anne Stephanie Caroline Sims at Gander Bay, on Fogo Island, Newfoundland (1773), she was the natural daughter of a French Canadian father, Guillaume de Brixey, and an unmarried Canadian woman Mary Sims. Known ordinarily as ‘Nancy’ as a child, she was soon known always by the pet-name ‘Pamela’ which she retained the rest of her life. Pamela was long incorrectly believed to have been the illegitimate daughter of Philippe Egalite, Duc d’Orleans, cousin to Louis XVI (1774 – 1792), by his mistress, the Comtesse de Genlis, who was governess to his children. This identification was believed because she was raised by Madame de Genlis in the royal household, sharing her education from 1782 with the future King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) and his sister Princess Adelaide. Madame de Genlis and the duc did indeed have a natural child, now correctly identified as Fortunee Elisabeth Hermine de Compton, later Madame Collard (1776 – 1822).
Pamela accompanied Madame de Genlis to England during the Revolution (1791), and is said to have refused an offer of marriage from the noted playwright, Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Whilst fleeing to Tournai as an émigré (1792) she was accompanied by the famous Irish patriot and rebel, Lord Edward Fitzgerald (1763 – 1798), who married her in that city, in the prescence of the Prince Louis Philippe. She accompanied him back to Ireland and bore him three children. The marriage proved congenial to both parties, though Lady Pamela refrained from becoming involved with her husband’s political schemes. With Lord Edward’s eventual arrest and death (June 4, 1798), Lady Pamela was exiled from Ireland and retired to Hamburg, her children being raised by their maternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Leinster (Emilia Mary Lennox). Pamela remained in Hamburg, where she eventually remarried (1800) to the American consul there, Mr Pitcairn. The couple had a daughter, Mrs Helen Pitcairn McCorquodale (1801 – after 1835), but they later lived apart. She later visited Paris under an assumed name, to evade creditors (1812), and at this time resided at the Abbaye-aux-Bois and at Montauban, as a guest of the Duc de La Force. From 1820 to 1830 she resided quietly in Toulouse, and revisited Paris at the time of Madame de Genlis’s death (1830).  Lady Pamela died (Nov, 1831) in Paris in straitened financial circumstances, aged fifty-eight. Her funeral at the cemetery of Montmartre was attended by Charles Maurice, Prince de Talleyrand, at the behest of King Louis Philippe. Her grandchildren later had Pamela’s remained disinterred and taken to England, where she was reburied with her English family at Thams Ditton (1880). Her children were,

Fitzgerald, Pegeen – (1910 – 1989)
Irish-American radio broadcaster
Born Margaret Worrall, in Norcatur, Kansas, and was raised in Portland, Oregon, where she attended secondary school. She later attended college in Winona, Minnesota, and then travelled to France, to finish her education at the Sorbonne in Paris. Pegeen became the wife (1930) of the actor and radio commentator, Ed Fitzgerald (born 1898), who was then employed as a journalist. She initially worked as an advertising manager for a New York department store, before obtaining her own radio program entitled, Here’s Looking at You (1940). She then organized the female discussion program Pegeen Prefers, and later joined forces with her husband, and they became famous with radio audiences as the husband and wife pair in the programs The Fitzgeralds, and, Dinner with the Fitzgeralds.

Fitzgerald, Penelope Mary – (1916 – 2001)
British novelist and biographer
Penelope Knox was born at Lincoln, the daughter of Edward Knox, the editor of Punch magazine, and was granddaughter to two Anglican clergymen. She was educated at Oxford.
Fitzgerald wrote several well known novels such as, The Bookshop (1978), which was set within a rural community in Suffolk, and, Off-shore (1979) which dealt with the hazards faced by a family who resided aboard a barge on the Thames River, and for which she was awarded the Booker Prize. Fitzgerald’s biographical works included, Edward Burne-Jones (1975), and, Charlotte Mew and her Friends (1984). Her later works included the historical novel, The Beginning of Spring (1988), the romantic tale, The Gate of Angels (1990), and, The Blue Flower (1995), a fictionalized account of the the life of the German poet Novalis (Fritz von Hardenburg), which won the American National Book Critics fiction award (1998). She was awarded the Heywood Hill Prize (1996), in recognition of her lieftime contribution to literature. Penelope Fitzgerald died (April 28, 2000) aged eighty.

Fitzgerald, Shara Kennedy – (1972 – 2004)
Australian health activist
Fitzgerald was born (Jan 9, 1972) in Melbourne, Victoria, and was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis in early childhood (1974). She managed to survive and travelled extensively throughout Europe and the Middle East, before ill-health forced her to finally return (1995). Fitzgerald then worked with the organization Cystic Fibrosis Victoria, as her health continued to deteriorate. Shara Fitzgerald died on her thirty-second birthday (Jan 9, 2004) in Melbourne, Victoria, having married her fiance at her hospital bed four days previously.

Fitzgerald, Lady Sophia – (1761 – 1845)
Irish philanthropist and letter writer
Lady Sophia Fitzgerald was the daughter of John Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster and his wife Lady Emilia Mary Lennox, the daughter of Charles, second Duke of Richmond (the grandson of Charles II and Louise de Keroualle). She was the sister of the famous patriot Lord Edward Fitzgerald (died 1798). Lady Sophia never married and was revered because of her charitable and philanthropic work for various institutions which aided the poor and distressed. Extracts from her diary and that of her sister Lucy, Lady Foley, were published in Edward and Pamela Fitzgerald: Being Some Account of Their Lives, Compiled From the Letters of Those Who Knew Them (1904). Lady Sophia Fitzgerald died (March 21, 1845) aged eighty-three.

Fitzgerald, Zelda Sayre – (1900 – 1948)
American novelist and painter
Zelda Sayre was born in Montgomery, Alabama, the daughter of a Supreme Court judge. She was educated at home and then attedned a local secondary school. Zelda became the wife (1920) of the famous novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940), author of The Great Gatsby (1925), whom she survived. Zelda was a talented writer, the author of, Save Me the Waltz (1932), and she was also known as an artist of some note, examples of her work being exhibited in New York (1933). Beautiful and extravagant, Zelda sufferred from mental instability and was hopsitalized several times after severe nervous breakdowns. She spent much time in various sanitariums, most notably at the Highland Hospital in Asheville, where she remained until 1940, when her husband died after sufferring a sudden heart attack. Zelda’s condition remained unimproved, though she began work on a second novel, Caesar’s Things, which remained uncompleted at her death. She suffered another mental collapse in 1947 and returned to Asheville. Zelda died tragically there in a fire, which killed nine other women.

FitzGibbon, Theodora – (1916 – 1991)
Irish cookery specialist and writer
FitzGibbon was born in London, England. She served cookery editor with the Irish Times publication, and wrote over thirty books. Theodora established herself in a relationship (1938) with the artist and photographer, Peter Rose Pulham, in Paris and London. Her first husabnd (1944) was an American army officer, Constantine FitzGibbon, and her second was the film maker George Morrison. Most important of her work was the series which began with, A Taste of Ireland (1959), the photographs for which were chosen by her second husband. FitzGibbon later released her work, Food of the Western World (1976), and the autobiography, With Love (1982), considered by many to be her best work. Theodora FitzGibbon died in Ireland.

FitzGilbert, Constance – (fl. c1150)
Norman literary patron
Constance was the wife of Ralph Fitzgilbert of Lincolnshire. She borrowed Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of England from her husband, and gave to to the troubadour Geoffroi Gaimar to translate into the vernacular Anglo-Norman verse as Historie des Engles. Only the second part of this work now survives, but it was the first literary work to be translated into the vernacular.

Fitzharding, Eva – (c1100 – 1173)
Anglo-Norman religious founder
Eva became the wife of Robert Fitzhardinge, Lord of Berkeley (c1096 – 1171). Eva and her husband later seperated for religious reasons, Robert becoming a canon of St Augustine, Bristol, Gloucester, whilst Eva founded the priory of St Mary Magdalene, at St Michaels’ Hill, Bristol. Eva later retired there and ultimately became prioress. Surviving charter references seem to indicate that Eva’s foundation was originally a hospital, and that the nuns were later organized to manage this establishment, and a convent built to house them. The anniversay of her death (March 13) was celebrated by the giving of alms to fifty poor men.

Fitzhardinge, Barbara Villiers, Lady – (1653 – 1708)
English Stuart courtier
Barbara Villiers was the daughter of Sir Edward Villiers, governor to the Duke of Gloucester, the only surviving child of the future Queen Anne, and his wife Lady Barbara Howard, the daughter of Theophilus Howard, second Earl of Suffolk. She was married to John Berkeley, Viscount Fitzhardinge (1650 – 1712). Lady Fitzhardinge was the governess to the princesses Mary and Anne, daughters of James II and nieces to Charles II. She served at court during the presidence of Sarah Churchill, the famous duchess of Marlborough, favourite to Queen Anne. According to contemporary gossip, the two women despised each other, and Lady Fitzhardinge is said to have been the one who brought the news of the poverty which was endured by her kinswoman Abigail Hill (later Lady Masham), to the attention of the duchess during an angry exchange in a court ante-room, when the duchess had slapped her face. Lady Fitzhardinge died (Sept 19, 1708), aged fifty-one, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, London.

Fitzhenry, Elizabeth – (c1730 – 1790)
Irish actress
Born Elizabeth Flanagan in Dublin, she was the daughter of an taverner. She was married to a sea captain, John Gregory. With the deaths of both husband and father, she went on the stage in order to make a living for herself. After initial success on the stage in Dublin, she went to England, where she appeared in the role of Hermione in, The Distrest Wife at Covent Garden in London (1754). She then returned to Dublin for two years at Smock Alley (1754 – 1756), where she also appeared as Zara in the, Mourning Bride, and Volumnia in, Coriolanus. She remarried to a lawyer, Edward Fitzhenry, and thenceforward appeared on stage under her married name. During the 1760’s she played more mature roles and was engaged by David Garrick, but her skills appear to have deteriorated, and she finally returned to Ireland (1767). Widowed in 1772, she finally retired in 1774.

Fitzherbert, Elizabeth Marshall, Lady – (c1433 – c1491)
English Plantagenet noblewoman
Elizabeth Marshall was the daughter of John Marshall of Upton in Leicestershire, and became the wife of Sir Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury in Derbyshire to whom she bore many children. Lady Fitzherbert was buried in the Church of Nobury, where her well preserved alabaster monument, her effigy complete with the butterfyly headdress of the period, and a tiny Virgin and Child hanging about her neck. Her sixth son was the famous Tudor judge Sir Anthony Fitzherbert (1470 – 1538). He was married twice and left descendants and was buried with his father and mother at Norbury.

Fitzherbert, Margaret Waugh – (1942 – 1986)
British author
Margaret Fitzherbert was the daughter of novelist Evelyn Waugh and Frances Laura Charteris (later the duchess of Marlborough). She wrote The Man Who was Greenmantle, a biography of her grandfather Aubrey Herbert and Forty Martyrs (1960) a research work on the Jesuits.

Fitzherbert, Maria Anne – (1756 – 1837)
British semi-royal, the morganatic first wife of George, Prince of Wales (George IV)
Maria Anne Smythe was born (July, 1756) at Tong Castle, Shropshire, into an old Roman Catholic family, the elder daughter of Walter Smythe of Brambridge, Hampshire. Maria was educated with the Ursuline nuns in Paris, her first marriage to Edward Weld, of Lulworth Castle, Dorset, proved brief and chilldess. The death of her second husband, Thomas Fitzherbert (1781) also left her a childless widow, with independent financial means. This enabled Maria to enter high society in London, where she was first presented to the Prince of Wales (1784).
The prince fell in love with her, and he and Maria were secretly married (1785). However, though canonically valid, the marriage contravened the Royal Marriage Act (1772) instituted by George III, and as Mrs Fitzherbert was also a Roman Catholic, the marriage was not regarded as legal. It remained childless. Apart from the short period (1795 – 1796) when the prince was forced to marry his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick, Maria Anne continued to reside with him as his wife until 1803, when she left him permanently. Members of the royal family, including George III and Queen Charlotte, Frederick, the Duke of York, and William IV and Queen Adelaide, always treated Maria with great kindness. During the latter part of her life she resided at Richmond Hill. At the time of his death (1830), King George was found to have a locket containing her picture around his neck. She declined the offer of his brother, William IV (1830 – 1837) to create her a duchess. Maria Fitzherbert died (March 26, 1837) at Brighton, aged eighty.

Fitzhugh, Alice – (c1455 – 1516)
English mediaeval heiress
Alice Fitzhugh was the eldest daughter of Henry Fitzhugh (1428 – 1472) the fourth Baron Fitzhugh and his wife Lady Alice Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury and Alice de Montacute. She became the wife (1466) of Sir John Fiennes (died 1483) and was the mother of Thomas Fiennes (1471 – 1533) the first Baron Dacre. Alice survived her husband for over three decades (1483 – 1516) as the Dowager Lady Fiennes. With the death of her nephew George Fitzhugh (1512) the seventh Baron Fitzhugh, Lady Fiennes and her nephew Sir Thomas Parr (son of her sister Elizabeth Fitzhugh) were found to be his next heirs, and between those two the barony of Fitzhugh fell into abeyance. Sir Thomas Parr was the father of Queen Catharine Parr, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. Dame Alice Fiennes died (before July 10 in 1516).

Fitzhugh, Elizabeth – (1458 – 1507)
English Tudor courtier and literary patron
Elizabeth Fitzhugh was the daughter of Henry, fourth Baron Fitzhugh, and his wife Lady Alice Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. Elizabeth married firstly to Sir William Parr (1434 – 1483) of Northamptonshire, and secondly, to Sir Nicholas Vaux (1460 – 1523), later Baron Vaux of Harrowden, as his first wife. By her first marriage she was the mother of Sir Thomas Parr, of Kendal (1474 – 1517) and was thus paternal gradnmother of Catharine Parr, the sixth and last queen of Henry VIII (1509 – 1547). She was a friend of Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, and was actively interested in the spread of the new humanistis doctrines, which gave rise to the Protestant learning. Her portrait remains in the royal collection at Hampton Court Palace. Elizabeth Fitzhugh died aged forty-nine (before July 10, 1507).

Fitzhugh, Louise – (1928 – 1974)
Southern American juvenile novelist and illustrator
Fitzhugh was born (Oct 5, 1928) in Memphis, Tennessee. After the divorce of her parents she was raised by her father. Her first published work was the children’s book Suzuki Beane (1961) for which she produced the illustrations. Fitzhugh’s best known work was the controversial, Harriet the Spy (1964), for which she was awarded the Sequoyah Award (1967). For her novel Nobody’s Family is Going to Change, she received the Children’s Book Bulletin Award (1976) and the Children’s Workshop Other Award (1976). Louise Fitzhugh died suddenly (Nov 19, 1974) in Connecticut, New Hampshire, at the early age of forty-six.

Fitzjames, Marie Claude Sylvie de Thiard de Bisey, Duchesse de – (1752 – 1812)
French courtier
Marie Sylvie de Thiard became the wife (1769) of James Charles, third Duc de Fitzjames (1743 – 1805), a descendant of James II of England (1685 – 1688), and his mistress Arabella Churchill, the sister of the famous Stuart general, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. The duchesse attended the last years of the court of Louis XV at Versailles, which was dominated by the prescence of his mistress, Madame DuBarry, and then attended the youthful court of Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette. The duchesse survived the horrors of the Revolution and then her husband as Dowager Duchesse de Fitzjames (1805 – 1812). Her children included Edouard, who succeeded his father as fourth Duc de Fitzjames (1776 – 1838), and married twice, leaving descendants, and Henriette Victoire de Fitzjames (1770 – 1809), who became the first wife of Charles Francois Armand de La Tour-Landry, Duc de Maille (died 1837), and also left descendants. The duchesse died (June 10, 1812) aged sixty.

Fitzjames, Rosalie de Gutmann, Comtesse de – (1862 – 1923)
Jewish-French society figure
Prominent in Parisian society prior to WW I, she was born in Vienna, Austria (Feb 19, 1862), the daughter of a rich Jewish financier, and was sister to the novelist and memoirist, the Baroness de Stoeckl. Rosalie made a brilliant society marriage with Comte Robert de Fitzjames (1835 – 1900), whom she survived as Dowager Comtesse (1900 – 1923), a dsecendant of James II Stuart, King of England (1685 – 1688) and Arabella Churchill.  They remained childless. The comtesse was said to have kept a list in her desk of all the aristocratic personages who had contracted Jewish marriages. Her own Paris salon was frequented by the novelist Marcel Proust (1871 – 1922), and by Charles Haas (1832 – 1902), the noted Italian art expert. The Comtesse de Fitzjames died (Sept 25, 1923) aged sixty-one.

Fitzjames, Victoire Louise Josephe Guyon de Matignon, Duchesse de – (1722 – 1777)
French courtier
Victoire Guyon de Matignon was born (Aug 9, 1722), the daughter of the Comte de Gace. She was married (1741) to Charles, second Duc de Fitzjames (1712 – 1787), governor of the Limousin, the grandson of James II of England (1685 – 1688) and his mistress Arabella Churchill. The duchesse and her husband were prominent figures at the court of Louis XV (1715 – 1774) and are frequently mentioned in surviving letters and correspondence of the period. She left seven children, several of whom were important figures at the court of Versailles, and who were all descendants of Henry VII of England, through his great-granddaughter, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Her children were,

FitzJohn, Adeliza – (c1120 – 1173)
Anglo-Norman nun and literary patron
Henry II appointed Adeliza as abbess of the Benedictine abbey of Barking, in Essex. She died in office. Adeliza is probably to be idnentified with the ‘Anonymous Nun of Barking’ who commissioned the Life of St Edward the Confessor (La Vie d’Edouard le Confesseur), which was an adaptation of the original biography written by the English Cistercian monk, Aelred of Reivaulx.

Fitzpatrick, Aileen – (1897 – 1974)
Australian civic leader, and social work pioneer and educator
Fitzpatrick was born (Aug 17, 1897) in Warialda, New South Wales and was educated at Sydney University, where she was trained as a schoolteacher. She remained unmarried. Aileen Fitzpatrick became a member of the National Council of Women, and also became general secretary of the NSW CWA (Country Women’s Association). She visited Europe, England, and the USA, and was placed in charge of professional social work training in NSW, and was a founder of the Australian Council of Schools of Social Work. Aileen Fitzpatrick died (June 23, 1974) in Sydney, aged seventy-six.

Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Elizabeth – (1905 – 1990)
Australian historian
Born Kathleen Pitt (Sept 7, 1905) at Omeo, in Victoria, she was educated by nuns at Lauriston in Melbourne, before attending Melbourne University, and Oxford in England. She was trained as a teacher. Her marriage to the noted journalist and historian, Brian Fitzpatrick (1905 – 1965) was of brief duration and ended in divorce. Kathleen Fitzpatrick taught history at Melbourne University for over three decades (1930 – 1962), and was appointed associate professor of history (1938). She was the first woman to become a council member of the National Library of Australia, and was the author of several works such as Sir John Franklin in Tasmania (1949), and Australian Explorers (1958). She also published a volume of memoirs entitled, Solid Bluestone Foundations (1983). Kathleen Fitzpatrick died (Aug 27, 1990) aged eighty-four.

Fitzrichard, Margaret    see  also   Stodeye, Margaret

Fitzrichard, Margaret – (fl. c1141 – 1153)
English medieval religious patron and founder
Together with her second husband, Hugh FitzRichard, a former crusader to Palestine, and their son Robert FitzHugh, Margaret founded the nunnery of Wroxall in Warwickshire. FitzRichard had returned to England after having spent some time in prison in the east. Margaret and two of their daughters became nuns at Wroxall.

Fitzrichard, Matilda    see    St Liz, Matilda de

Fitzrobert, Joan   see   Engaine, Joan

Fitzroy, Lady Barbara – (1672 – 1737)
English Stuart royal
Lady Barbara was born (July 16, 1672) at Cleveland House, St Martin’s-in-the-Field, London, the youngest illegitimate daughter of Charles II (1660 – 1685) and huis mistress Barbara Villiers, the duchess of Cleveland. Most people, including King Charles himself, belived Barbara to have been fathered by the young John Churchill, later the famous Duke of Marlborough. Charles II did not acknowledge Barbara as his daughter, though she was known as Lady Barbara Fitzroy all her life. Raised at first by a governess in her mother’s home, she was later placed with the Blue Nuns in Paris (Order of the Conception) (1677), to whom the duchess made a generous cash donation. There she was joined by two cousins, Jane Darrell (1659 – 1739), who ultimately became abbess (1723), and her elder sister Barbara Darrell (died 1679), who died young.
Lady Barbara later became mistress of James Douglas, the Scottish Earl of Arran, and was the mother of his illegitimate son, Charles Hamilton (1691 – 1754).  A marriage never eventuated because of the vehement opposition to any such match put up by Arran’s parents, despite Barbara’s royal connections, and Queen Mary II was so scandalized that she ordered Barbara to remove to a convent. Her son Charles was raised by her mother, Barbara Villiers, was greatly loved by his natural father, and became an historian of some literary distinction. Lady Barbara accordingly retired to France (1692) and became a nun as Sister Benedicte at the priory of St Nicolas (Hotel Dieu) at Pontoise, Normandy. She was later appointed as prioress. Lady Barbara Fitzroy died (May 6, 1737) at Pontoise, aged sixty-four. Her body was removed to England, where she was interred within the collegiate church of Manchester, Lancashire.

Fitzroy, Lady Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria – (1651 – 1684)
English Stuart royal
Lady Charlotte Fiztroy was the illegitimate daughter of Charles II, King of England (1660 – 1685) and his mistress Elizabeth Killigrew, later the wife of Francis Boyle, first Viscount Shannon. She received her last two names in honour of her royal grandmother the Dowager Queen Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. she was married firstly (1669) to James Howard (1649 – 1669), the grandson of Theophilus Howard, third Earl of Suffolk to whom she bore a daughter Stuarta Werburga Howard (1669 – 1706) who served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary Beatrice, the wife of James II (1685 – 1688) and died unmarried.
With Howard’s death (July, 1669) King Charles arranged for Charlotte to marry secondly (1672) to William Paston (1653 – 1732), the second Earl of Yarmouth, as his first wife and became the Countess of Yarmouth. Having been born abroad during the king’s exile in Europe the countess was naturalized by Act of Parliament (1675). Lady Yarmouth died suddenly (July 28, 1684) aged thirty-three, at her house in Pall Mall. She was interred within Westminster Abbey in London (Aug 14) ‘without any arms of her own, the king, her father not having assigned her any in her lifetime.’

Fitzroy, Constance – (c1110 – c1160)
Norman noblewoman and royal progenatrix
Constance Fitzroy was the illegitimate daughter of King Henry I of England (1100 – 1135) and an unknown concubine. The chronicler Robert de Thorigny called her Mathildem (Maud) but a surviving charter names her Constance. Her father gave her in marriage (c1125) to his Norman vassal Roscelin II (c1105 – 1176), Viscount of Maine and Beaumont, and provided her with lands at South Tawton in Devonshire as her dowry. Constance bore Roscelin two sons including Richard of Maine (c1130 – 1194), Viscount de Beaumont whose daughter Ermengarde de Beaumont became the wife of William I the Lion, King of Scotland (1165 – 1214).

Fitzroy, Mary     see   Richmond, Mary Howard, Duchess of

Fitzroy, Mary Lennox, Lady – (1790 – 1847)
British colonial diplomatic and social figure
Lady Mary Lennox was the eldest daughter of Charles Lennox (1764 – 1819), fourth Duke of Richmond, and his wife, Lady Charlotte Gordon (1768 – 1842), the daughter of Alexander, fourth Duke of Gordon. Through her father she was a descendant of King Charles II (1660 – 1685) and his French mistress, Louise Renee de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. Lady Mary was married (1820) to Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy (1796 – 1858), as his first wife. Lady Fitzroy accompanied her husband to the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, where he had been appointed as deputy adjutant-general (1825 – 1831), after which they returned to England. With Sir Charles’s retirement from the army (1837) the couple lived quietly until he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1837 – 1841). Mary accompanied him on his next posting to the Leeward Islands (1841 – 1846), and lastly to Sydney in New South Wales, Australia, when he was appointed governor-general (1846). She travelled to Australia with him and their eldest son aboard the HMS Carysfort (1846). Famous for her grace, dignity, and charm, Lady Mary travelled much in New South Wales, crossing the Blue Mountains, and went as far as Carcoar and Molong. Lady Fitzroy was killed (Nov 7, 1847) in a freak carriage accident in the grounds of Government House, Parramatta, aged fifty-seven. She left four children,

Fitzwalter, Elizabeth – (1430 – 1485)
English Planatagenet peeress
Elizabeth Fitzwalter was born (July 28, 1430) at Hexham, the only child of Walter (1401 – 1431), seventh Baron Fitzwalter, and his wife Elizabeth Chidiock, the widow of William Massey, and later the wife of Sir Thomas Cobham, of Sterborough, Surrey. With the death of her father when she was less than a year old Elizabeth she inherited the ancient feudal barony of Fitzwalter becoming the righth Baroness Fitzwalter (1431 – 1485).
Her paternal grandmother, Eleanor de Dagworth, wife of the third Baron Fitzwalter, was the great-granddaughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) through his youngest surviving daughter Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford. Elizabeth Fitzwalter was married firstly to John Radcliffe (died 1461), being killed at Ferrybridge before the battle of Towton, fighting for the Yorkists. She was married secondly (1467) to John, Lord Dinham. This marriage remained childless. Her eldest son from her first marriage, John Radcliffe (1452 – 1496), succeeded her as ninth Baron Fitzwalter (1485 – 1496) and left descendants. He was executed by Henry VII for his part in the Perkin Warbeck rebellion. Elizabeth Fitwalter died (before Aug 22, 1485).

Fitzwalter, Elizabeth Chidiock, Baroness    see   Chidiock, Elizabeth

Fitzwalter, Elizabeth Stafford, Lady – (1480 – 1529)
English Tudor courtier
Lady Elizabeth Stafford was the elder daughter of Henry Stafford, second Duke of Buckingham, and his wife Catherine Woodville, the daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, first Earl Rivers. Her mother was a younger sister of Elizabeth Woodville, the queen consort of Edward IV (1461 – 1483), and the younger sister of Edward Stafford, third and last Duke of Buckingham.
Lady Elizabeth’s father was executed for treason during her childhood (1483) and she remained in the care of her mother, who remarried to Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, the uncle of Henry VII. Elizabeth then attended the court of her cousin, Elizabeth of York, as maid-of-honour until her own marriage (1505) with Robert Radcliffe (1483 – 1542), Baron Fitzwalter (1525), as his first wife. Lord Fitzwalter was ennobled as viscount Fitzwalter (1525), and then as first Earl of Sussex (Dec 8, 1529) by Henry VIII, only after Elizabeth’s death. With the accession of Henry VIII (1509) Lady Fitzwalter was appointed to attend the court as lady-in-waiting to Catherine of Aragon.
A deeply devout woman, greatly conscious of the dignity of her family, she considered the king’a smorous advances towards her younger sister, Anne, Countess of Huntingdon, as a slight to her family honour. Fearing Lady Huntingdon would agree to become the king’s mistress, Lady Fitzwalter informed their brother, the Duke of Buckingham of the events taking place. The duke ordered the countess from court and forced her into a convent for a period. King, Henry, angry at Lady Fitzwalter’s interference, dismissed her from the court and his wife’s household, though eventually, both sisters were permitted to return to the court. Her children included,

Fitzwilliam, Ellen – (1822 – 1880)
British stage actress
Ellen Chaplin was the eldest daughter of Thomas Acton Chaplin, and made her first stage appearance at the Adelphi Theatre in London in the play, Die Hexen am Rhein (1841). She became the wife of the composer, Edward Francis Fitzwilliam, and was daughter-in-law, to the actress Fanny Elizabeth Fitzwilliam. For over two decades she worked for the company of J.B. Buckstone at the Haymarket Theatre, and later made an extremely successful tour of Australia (1877). There she worked at the Academy of Music in Mlebourne, Victoria, before joining the Lingard Company. Ellen Fitzwilliam was taken ill whilst she was travelling to New Zealand to work, and died (Oct 19, 1880) in Auckland, aged fifty-eight.

Fitzwilliam, Fanny Elizabeth – (1801 – 1854)
British stage actress, vocalist, and theatre manager
Born Fanny Copeland in Dover, she was the daughter of a theatrical manager, and she made her first appearance on the stage in early childhood. Her first appearance on the London stage was as Lucy in the Review (1817) at the Haymarket Theatre. Later engaged by Thomas Dibdin she appeared in the Surrey Theatre as Madge Wildfire in the, Heart of Midlothian, and was particularly admired in the title role of, Florence Macarthy (1819), which was produced by Dibdin. She made her first appearance at Drury Lane as the original Adeline in, Adeline or the Victim of Seduction (1822), written by Howard Payne and soon afterwards was married to the actor, Edmund Fitzwilliam. Long attached to the Adelphi Theatre, where she appeared with great success in the ballad burletta, Pet of the Petticoats, and was popular in the role of Lady Teazle. Fanny Fitzwilliam later took over the management of the Sadler’s Wells Theatre (1832) and later made a travelling tour of the USA (1837), where she performed in New York, Boston, New Orleans, and Havana in Cuba, with great success. With her return to England, Fitzwilliam made several provincial tours before returing to the Haymarket, where she remained the rest of her career. Fanny Fitzwilliam died in London (Sept 11, 1854) of cholera, aged fifty-two, and was interred in Kensal Green Cemetery.

Fitzwilliam, Mary Grace Louise Butler, Lady – (1846 – 1929)
British courtier
Lady Mary Butler was born (March 7, 1846), the elder daughter of John Butler (1808 – 1854) second Marquess of Ormonde and his wife Frances Jane Paget, the daughter of General Hon. (Honourable) Sir Edward Paget (1775 – 1849). She became the wife (1877) to the Hon. William Henry Fitzwilliam (1840 – 1920) of Wigganthorp in Yorkshire and became Lady Fitzwilliam (1877 – 1920). She bore her husband three children. Lady Mary Fitzwilliam attended the court of Queen Victoria where she was appointed as Extra Lady-in-waiting to the queen’s daughter-in-law Maria Alexandrovna, the wife of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Fitzwilliam (1920 – 1929). Lady Fitzwilliam died (Jan 17, 1929) aged eighty-two. Her children were,

Fitzwilliam, Maud Frederica Elizabeth Dundas, Countess – (1877 – 1967)
British scout commander and civic leader
Lady Maud Dundas was born (July 9, 1877), the younger daughter of Sir Lawrence Dundas (1844 – 1929), the first Marquess of Zetland, and his wife Lady Lilian Lumley, the daughter of William Lumley, the ninth Earl of Scarborough. Lady Maud was married (1896) to William Charles de Meuron Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, Viscount Milton (1872 – 1943), who succeeded his father as seventh Earl Fitzwilliam (1902 – 1943), to whom she bore three children. Lady Fitzwilliam attended the court during the last years of Queen Victoria, and was a prominent courtier to Edward VII (1901 – 1910) and George V (1910 – 1935). During WW I, Lady Fitzwilliam served with at the front organizing military hospitals, and was a C St. J (Commander of St John of Jerusalem). She later served as national president of the British Legion. Her work was recognized by George V who appointed her OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1920). She also served for two decades as Scout Commander for South Yorkshire (1921 – 1940). Lady Fitzwilliam survived her husband for over two decades (1943 – 1967) as the Dowager Countess Fitzwilliam. The Countess died (March 15, 1967) aged eighty-nine, at Malton, Yorkshire. Her children were,

Fiveash, Rosa Catherine – (1854 – 1938)
Australian botanical illustrator, painter, and educator
Rosa Fiveash was born in Adelaide, South Australia, the daughter of Robert Fiveash.  She received her instruction in illustration from the noted ornithologist, A. Benham, and studied under H.P. Gill at the Adelaide School of Design. Fiveash was best known for her splendid illustrations which she completed for several reference books on ornithology, and for her specimens of Australian wildflowers, most particularly wild orchids. She later established herself as a successful china painter and art teacher. Examples of her work are preserved in the South Australian Museum and in the Art Gallery of South Australia.

Fjose, Bergfrid – (1915 – 2004)
Norwegian politician
Fjose was born (March 31, 1915) in Ullensvang. She joined the Christian People’s Party, and later served as minister of Social Affairs (1972 – 1973). Bergfrid Fjose died (May 13, 2004) aged seventy-nine.

Flaccilla, Aelia Flavia – (c358 – 387 AD)
Roman Augusta (379 – 387 AD)
Aelia Flavia Flaccilla was born in Spain, the daughter of the consul Antonius, the prefect of Gaul and was the maternal aunt of Nebridius (died c400 AD), the husband of Salvina, the daughter of Gildo the Mauretanian chieftain. Flaccilla became the first wife (376 AD) of the emperor Theodosius I ‘the Great’ and was the mother of his sons, the emperors Arcadius (377 – 408 AD) and his younger brother Honorius (384 – 423 AD). After her husband was hailed as emperor (379 AD), Flaccilla travelled to Constantinople, where her younger son was born ‘in the purple.’ Herself a Christian she may have had something to do with her husband’s conversion (380 AD), and was said to be one of the few people who could curb his fiery and violent temper. Empress Flaccilla had devoted herself to helping the poor and waited on the sick in public hospitals, without guards or attendants. She interested herself in the plight of prisoners, and personally interceded on their behalf.
The empress died (Sept 14, 387 AD) at Scotumin in Thrace, where she had gone to benefit from the mineral baths. St Gregory of Nyssa pronounced her funeral oration, and the Greek Church honoured Flaccilla as a saint (Sept 14). The Palladium Flaccillianum in Constantinople (built c385 AD) was named in her honour, and Themistius in his Orationes recorded that her statue was set up in the Senate. The empress was portrayed on the coinage as the goddess Victory.

Flack, Marjorie – (1897 – 1958)
American children’s illustrator and author
Flack was born (Oct 23, 1897) in Greenport, Long Island, New York. Her first husband was the Swedish born artist, Karl Larsson (died 1967), whom she divorced, and married secondly to the poet, William Rose Benet (1886 – 1950). Marjorie Flack’s works included Taktuk, An Arctic Boy (1928), Angus and the Ducks (1930), The Story about Ping (1933), which introduced the popular character, Captain Kangaroo, Topsy (1935), and Walter, the Lazy Mouse (1937), amongst other stories for children. Her illustrations appeared in works such as The Country Bunny and the Little Gold Shoes (1939) and Adolphus, the Adopted Dolphin (1941). Marjorie Flack died (Aug 29, 1958) aged sixty.

Flagstad, Kirsten Malfrid – (1895 – 1962)
Norwegian soprano
Flagstad was born (July 12, 1895) in Hamar, into a family of musicians, the daughter of Michael Flagstad, and studied in Stockholm and in Oslo. She made her operatic debut at the National Theatre at Oslo, in the role of Nuri in Eugen d’Albert’s production of Tiefland (1913), and remained in her native Scandinavia for the next two decades. Flagstad only achieved world wide acclaim after she became known as an international Wagnerian soprano at Bayreuth in the early 1930’s. Possessed of an extremely powerful voice, Flagstad performed Siegelinde at Bayreuth (1934) and Isolde in New York (1935) and made many highly successful world tours. Her final performance in America was in the title role of Gluck’s, Alceste (1952), whilst her last in London was in Henry Purcell’s, Dido and Aeneas. Flagstad’s reputation sufferred when her second husband, Henry Johansen, joined the Nazi Party of Norway (Quisling) and her performances in the USA were often picketed by protesters. She was later appointed as the first director of the Norwegian State Opera (1958 – 1960) and many recordings were made of her singing. Kirsten Flagstad died (Dec 7, 1962) in Oslo, aged sixty-five.

Flahault, Adelaide de Filleul, Comtesse de    see   Souza, Adelaide Marie Emilie de

Flahault de La Billarderie, Margaret Mercer Elphinstone, Comtesse de – (1788 – 1867)
Scottish-French society figure
Margaret Mercer Elphinstone was born (June 12, 1788) in Hertford Street, Mayfair, London, the only child of George Keith, Viscount Elphinstone, and his first wife Jane Mercer. During her youth she was the close friend and confidante to the Princess Charlotte, only child of the Prince Regent. Gossip accused her of betraying the princess’s confidence to her father, but Margaret successfully refuted this rumour. Margaret was married (1817) in Edinburgh, Scotland, to Comte Auguste Charles Joseph de Flahault (1785 – 1870) aide-de-camp to the emperor Napoleon I, and natural grandson of Louis XV of France (1715 – 1774), to whom she bore five daughters, three of whom died unmarried. Madame de Flahault held a prominent place in European society, and accompanied her husband to various royal courts when he was posted as ambassador to Rome and Vienna, and (1860) to the court of Queen Victoria at St James’s Palace. She participated in all his social and political activities, and many references to her liberal hospitality can be found in the letters and diary of the poet Thomas Moore, and other contemporary letters and memoirs.
The comtesse died (Nov 11, 1867) in Paris, aged seventy-nine. Madame de Flahault had succeeded her childless cousin William Nairne (1837) as Baroness Nairne and Baroness Keith of Banheath, in Dumbarton, Scotland. At her death these titles were inherited by her eldest daughter Emily Jane (1819 – 1895), the wife of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne. Her third daughter Georgiana Gabrielle (1822 – 1907) became the wife of the French marquis de Lavalette, and left descendants.

Flaitel, Ermengarde de – (c1025 – c1080)
Norman-Anglo artistocrat
Ermengarde de Flaitel was the wife of Walter I Giffard (c1020 – before 1085), Seigneur of Longueville-en-Soie, in Mortemer, Normandy. Their two sons carved out impressive careers for themselves in England during the reigns of William Rufus (1087 – 1100) and Henry I (1100 – 1135). Ermengarde left four children,

Flamarens, Anne Agnes de Beauvau, Marquise de – (1699 – 1743)
French courtier
Anne de Beauvau was related to the Prince de Craon. She was married (1717) to Agesilas de Grossolles, Marquis de Flamarens, and was a prominent figure during the notorious Regency period (1717 – 1723), and during the reign of Louis XV (1715 – 1774) at Versailles. Madame de Flamarens was a member of the salon of the famous hostess the Marquise Du Deffand.

Flammel, Perrenelle – (c1322 – 1397)
French alchemist
Born Perrenelle de Lethas, and had been widowed twice before she finally married the wealthy scribe, Nicolas Flammel, as her third husband. Their joint interest in mysticism began when Nicolas obtained a copy of the famous ancient alchemical and occult volume known as the Book of Abraham. Perrenelle conducted joint scientific experiments with her husband over a twenty year period, using the book as a guide, but were not successful. After collaborating with a Jewish physician from Spain, named Canche, the couple claimed to have discovered the secret process of turning mercury into pure silver (1382), their success being generally accepted by their contemporaries. They were also believed to have discovered the elixir for longevity, which lent their prescence to several legends. The couple used their new found wealth for philanthropic purposes, and endowed hospitals and churches.

Flanagan, Ellen Mary Harper – (1859 – 1936)
Australian political activist
Born Ellen Jones in Sydney, New South Wales, she attended St Mary’s Cathedral School there. She trained as a teacher and was married twice, bearing several children. Ellen Flanagan soon joined the Labour League, and wished for a more fulfilling career than motherhood. She campaigned for female suffrage and spoke at public meetings in the Domain in inner Sydney, for which she sufferred disparagement by the Bulletin newspaper.

Flanagan, Hallie Mae Ferguson – (1890 – 1969)
American theatre producer and educator
Hallie Mae Ferguson was born (Aug 27, 1890) in Redfield, South Dakota, and graduated from Grinnell College in Iowa. She was married (1912) was Murray Flanagan, to whom she bore two sons before his early death (1919). After this she attended Radcliffe College to study theatre. Hallie Flanagan then became a highschool teacher and won a cash prize for her pkay The Curtain. This enabled her to join the 47 Workshop for dramatists, established by George Baker at Harvard. Flanagan was appointed to head the Federal Theater of the New Deal’s W.P.A. (1935 – 1939) later closed down due to the ridiculous fears of the Committee on Un-American Activities. The story of the Federal theater was recorded by her in her book, Arena (1940) and she then served during WW II as the dean of Smith College (1942 – 1946). She was the author of memoirs entitled Shifting Scenes (1928). Hallie Flanagan died (July 23, 1969) at Old Tappan, New Jersey, aged seventy-eight.

Flanagan, Pauline – (1925 – 2003)
Irish stage actress
Flanagan was born (June 29, 1925) into a fiercely Republican family, with close political ties, the daughter of the Lord Mayor of Sligo. She was educated at the convent of the Ursuline Order in that city. She received an Olivier Award (2001) for her performance in the play, Dolly West’s Kitchen, written by Frank McGuiness. Pauline Flanagan died (June 28, 2003) aged seventy-seven.

Flandrina – (fl. c1225 – 1248)
Anglo-Norman medieval nun
Flandrina was elected and served as the Abbess of Godstow in Oxon (1241 – 1248). Flandrina was later deposed from office, though the reason for her demotion remains unknown.

Flanner, Janet – (1892 – 1978) 
American journalist and war correspondent
Flanner was born (March 13, 1892) in Indianapolis, Indiana, and was privately educated at home. She was the elder sister of Hildegarde Flanner. Janet attended the University of Chicago and travelled to Europe (1925), where she resided mainly in France for the next five decades, only returning to the USA briefly for refuge during the upheavals of WW II. In Paris, she wrote articles under the pseudonym ‘Genet’ as correspondent for the New Yorker, and later went on the public lecture circuit. These letters were later edited in two volumes as, Paris Letters (1966 – 1971). She received the National Book Award (1966). Flanner was a member of the group of literary and lesbian women established in Paris, and was a friend to Natalie Barney, and the poet Djuna Barnes, amongst others. Her published works included, An American in Paris (1940) and, Men and Monuments (1957). Her correspondence with her friend Natalia Danesi Murray, formerly a member of the Office of War Information, were edited and published posthumously by Murray as Darlinghissima: Letters to a Friend (1985). Janet Flanner died in New York (Nov 7, 1978) aged eighty-six.

Flanner, Hildegarde – (1899 – 1987)
American poet, essayist, and writer
Flanner was born (June 3, 1899) in Indianapolis, Indiana, and was educated at home under the supervision of a governess. She was the younger sister of the noted journalist, Janet Flanner.
Hildegarde was later married to the architect and painter, Frederick Monhoff, with whom she resided in northern California. Her work was published under her maiden name, and these works included This Morning (1920), the collection of verse, A Tree in Bloom, and Other Verses (1924), and, Time’s Profile (1929). Her later works included A Vanishing Land and At the Gentle Mercy of Plants. Her husband died in 1975, and during her last years she worked editing the correspondence of her elder sister. Hildegarde Flanner died (May 27, 1987) in Calistoga, California, aged eighty-seven.

Flannery, Judy – (1940 – 1997)
American triathlon sportswoman
Flannery competed brilliantly in swimming, running, and cycling. Having originally trained and worked as a biochemist, she had remained home to raise her five children, and thus entered competitive sport late in life (1987). Despite this, Flannery proved extremely successful, and became the winner of six US and four world age-group championships, winning the first of her six consecutive national championships in 1991. The sport’s national governing organization, the USA Triathlon named Flannery the Master Female Triathlete of the Year (1996). Judy Flannery was killed in a road accident in Maryland, aged fifty-seven.

Flast, Florence Fassler – (1920 – 1992)
American chairwoman
Florence Fassler Flast served as the chairwoman of the Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty in New York City, and was the first national president. Born Florence Fassler in Manhattan, she attended Hunter College., and was married to Howard Flast, to whom bore him two sons. Mrs Flast received the American United Awards (1969) because of her public work to continue the seperation of church and state, and it was due to her own battle with the United States Supreme Court (1967 – 1968) that individual American taxpayers could challenge unfair tax laws in the federal court, as regarding the use of public funds for private schools. She was elected to the Hunter Hall of Fame at her old alma mater (1975). Florence Flast died of cancer (Aug 15, 1992) at Novato, California, aged seventy-one.

Flavacourt, Hortense Felicite de Mailly-Nesle, Marquise de – (1715 – 1799)
French Bourbon aristocrat and letter writer
Hortense Felicite de Mailly-Nesle was born (Feb 11, 1715), the fourth daughter of Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle, and his wife Armande Felicie, the daughter of Paul Jules de La Porte-Mazarin, Duc de Mazarin. She became the wife of Francois Marie de Fouilleuse, marquis de Flavacourt and was mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Sir Horace Walpole, who attended her salon during his visits to France. Three of her sisters, Medsames de Mailly, Vintimille, and Chateauroux had been successively mistresses to Louis XV and her husband was so jealous of Madame de Flavacourt’s beauty that when it became clear that Louis was interested in her, the marquis forcibly removed his wife from the court of Versailles. The marquise survived all her sisters, and then the horrors of the Revolution, and died (Aug 2, 1799), aged eighty-four. Some of her letters to her sister, the Duchesse de Chateauroux were published by Madame Gacon-Dufor in her two volume work Correspondence Inedite de Madame de Chateauroux (1806). Her pastel portrait by Jean Marc Nattier (1685 – 1766) has survived.

Flavia of Byzantium – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Flavia was one of the two dozen Christian women arrested and imprisoned in Constantinople, during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Her companions included Acacius, the former centurion, and Agatha and Famosa, and she was venerated with them as a saint (May 8).

Flavia Consa – (fl. c25 – c10 BC)
Early Imperial Roman patrician
Flavia Consa was the daughter of Gaius Flavius Consus, and his wife Paquia Sinnia, the daughter of Paquius Scapula. She was married to the Augustan senator Publius Paquius Scaeva, who held several public offices, including that of proconsul of Cyprus. A surviving inscription recovered at Histonum (Histoniensis) honours Publius Scaeva, listing his offices, and mentions Flavia Consa and her familial connections. It records that Flavia was her husband’s cousin, and that she was interred with him. The other Flavia mentioned in the text, was the wife of the elder Publius Paquuius Scaeva, and mother-in-law to Flavia Consa.

Flavia Didyma – (fl. c670 – c700)
Graeco-Egyptian landowner
Probably a native of Hermopolis, Flavia Didyma was attested in a surviving document from Arsinoe. Her husband, whose name remains unknown, held the rank of vir gloriosissimus and was a military commander. He has been tentatively identified with Flavius Papnuthius who was dux of Arcadia (c683), and had died by the time this document was written in the late seventh century.

Flavia Domitilla      see    Domitilla, Flavia

Flavia Julia Sabina    see    Julia Sabina, Flavia

Flavia Titiana – (fl. c180 – after 193 AD)
Roman Augusta (193 AD)
Flavia Titiana was the daughter of Titus Flavius Sulpicianus, an extremely wealthy consul and senator. She was married (c184 AD) to the elderly senator Pertinax (126 – 193 AD), who was elected emperor in 193 AD. She bore him a son, Helvidius Pertinax (c186 – 212 AD), who was briefly recognized as Caesar during his father’s reign, and a daughter Helvia. According to the historian Dio Cassius, Pertinax refused to grant Flavia Titiana the title and honours of Augusta because of her liasion with a lute-player, but she is acknowledged as such on surviving coinage from Alexandria in Egypt and on a surviving milestone discovered in Gaul. The empress survived her husband’s assasination, she and her son being protected by Septimius Severus. She was accorded honours as an Imperial widow and retired into private life in her father’s household, where her son was raised. Helvidius Pertinax was later consul (212 AD) but was murdered by order the emperor Caracalla because of an ill-timed witticism.

Flayosc, Pauline de Villeneuve-Vence, Marquise de – (1725 – 1776)
French author and genealogist
Pauline de Villeneuve-Vence was born at Vence in Alpes maritimes, the daughter of Alexandre Gaspard de Villeneuve, Marquis de Vence, and his wife Madeleine Sophie de Simiane. She married (1742) Joseph Andre de Villeneuve, Marquis de Flayosc (1714 – 1778) to whom she bore sixteen children. A woman of superior character and intellect, she was, through her mother, a descendant of the famous letter writer, Mme de Sevigne. She herself compiled the Chronique de Flayosc, a history of her husband’s family, making extensive researches into the Cour des Comptes. She was interred in the convent of the Visitation, being a descendant of the foundress, Madame de Chantal.

Fleeson, Doris – (1901 – 1970)
American journalist
Doris Fleeson was born (May 20, 1901) in Sterling, Kansas, the daughter of a clothing manufacturer. She studied journalism at the University of Kansas. She was married firstly (1930) to fellow reporter, John O’Donnell, to whom she bore two daughters. They were later divorced (1942) and she remarried (1958) to the noted industrialist, Dan Kimball (died 1970), who had served as secretary of the Navy (1951 – 1953). Doris Fleeson was the first female political columnist to have a syndicated newspaper column the United Features Syndicate, which was written up in over one hundred American newspapers on a weekly basis, and was particularly admired for detailed and scathing approach to national affairs. Fleeson was a founding member of the American Newspapers Guild, and her last coverage of political affairs was the Lyndon B. Johnson presidential campaign (1964). Doris Fleeson died (Aug 1, 1970) aged sixty-nine, days after the death of her husband.

Fleet, Maria Louisa Wacker – (fl. 1865 – 1900)
American educator and letter writer
Maria Wacker Fleet worked as a school teacher in Virginia after the Civil War. Her correspondence with friends and relatives was edited and published posthumously by the University of Virginia as Green Mountain After the War: The Correspondence of Maria Louisa Wacker Fleet and Her Family, 1865 – 1900 (1977).

Fleetwood, Susan Maureen – (1944 – 1995)
Scottish film and television actress
Her film credits included Clash of the Titans (1981), White Mischief (1987) with Charles Dance and Greta Scacchi, The Krays (1990), which dealt with the London crime world of the 1950’s. She also appeared in several telelvison films such as A Few Short Journeys of the Heart (1994) and Jane Austen’s Persuasion (1995), and in the program Chandler and Co. (1995). Susan Fleetwood died of cancer.

Flegge, Agatha – (fl. c1440 – c1447) 
English literary patron
Several lives of the saints, now collectively known as the Legendys of Hooly Wummen, written by Osbern Bokenham, were dedicated to Agatha.

Fleischer-Edel, Katharina Wilhelmine – (1873 – 1928)
German soprano
Fleischer-Edel was born (Sept 27, 1873) at Mulheim, near Essen, in Nordheim. She studied music and singing under August Iffert (1859 – 1930). She later performed with the Hamburg opera over two decades, and she was particularly famous for her Wagnerian roles. Fleischer-Edel sang with the court opera in Dresden, Saxony, and travelled to the USA where she performed with the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1905 – 1906). With her eventual retirement from the stage, she established herself as a successful vocal teacher. Katharina Fleischer-Edel died (July 18, 1928) in Dresden, aged fifty-four.

Fleisser, Marie Luise – (1901 – 1974)
German dramatist, novelist, and writer
Fleisser was born (Nov 23, 1901) at Ingoldstadt in Bavaria, the daughter of an ironmonger. She wrote the novel Mehlreisende Frieda Geier (1931) and the plays Fegefeur in Ingoldstadt (1926) and, Pioniere in Ingoldstadt (1931). Her works were later banned by the Nazi authorities (1935). Fleisser was awarded the literature prize from the Bavarian Academy of Arts. Marie Luise Fleisser died (Feb 1, 1974) in Ingoldstadt, aged seventy-two.

Fleix, Marie Claire de     see   Randan, Marie Claire, Duchesse de

Fleming, Amalia Koutsouris, Lady – (1912 – 1986)
Greek-Anglo bacteriologist, politician, activist and humanitarian
Amalia Koutsouris was born to Greek parents in Istanbul (Constantinople), the daughter of a physician. Amalia later studied medicine in Athens, but she and her family were forced to flee to Greece after the government confiscation of their property (1914). Her first husband was the Greek architect, Manoli Vourekis, from whom she was divorced. Amalia worked at the Athens City Hospital (1938 – 1944) as a bacteriologist, but with the overtaking of Greece by the Nazis during WW II, Madame Vourekis joined the underground resistance movement. She was captured by the Germans and sentenced to dearh, but was rescued by ther Allied Advance. Amalia then travelled to Britain, where she worked at the Wright-Fleming Institute with Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 – 1955), who second wife she became (1953). With Fleming’s death soon afterwards, Amalia remained in Britain, and continued her important work as a research bacteriologist.
Lady Fleming later returned to Greece (1967), but her opposition to the military junta that had seized control of the country, led her into direct conflict with the new regime.  She was finally arrested (1971), stripped of Greek citizenship, and was deported to Britain. Lady Fleming managed to return after the fall of the junta (1974), and entered politics. She was appointed to lead the Greek committee of Amnesty International and was also a member of the European Human Rights Commission. Awarded the Greek Royal Order of Welfare, she served as the parliamentary deputy for Athens (1981 – 1986) and left memoirs, A Piece of Truth (1973), published as Amalia Vourekis. Lady Fleming died childless (Feb 26, 1986) in Athens, aged seventy-three.

Fleming, Amaryllis – (1925 – 1999)
British musician and cellist
Amaryllis Fleming was particularly known for her expert performances of chamber and Baroque pieces. She was the daughter of the painter Augustus John, and of his mistress, Mrs Eve Fleming, and was hlaf-sister to Ian Fleming, author of the famous James Bond spy novels. As she grew older she became more attached to her father, and resided periodically at his home in Wiltshire. Fleming attended the Royal Academy of Music (1943) where she studied under Ivor James, and worked with the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) before make her concert debut. She became romantically involved with her teacher, the cellist, Pierre Fournier, and later studied under Pablo Casals in Prades, Spain, being awarded the Queen’s Prize in England.
Amaryllis Fleming performed the Elgar Concerto in Hamburg, with Sir John Barbirolli conducting, later formed her own chamber group, the highly successful Fleming Trio. Her interest in Baroque music performed on original instruments was stimulated after a meeting with the noted musicologist, E.M.W. Paul. Amaryllis was teacher to the noted cellist, Raphael Wallfisch. She later suffered a stroke (1993), which rendered her unable to perform. Amaryllis Fleming died (July 27, 1999) at Nettlebed, near Oxford, aged seventy-three.

Fleming, Dame Celia    see   Johnson, Dame Celia

Fleming, George    see     Fletcher, Julia Constance

Fleming, Hilda – (1914 – 2009)
British educator and headmistress
Hilda Fleming was born (Jan 5, 1914) near Hartlepool, the daughter of a headmaster. After attending her local grammar school Hilda attended the University of Durham where she studied phsyics. She taught at Edinburgh in Scotland before being appointed as headmistress of a girls’ school in Yorkshire. Fleming was later appointed as headmistress of the George Watson Ladies’ College in Edinburgh (1958 – 1974). A sometimes controversial but passionate teacher, possessed of a forbidding countenance, she was nevertheless much loved and respected. Hilda Fleming remained unmarried and died (Jan 27, 2009) aged ninety-five.

Fleming, Janet Stuart, Lady – (c1512 – 1563)
Scottish courtier and royal mistress
Lady Janet Stuart was the illegitimate daughter of King James IV and his mistress Agnes Stewart. She was married (1525) to Malcolm, Lord Fleming of Biggar (1494 – 1547), to whom she bore six children. Lady Fleming was appointed governess (1548) to Mary, Queen of Scots whom she accompanied to France for her marriage to Francois II, her own daughter Mary Fleming (later Maitland) being one of the young queen’s four child companions or ‘Maries.’ Possessed of great beauty, and admired by the Venetian ambassador, soon after their arrival at the court of St Germain, Lady Fleming was the only one amongst the Scottish ladies to be praised for their beauty and general hygiene by the Duchesse de Guise, Queen Mary’s French grandmother. She was the only one of Mary’s Scottish entourage permitted to remain at the French court.
At the court Lady Fleming quickly became the mistress of Henry II. The Duc de Montmorency feared her possible influence as a rival to Diane de Poitiers the king’s long standing mistress, but her behaviour only scandalized the French court, especially when, according to Brantome, she publicly announced her joy at becoming pregnant by the king. With her birth of the king’s son, Henri de Valois, known as the ‘Bastard of Angouleme’ (1557), Lady Fleming was relieved of her official duties as royal governess, and sent back to Scotland, where she died several years later. Her Valois son became Grand Prior of France, but was ultimately killed in a brawl (1586).

Fleming, Marjorie (Margaret) – (1803 – 1811)
Scottish child scholar and letter writer
Marjorie Fleming was born (Jan 15, 1803), the daughter of James Fleming of Kirkcaldy, and his wife Elizabeth Rae. Marjorie began reading Shakespeare avidly from an early age (1807) and went on to compose her own poetic verses. Marjorie kept a childhood diary (1809 – 1811) and died of meningitis, after an attack of measles (Dec 19, 1811) at the age of only eight. Her nine surviving letters and surviving provate journal were later transcribed, edited and published in London as The Complete Marjorie Fleming: Her Journals, Letters and Verses (1934).

Fleming, Mary – (1542 – after 1587)
Scottish courtier
Mary Fleming the daughter of Malcolm, Lord Fleming of Biggar, and his wife Lady Janet Stewart, the illegitimate daughter of King James IV (1488 – 1513). She accompanied her cousin, Queen Mary Stuart, the daughter of James V (1513 – 1542) to France (1548) as one of her four ladies-in-waiting (her four Maries). Her mother was governess to the young queen, and was later mistress to Henry II of France (1547 – 1559), and Mary Fleming was considered the highest born of the Scottish queen’s attendants. With the death of Francois II (1560), she accompanied Queen Mary back to Scotland. Fleming was later married (1565) to William Maitland of Lethington (1521 – 1573), better known as ‘Secretary Maitland’ as his second wife, and became the mother of James Maitland. When Queen Mary fled to England and entered captivity there (1568), Mary Fleming remained her loyal advocate at the Scottish court of James VI. With the death of her husband (1573), Mary Fleming never remarried. She managed to obtain the reversal at the forfeiture of her late husband’s possessions to the Scottish crown (1583), and raised her child in the Roman Catholic faith.

Fleming, May Agnes – (1840 – 1880)
Canadian writer and novelist
Born May Early, in Portland, New Brunswick, she began publishing her work at a young age (1855), using the pseudonym ‘Cousin May Carlton,’ but decided to use her married name after her own marriage (1865). Fleming quickly established herself as Canada’s first bestselling romantic novelist, where the poor downtrodden female heroines, achieved salvation from poverty by a ‘good’ marriage. So popular were her books that she earned an annual income of fifteen thousand dollars. May Fleming died young of Bright’s Disease.

Fleming, Williamina Paton – (1857 – 1911)
Scottish-American astronomer
Born Wilhelmina Paton Stevens, in Dundee, Scotland, she was the daughter of a craftsman. She was married to James Orr Fleming, and the two immigrated to the USA (1877). They settled in Boston, Massachusetts, but with the failure of her marriage, Fleming became housekeeper for Edward Pickering, the director of the Harvard College Observatory, in order to provide financially for her children.Keenly interested in the science of astronomy, Fleming later joined the research staff at the Observatory (1881). She frequently worked with Pickering herself, and some maintain that the discovery of the deception of Beta Lyrae was actually her discovery, not Pickering, who received credit for it. Despite this, Williamina Fleming established the process known as the Pickering-Fleming technique, which involved the studt of thousands of astronomic photographs. Fleming herself discovered several new stars, and categorized over ten thousand separate stars for the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra (1890). She became the first American woman to be elected to the Royal Astronomical Society (1906).

Flesch-Brunningen, Luma – (b. 1856)
German painter
Luma Flesch-Brunningen was born (March 31, 1856) in Brunn, Austria, and studied art under Alois Schonn in Vienna and Carl Frithjof and others in Munich, Bavaria. Her married name was von Csuzy, and she produced religious works and portraits such as Die Hexensalbung, which was displayed at the Glass Palace in Munich. Luma’s painting Malender Monch was purchased by the Emperor Franz Josef I.

Flesche, La    see   Tibbles, Susette La Flesche

Fletcher, Alice Cunningham – (1838 – 1923)
American ethnologist and ethnomusicologist
Constance Alice Cunningham Fletcher was born (March 15, 1838) in Havana, Cuba, and was educated privately by a governess. She later worked for the Peabody Museum at Harvard College, but then became an official member of the staff (1886). Alice Cunningham was involved in extensive research amongst the Plains Indian, particularly in Omaha, and her published works included, Indian Ceremonies (1884), The Omaha Tribe (1911) and, Indian Games and Dances (1915), amongst others. Despite this, during the 1880’s it was Cunningham, amongst others who recommended the dividing up of Indian lands to into separate farming plots. These recommendations began part of the infamous Dawes Act (1887), which would later come under much intense criticism. Cunningham was later appointed as vice-president of the AAAS (Association of American Anthropological Societies (1895) and was elected as president of the American Folklore Society (1905). Alice Fletcher died (April 6, 1923) aged eighty-five.

Fletcher, Eliza – (1770 – 1858)
British autobiographer
Born Eliza Dawson (Jan 15, 1770) at Oxton, near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, she was the daughter of a land surveyor. Eliza attended school at York, and was married (1791) to a Scottish advocate twice her age, Archibald Fletcher, to whom she bore two children. They were happily married for four decades, despite the disapproval of Eliza’s father. Her only daughter, Grace Fletcher, was the wife of the Arctic explorer, Sir John Richardson. Eliza’s, Autobiography, was published privately after her death in eight volumes (1874). Eliza Fletcher died (Feb 5, 1858) in Edinburgh, aged eighty-five.

Fletcher, Inglis – (1879 – 1969)
American novelist
Born Inglis Clark, at Alton in Illinois, she attended secondary school in Edwardsville, Illinois, and later attended the Washington University School of Fine Arts in St Louis. Inglis Clark and became the wife of the poet, John Gould Fletcher (1886 – 1950), who worked as a mining engineer. Her novels included Red Jasmine (1932), Lusty Wind for Carolina (1944), Roanoke Hundred (1948), Queen’s Gift (1952), and Cormorant’s Brood (1959). Fletcher was perhaps best known for her historical novel Raleigh’s Eden (1942), which dealt with the lives of plantation families in Albemarle before and during the American revolutionary period (1765 – 1782). This was the first in a series of novels popularly known as the ‘Carolina Series,’ which were translated into several languages, and sold several million copies. Fletcher removed to Chowan County in North Carolina with her husband (1941), and she arranged for the the first North Carolina Writers Conference to be held at Manteo (1950). Fletcher published the autobiography Pay, Pack, and Follow (1959), and received the first North Carolina Award for Literature (1964). Inglis Fletcher died (April 30, 1969) aged eighty-nine.

Fletcher, Jane Ada – (1871 – 1956)
Australian ornithologist, educator, and author
Fletcher was born in Penshurst, Victoria. She was trained to work as a schoolteacher, and remained unmarried. Fletcher lectured on ornithology and natural history at the Royal Society at Tasmania (1934), and became a member of the Royal Australian Ornithologists Union. She wrote articles for journals and radio programs. Jane Fletcher died (April 15, 1956).

Fletcher, Julia Constance – (1858 – 1938)
American novelist, translator, and author
Fletcher was the daughter of a Presbyterian clergyman and missionary. She resided in Europe for most of her adult years, and finally settled in Rome, Italy. Fletcher used the pseudonym ‘George Fleming’ under which she published several popular novels such as, The Head of Medusa (1880), Andromeda (1885), and For Plain Women Only (1885). Her elegant and sophisticated wit won her the admiration of the famous British novelist, Oscar Wilde. Her first two novels, A Nile Novel, later retitled Kismet (1877), and Mirage (1877), were published anonymously. Fletcher translated the sonnets of the medieval poet Gaspara Stampa (1881) and the play, The Fantasticks (1900) by Edmond Rostand. Julia Fletcher died (June, 1938).

Fletcher, Julia Carney    see   Carney, Julia

Fletcher, Lucille – (1912 – 2000)
American film and television screenwriter
Violet Lucille Fletcher was born (March 28, 1912) in Brooklyn, New York, and attended Vassar College. She worked at CBS radio where she met her first husband (1939) the composer and orchestral conductor Bernard Herrmann (1911 – 1975). They were divorced (1948) and Lucille remarried to Douglass Wallop. She was best remembered for her story The Hitchhiker which was produced as a radio drama by Orson Welles, and as an episode of the same name for the famous Twilight Zone series. She wrote the screenplay for the suspense thriller Sorry, Wrong Number (1943) which was produced for radio with Agnes Moorehead and then as a film (1948) which starred Barbara Stanwyck. Lucille Fletcher died (Aug 31, 2000) aged eighty-eight.

Fletcher, Margaret – (1862 – 1944)
British Roman Catholic activist
Margaret Fletcher was the daughter of an Anglican clergyman. Educated at the Oxford High School for Girls, she studied art in London and in Paris. She never married and spent most of her life caring for various family members after the death of her mother. Despite this, Fletcher did manage a career for herself, and taught for two decades as an art teacher at Oxford. Fletcher was also a talented and successful painter, and several of her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy. She converted to Roman Catholicism (1897) and founded the Catholic Women’s League (1906). She served two terms as president, (1906 – 1919) and (1923 – 1926). She founded and was editor of the League’s journal Crucible, and wrote her autobiography O, Call Back Yesterday (1939).

Fletcher, Maria – (fl. 1712 – 1733)
Italian-Anglo vocalist and opera performer
Born Maria Manina, probably in London, she was of Italian background. Her first recorded appearance in opera at the Queen’s Theatre was in the reign of Queen Anne (1712). After her marriage with Fletcher, Maria appeared at Lincoln’s Inn Fields, where she played Eucharis in, Calypso and Telemachus, and Cleora in, Thomyris. She also performed works by Handel and Johann Christoph Pepusch (1667 – 1752), and often sang in Italian. Her second husband (1727) was the musician Seedo, and Maria sometimed appeared using his name. Maria Fletcher also appeared in pantomime performances, in roles such as Proserpine in Harlequin Sorcerer, and Queen Cassiope in Perseus and Andromeda. After her retirement from the stage no further details of her life are recorded.

Fletcher, Sarah Hill – (fl. 1830 – 1843)
American latter writer
Sarah Hill was the wife of Calvin Fletcher, a noted banker and lawyer of Indianapolis, Indiana. Their surviving correspondence for the years (1838 – 1843) was edited and published by the Indiana Historical Society as the Diary of Calvin Fletcher, Including Letters of Calvin Fletcher and His Wife Sarah Hill Fletcher (1972).

Fleuriot, Zenaide – (1829 – 1890)
French romantic novelist
Fleuriot was born in Saint-Brieuc, Brittany. She used the pseudonym ‘Anna Edianez de Saint-Brieuc.’ Zenaide Fleuriot died in Paris.

Fleury, Claude Anne Elisabeth de Montmorency-Laval, Marquise de – (1750 – 1784)
French courtier and salonniere
Claude de Montmorency-Laval was the eldest daughter of Comte Joseph Pierre de Montmorency-Laval (1729 – 1757) and his wife Elisabeth Renee de Maupeou. She became the wife (1767) of Andre de Rosset (died 1782), the Marquis de Fleury, who was a collatoral descendant of Cardinal Fleury, advisor to Louis XV, to whom she bore children. Her sister the Abbess Marie Louise of Montmartre was guillotined during the Revolution (1794). Madame de Fleury attended the famous salons of the period and was mentioned in the correspondence of the the British antiquarian Horace Walpole. According to Madame de Genlis the marquise was possessed of wit and wild humour.
According to the Memoires of the Duc de Lauzun Madame de Fleury pursued him shamelessly despite his lack of onterest in her, and caused him many embarrassing scenes at court recording ‘she would not take this as final, but displayed, with the utmost shamelessness and publicity, her affection for myself, and the scant success with which it had met. She made scenes wherever she met me, and I took as great pains to avoid her as she to pursue me.’

Flexner, Anne Crawford – (1874 – 1955)
American dramatist
Anne Crawford was born (June 27, 1874) in Georgetown, Kentucky, and became the wife of the noted educator and author, Abraham Flexner (1866 – 1959), a director at Princeton University. Anne Flexner’s plays included The Marriage Game (1913), The Blue Pearl (1918) and Aged 26: A Play About John Keats (1936) all of which were produced with success for the stage. Anne Flexner died (Jan 12, 1955) aged eighty.

Flick, Isabel Ann – (1928 – 2000)
Australian aboriginal leader and campaigner
Flick was born at Goondiwindi in nort-western New South Wales, a member of the Gamilaraay tribe. Her father served with the Australian army in France during WW I. Isabel was raised around Collarenebri, and attended a mission school at Toomelah. She worked as a cleaner and a cook before becoming an advocate for aboriginal students. She assisted with the establishment of the Aboriginal Legal Service, and was a strong supporter of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1981). Likewise she campaigned in favour of the NSW Land Rights Act (1983), and was a co-founder of the Western Aboriginal Women’s Council (1984). Her valuable was publicly acknowledged when she was awarded the OAM (Order of Australia Medal). Isabel Flick died aged seventy-one.

Flinders, Ann – (1772 – 1852)
British letter writer
Ann Chappelle was born in Donington, the daughter of John Chappelle, a sailor. Her stepfather was a clergyman, and she later became the wife of Matthew Flinders (1774 – 1814), the famous explorer who circumnavigated Australia. Ann met Flinders in 1798, and they were married at Partney (1800). She had intended the travel with her husband aboard his ship, the Investigator, but after sufferring from acute sea sickness, it was decided that Flinders shouls sail without her (1801). On his return voyage, he was taken prisoner by the French, and Ann believed him dead. She then left London to reside in the house of her stepfather. There she later received smuggled letters from Flinders, announcing his survival and his incarceration (1805). He was released in 1810, and they were reunited in London. Ann bore Flinders an only child, a daughter, Anne Flinders (1812) at the age of forty, and was widowed two years afterwards. She survived him almost four decades, and died aged eighty. Her husband’s surviving letters to her were posthumously edited and published (2001).

Flint, Helen – (1898 – 1967)
American character actress
Helen Flint was born (Jan 14, 1898) in Chicago, Illinois. She worked in the theatre prior to appearing in small film roles. Her film credits included The Clyde Mystery (1931), The Ninth Guest (1934) as Sylvia Inglesby, Manhattan Love Song (1934), Doubting Thomas (1935), Riffraff (1936) in which she portrayed a prison inmate, Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936) in which she portrayed the loud and common Minna Tipton, who falsely claimed that her son was Lord Fauntleroy, Give Me Your Heart (1936), Sea Devils (1937), Time to Kill (1942) and the classic Gaslight (1944) with Charles Boyer and Ingrid Bergman in which she appeared as Franchette. Helen Flint retired from movies after this film. She died (Sept 9, 1967) aged sixty-nine, in Washington, as the result of a car accident.

Flint, Sarah – (fl. 1790 – 1802)
British puppeteer
Sarah Flint was trained to work with marionettes by the famous showman, John Flockton, and performed at Smithfield, in London. With Flockton’s death (1794), Sarah inherited his work equipment and stock, and continued the business, though she worked in competition against Flockton’s widow and children. She was sometimes referred to as ‘the Widow Flint,’ and established a successful career as a comic performer, and worked with the singer and actor, Daniel Gyngell. Flint was working with marionettes at Sadler’s Wells (1802), after which she disappears from the public record.

Flitz, Heidi – (1900 – 1994)
German politician and feminist
Flitz was born (Feb 22, 1900) at Bad Ems. She attended various universities where she studied modern languages and became an excellent linguist. She also studied philosophy at Marburg University (1919 – 1924). After working for several years with various women’s organizations, Flitz became the Lower Saxon State chairwoman for the German Women’s Group (1952 – 1956). Elected as deputy federal chairwoman of the International Women’s Alliance, she became the vice-president (1958 – 1973) and later honorary president. Flitz joined the Free Democratic Party (1954) and served as a deputy of the German Bundestag and of the Assembly of the Western European Union (1961 – 1965). Heidi Flitz died (Oct 19, 1994) aged ninety-four, at Wilhelmshaven.

Flobarde    see    Frodeberta

Flora (1) – (fl. c80 – c70 BC)
Roman courtesan
Her beauty was such that Quintus Caecilius placed her portrait in the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum of Rome. She later became the mistress of the famous statesman, Pompey the Great, and refused advances made her by his friend Geminius, because of her love for the successful and popular general. Pompey however, remained unmoved by Flora’s devotion, and broke off their liasion.

Flora (2) – (fl. c375 – c400 AD)
Vandal queen
Her family antecedents remain unrecorded, though she may have been of Gallo-Roman ancestry, and only the bare facts of her life are known. Flora became the wife of the Vandal king Godesgesil (c370 – 406 AD) who was killed in battle with the Franks. Queen Flora was the mother of his son and successor King Gunderic (406 – 427 AD). Her stepson the famous King Gaiseric was borne to Godesgesil by a concubine.

Flora (3) – (c380 – after 421 AD)
Roman Christian courtier
Flora was the daughter of Flavius Rufinus, praetorian prefect under emperor Theodosius I. Her father had attempted to arrange Flora’s marriage with the young emperor Arcadius but this plot was foiled by Eutropius and Rufinus was murdered. His estates were confiscated, but Flora and her mother were permitted to retire to Jerusalem.

Flora (4) – (fl. 598)
Roman patrician
Flora was the wife of Cethegus who was probably of senatorial rank. Flora and Cethegus sent a papal official to Sicily on business (598), and requested that ten pounds of gold be paid to Basilus the Bishop of Capua, then living in exile. Pope Gregory I ordered joannes, Bishop of Syracuse to give the sum immediately to Basilus. In his letter to Joannes which is preserved in his Epistolarum Registrum, the pope described the couple as gloriosi filii nostri Cethegus atque Flora inguales.

Flora of Todi – (c1261 – c1310)
Italian courtesan and repentant prostitute
Flora and her companion, Elena, who followed the same profession, were converted from their way of life by the preaching of Filippo Benizi, general of the Servite Order (1285). Flora and Elena then entered the Servite convent established by Benizi at Porcaria, between Narni and Todi. Both women achieved a deserved reputation fro religious sanctity during the remainder of their lives. Both women died in the same years and were venerated as saints together (March 3).

Florance, Sheila – (1916 – 1991)
Australian character actress
Best known for the role of Lizzie Birdsworth in the popular television series Prisoner, she also appeared in several films such as The Devil’s Playground (1976), Mad Max (1979) with Mel Gibson, The Tale of Ruby Rose (1987), and Nirvana Street Murders (1990). For her last role in A Woman’s Tale (1991) she played an elderly woman dying of cancer, a condition which mirrored her own fate, and for which portrayal she received a Best Actress award.

Flore, Madamoiselle – (1790 – 1853)
French actress and memoirist
Born Francoise Flore Corvee, when she began her stage career during the Napoleonic period, she adopted the srage name of Madamoiselle Flore. She was later a leading actress with the Variete Theatre in Paris, and left personal reminiscences entitled, Memoires de Madamoiselle Flore artiste au theatre des Varietes (1845), which were published before her death in three volumes.

‘Florence’    see    Osgood, Frances Sargent

Florence of Phrygia – (c320 – 367 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian saint
Florence was born in Phrygia, Asia Minor, where she and her family were converted by Hilary of Poitiers during his exile there. She accompanied him on his return to Gaul, and was placed under the instruction of the recluse Triasie at Poitiers in Aquitaine. Triasie built Florence her own cell several miles away, where she lived as an ascetic until her death. The priory of Comble was late established on the site. After her death she was venerated as a saint (Dec 1).

Florence, Mary Sargant – (1857 – 1954)
British landscape and mural painter
Florence was born in London and was educated privately in Brighton, under the care of a governess. She studied art at the Slade School under Alphonse Legros, and then underwent further study in Paris before marrying (1888) the American musician, Henry Smith Florence. With her husband’s early death (1891), Mary Florence returned to England, where she exhibited her work at the Royal Academy and the NEAC (New English Art Club). She executed the mural at the Chelsea Old Town Hall, which depicted persons famous in various fields, such as science and religion. Florence was also involved with the suffrage campaign for women and was a member of the Woman’s Freedom League.

Florentina – (c530 – c590)
Visigothic abbess and saint
Florentina was the sister to saints Leander and Isidore, both archbishops of Seville, and of Fulgentius, Bishop of Ecija and Cartagena. Her sister Theodosia was the first wife of King Leovigild and was the mother of King Reccared. Florentina is traditonally credited with a vision that revealed to her that her brother Isidore would drive the Arian heretics from Spain. She refused all offers of marriage, and established herself as a nun at the convent of St Maria de Valle at Ecija with fifty other nuns. Over several decades she became mother superior of forty convents, which housed a total of a thousand nuns. Her brothers Leander and Isidore wrote two volumes for the education of her nuns, and Isidore dedicated to Florentina two books directed against the Jews. The church honoured Florentina as a saint (June 20) she being the first nun to achieve such status in Spanish history. 

Florentino, Leona – (1849 – 1884)
Filippino poet
Leonora Florentino was born (April 19, 1849) at Vigan, near Ilocos Sur in northern Luzon, cousin to the author and patriot, Jose Rizal (1861 – 1896). Born and raised in a wealthy family and known as Leona, she learnt Spanish, as well as her native dialect Iloko, in which she became fluent. Florentino wrote lyrical and sentimental love poetry, as well as satirical verses, which were published in in Spanish. Her work was exhibited posthumously at the Exposition Internationale in Paris (1889). She is regarded as the first Filipino female poet, and her surviving pieces include ‘To a young Woman on her Birthday’ and ‘Castora Benigna.’ Leona was married to the politician, Elias de los Reyes, to whom she bore five children, including the noted writer, Isabelo de los Reyes. Leona Florentino died (Oct 4, 1884) aged only thirty-five.

Florenzi, Marianna Bacinetti, Marchesa – (1802 – 1870)
Italian salonniere, hostess, and letter writer
Marianna Bacinetti was born in Ravenna, Emilia Romagna, the daughter of the Conte Bacinetti. She was married to the marchese Ettore Florenzi, and resided with him in Perugia. Madame Florenzi maintained a close friendship with the Bavarian king Ludwig I, over a period of forty years, and much of their personal correspondence has survived. The king kept a portrait of her, painted in her youth (1824) by Heinrich Maria von Hess (1798 – 1863). The marchesa maintained two impressive palaces, the Baglioni and the Verzaro, as well as two rural villas. In all her palazzos she entertained foreign diplomats and dignitaries, as well as men and women of letters.

Flores, Lola – (1923 – 1995)
Spanish flamenco dancer, actress, and vocalist
Born Maria de los Dolores Flores Ruiz (Jan 21, 1923) at Jerez de la Frontera, Cadiz, she received extensive training in the folk-dances and lore of Andalusia, and appeared in her first film in 1939. Flores was particularly remembered for the series of folk-lore films in which she appeared with fellow actor, Manolo Caracol. Lola Flores was married (1958) to the noted guitarist, Antonio Gonzalez, popularly known as ‘el Pescailla,’ to whom she bore three children incluidng the actress and vocalist, Lolita Flores (born 1958), the rock musician and actor, Antonio Flores (1961 – 1995), who committed suicide shortly after her death, and the actress Rosario Flores (born 1963). Lola Flores died of cancer in Madrid (May 16, 1995), aged seventy-two.

Floresta, Nisia – (1810 – 1885)
Brazilian poet and novelist
Nisia Floresta produced journalistic pieces for newspapers and travelled in Europe. She established and ran (1838 – 1849) a school in Rio de Janeiro, but finally left Brazil to reside permanently in Paris. A confirmed abolitinist and intensely interested in feminist issues and causes, Nisia wrote using several pseudonyms including ‘Une Breslienne’, ‘Floresta Augusta Brasileira’ and ‘N.F.B.A.’ Her novels included, Daciz, ou jovem completa (Daciz, or a complete youth) (1847), A lagrima de um caete (1849), and, Scintille d’un anima brasiliana (The Spark of a Brasilian Soul) (1859). Nisia also wrote travelogues such as, Itineraire d’un voyage en Allemagne (Travels in Germany) (1857) and, Trois ans en Italie suivis d’un voyage en Grece (Three Years in Italy Followed by a Trip to Greece) (1864).

Florestine Grimaldi – (1833 – 1897)
Princess of Monaco
Princess Florestine was born (Oct 2, 1833) at Fontenay, near Seine, the daughter of Florestan I, Prince of Monaco. She became the second wife (1863) of Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Wurttemburg (1810 – 1869), a first cousin of the Russian tsar, Nicholas I (1825 – 1855), who was created duke of Urach (1867).  Florestine was the mother of Wilhelm, second Duke of Urach (1864 – 1928), who was married twice and left issue. He was briefly elected king of Lithuania as Mindovg II (1918). Her sons and grandchildren renounced their rights to the succession of the principality of Monaco (1924) in favour of Aynard Guigues de Moreton, Marquis de Chabrillan (1869 – 1950), who later made an unsuccessful claim to Monaco (1949). Princess Florestine died (April 24, 1897) aged sixty-three, at Stuttgart, Wurttemburg.

Florey, Margaret Augusta Fremantle, Lady – (1904 – 1994)
British pathologist and scientific collaborator
Margaret Fremantle was born in Swanbourne, Buckinghamshire, into a wealthy family. She studied English at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, but later decided to study medicine, in particular, physiology. Margaret was married to Denys Jennings (1930) and then qualified as a physiologist after undergoing clinical training at the Royal Free Hospital in London (1934). She joined the department of pathology at Oxford University (1936), where she formed part of the research team working under the direction of the Australian, Howard Florey (1898 – 1968). It was this group of researchers that made the discovery that penicillin, first discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming, was an effective antibiotic against pathogenic bacteria, but was not dangerous to human beings. Howard Florey, Fleming, and Ernst Chain shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1954). Margaret worked as a lecturer in pathology at Oxford University for well over two decades (1945 – 1972). She divorced her first husband (1946), and two decades later she was married to Howard, now Lord Florey (1967), after the death of his first wife. She survived him for twenty-five years as the Dowager Baroness Florey, of Adelaide and Marston.

Florian, Marie Elisabeth Mignot, Marquise de – (1724 – 1771)
French literary figure
Marie Elisabeth Mignot was niece to the famous writer Voltaire (1694 – 1778), being the younger daughter of Pierre Francois Mignon and the author’s sister Catherine Arouet. Her elder sister Marie Louise was the famous Madame Denis. With their father’s death (1737), the two sisters went to reside with their aunt, Mme Poignon in the rue des Deux Boles in Paris, and visited their famous uncle at his estate in Cirey, Champagne. Madame de Florian is frequently mentioned affectionately in the correspondence of her famous uncle, but her sister remained his especial favourite. She married firstly (1738) Nicolas Joseph de Dompierre de Fontaine, who died in 1756, and secondly (1762) to Philippe Antoine de Claris, Marquis de Florian. By her first marriage Madame de Florian was the mother of Alexandre Marie Francois Paule de Dompierre d’Hornoy (1742 – 1828) who left descendants, and eventually inherited his great-uncle’s personal and family papers.

Floriana – (d. c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Floriana was a native of Milan. She was arrested during the persecutions initiated by the Emperor Maximian Daia. She refused to abjure her religion and make sacrifice to the pagan gods and was condemned and killed. Floriana was revered as a saint (May 6).

Floriana Ernestina of Wurttemburg – (1623 – 1672)
German princess
Princess Floriana Ernestina was born (May 8, 1623) at Weiltingen, near Nordlingen in the Hartzfeld, the second daughter of Julius Friedrich, Duke of Wurttenburg-Weiltingen and Juliusburg (1617 – 1635), and his wife Anna Sabina, the daughter of Johann, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Ploen (1564 – 1622). With her father’s death she resided in the household of her widowed mother. It was the Dowager Duchess who arranged for her to marry (1657) at the castle of Leonberg, when already aged over thirty, to Friedrick Kraft, Count von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedebach (1623 – 1681) to whom she bore five children, all of whom died in infancy. Duchess Floriana Ernestina died (Dec 6, 1672) at Pfedelbach, aged forty-nine.

Florine of Burgundy – (1083 – 1097)
French princess and crusader
Florine was the daughter of Duke Eudes I and his wife Sibylla, the daughter of William I ‘Tete-Hardi,’ Count of Burgundy and Macon. Considered a great beauty, she was betrothed and married (1096) to Prince Svein of Denmark, whom she accompanied on the First Crusade to Palestine. Both died there at Antioch, during a Turkish attack on the Christian encampment.

Floronia – (c240 – 216 BC)
Roman priestess and Vestal virgin
Floronia was accused with fellow proestess, Opimia, of inchastity and was condemned to be buried alive after the disastrous Roman defeat at Cannae. Her supposed lover Lucius Cantilius, aminor member of one of the priestly college, was beaten to death. Floronia may have committed suicide to avoid this more hideous fate.

Flossel, Augusta – (1859 – 1926)
German theatre actress
Flossel was born (Oct 17, 1859) in Bunzlau, the daughter of an architect. She began the real career at the Residenz Theater in Dresden, Saxony (1877) before going on to perform in Berlin and Hamburg. Apart from engagements with the theare in Leipzig Flossel appeared with the Theater an der Wien for well over a decade (1882 – 1896). During the latter part of her career Augusta made only sporadic experiences. Augusta Flossel died (May 3, 1925).

Flossmann, Ferdinanda – (1888 – 1964)
Austrian politician
Flossmann was born (March 12, 1888) in Vienna. She studied economics at college before joining the civil service where she trained as a librarian. Flossmann joinmed the Social Democratic Party of Austria (1918) and became a member of the Upper Austrian Landtag (1925) and then the Nationalrat (1930). With the Nazi occupation of Austria Ferdinanda Flossmann became involved in subversive and illegal socialist organizations and activities, and was several times arrested. With the end of the war she resumed her political career and was appointed to head the party secretariat of the Lower Austrian Social Democratic Party. She was the first Austrian woman to become chairwoman of the Finance and Budget Committee. Ferdinand Flossmann died (July 13, 1964) aged seventy-six.

Flower, Lady Agnes    see   Cooper, Agnes Cecil Emmeline Duff, Lady

Flower, Constance      see    Battersea, Constance de Rothschild, Lady

Flower, Eliza – (1803 – 1846)
British composer
Flower was born (April 19, 1803) at Harlow, Essex, the daughter of a journalist, and was the daughter of John Flower and Eliza Gould, and was sister to the hymnist, Sarah Flower Adams.
From earliest childhood she possessed an ability to compose tunes and music, and her earliest work was Fourteen Musical Illustrations of the Waverley Novels (1831), which set to music several of the songs written by Sir Walter Scott in his romance novels. Eliza Flower also wrote the political song, ‘The Gathering of the Unions,’ which was sung at a meeting of the Birmingham Political Union (May, 1832). Her major work was the compilation of the Unitarian hymn book W.J. Fox, the minister for Finsbury, which was published as Hymns and Anthems (1841) and she composed the music for her sister’s famous hymn, ‘Nearer My God to Thee.’ Her lifelong friendship with poet Robert Browning inspired his poem ‘Pauline.’ Eliza Flower died (Dec 12, 1846) aged forty-three, and was interred at Harlow.

Flower, Eliza Gould    see   Gould, Eliza

Flower, Patricia – (1915 – 2004)
British sportswoman and aviatrix
Patricia Moyle was born (Feb 14, 1915) in Honh Kong, the daughter of Henry Copley Moyle, the Anglican deacon there. When the family returned to England she was raised at Amberley in Sussex. She was educated by nuns and then trained at a secretarial college at Brussels in Belgium, becoming fluent in French and German. Patricia gained her polot’s license (1938) and with the outbreak of WW II she joined the WRAF (Women’s Royal Air Force). She served in the Middle East where she became the first woman to receive an Egyptian pilot’s license. After the war she was married (1946) to John Flower of Stratford-on-Avon.
With her husband she resied at Hanover Terrace in Regent’s Park, the former home of the Victorian novelist Charles Dickens, and she entertained members of the Dickens Fellowship there. Patricia Flower became a skilled archer and won the gold medal for Britain at the World Archery Championships in Helsinki in Finland (1955). She won gold in the two successive championships held in Prague in Czechoslavakia (1956) and Copenhagen in Denmark (1957). Patricia Flower died aged eighty-nine.

Flower, Patricia Mary Bryson – (1914 – 1977)
Anglo-Australian crime novelist and television dramatist
Born Patricia Bullen (Feb 23, 1914) in Kent, England, the daughter of a hotel porter, she immigrated to Australia with her family as a teenager (1928). She originally worked as a secretary, and her second husband (1949) was the painter, Cedric Flower. Flower published over a dozen novels, her first being, Wax Flowers for Gloria (1958). She then began using the character of Inspector Swinton as the constant sleuth, beginning with the novel, Goodbye Sweet William (1959). Her later works concentrated more on the common psychological problems which afflicted both the criminals and the victims in her stories. These included Cobweb (1972) and Crisscross (1976), and some of her works were translated into German and French. Flower collaborated with her husband to produce the television series, From the Tropics to the Snow (1965), and many of her story scripts were adapted for the popular television series, ABC Playhouse. She received the Mary Gilmore Award for her story, ‘Tilley Landed on Our Shore,’ a comic renactment of the the First Fleet arrival under Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788. Patricia Flower committed suicide (Sept 1, 1977) aged sixty-three, having sufferred from severe depression for some time, aged sixty-three. Her novel Vanishing Point was later republished (1993).

Flower, Sara Elizabeth – (1822 – 1865)
Anglo-Australian vocalist
Sara was the daughter of William Lewis Flower and received singing training in England, and estsblished herself as a contralto singer. She later travelled to Australia, where she made her first operatic appearance in Sydney in Cinderella (1850). She appeared in, Enchantress and with Marie Carandini in, Norma. Her last appearance was with the Philharmonic Society (1863). Sara Flower died (Aug 20, 1865) in Sydney, aged forty-three.

Flowers, Bess – (1900 – 1984)
American minor actress
Bess Flowers appeared in bit parts in well over one hundred films in Hollywood during a career which lasted four decades and began in the silent era (1922). She retired in 1962, having been long known as ‘queen of the Hollywood extras.’

Flugge-Lotz, Irmgard – (1903 – 1974)
German-American mathematician and engineer
Irmgard Lotz was born at Hameln in Germany, the daughter of a mathematician, and studied applied mathematics and fluid dynamics at the Technische Hochschule in Hanover (1923 – 1927). She was married (1938) to the aeronatical engineer, Wilhelm Flugge. Flugge-Lotz became a research engineer at the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) at Gottingen, where she worked closely with Ludwig Prantl, and developed the Lotz method for calculating the spanwise distribution of a plane wing’s lifting force (1931). Despite the anti-Nazi views of wife and husband, the couple were permitted by Herman Goering to join the staff (1938) of the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt (DVL), the government’s central areonautics research institute. It was during this time that Flugge-Lotz became immersed with her project in the field of flight controls, which became her best known field of research. She developed the theory of discontinuous control systems, which had many future implications for the filed of automatic flight control equipment for aircraft.
With the end of WW II, the couple were invited to join the Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques (ONERA) in Paris (1947). Soon afterwards the couple came to the USA, where Flugge-Lotz became a lecturer in engineering mathematics, and her husband a professor of engineering at Sanford University. She became a naturalized American citizen in 1954. She was the author of, Discontinuous Automatic Control (1953), and, Discontinuous and Optimal Control (1968). Flugge-Lotz was the only female delegate from the USA to attend the First Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control in Russia (1960), and then became the first woman professor of engineering at Sanford. She was appointed as a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) (1970). Irmgard Flugge-Lotz died after a long illness, aged seventy (May 22, 1974).

Flugrath, Virginia    see   Dana, Viola

Fluhmann, Elisabeth – (1851 – 1929)
Swiss educator
Elisabeth was born (Jan 3, 1851) at Saxeten in Bern Canton, the daughter of a farmer. She was educated mainly through her won diligence at home, and later ran a school in Wengen. Fluhmann was later able to study in Zurich and Bern, and was sent to be educated as a teacher in a training college at Serres in Macedonia. With her return to Switzerland Fluhmann was employed by a female college in Aarau, where she assisted with the establishment of the foundation that developed into the Aarau Women’s Centre. Elisabeth Fluhmann died (March 13, 1929) aged seventy-eight, at Aarau.

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley – (1890 – 1964)
American political radical, campaigner, and author
Flynn was born (Aug 7, 1890) in Concord, New Hampshire, the daughter of an engineer and a feminist. She was exposed to socialism and its influences from a very early age, and her education continued in New York after her family moved there (1900). Elizabeth made her first public speech on women and socialism at the age of sixteen (1906) and she became a popular speaker. Her marriage (1908) to a miner, resulted in the birth of two children, but ended in divorce (1920). Also unsuccessful was a later relationship with the noted Italian anarchist, Carlo Tresca. Flynn campaigned hard to gain rights for female workers and immigrants. She was later arrested and imprisoned (1951 – 1954) for conspiring to overthrow the US government. Upon her release she was as the first National Woman Chairman of the Communist Party (1961). Elizabeth Flynn’s published works included, Women’s Place in the Fight for a Better World (1947), and her autobiography, I Speak My Piece (1955). Flynn later visited Russia and Eastern Europe (1964). Elizabeth Gurley died (Sept 5, 1964) in Moscow, aged seventy-four, and was given a state funeral in Red Square.

Flynn, Julia Theresa – (1878 – 1947)
Australian educator and school inspector
Flynn was born (Jan 24, 1878) in Melbourne, Victoria, and was educated at the Presbyterian Ladies’ Teachers’ College and at Melbourne University. Julia Flynn became the first woman to be appointed as a government inspector of secondary schools in Victoria (1914), and was later promoted to acting chief inspector (1928). She was long prevented from being appointed as chief inspector due to the intransigence of her superior, who belived that a woman could not possibly head a government department. Finally this prejudice was overcome and she served in that office (1936 – 1943) until her retirement. Julia Flynn died (Oct 14, 1947) aged sixty-nine, in Melbourne.

Flynn, Mary Ellen Dorothea – (1899 – 1988)
Australian Catholic nun
Flynn was born (Jan 4, 1899) at Tenterfield, New South Wales, and attended local schools there. She decided upon the religious life, and entered the convent of the Sisters of St Joseph in Goulburn (1916), as Sister Mary Dorothea. Though trained as a teacher, Flynn performed much welfare work with Sydney’s Greek community, and established the St Basil’s Homes for the sick and aged in Lakemba (1954). For this work she was later awarded the Cross of St Andrew of Constantinople by the Greek Orthodox Church (1970). Sister Mary Dorothea died (Aug 8, 1988) in Sydney, aged eighty-nine.

Flynt, Althea – (1953 – 1987)
American magazine manager
Althea Leasure was born (Nov 6, 1953) in Marietta, Ohio. After several family tragedies she was sent to an orphanage but ran away and became a stripper. She met Larry Flynt (1971), the co-publisher of the notorious men’s magazine Hustler and lived with him, eventually becoming his fourth wife (1976). Althea Flynt was the first life-size centerfold to appear in Hustler, and was closely involved with the management and publication of the magazine.
When Larry Flynt was shot and paralyzed (1978) he was prescribed strong pain-killers. Althea began using them and became heavily addicted which led to her being diagnosed with AIDS (1983). Althea Flynt died (June 27, 1987) aged thirty-three, in Los Angeles in California, drowning in the bath after passing out from an overdose. In the film The People vs. Larry Flynt (1996) Althea was portrayed by actress Courtney Love.

Fodor-Mainvielle, Josephine – (1789 – 1870)
French soprano
Josephine Fodor was born (Oct 13, 1789) in Paris, the daughter of the composer, Josephus Andreas Fodor, whose name she retained after her marriage. Madame Fodor-Mainvielle died (Aug 14, 1870) in Saint-Gens-Laval, aged eighty.

Foerstrova-Lautererova, Berta – (1869 – 1936)
Czech soprano
Berta Lautererova was born in Prague (Jan 11, 1869) and studied singing there. She made her stage debut in the role of Agathe in the opera, Der Freischutz at the Prague National theatre (1887). Berta was married to the composer, Josef Bohuslav Foerster, and as Madame Foerstrova-Lautererova she served as a member of the Hamburg Opera (1893 – 1901) and of the Vienna Court Opera (1901 – 1913). She created roles for herself in the operas Dimitrij (1881) and Jakobin (The Jacobin) (1887), composed by Anton Dvorak (1841 – 1904). She retired in 1914. Berta Foerstrova-Lauterrova died in Prague (April 9, 1936) aged sixty-seven.

Fogarty, Anne – (1919 – 1980)
American pioneer fashion designer
Born Anne Whitney (Feb 2, 1919) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, she was sister to the noted food critic and editor, Poppy Cannon White. After attending college, she came to New York, intending to become an actress, but instead found work as a model, and began her career in fashion designing for the Youth Guild. She was married firstly (1940), to the painter, Thomas Fogarty, from whom she was divorced after bearing two children, and secondly, to the actor and producer, Richard Kollmar (died 1971). Her third marriage (1977) ended in divorce.
Fogarty worked for Margot Dresses in New York (1950 – 1957), and became famous for her adaptation of Christian Dior’s ‘New Look,’ to her own designs of extremely feminine tight-waisted dresses with full crinoline-style petticoats, which were very popular during the decade of the 1950’s, and which she adapted successfully with more ordinary fabrics such as denim, linen, and printed cotton, which made them a favourite with younger customers as well. Fogarty designed collections for such internationally known US stores as Saks Fifth Avenue (1958 – 1962), and received the Coty American Fashion Critics Award (1951). She was honoured by the International Silk Association (1955) and the Cotton Fashion Council (1957). Anne Fogarty died (Jan 15, 1980) suddenly of a heart attack, in Manhattan, New York, aged sixty.

Fogerty, Elsie – (1865 – 1945)
British speech trainer and vocal therapist
Fogerty was born (Dec 16, 1865) at Sydenham in London, the daughter of an architect. She was educated privately and travelled extensively, having an aptitude for languages and history. She studied drama in Paris under the French actor Benoit Coquelin (1841 – 1909) at the Paris Conservatoire, and with the American actor Herman Vezin in London. Fogerty was employed as a lecturer in English and speech at the Crystal Palace School of Art and Literature (1889) and taught at the prestigious Roedean School for almost three decades (1908 – 1937). Short in stature but possessed of a determined and understanding personality, Fogerty was also employed as a diction tutor at the London School of Acting, founded by Sir Frank Benson. She then established the central School of Speech and Drama (1906), where she received pupils from all over the USA and the Commonwealth, including such luminaries as Sir John Gielgud, Sir Laurence Olivier, and Dame Peggy Ashcroft. Fogerty succeeded in establishing a diploma in dramatic art at London University (1923). Fogerty established a speech clinic at Sir Thomas’s Hospital in London (1912) and gave lectures for many years at the Royal Albert Hall. She was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1934), and translated Coquelin’s Art of the Actor. Elsie Fogerty died (July 4, 1945) at Leamington in Warwickshire, aged seventy-nine.

Foix, Catherine de – (1455 – 1494)
French dynastic heiress
Catherine de Foix was the fourth daughter of Gaston IV, Comte de Foix (1436 – 1472) and his wife Eleonor of Aragon, Queen regnant of Navarre (1479), the daughter of Juan II, king of Aragon. She was married (1469) to Gaston II de Foix, Comte de Candale-Benauges (c1445 – 1500). Catherine was a considerable heiress. Her father had received the gift of the viscounty of Aure (Quatre Vallees) from Isabelle d’Armagnac (1472) as a reward for having saved her life. Aure, which included the valleys of Aure, Basse, Neste, Barousse, and Magnoac, was adjudged to Catherine after her father’s death, but due to the fierce opposition of the people, she was unable to take possession of it. The matter was taken up by the French crown, but in the meantime Catherine died. Almost two decades later (1512) it was finally agreed that Catherine’s family should be reserved the usufruct of Aure, and in 1584, Anne de Bourbon later sold this usufruct to Henry of Navarre (Henry IV). She left four children,

Foix, Constance de – (c1280 – c1315)
French dynastic figure
Constance de Foix was born c1280 the daughter of Roger Bernard III, Comte de Foix (c1233 – 1302) and his Gascon wife Margarita de Moncada, the daughter of Guy VII de Moncada, Vicomte de Bearn. She was married (Feb 10, 1296) to Jean I, Seigneur de Levis-Mirepoix and bore him two sons, Jean II (c1300 – c1372) who succeeded his father as Seigneur de Levis-Mirepoix for over five decades (c1318 – c1372) and left descendants, and Roger de Levis-Mirepoix who left descendants. Seigneur Jean I died (c1318) and there is no record of Dame Constance having survived her husband.
Constance’s descendant through her elder son, Marie de Levis was married to Paul Louis de Levis, Marquis de Leran, a descendant of her younger son, thus uniting the two branches of the family in the twelfth generation. The grandson of Marie and the Marquis de Leran was Louis Marie de Levis, Marquis de Mirepoix, who died as an émigré (1800).

Foix, Diane de    see   Gurson, Comtesse de

Foix, Francoise de – (1491 – 1537)
French courtier
Francoise de Foix was the daughter of Jean de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (died after 1498), and his wife Jeanne, the daughter of Odet d’Aydie, Comte de Comminges. She was the sister to Odet de Foix, Comte de Comminges and Vicomte de Lautrec (died 1528) and of Andre de Foix, seigneur de Lesparre and Comte de Montfort (died 1547). Her father was a descendant of Roger I de Foix, Comte de Carcassone (died 1012), and his wife Adelaide de Pons. Francoise de Foix was married (1503) to Jean Laval, seigneur de Chateaubriant (died 1542). She was later appointed to attend the court of Louis XII (1498 – 1515) as lady-in-waiting (1514 – 1515) to his second wife, Mary Tudor, the sister to Henry VIII of England.
Francoise succeeded in attracting the attention and interest of the heir to the French throne, Francois de Valois, Comte d’Angouleme, who soon succeeded as Francois I (1515 – 1547), and became his first maitresse en titre (official mistress). She obtained much influence over Francois, which she used for the benefit of her three brothers, who all prospered. She was superseded to a great extent from Anne de Pisseleu from 1522 onwards, but King Francois retained a permanent affection for her and arranged a suitably grand marriage for her with the Seigneur de Chateaubriand. Unhappily the union was not congenial, and Francoise was later taken from the court by her husband, and imprisoned at his country estate in Brittany. He is said to have had her cruelly murdered there in retribution for cuckolding him with the king, whom she had visited during his incarceration in Pavia, Italy (1525), and after their own marriage. Variations on the legend accuse Francoise of having absconded from her husband with a new lover, but that she changed her mind and returned to her husband, who then had her killed (Oct 16, 1537), aged forty-six.

Foix, Louise de – (c1616 – after 1680)
French nun
Louise de Foix was the daughter of Gaston de Foix, Seigneur de Villefranche. She remained unmarried and took religious vows. From 1655 until 1680, when she resigned her office, probably on the grounds of ill-health, Louise served as Abbess of the convent of St Clodesinde at Metz in Lorraine.

Foix, Marie Charlotte de Roquelaure, Duchesse de – (1654 – 1710)
French courtier
Marie Charlotte de Roquelaure was the daughter of Gaston Jean Baptiste de Roquelaure, first Duc de Roquelaure, and his wife Marie Charlotte de Daillon de Lude, the daughter of Henri de Daillon, Duc de Lude. She was married (1674) to Henri Francois Charles, Duc de Foix and fourth Duc de Randan (1640 – 1714), but their marriage remained childless.
Adored by her husband she was a close friend of Marie de Ligny, the French-born Princess von Furstenburg, whose apartments she shared at the Palace of Versailles. The Duc de Saint-Simon wrote of her in his Memoires ‘ Mme de Foix was the prettiest hunchback imaginable, tall, an exquisite dancer in former times, moving so gracefully that one could scarcely have wished her humpless. She seldom appeared at the Court, was much seen in Society, and at the tables, and was extremely amusing without the slightest trace of malice. She never admitted to be more than fifteen, although she died childless at the age of fifty-five.’ The duchesse died (Jan 22, 1710).

Foix, Zabelia de – (c1170 – after 1211)
French heretic
Zabelia de Foix was the famous patron of the Waldensian movement, which protested against the corruption of the secularized Church of Rome. The daughter of Roger Bernard I, Comte de Foix and his wife Cecilia of Beziers, Zabelia married Roger de Comminges, Vicomte de Courserans, and was the mother of the famous troubadour Arnaud de Courserans (died c1256).

Fokina, Vera – (1886 – 1958)
Russian actress
Born Vera Antonovna, she was trained at the Imperial Ballet Academy. She then joined the troupe at the Marinskii Theatre in St Petersburg, and became the wife (1905) of Mikhail Fokine (1880 – 1942). Vera Fokina created the stage roles of Chiarina in Carnaval, and that of the Princess in The Firebird (1910), and appeared with her husband in Le Spectre de la Rose, which her husband had choreographed for Serge Diaghilev (1911).

Folcheide (Folchaid) – (c661 – c705)
Duchess consort of Bavaria
Folcheide was the daughter of Chrodebert, Count of Haspengau, and his wife Theodora of Bavaria, and was sister of St Rupert of Salzburg and of Abbess Erentrude of Nonnberg. She became the first wife of Theodon V (c660 – 718) the Agilolfing Duke of Bavaria (c660 – 718) and her name is listed in the necrology of the Abbey of St Peter at Salzburg.
Her marriage with Theodon was a dynastic alliance aimed at strengthening his ties with the Alemannian aristocracy, and Duchess Folcheide presided as consort over the ducal courts at Ratisbon (Regensburg), Salzburg, Freising and Passau. When her brother Rupert was placed in danger by the political aspirations of the Arnulfing family, he fled from Worms and sought safety at the court of Folcheide and her husband in Bavaria. Duchess Folcheide was the mother of three Bavarian dukes Theodebert II (718 – 724), Grimoald (718 – 728), Tassilo II (718 – 719) and Theodoald, who ruled jointly with his elder brothers. Her granddaughter Guntrude of Bavaria later became the wife of King Liutprand of Lombardy (died 744).

Foley, Jane   see    Te Kiri Karamu, Heni

Foley, Lucy Fitzgerald, Lady – (1771 – 1851)
Irish society figure
Lady Lucy Fitzgerald was the daughter of John Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster and his English wife Emilia Mary Lennox, daughter of Charles, second Duke of Richmond, and great-granddaughter of Charles II (1660 – 1685). Lucy was the younger sister of Lady Sophia Fitzgerald, and of the famous patriot, Lord Edward Fitzgerlad. Lucy became the wife of Sir Thomas Foley, but died childless. Extracts and letters from Lady Foley’s own diaries, as well as that of her sister and others were published in Edward and Pamela Fitzgerald: Being Some Account of Their Lives. Compiled From the Letters of Those Who Knew Them (1904).

Foley, Martha – (1897 – 1977)
American editor
Foley was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and became the co-founder, with Whit Burnett, of Story magazine, and served as co-editor of Story Press (1931 – 1942). Foley worked for two decades as a teacher and lecturer at Columbia University, and edited several anthologies such as The Best American Short Stories (1941 – 1976), and Fifty Best American Short Stories, 1915 – 1965 (1965). Martha Foley died (Sept 5, 1977) at Northampton, Massachusetts, aged eighty.

Folger, Abigail – (1943 – 1969)
American heiress and murder victim
Abigail Folger was born (Aug 11, 1943) in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Peter Folger, chairman and president of the Folger Coffee Company, and his wife Inez Mejia. She was raised in San Francisco, and later attended the Santa Catalina School for Girls and Radcliffe College. She later studied art history at Harvard University (1964 – 1967). Abigail became a volunteer social worker with the Los Angeles County Welfare Department and was a prominent campaigner for civil rights. Abigail Folger and her boyfriend, the Polish author, Jerzy Kosinski, were among those brutally killed by Charles Manson and his demented followers in Los Angeles (Aug 9, 1969), which included the actress Sharon Tate, the wife of producer Roman Polanski. She had escaped from the house but was murdered on the lawn by Manson’s follower, Patricia Krenwinkel.

Foligno, Angela da   see   Angela of Foligno

Folkes, Lucretia    see   Bradshaw, Lucretia

Folkunga, Ingeborge – (c1286 – 1314)
Swedish noblewoman
Ingeborge Bengtsdotter Folkunga was the daughter of Bengt Magnusson Maneskjold Folkunga (c1237 – 1294), the governor of East Gothland, and was a descendant of the ancient royal line. She became the wife (1301) of the noted warrior lord, Birger Persson Brahe (c1258 – 1327), count of Upland, who fought against the Russians and made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Ingeborge was the mother of St Bridget of Sweden (Birgitta) (1303 – 1373), founder of the Bridgettine Order. Shortly before her daughter’s birth, the countess was at sea in a dreadful storm, during which many people drowned. The following night she had a dream that she had been saved from shipwreck on account of the predestined sanctity of her unborn daughter. She later had a vision of the Virgin Mary placing a crown upon her daughter’s head. Ingeborge died (Sept, 1314) at Finstergaard, aged about twenty-eight, and was interred in the Cathedral of Uppsala, where her husband was later buried beside her. Both of their effigies have survived. She was the maternal grandmother of St Catherine of Vladislava (c1325 – 1381).

Follen, Eliza Lee Cabot – (1787 – 1860)
American author and society figure
Eliza Lee Cabot was born (Aug 15, 1787) in Boston, Massachusetts. She was married to the German-American abolitionist, academic, and author, Charles Theodore Christian Follen (1796 – 1840), almost a decade her junior, who was a professor at Harvard University. After her husband’s death she edited his collection of papers and letters in five volumes as The Works of Charles Follen, with a Memoir of His Life (1841 – 1842). Follen’s own published works included The Well-Spent Hour (1827), Sketches of Married Life (1838), and the collection Hymns, Songs, and Fables (1854), as well as a collection of verse (1839). Eliza Follen died (Jan 26, 1860), aged seventy-two.

Follett, Helen Thomas – (1891 – 1970)
American author
Helen Thomas was wife to the famous novelist, Wilson Follett (1887 – 1963). With her husband she co-wrote, Some Modern Novelists (1918), and under her own name she published Magic Portholes (1932), and Third Class Ticket to Heaven (1938). Helen Follett died (April 21, 1970).

Follett, Mary – (1770 – after 1819)
British stage actress, dancer and vocalist
Mary Francis was born in London, the daughter of Bodley Francis, a theatre servant. She was sister to the actors William Bodley Francis and Sarah Thomas Bodley. Mary’s first stage appearance was at the age of twelve, when she played the young prince Edward, son of the king, in Richard III, at Covent Garden Theatre (1782). After several years, during which she also played comic and pantomime roles, Mary became the wife (1793) of the singer and comic, John Follett, to whom she bore four children. After his death (1799) Mary continued to appear at Covent Garden in a variety of roles until 1807. Follett appeared in comic operas such as, Oscar and Malvina, Netley Abbey, The Citizen, and, Raymond and Agnes, in which she played the role of the Countess von Lindenburg. Mrs Follett was granted an annuity by the Covent Garden Fund, and was still drawing her pension rwo decades after the death of her husband.

Follett, Mary Parker – (1868 – 1933)
American social psychologist and management scientist
Born in Quincy, Massachusetts, she was educated at the Thayer Academy at Braintree before studying political economy with the Society for Collegiate Instruction for Women (1880 – 1890), the college associated with Harvard University. Her first published work was the political study entitled, The Speaker and the House of Representatives (1896). Follett worked hard for two decades as a volunteer worker with public issues such as school community centres and suffrage for women, and served on the committee of the Women’s Municipal League (1908 – 1920). She became increasingly influential in the sphere of industrial relations and later went to live in England (1929) where she gave lectures at the London School of Economics. She left several published works such as, The New State (1918), and, Freedom and Co-ordination (1949). Mary Follett died in the USA whilst on a visit to Boston (Dec, 1933), aged seventy-five.

Follows, Ruth – (1718 – 1809)
British Quaker
Born Ruth Alcock in Weston, Nottinghamshire, she was the daughter of a poor Quaker family. She was married to fellow Quaker, George Fellows, of Castle Donington, Leicestershire, to whom she bore two children. Mrs Follows began preaching at Donington (1748) and Atherstone, before moving on to spread the Quaker doctrine in Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Norfolk, as well as visiting Ireland, Scotland, and Wales for the same purpose. Her last speaking tour took place when she was seventy-seven (1795). Ruth Follows died (April 3, 1809) at Castle Donington, aged ninety.

Folson, Eileen – (1956 – 2007)
American musician and composer
Folson was born into a large family, and began learning to be proficient in various musical instruments, including harp, bassoon, piano and trumpet, though the cello remained her favourite.
Folson obtained a scholarship which enabled her to attend the Settlement Music School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She began her debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra (1973) and began her professional career playing with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra under Zubin Mehta. Whilst working as a Broadway musician she performed with such famous productions as, Phantom of the Opera and, The Lion King. Folson was nomiated for a Grammy Award for her song, ‘J.J’S Jam,’ from the album USQ Just Wait a Minute. She also made television appearances on such programs as The Bill Cosby Show and Mr Roger’s Neighbourhood, and was toured with Luther Vandross. Eileen Folson died of cancer (Feb 4, 2007) aged fifty-one.

Folstad, Astrid – (1932 – 2009)
Norwegian stage and film actress
Astrid Folstad was born (May 31, 1932) and studied at the Norwegian National Academy of Acting (1953 – 1956). She made her stage debut at the National Theatre (1955) and was then associated with the Det Norske Teatret (1956 – 1959). Folstad appeared in several films and also worked in television. She later worked as an acting teacher at the Norwegian Academy of Theatre (1970 – 1986). Astrid Folstad died (Jan 21, 2009) aged seventy-six.

Folville, Juliette – (1870 – 1946)
Belgian pianist, violinist and composer
Born Eugenie Emilie Juliette Folville in Liege, Belgium (Jan 5, 1870), she was the daughter of a distinguished lawyer and jurist, who oversaw her education. Juliette studied the violin under various masters such as Charles Theodore Malherbe (1853 – 1911) and Ovide Musin (1854 – 1929). She made her public debut as a concert violinist in Liege at the age of nine (1879). Juliette Folville often directed the performances of her won works, gave public performances on the clavecin, and conducted at the Liege Conservatorium, where she later worked as a music educator. Apart from several orchestral suites, Folville also composed the successful opera Atala, which was first performed at Lille, in Flanders (1892). She later taught the piano at the Academy of Liege (1897 – 1919). Juliette Folville died (Oct 19, 1946) aged seventy-six.

Fonscolombe, Jeanne Marie de – (1718 – 1795)
French mistress
Jeanne Marie d’Albert de St Hippolyte was born (March 22, 1718) at Aix in Provence, her mother Jeanne Marie de Margalet being sister to the Seigneur de Luynes. She became the wife (1744) of Jean baptiste Laurent Boyer de Fonscolombe (died 1788), an advocate with the Paris Parlement, to whom she bore two children. The marriage collapsed after the birth of their younger child (1746) and the couple lived on estranged terms. She later accompanied her father-in-law to a convent at Cesena, where she was to be confined (1749).
Madame de Fonscolombe is believed to be identified with the woman called ‘Henriette’ in the scandalous Memoires of the adventurer Giacomo Casanova. Casanova made her acquaintance in Cesena and she became his mistress, evading the watchful eye of her father-inlaw. After attending the opera with Casanova, Madame de Fonscolombe was recognized by a friend who persuaded her to return to Aix and repair her marital relationship. Casanova was permitted to accompany her as far as Geneva. Before parting from him she traced unobserved with the printof a diamond on the window of their room at the Hotel de Balances ‘Tu oublieras aussi Henriette’ (You will forget Henriette, too) which he discovered after her departure. As late as 1828 this inscription was still pointed out to travellers such as Lord Malmesbury. Henriette had the honour of being one of the few women in Casanova’s life to really captivate him and he never forgot her. Madame de Fonscolombe encountered Casanova twice more during her lifetime (1763) and (1769) but refrained from making herself known to him. Madame de Fonscolombe died (Oct 8, 1795) aged seventy-seven.

Fonseca, Eleonora Pimentel, Marchesa di – (1758 – 1799)
Italian revolutionary figure
Eleonora Pimentel was born in Naples, and received an unusually erudite education in anatomy and natural history, studying under the noted biologist, Lazaro Spallanzani. When of a suitable age she was sent to the royal court where she served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Maria Carolina, the wife of Ferdinando I. The marchesa was a prominent supporter of the French and when the royal family was forced to flee Naples before the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte, the marchesa managed to escape death at the hands of the fiercely anti-French lazzaroni. During the brief period known as the Parthenopean Republic (1798 – 1799), the marchesa edited the republican journal the Neapolitan Monitor. However, with the restoration of the royal family and government, Queen Maria Carolina ordered the marchesa to be arrested for treason. She was found guilty and hanged in Naples. Gossip stated that one of the real reasons the marchesa had been condemned was because she had made unwise comments concering the queen’s relationship with her Prime Minister Sir John Acton.

Fonssagrives-Penn, Lisa – (1911 – 1992)
Swedish-American model and artist
Born Lisa Bernstone at Udderalla, Sweden, she was the daughter of a dentist. She studied art and ballet, and had dance lessons in Paris. There she was married (1935) to the dancer Fernand Fonssagrives. Lisa Fonssagrives was a successful model, appearing in such popular magazines as Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar, after she and her husband removed to the USA (1939). She later divorced Fonssagrives and remarried (1950) to the photographer, Irving Penn, and adopted the hyphenated form of her name. She is said to have been the inspiration for Irving’s greatest photographs. During the 1960’s Fonssagrives-Penn became an accomplished sculptor, working in marble, fibre-glass, and bronza, examples of her work being preserved in the Marlborough Gallery in New York. Lisa Fonssagrives-Penn died (Feb 4, 1992) in New York, aged eighty.

Fontages, Marie Angelique de Scorailles de Roussilhe, Duchesse de – (1661 – 1681) 
French courtier
Marie Angelique de Scorailles was born at the Chateau de Cropieres, in the Auvergne region, the daughter of Jean Rigal de Scorailles, Marquis de Roussilhe and his wife Eleonore, the daughter of Annet de Plas. She came to court (1678) as maid-of-honour to Elisabeth Charlotte, Duchesse d’Orleans at the Palais Royale. Though possessed of great beauty and physical attractions, and a kind-hearted nature, she was definitely not an intellectual. Angelique became the mistress of Louis XIV (March, 1679) and was allocated apartments at the chateau de St Germain. From her first appearance at court she had been determined to become the king’s mistress, and was supported in this endeavour by her parents and the enemies of the king’s established maitresse en titre, Madame de Montespan. An expert horsewoman, she accompanied the king on the hunt, and when, on one occasion, her hat was swept off by the branch of a tree, and she tied up her blonde hair with ribbons, this action set a fashion in court hairdressing for many years to come.

Created a duchess and granted a pension (1680), the king soon tired of her because of her basic stupidity. She had become pregnant in the summer of 1680, but the king was already bored with her. Becoming ill, the duchess retired to the abbey of Maubuisson. She sufferred a miscarriage, but the physicians could not stem the bleeding, and she continued to decline. The duchesse died (July 28, 1681) aged only twenty, at the Abbaye de Port-Royal. Madame de Montespan was credited with removing her rival with poison mixed with powdered milk. Despite the lack of evidence in this regard, this rumour gained credence at the court, notably in the letters of the Duchesse d’Orleans. An autopsy revealed her death to have been caused by a corruption of the lungs.

Fontaines, Humbeline de – (1092 – 1141)
French Cistercian nun
Humbeline was the only daughter of Tescelin Sorrel, seigneur de Fontaines, a Burgundian nobleman, and his wife Adelaide de Mombard (Aleth). She was the younger sister of St Bernard (1090 – 1153), abbot of Clairvaux. Humbeline made a socially prominent marriage with Anseric II, seigneur de Chacenay (c1082 – 1137), a relative of the duchess of Lorraine. Her daughter, Petronilla de Chacenay (died after 1161), sometimes called Elisabeth, became the wife of Count Guy of Bar-sur-Seine (died 1145), and left descendants, which made Humbeline an ancestress of the English king, Edward III (1327 – 1377) and all of his numerous descendants.
During a visit to her brothers, who were all monks of the Cistercian order, Humbeline was upbraided by them for her love of worldly finery and secular vanities. Soon afterwards, with the permission of her husband, Humbeline became a nun at the abbey of Juilly. She was regarded as the patron and mother of all Cistercian nuns, having established for women, the rule that her brother Bernard had established for men. Humbeline was honoured as a saint (Feb 12)

Fontana, Lavinia – (1552 – 1614)
Italian painter
Best known for her portraits, Lavinia was born in Bologna, the daughter of artist Prospero Fontana. She studied under her father, following his Mannerist style, and worked in his workshop, being recognized as an artist in her own right by the age of eighteen (1570). She married fellow painter Zappi and bore him eleven children. Popular as a painter of group, portrait and narrative works including Portrait of a Noblewoman (1580), the religious work Noli me tangere (1581), the Gozzadinci Family (1584), and The Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon. She also produced magnificent altar pieces such as the Holy Family with the Sleeping Christ Child (1589) for the monastery of San Lorenzo within the Escorial Palace in Madrid. She also produced her own, Self-Portrait at the Harpsichord.
From 1600 Lavinia was resident in Rome, where she was patronized by popes Gregory XIII and Clement VIII, and produced large commissions such as the famous altarpiece The Stoning of St Stephen for the church of St Paul’s Without the Walls, which was destroyed in 1823, and the Vision of St Hyacinth for Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio. Among her last works were the full-length figures of SS Cecilia, Catherine, Clare and Agnes for the pilasters of the high altar of Santa Maria della Pace, Rome, which were commissioned by Gaspare Rivaldi. Fontana is remembered as perhaps the first professional female artist in Western Europe whose talent and work were recognized during her career, and hers is the largest group of works surviving, produced by any female artist before 1700. Her natural style is said to compare with that of Sofonisba Anguissola. Lavinia Fontana died in Rome.

Fontana, Zoe – (1911 – 1979) 
Italian fashion designer
Zoe Fontana was born in Rome, the daughter of the famous fashion designer Amabile Fontana. Zoe married businessman Mario Montanarini, and with her sisters Micol and Giovanna, and later her own daughter Goya, prepared collections for the Casa Fontana (House of Fontana), on the Via Liguria, one of the most internationally famous coutoure salons in Rome during the 1950’s. Collectively Zoe and her sisters were known as the Sorelle Fontana. Famous for the elaborate beaded evening waer, their collections also included day wear, designed furs, footwear, and knitted fashions. Their elaborate annual fashion shows continued until 1972, by which time the ready-to-wear manufacturing industry had gradually drawn the focus of Italian fashion to Milan, Lombardy. Zoe and her sisters designed the wedding dress of actress Linda Christian, the wife of actor Tyrone Power, and other notable clients included actress Dame Elizabeth Taylor and Dewi Sukarno, the First Lady of Indonesia. Zoe Fontana died in Rome of cancer.

Fontanella, Marianna – (1660 – 1717)
Italian nun and founder
Marianna Fontanella was the daughter of Giovanni Donato Fontanella, Conte de Baldissero, who held public office in Turin, Piedmont. She originally wanted to join her sisters and became a Cistercian nun at the convent of Rifreddo in Saluzzo, but her mother care not bear to be parted with her sole remaining daughter. However despite this, Marianna persisted, and was eventually permitted to join the Order of the Barefooted Carmelites, at the convent of Santa Cristina della Priora, taking the name of Sister Mary of the Angels. Having served as mistress of the novices, she served for four terms as prioress. Sister Mary’s piet and religious sanctity was admired by the Sardinian king, Vittoria Emanuele II, who wished the nun to advise him on political matters. Eventually she founded the convent of Moncalierli (1702). Regarded a saint at her death, she was beatified by Pope Pius IX (1777) and her feast (Dec 19) was observed by the Carmelite Order.

Fontanne, Lynne – (1887 – 1983)
Anglo-American actress
Born Lillie Louise Fontanne in London, England, she studied acting under Dame Ellen Terry, and made her stage debut in 1905. Fontanne made a name for herself as a stage actress with such noted British actors as Lewis Waller, Herbert Tree, and Lena Ashwell before going to the USA (1916), where she settled permanently. She had married (1913) to the actor and producer Alfred Lunt (1892 – 1977), and they often appeared together, forming a formidable and famously talented acting team, especially after her appearance in the Broadway play, Dulcey (1921), though Fontanne worked mainly as a stage actress. The couple both retired in 1958. Lynne Fontannes’s few film roles included The Man Who Found Himself (1925), Second Youth (1926), The Guardsman (1932), and Stage Door Canteen (1943).

Fontenoy, Myra    see   Louise Caroline Alberta

Fontenelle, Louisa – (1770 – 1799)
British stage actress and vocalist
Fontenelle made her debut appearance at Covent Garden theatre in the role of Moggy in the first performance of O’Keeffe’s comic opera The Highland Reel (1788). An engraving of Fontenelle in this role by Barlow is preserved in the Harvard Theatre Collection. Vivacious, and possessed of a pleasing singing voice, Louisa Fontenelle was popular in tomboy and ‘breeches’ roles. From 1789 – 1790 She worked in Brighton, and then in Edinburgh, Scotland, before returning to London, where she engaged by the Haymarket Theatre (1790 – 1793). After this she joined an English theatrical company in Hamburg, Germany, under the direction of James Brown Williamson (died 1802), whom she later married as his second wife. She travelled to Boston, USA, with her husband, and appeared there as Desdemona, opposite her husband’s Othello. Fontenelle appeared in Charleston as Sir Harry Wildair in The Constant Couple, and also sang Scottish songs and ballads. Fontenelle died suddenly (Oct 29 or 31, 1799) in Charleston, aged only twenty-six.

Fonteyn, Dame Margot – (1919 – 1991)
British ballerina
Born Margaret Evelyn Hookham (May 18, 1919) at Reigate, Surrey, she made her stage debut (1934) with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet. She then joined the Royal Ballet and became a prima ballerina, and established herself as one of the most accomplished performers and interpreters of classical ballet. Fonteyn was appointed as president of the Royal Academy of Dancing (1975) and was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1956) by Queen Elizabeth II. She was married (1955) to Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), the Panamanian lawyer and politician, who served as ambassador to Great Britain.
After her husband was crippled in an assassination attempt (1964), Dame Margot moved to Panama in order to nurse him. She still made occasional appearances in London, and achieved world wide acclaim when she toured with the younger Russian dancer, Rudolf Nureyev (1938 – 1993). Together they performed in such famous ballet pieces as Le Corsair, Margeurite and Armand, Giselle, and Swan Lake. Margot Fonteyn is credited with popularising ballet with the general public through the television series The Magic of Dance (1980). Besides the book Pavlova Impressions (1984), she left two volumes of autobiography entitled, Margot Fonteyn (1975) and A Dancer’s World (1978). She served as president of the Royal Academy of Dancing for over thirty-five years (1954 – 1991). Dame Margot Fonteyn died (Feb 22, 1991) in Panama, aged seventy-one.

Fonte i Codina, Merce – (1867 – 1894)
Spanish poet
Merce Fonte i Codina was born in Vic, Barcelona, where she resided all of her life. Her verses were inspired by her own personal religious devotion, and were published in the local periodical, La veu de Montserrat. She received an award from the Marian Academy in Lleida (1887) for her poem ‘A Maria Immaculada’ (To Mary Immaculate).

Foote, Lillian Vallish – (1921 – 1992) 
American film producer
Lillian Vallish was born in Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania, and attended Radcliffe College. She married the screenwriter and dramatist Horton Foote (b. 1916). She was best known as the producer of several films including 1918, On Valentine’s Day, and Courtship, which were written by her husband. She also produced the mini-series, Story of a Marriage (1987), written by her husband for television. Lillian Vallish Foote died (Aug 5, 1992) at Princeton, New Jersey, aged sixty-nine.

Foote, Lydia – (1844 – 1892)
British stage actress
Born Lydia Alice Legge, she was the niece of famous actress Mary Anne Keeley. She made her stage debut as a child in, A Chain of Events (1852), at the Lyceum Theatre in London. Lydia played in London, Sadler’s Wells, and Lancashire, and was the original Enid Gryffydd in, Hidden Hand (1864) written by Tom Taylor. Other memorable roles included Maria in Shakespeare’s, Twelfth Night, Clara Vernon in, Frozen Deep, by famous novelist Wilkie Collins, author of, The Woman in White. She was critically acclaimed in the role of Esther Eccles in Caste, written by Robertson, which was staged at the Prince of Wales’s Theatre in Tottenham Street (1867), and was also much admired as Anna in the, Danischeffs (1877). Foote played the twin sisters Craddock in Lord Byron’s Blow for Blow the same year, as well as the original Lady Selina in Boucicault’s, How she loves him. She later appeared as Helen opposite the famous Adelaide Neilson as Julia in the, Hunchback (1879). Lydia Foote appeared on stage in the important English theatres of the period, including the Holborn, the Gaiety and the Adelphi. Lydia Foote died of cancer (May 30, 1892) at Broadstairs, aged forty-eight.

Foote, Maria – (1798 – 1867)
British actress
Maria Foote was born in Plymouth, the daughter of theatrical manager, Samuel T. Foote. She made her stage debut (1810) as Juliet at her father’s theatre in Plymouth. Though a great beauty, her talent was limited. Maria appeared with great success in Covent Garden, in London (1814) as Amanthis in, Child of Nature, written by Mrs Trenbold. She also performed tragic roles such as Queen Statira in, Alexander the Great (1815), Fanny in, The Clandestine Marriage, and Lady Percy in King Henry IV. She performed continuously at Covent Garden till 1825, in such roles as Letitia Hardy in, Belle’s Sratagem and Lady Teazle. She was the original Isidora in Cornwallis’s, Mirandola.
Maria became involved in a liasion with Colonel Berkeley, whom she bore two children. Maria later successfully sued another society rake, ‘Pea-Green’ Hayes, after he withdrew an offer of marriage he made her, and she was awarded damages, her case engendering great public sympathy. Maria continued to tour England, Ireland, and Scotland until she retired from the stage to marry (1831) Charles Stanhope, fourth earl of Harrington (1780 – 1851). Her only son, Charles, Viscount Petersham died in childhood (1836), whilst her daughter, Lady Jane Stanhope (1833 – 1907), became the wife of George Henry, third marquess of Conyngham.

Foote, Mary Anna Hallack – (1847 – 1938)
American novelist and illustrator
Mary Hallack was born (Nov 19, 1847) in Milton, New York, into a Quaker family. She attended the Cooper Institute School of Design for Women in New York, and then became the wife (1876) of Arthur De Wint Foote, to whom she bore several children. Her husband was a prominent civil engineer and his business took him to various mining towns in the west, such as California, Idaho, and Mexico. Mary Foote accompanied her husband on his various travels, and corresponded with friends in New York. Encouraged by friends her personal account entitled, ‘A California Mining Camp,’ was published (1878) by the Century magazine, and Mary continued to write articles for this publication, such as the series of drawings and prose sketches entitled Pictures of the Far West (1888 – 1889). Accomplished as an illustrator, she produced illustrations for the books of such famous contemporaries as John Greenleaf Whittier, Constance Fenimore Woolson, and Henry Wadsworh Longfellow, as well as the British author and poet, Rudyard Kipling. Her published novels included The Chosen Valley (1892), Coeur d’Alene (1894), The Desert and the Sown (1902), and The Ground Swell (1919), amongst others. Mary Foote died (June 25, 1938) at Hingham, Massachusetts, aged ninety.

Foote, Mary Wilder – (1810 – 1857)
American letter writer and diarist
Mary Wilder was the wife of clergyman Caleb Foote. Her personal correspondence from over a thirty year period (1824 – 1857), was edited posthumously by Mary Wilder Tilleston and published as Caleb and Mary Wilder Foote: Reminiscences and Letters (1918).

Foott, Mary Hannay – (1846 – 1918)
Scottish-Australian educator, poet and author
Born Mary Black (Sept 26, 1846) in Glasgow, she was the daughter of a merchant. She immigrated to Australia with her parents as a teenager (1853) and resided in Melbourne, Victoria, where she was educated, studying art under Louis Buvelot. She was married (1874) to Thomas Wade Foott, to whom she bore two sons, the younger of which was killed during WW I at Passchendaele (1917). Mary Foott resided in rural south-west Queensland with her husband and her poems such as ‘New Country’ and ‘Where the Pelican Builds,’ reflect this constant theme. The death of her husband (1884) and the loss of the property due to extensive drought, forced Mary Foott to remove to Toowoomba. She later opened a school at Rocklea, near Brisbane in order to provide for herself financially, and also did some work for the Brisbane Courier and Queenslander newspapers, sometimes using the pseudonym ‘La Quenouille.’ Foott was the author of the the collection of verse, Where the Pelican Builds and Other Poems (1885). Many of her stories and verse appeared in Morna Lee and Other Poems (1890). Her elder son was the distinguished military officer, Brigadier-General Cecil Henry Foott (1876 – 1942), C.M.G. (Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George). Mary Foott died (Sept, 1918) at Bundaberg, Queensland, aged eighty-two.

Forber, Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon, Lady – (1877 – 1967)
British physician and medical researcher
Janet Lane-Claypon was the daughter of William Ward Lane-Claypon of Boston in Lincolnshire. She received her early education at home under the supervision of a governess, but later attended the London School of Medicine for Women and the University College. She became a research scholar (1902 – 1903) and then became a lecturer in physiology and hygiene at the Battersea Polytechnic (1910 – 1912) and then at the King’s College for Women (1912).
Lane-Claypon wrote several articles concerning health research including The Child’s Welfare Movement and Hygiene of Women and Children, as well as detailed reports which were submitted to the Ministry of Health. She was married (1929) to Sir Edward Rodolph Forber K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the Order of Bath) and became Lady Forber (1929 – 1960). Lady Forber was appointed as Dean of the Household and Science Department at King’s College for Women and was also a Justice of the Peace. Janet survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Forber (1960 – 1967). Lady Forber died (July 17, 1967) at Seaford in Sussex.

Forbes, Amelia Sophia Grant, Lady – (1795 – 1886)
Anglo-Australian colonial society figure
Amelia Grant was the daughter of David Grant, of Kingston, Jamaica, a physician. She was married (1813) to Francis Forbes (1784 – 1841), to whom she bore three sons, only one of whom survived her. Amelia Forbes accompanied her husband and children to Sydney, New South Wales, where he was appointed chief justice, sailing aboard the Guildford (1824). Mrs Forbes formed particular forendships with several prominent ladies such as Anne Thomson (nee Bourke) and Lady Anna Maria Brisbane. Her husband was knighted by William IV, and she revisited England with him (1836 – 1839) before returning to the colony in Sydney. Her husband’s death left Lady Forbes ill-provided for financially, his effects having to be auctioned to pay debts. Sir George Gipps and twenty-one members of the Legislative Council petitioned the Secretary of State that Lady Forbes be granted an annuity, which was later granted (1846). She wrote a memorial of her husband, which she addressed to Queen Victoria (1848). Lady Amelia survived her husband forty-five years as the Dowager Lady Forbes (1841 – 1886). Lady Forbes died (March 14, 1886), aged ninety.

Forbes, Lady Angela    see   St Clair-Erskine, Lady Angela

Forbes, Anna – (c1858 – 1922)
British traveller and memoirist
Anna was the wife of the noted explorer and naturalist, Henry Forbes. She accompanied her husband on collecting expeditions to the islands situated between Sumatra and Papua New Guinea, and despite sufferring from constant attacks of malaria, wrote her own account of these travels entitled Insulinde: Experiences of a Naturalist’s Wife in the Eastern Archipelago (1887).

Forbes, Anne Pappenheimer – (1911 – 1992)
American endocrinologist, researcher and clinician
Forbes was born in New York, and attended Radcliffe College and the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons before serving as an intern at John Hopkins Hospital (1936 – 1938).
Forbes became the assistant of Fuller Albright, chief of endocrinology at the Harvard Medical School. Her research assisted with the correct identification of diseases such as Forbes-Albright Syndrome, an illness affecting the oituitary gland, which she named in honour of herself and her mentor. Forbes later worked abroad in Paris (1954 – 1955) and at the Pahlavi University in Shiraz, Iran (1967 – 1969). She retired in 1980. Anne Forbes died (Feb 25, 1992) in Milton, Massachusetts, aged eighty.

Forbes, Brenda – (1909 – 1996)
Anglo-American stage, film and television actress
Brenda Forbes was born (Jan 14, 1909) in London, the daughter of actress Mary Forbes, and was the younger sister to British leading actor, Ralph Forbes (1902 – 1951), himself the husband of actress Ruth Chatterton (1893 – 1961). Brenda Forbes was originally trained for the theatre, and retained her stage connections for most of her career. She was nominated for an Antoinette Perry Award (Tony) as best supporting of featured actress in ‘The Loves of Cassie Maguire’ (1967).
In films she played minor character roles such as housemaids, and appeared in such classic films as, Mrs Miniver (1942) with Greer Garson, as Gladys, The White Cliffs of Dover (1944), with Irene Dunne, and, Blithe Spirit (1956), with Dame Margaret Rutherford. Forbes made cameo appearances in several popular television series such as the Hallmark Hall of Fame (1965, 1967), Studio One (1955), and, The Alcoa Hour (1956).  She also appeared in several telemovies including, Mrs Delafield Wants to Marry (1986), with Katharine Hepburn. Brenda Forbes died (Sept 11, 1996) in New York, aged eighty-seven.

Forbes, Elizabeth – (c1770 – 1807)
British minor stage actress
Forbes was originally a member of a theatrical troupe from Richmond. She worked in Dublin, Ireland (1799 – 1800) as well as in Manchester, Lancashire, and overseas in Germany (1802). However, her talent was considered unremarkable, though, by her own admission, Forbes had a total of over forty characters in her repertoire. Elizabeth Forbes died at Durham (April 16, 1807) whilst engaged on tour.

Forbes, Elizabeth Adela – (1859 – 1912) 
British water colour painter
Elizabeth Armstrong was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, the daughter of William Armstrong, of the Civil service. She married (1889) Stanhope Forbes. Educated at the Art Students’ League, New York (c1877 – 1880), studying mainly under William Merritt Chase. She spent further time studying technique in Munich, Bavaria and Pont-Aven, in Brittany. Forbes exhibited her work at the Royal Academy, the Paris Salon, and the Royal Society of Painters and Etchers, later becoming an associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours. Examples of her work included Zandroort Fisher Girl (1884), School is Out (1889), and Jean Jeanne Jeannette (c1892). Elizabeth Adela Forbes died in Newlyn, Cornwall.

Forbes, Elizabeth Mary   see   Goodlet, Elizabeth Mary

Forbes, Esther – (1891 – 1967)
American children’a author, novelist, and historian
Forbes was born (June 28, 1891) in Westborough, Massachusetts, the daughter of a judge, William Forbes and the author Harriette Merrifield Forbes. She attended the Bradford Academy, and then studied history at the University of Wisconsin. Her marriage (1926 – 1933) with Albert Learned Hoskins, a lawyer, ended in divorce. During WW I she worked as a farmhand in Virginia as part of the war effort, but was later editor with the Houghton-Mifflin Company (1920 – 1926) and (1942 – 1946). Her historical novels included, O Genteel Lady (1926), A Mirror for Witches (1928), Paradise (1937) and, The General’s Lady (1938). Her biography, Paul Revere and the World He Lived In (1942) caused Forbes to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History, and gained her international fame, but her best remembered work was, Johnny Tremain: A Novel for Young and Old (1943), set during the American Revolution, which was used as a textbook in American schools. Her novel, Rainbow on the Road (1955), was later turned into a musical on Braodway in New York under the title, Come Summer (1969). Esther Forbes died (Aug 12, 1967) in Worcester, Massachusetts, aged seventy-six.

Forbes, Eveline Louisa Michell – (1863 – 1924)
British author
Eveline Farwell was born at The Lowlands, Tettenhall, the daughter of Frederick Cooper Farwell, and maternal granddaughter of Admiral Sir Frederick Michell. Eveline was educated at home under the supervision of a governess, and was married (1888) to the Hon. (Honourable) Walter Drummond Forbes, the younger son of the Scottish peer, the eighteenth Baron Forbes. She was the author of several novels such as, Fingers and Fortune (1886), A Gentleman (1900), Unofficial (1902), Nameless (1910), and, His Alien Enemy (1918). Eveline Forbes died (April 13, 1924) in London.

Forbes, Harriette Merrifield – (1856 – 1951)
American author and historian
Harriette Merrifield was born (Oct 22, 1856) in Worcester, Massachusetts. She became the wife of William Forbes, a judge, and was the mother of historical novelist, Esther Forbes. Her published works included Gravestones of Early New England (1927). She edited, The Diary of Rev. Ebenezer Parkman (1899), and, New England Diaries, 1602 – 1800 (1923). Henriette Forbes died (Oct 12, 1951) aged ninety-four.

Forbes, Helen Emily Craven, Lady – (1874 – 1926)
British author
Lady Emily Craven was born (Dec 18, 1874) in London, the only surviving daughter of the third Earl Craven, and his wife Evelyn Barrington, and was educated at Ashdown Park. Lady Helen was married (1901) to Ian Forbes, to whom she bore six children. She was author of Notes of a Music Lover (1897), The Outcast Emperor (1900), Lady Marion and the Plutocrat (1906), The Polar Star (1911), and The Saga of the Seventh Division (1920). Lady Forbes died (Oct 13, 1926) aged fifty-one, at Purton, Wiltshire.

Forbes, Katherine    see   Watson-Watt, Dame Katherine Jane Trefusis

Forbes, Kathryn – (1909 –1966)
American storywriter
Forbes was born (March 20, 1909), and was the author of the best-selling collection of stories concerning an emigrant Norwegian family in San Francisco entitled Mama’s Bank Account (1943). This was later adapted for the stage, cinema, and television as I Remember Mama (1948), starring Irene Dunne, and for which she received an Academy Award nomination. Kathryn Forbes died (May 15, 1966), aged fifty-seven.

Forbes, Lorna Ada – (1886 – 1976)
Australian atage actress
Forbes was born (Feb 1, 1886) in Melbourne, Victoria, into a well established theatrical family, and was educated at the Methodist Ladies’ College. She made her stage debut in Melbourne (1901), and was later married (1906) to Frederick Chapman. Forbes retained her maiden name as her professional name and worked with the Alan Wilkie Company before establishing her own drama school in Melbourne (1924). Her repertoire included comedy, classic Greek drama, and Shakespearean roles. She was once the understudy to Dame Sybil Thorndike (1955) and made her last stage appearance in The Sound of Music (1961). Lorna Forbes died in Melbourne (May 26, 1976) aged ninety.

Forbes, Margaret (1) – (fl. 1765 – 1787)
British stage actress and vocalist
Her first recorded public appearance was in Southwark, London (1765). Forbes performed at Drury Lane Theatre, Marylebone Gardens, and at the Haymarket, in roles such as, The Mistake and, Leonora in the popular piece, The Padlock. Possessed of an admirable singing voice, she lived with the actor William Miell as his wife, and the couple worked togther in Dublin (1773 – 1774). She bore him two children, and disappears from public record after 1787.

Forbes, Margaret (2) – (1807 – 1877)
Scottish-New Zealand land protester
Margaret Cooper was baptized (April 2, 1807) at Fraserburgh in Aberdeenshire, the daughter of a farmer. She was married (1830) to Robert Forbes and bore him eight children. Margaret and her family sailed to New Zealand aboard the Slains Castle (1840 – 1841) and settled at Epsom in Auckland where Robert Forbes set himself up as an innkeeper. The family then established themselves at Onehunga (1844) where Robert Forbes applied for and was granted a license to establish the New Leith Inn.
Margaret assisted her husband with the daily running of their business and cared for her children. Governor Fitzroy allowed Forbes to purchase the surrounding eight acres of land around the New Leith (1845) but Governor Grey sent commissioners to question the validity of all those who had purchased Maori land. The commissioners recommended that Robert Forbes receive the grant of his purchased land but he died before the deeds could be finalized (1849). Mrs Forbes then became entangled with a dispute with the governor who wished to take back most of the family property. She vigorously opposed Grey and even visited his residence to ask permission to address the Legislative Council on her own behalf, but he refused her request. A petition was presented to the council on her behalf, and many members took the side of Mrs Forbes, but Grey refused to relent. She sold her liquor license (1857) and then supported her family from the sale of farm produce. Margaret Forbes died (Jan 13, 1877) aged sixty-nine, at Onehunga.

Forbes, Mary – (1883 – 1974)
Anglo-American stage and film character actress
Forbes was born (Dec 30, 1883) in Hornsey, and became mother to the leading actor, Ralph Forbes (1902 – 1951) and to the character actress, Brenda Forbes. She was later mother-in-law to actress Ruth Chatterton. Mary Forbes appeared on the stage at an early age, and after she made the movie to to the cinema she specialized in the roles of upper class society matrons. Her silent film credits included, The Lady Clare (1919), as Lady Julia Medwin, Nance (1920), and, Inheritance (1920) as Lady Isabel. She successfully made the transition to sound, but her character range remained the same. These movie credits included A Farewell to Arms (1932), Blonde Bombshell (1933), The Awful Truth (1937), You Can’t Take It With You (1938), The Picture of Dorian Gray (1944), as Lady Agatha, an uncredited role in Jane Eyre (1944), Les Miserables (1952), where she played a nun, and the biblical epic, The Ten Commandments (1956), amongst many others. True to form her last film role was an uncredited appearance as a British society lady in, Houseboat (1958). Forbes appeared in over one hundred and thirty films during her extensive career. She made only a few forays into television, mainly character appearances on popular serials such as, Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1955). Mary Forbes died (July 23, 1974) in Beaumont, California, aged ninety.

Forbes, Meriel – (1913 – 2000)
British actress
Meriel Forbes-Robertson was born in London, daughter of the actor and theatrical manager, Frank Forbes-Robertson. She made her stage debut in the provinces, in the leading role in the play by Jerome K. Jerome, The Passing of the Third Floor Back.  Meriel Forbes made her first London stage appearance in the role of Simone d’Ostignac in Point Porcupine (1933) at the Gate Theatre. Most notable of her roles were as Kitty Packard in Dinner at Eight (1935), as Renee le Lune in I Killed the Count (1936) at the Old Vic Theatre, and as Elizabeth Imbrie in The Philadelphia Story (1949). Forbes became the wife of actor Sir Ralph Richardson (1902 – 1983), and always remained protective of his career, even to the extent of subjugating her own considerable talent for his benefit.
Other creditable stage performances included First Episode (1934), written by Terence Rattingan, and stage performances in Sydney, Australia (1956) in The Sleeping Prince written by Rattigan), and as Sibyl Railton-Bell in Separate Tables, where she successfully played the characters of women decades younger then herself. Forbes later appeared with Richardson in the play, Lloyd-George Knew My Father, written by William Douglas-Home, in Australia, and they appeared togther in The Waltz of the Toreadors, in London. Widowed in 1983, she was appointed to the board of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Meriel Forbes died (April 7, 2000) in London, aged eighty-six.

Forbes, Muriel Rose – (1894 – 1991)
British local councillor, justice of the peace and civic leader
Born Muriel Cheeseright (April 20, 1894), she was educated at Gateshead before becoming a member of the Southlands Teacher Training College. She was married (1923) to Charles Gilbert Forbes (died 1957), to whom she bore two daughters. Muriel Forbes later joined the Willesden Borough Council (1936 – 1947) before becoming a member of the Middlesex County Council for three decades (1934 – 1965), and serving as chairman (1960 – 1961). She also sat on the boards of various London hospitals including Paddington Hospital (1963 – 1968) and the Central Middlesex Hospital (1948 – 1963). Forbes was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1963) in recognition of her services to the community.

Forbes, Roberta Laidlaw – (1924 – 1992)
American rancher and civic leader
Roberta Laidlaw was born in Englefield, New Jersey, the daughter of Robert Remsen Laidlaw, a manager and partner of the brokerage firm of Laidlaw & Company. She attended school at Bryn Mawr in Pennsylvania and later studied at the New York School of Interior Design. Roberta was married (1946) to the publisher Malcolm Forbes (1919 – 1990) with whom she managed the family ranches in Wyoming and Montana. Mrs Forbes was a prominent supporter of the New Jersey branch of the American Red Cross. Mrs Forbes was later divorced (1985) and died (March 25, 1992) aged sixty-seven, at Bedminster in New Jersey.

Forbes, Rosita – (1893 – 1967)
British traveller, lecturer, and author
Born Jean Rosita Torre at Morton Hall, Swinderby in Lincolnshire, she was the daughter of a landowning member of parliament and was educated privately at home. Rosita was married to Colonel Ronald Forbes at a young age (1911), and with him she visited every continent and almost every country around the globe. The couple were later divorced (1917) and she remarried to an Irishman, Colonel Arthur McGrath, of County Clare. Forbes used her varied and exciting experiences to produce popular travel books and guides such as, The Secret of the Sahara-Kufara (1922), From Red Sea to Blue Nile (1928), The Prodigious Caribbean (1940), Appointment in the Sun (1949), and, Islands in the Sun (1950). She wrote the biography, Sir Henry Morgan, Pirate and Pioneer (1948), and left the volume of reminiscences, Appointment in the Sun (1949). Forbes was a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. Rosita Forbes died (June 30, 1967) in Warwick, Bermuda.

Forbes-Robertson, Jean – (1905 – 1962)
British actress
Forbes-Robertson was born (March 16, 1905) in London, the daughter of British actor Sir Johnston Forbes-Johnston and his wife, the American actress Gertrude Elliott. She was educated at Folkestone, Kent, and at Heathfield, Ascot, and went abroad to finish her education in France. Jean made her stage debut whilst touring in Durban, South Africa, with her mother’s troupe (1921). Forbes-Robertson then returned to England, where she appeared in, Dancing Mothers in London (1925), but achieved acclaim in the role of Sonya in Anton Chekhov’s Unce Vanya (1926) and as Juliet in Shakespeare’s, Romeo and Juliet. She was particularly remembered for playing boys’ts such as Peter Pan (1927 – 1934) and Jim Hawkins (1945). Throughout WW II she performed at the Old Vic Theatre in London, and made several provincial tours with her husband, the actor and producer, Andre van Gyseghem. Jean Forbes-Robertson committed suicide (Dec 24, 1962) in London, aged fifty-seven.

Forbin d’Oppede, Marie Aglae Roselyne de Villeneuve-Bargemont, Marquise de – (1822 – 1884) 
French author
Marie Aglae de Villeneuve-Bargemont was born at Vesoul, the daughter of Joseph de Villeneuve, prefect of Haute Saone and his wife Constance de Brosses. Educated at the convent og the Sacred Heart, Paris. She visited Italy (1838) and was married (1842) to Michael Palamede de Forbin, Marquis de Forbin d’Oppede (1816 – 1900). The marriage remained childless. An historical writer, her first work, Etudes histoire sur le concile de Trent appeared (1874) under the pseudonym of L. Maynier. Her next work however, was published under her own name (1883) and was entitled, La bienheureuse Delphine de Sabran et les saints de Provence au XIV siecle. She also published Reglement donne’…..a’ la princesse de Marsillac (1881) with the assistance of Jeanne de Schomberg, Duchesse de Liancourt. At her salon in the avenue de Tourville in Marseilles, the marquise attracted many intelligent and cultured persons, including notable ecclesiastics of the region. Madame de Forbin d’Oppede died of pnuemonia at her chateau of Saint-Marcel, near Marseilles, shortly after her return from a voyage to Rome.

Forcade, Mimi (Mary Ann) – (fl. 1734 – 1750)
French-Anglo stage actress and dancer
Formerly Madamoiselle Mimi de Verneuil, she came to London as a member of Francisque Moylin’s theatrical troupe (1734). Mimi was married in London the following years to fellow actor, Leonard Forcade, and bore him two daughters, who both performed and danced in public. Her English credits included the roles of Angelique in Le Joueur and Isabella in Arlequin balourd. She sometimes appeared as Mimi de Verneuil.

Forcalquier, Adelaide de (Alix) – (c1148 – 1212) 
French heiress
Adelaide de Forcalquier was the only daughter of Bertrand I, Comte de Forcalquier and his wife Josserande, the daughter of Arnold de Flotte. Adelaide was married rather late in life (1180) to Girard II Amic de Sabran, seigmneur de Chateauneuf, du Thor and Jonquier. Widowed in 1208, she succeeded her brother Guillaumr IV in Forcalquier (1209 – 1212). At her death it was claimed by her son Guillaume de Sabran (c1184 – 1250) who pretended it had been a gift from his late uncle Bertrand II. Litigation ensued, and a formal arbitration held in 1220 gave Adelaide’s son certain lands and the right to bear the title of count. The title remained with Adelaide’s descendants for several hundred years before it finally passed to the family of Brancas (c1500). The county of Forcalquier proper passed through her niece Garsende, the wife of Rainon de Sabran to the family of the counts of Provence, and later to the house of Anjou.

Forcalquier, Marie Francoise Renee de Carbonnel de Canisy, Marquise de – (1725 – 1796)
French salonniere and society figure
Marie Francoise de Carbonnel de Canisy was married firstly (1737) to Antoine Francois de Pardaillon de Gondrin, Marquis d’Antin, and secondly (1742), to Louis Bufile de Brancas, Comte de Forcalquier (1710 – 1753). A great beauty, her looks were much admired, as recorded by the Duc de Luynes in his, Memoires.  Madame de Forcalquier, like her sister-in-law, the Comtesse de Rochefort, frequented the famous salon of Mme Du Deffand in Paris for over forty years, but the two women were not especially close friends. Mme Du Deffand was often amused by Madame de Forcalquier’s frivolous, talkative, and essentially feminine nature, but could also find her equally annoying, bestowing nicknames upon her such as ‘Bellisima’ and ‘Chat,’ which recur in her letters.

Forch, Olga Dmitrievna – (1873 – 1961)
Russian romantic novelist
Forch was born in Gounib, and was the author of Vetus de Pierre (1924 – 1925). Olga Forch died in Leningrad.

Ford, Ann – (1737 – 1824)
Britidsh musician and writer
Ann was born in London (Feb 22, 1737), the only child of Thomas Ford, a clerk of the arraignes. Her mother had connections at the court of King George II (1727 – 1760). As a young woman she had considerable musical training, and was an accomplished performer on the viola and the guitar. She gave weekly amateur concerts, despite her father’s stern disapproval of these activities. Only the intervention of Lord Tankerville on her behalf prevented her father disrupting her further performances at the Haymarket Theatre (1760). She played the musical water glasses, and wrote the manual entitled, Instruction for the Playing on the Musical Glasses … (1761). Ford later became the third wife (1762) of the adventurer and writer, Philip Thicknesse (1719 – 1792), with whom she travelled abroad, including to Spain (1776) and later Paris (1791). Her husband died in France (1792), and the revolutionary authorities caused Ann to be imprisoned in a convent until the fall of Maximilien Robespierre (1794), when Mrs Thicknesse was finally released, and permitted to return to England. She was the author of the novel, The School for Fashion (1800), and of, Sketches of the Lives and Writings of Ladies of France (1776 – 1781), which was published in three volumes. Her portrait by Sir Thomas Gainsborough (1760) is preserved in the Cincinnati Art Museum in the USA. Ann Thicknesse died in London (Jan 20, 1824), aged eighty-six.

Ford, Annie Kellett – (1879 – 1953)
Australian sportswoman and hockey champion
Born Annie Baker (June 15, 1879) in Hay, New South Wales, she was educated in Kempsey. She later came to Sydney where she was married (1911) to Bertram Willoughby Ford. An ardent tennis and hockey player, she represented NSW in several hockey matches over eight years, and was the winner of the Women’s Sculling Championship, after which she established the Sydney Ladies’ Ice Hockey Club (1922). As a tennis champion, she also represented the state for over two decades. Annie Ford died in Sydney (June 5, 1953), aged seventy-three.

Ford, Constance – (1929 – 1993)
American secondary film actress
Constance Ford played a wide variety of screen roles. Her credits included The Last Hunt (1956), A Summer Place (1959), All Fall Down (1960), and The Cabinet of Cagliari (1962), amongst others.

Ford, Harriet Ann – (c1754 – after 1770)
British teenage stage actress and dancer
Harriet was the illegitimate daughter of a minor actress Sarah Ford, and the Irish actor Henry Mossop. She worked at Covent Garden and was married to John Wilkinson.

Ford, Harriet French – (1868 – 1949)
American dramatist
Harriet French was born in Seymour, Connecticut, and became the wife of Forde Morgan. She co-wrote several plays with the noted novelist and dramatist, Harvey O’Higgins (1876 – 1929). These included, The Argyle Case (1912), The Dickey Bird (1915), and, On the Hiring (1919), and with the noted actress, Eleanor Robson, Ford co-wrote, In the Next Room (1923). All these dramas were subsequently produced with success for the stage. Harriet French Ford died (Oct 12, 1949) aged eighty-one.

Ford, Isabella Ormiston – (1859 – 1924)
British social reformer
Isabella Ford was the daughter of Quaker educator, Robert Lawson Ford. Her father ran a night-school for mill girls, and Isabella and her sister were raised in the spirit of social contribution and reform. Ford assisted with the formation of a union for British tailoresses in the 1880’s and accompanied the mill-girls of Manningham, in Bradford, on their strike for bettey pay and conditions (1890). A talented public speaker, who had to conquer her own innate shyness of character, she was elected a life member of the Leeds Trades and Labour Council. She served as an Independent Labour Party (ILP) delegate to the annual conferences of the Labour Party from 1903, and in the same years she became the first woman to speak at such a conference. During WW I Ford dedicated herself to social work, but declined to stand as a Labour Party candidate for election (1918). She was later appointed as a delegate to the International Peace Conference at The Hague in the Netherlands. Ford wrote several novels Miss Blake of Monkshalton (1890), On the Threshold (1895), and Mr Elliott (1901).

Ford, Ita Catherine – (1940 – 1980)
American Roman Catholic missionary
Ford was born (April 23, 1940) in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of an insurance agent and a schoolteacher. Desirous of being useful in the religious life, Ita entered the Maryknoll Sisters of St Dominic, in Ossining, New York (1961) and wished to train as a missionary. Ita Ford entered her novitiate in Topsfield, Massachusetts, but was finally rejected by the sisterhood on the grounds of poor health (1962), and she returned home, taking classes at Hunter College. After several years living in New York, she reapplied to join Maryknoll and was accepted (1972), joing the order in St Louis, Missouri, which sent her to the Institute de Idomas at Cochabamba in Bolivia, South America, where she was taught Spanish.
Ford worked firstly in Chile, where the sisters ran a mental health clinic for women. She returned to the USA in 1978, but returned to South America, where she then worked closely with the poor in El Salvador, Central America. With the coup which brought Colonel Napoleon Duarte to power in El Salvador (1979), there ensued considerable instability throughout the country. Ita Ford was one of four American religious women, including an Ursuline nun, who were killed by government forces in El Salvador (Dec 2, 1980). All were abducted, raped, and then shot in the head, by five members of the Salvadoran National Guard. The youngest of these later made a full confession, and all five were later convicted and imprisoned (1983).

Ford, Jean    see   Falleni, Eugenia

Ford, Julia Ellsworth – (1859 – 1950)
American author, dramatist, and philanthropist
Born Julia Shaw (April 6, 1859) in New York, she was married to Simeon Ford, the noted financier. Mrs Ford held her own literary salon in New York, where she received such figures as the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats, and the dancer, Isadora Duncan, amongst other artistic luminaries. Apart from the play The Mist, which was produced for the stage (1913), her published works included Imagina (1914) and Consequences (1929). She established the Julia Ellsworth Ford Foundation (1934) which gave encouragement to the authors of works for juveniles.

Ford, Rita – (1900 – 1993)
Italian-American antique dealer
Rita Romagna was born in Fano, Italy and came to the USA as an immigrant with her family (1906) which then adopted the surname of Romania. She was raised in New York and trained as a nurse and was employed as a social worker at Hartford in Connecticut. She was married to the entrepenur Albert Ford. There were no children. Mrs Ford ran a famous antique business Rita Ford Music Boxes in Manhattan for over four decades, and was a specialist in antique and contemporary music boxes, as well as producing them to order and the restoration of antique boxes. Her customers included Mrs Nelson Rockefeller, the opera singer Beverly Sills, and the King of Saudi Arabia. Rita Ford died (July 22, 1993) aged ninety-two, in New York.

Ford, Ruth – (1911 – 2009)
American film actress
Ruth Ford was born (July 7, 1911) at Brookhaven in Mississippi, the sister of the surrealist painter Charles Henri Ford. She became a high fashion model and was photographed for such publications as Harper’s Bazaar and Town and Country. She became an actress under the director of Orson Welles at his Mercury Theatre, which led to her making films at Warner Brothers and Columbia Studios in Hollywood. Her first husband was the actor Peter Van Eyck and her second the actor Zachary Scott (1914 – 1965). Ruth Ford died (Aug 12, 2009) aged ninety-eight.

Forde, Bridget – (1888 – 1965)
Irish-Australian Catholic nun
Forde was born (Jan 27, 1888) in Corbally, County Cork, and was educated with the Loreto nuns at Killarney. She then travelled out to Australia where she was veiled as an Ursuline nun at Armidale, New South Wales as Sister Mary Columba (1907). Forde was appointed as mistress of novices before being appointed superior of the Armidale convent (1928 – 1934). She was responsible for the establishment of an Ursuline convent and school at Toowoomba in Queensland, and of a Catholic teacher’s college in NSW (1930). Mother Mary Columba also founded the College of St Ursula at Ashbury, and eventually retired from office (1947). Bridget Forde died (Jan 26, 1965) at Ashbury, aged seventy-six.

Forde, Eugenie – (1879 – 1940)
American silent film actress
Forde was born in New York, and was the mother of actress Victoria Forde. Her career in silent films began in 1912 when she made over one dozen films including Her Indian Hero, The Thespian Bandit, and The Alibi, when she appeared in the role of Mrs Wilton. Her other notable film appearances included Sheridan’s Ride (1913), in which she appeared with her daughter Victoria, The White Rosette (1916), in the role of Lady Elfrieda Carewe, and in the same year, True Nobility where she played Countess Nicasio. Her later films included Wives and Other Wives (1918) where she played Mrs Doubleday, A Ridin’ Romeo (1921) in which she appeared as Queenie Farrell, Fortune’s Mask (1922) in the role of Madame Ortiz, and Mrs Raynor in That’s My Baby (1926). Her last film appearance was as Claudia Tavernay in Wilful Youth (1927), after which she retired. Eugenie Forde died at Van Nuys, California.

Forde, Florrie – (1876 – 1940)
Australian music hall entertainer
Forde was born in Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria. She came to work as a stage performer and Sydney, making her stage debut at the Sydney Polytechnic (1892). Her unpolished, but highly popular syle ensured her continued popularity, and Florrie was asked to perform at the first ever Royal Command Performance (1912). Forde achieved even more popularity during WW I, and she was famous for inviting the audience to join in with her singing songs like ‘Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kitbag,’ and ‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary.’ Forde later established her won touring troupe, styled Flo & Co. Florrie Forde died suddenly in London (April 18, 1940), whilst about to embark on a tour of Scotland.

Forde, Victoria – (1896 – 1964)
American silent film actress
Forde was born in New York, the daughter of actress Eugenie Forde. Following in her mother’s footsteps she made over one hundred and seventy silent films between 1910 – 1919, her earliest appearance being in Love in Quarantine (1910), though she received recognition after her appearance in, Pedro’s Dilemma (1912), and,  Sheridan’s Ride (1913), in which she appeared with her mother. Her last film appearance before her eventual retirement was in She Wasn’t Hungry, But …. (1919).
A talented actress, Victoria was best remembered for her quartet of films, Sophie of the Films (1, 2, 3, and 4) all produced in 1914, and played herself in The Great Universal Mystery (1914). Also notable for her performance in the roles of Violet Ray in Six Cylinder Love (1917), and Roberta Stephens in Western Blood (1918). She wrote the scripts for the two 1916 films When Cupid Slipped, and An Eventful Evening. Victoria was married (1918 – 1931) to the actor and writer Tom Mix (1880 – 1940) as his second wife, to whom she bore a daughter. Victoria Forde died in Beverly Hills, California.

Fordice, Pat Owens – (1934 – 2007)
Southern American State First Lady, civic and public leader and radio broadcaster
Patricia Owens was born (Nov 27, 1934), and became the wife (1956) of the eminent politician and Mississippi statesman Kirk Fordice. When Kirk was elected as state governor (1992) she served as First Lady (1992 – 2000) and was honoured and respected for her contributions to public life during her husband’s tenure. In honour of her public service the Mississippi State Legislature awarded her formal recognition during the 1999 Regular Session.
Her role as First Lady formally ended when she and her husband were divorced (2000) after a scandalous extra-marital sex scandal. Pat Fordice remained in public life and was appointed as interim head of the Human and Cultural Services in the city of Jackson. With Juanita Sims Doty she co-hosted the popular radio program Woman to Woman and was closely associated with the ‘Keep Mississippi Beautiful’ campaign. Pat Fordice died of cancer (July 12, 2007) aged seventy-one.

Fordyce, Alice Woodard – (1906 – 1992)
American philanthropist and public benefactor
Alice Woodard Elwin was born in Watertown, Wisconsin, the daughter of a bank president, and was the sister of philanthropist Mary Lasker (1899 – 1994). She attended Smith College before traveling to Europe where she pursued further studies at the Sorbonne in Paris and at the University of Grenoble. She was married (1939) to A. Grant Fordyce, the architect, to whom she bore a son. Mrs Fordyce served on several governmental committees dealing with public health including the US branch of the World Association for Psychosocial Rehabilitation and the International Council for coordinating Cancer Research, and the Geriatric Advisory Council of the Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Alice Fordyce was also involved with several British organizations including the American Museum in Britain and the Leeds Castle Foundation. Together with her sister Alice Fordyce supported the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation in Manhattan (1944) for five decades. This organization awarded the Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards worth fifteen thousand dollars, which were awarded for achievements in medical research. Alice Woodard Fordyce died (Sept 9, 1992) aged eighty-six, in Manhattan.

Forest, Antonia – (1915 – 2003)
British children’s novelist and dramatist
Patricia Giulia Caulfield Kate Rubenstein was born (May 26, 1915) of Russian-Jewish ancestry, and attended secondary school at Hampstead before going on to study at the University College in London. As an author she adopted the pseudonym ‘Antonia Forest’ which she retained all of her life. Forest was best known for her collections of stories for girls which dealt with the adventures of the Marlow family during school terms and on their holidays. This series of novels began with Autumn Term (1948) and included End of Term (1957), The Thuggery Affair (1965), The Cricket Team (1974) and Run Away Home (1982). She also wrote the plays The Thursday Kidnapping (1963), The Player’s Boy (1970) and The Players and the Rebels (1971). Antonia Forest died (Nov 28, 2003) aged eighty-eight.

Forfar, Robina Lockhart, Countess of – (1662 – 1741)
Scottish courtier
Robina Lockhart was the daughter of Sir William Lockhart, of Lee, the royal ambassador to France, and his second wife Robina Sewster, the daughter of John Sewster and his wife Anne Cromwell, the sister of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England (1649 – 1658). Robina was married (1679) to Archibald Douglas (1653 – 1712), the first Earl of Forfar, at Lincoln’s Inn Chapel. Lady Forfar attended the court as one of the ladies-in-waiting who attended Queen Mary II (1688 – 1694) at the Stuart court in England, and was one of her most valued personal friends. With her husband’s death (1712) he was interred in Bothwell Church, where the countess erected a monument to his memory.
Their only son Archibald Douglas (1692 – 1715), the second and last Earl of Forfar (1712 – 1715) who served as the royal Envoy to Prussia (1714) was killed fighting in the rebellion in Scotland under the Duke of Argyll at Sherriffmuir. He was interred at Bothwell with his father and Lady Forfar caused a monument to him to be erected there also. Robina survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Countess of Forfar (1712 – 1741). The countess died (March 20, 1741) at Bothwell Castle, aged seventy-nine.

Foria – (fl. 1247 – 1248)
French usurer
Foria was of Jewish family and resided in the province of Vermandois in Picardy, where she plied her business. She is recorded as a moneylender in the document Contra judaeas (Against Jews). She was probably extended small financial loans to Christian women.

Forman, Charlotte – (1715 – 1787)
British journalist, translator, and essayist
Forman was born into a well placed family, but never married. As a result she lived in poverty in London, and sufferred imprisonment for debt (1767). Charlotte Forman supported herself by writing, and she translated foreign news into English for newspapers such as the London Evening Post and the Public Ledger. She is belived to be identical with ‘Probus,’ the pseudonym used by the author of a series of political essays published (1756 – 1760). Her correspondence with the politician John Wilkes has survived.

Formicini, Orsola – (fl. c1520 – 1527)
Italian nun and memoirst
Orsola Formicini was a member of the community of the convent of Santa Cosimata in the Trastevere region of Rome. During the sack of the city by Imperial forces (1527), the convent was utterly destroyed, but Orsola and the other nuns managed to escape the stricken city under the cover of darkness. Whilst attempting to flee to the river, they fell into the hands of German soldiers near the church of San Lorenzo in Panisperna, who then protected them throughout the rest of their terrifying ordeal. Sister Orsola left one of the few accounts of the sack of Rome to be written by a woman.

Fornarina, La – (fl. 1510 – 1520)
Italian beauty and artistic muse
She was born Margherita Luti and served as a model and inspiration for the painter Raphael.

Fornelos, Maria Ayres de – (fl. c1170 – c1190)
Portugese courtier and royal mistress
Maria was the daughter of Ayres Nunez de Fornelos and his wife Mayora Pirez. She was married to Gil Vasquez de Soverosa, and held the seigneurie of Villanova. Maria became the mistress of Sancho I Martino, King of Portugal (1185 – 1212) to whom she bore two children who were acknowledged by the king and received the surname of Sanchez-Portugal,

Forouhar, Parvaneh Majd – (1938 – 1998)
Iranian educator and political activist, spokesperson for the Iran National Party
Born Parvaneh Eskandari, as a university student she became involved in activities aimed against the regime of the Shah. Parvaneh became the wife of the activist Darioush Forouhar, who sufferred imprisonment under both the regime of the Shah and during the Islamic Revolution (1979), and to whom she had borne two children. Forouhar and her husband both frequently protested against the restrictions placed upon their non-violent political activities by the Iranian government. They distributed a weekly human rights bulletin to various journalists and concerned organizations world-wide. The couple later came to fear for their lives, but refused to be silenced, and the organization Human Rights Watch attempted to monitor them. They were both murdered in their Teheran home (Nov 22, 1998).

Forrest, Helen – (1918 – 1999)
American popular vocalist and film actress
Born Helen Fogel in Atlantic City, New Jersey, she was trained as a singer from childhood, and appeared on radio before singing with the famous Big Bands organized by the likes of Benny Goodman (1909 – 1986) and Artie Shaw (born 1910). She was engaged to bandleader and musician Harry James (1916 – 1983) prior to his marriage with actress Betty Grable. Forrest was a leading singer during the decade of the 1940’s, and made appearacnes in several films such as Springtime in the Rockies (1942), Two Girls and a Sailor (1944), Shine On Harvest Moon (1944) and You Came Along (1945). Four decades later she appeared in the documentary film Artie Shaw: Time Is All You’ve Got (1986).
Forrest embarked on a solo career in 1944 and teamed up to perform with fellow vocalist, Dick Haymes, with whom she recorded several famous hitsongs such as ‘It Had to Be You,’ ‘Some Sunday Morning,’ and ‘I’m Always Chasing Rainbows,’ amongst others. She later toured the USA with Frank Sinatra Jr. and the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (1964) and published her autobiography I Had the Craziest Dream (1982). Helen Forrest died (July 11, 1999) in Los Angeles, California, aged eighty-two.

Forrest, Helena Mabel Checkley – (1872 – 1935)
Australian poet and writer
Born Helen Mills (March 6, 1872) at Yandilla, Queensland, her second husband was John Forrest. Helena Forrest began penning stories and poems from an early age, some of which were published in various newspapers and magazines. Her published works included The Rose of Forgiveness and Other Stories (1904), Alpha Centauri (1909), Reaping Roses (1928), and White Witches (1929). Her collection of verse was entitled simply, Poems (1927). Forrest was granted a pension from the Commonwealth Literary Fund (1933). Helena Checkley Forrest died (March 18, 1935) in Brisbane, aged sixty-three.

Forrest, Margaret Elvire Hamersley, Lady – (1844 – 1929)
Australian water colour painter and naturalist
Margaret Hamersley was born (Oct 22, 1844) at Le Havre, France, the eldest daughter of Edward Hamersley, of Guildford. Margaret arrived in Western Australia with her parents (1850) and was educated at home under the care of a governess. When aged over thirty she became the wife (1876), in Perth, of Sir John Forrest (1847 – 1916), later Lord Forrest of Bunbury. A popular society hostess, Lady Forrest was an avid collector of botanical specimens, and was particularly noted for her paintings of Australian wildflowers. She also collected historical artifacts connected with the early Dutch navigators of Australia. Lady Forrest survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Forrest (1916 – 1929). Lady Forrest died (June 13, 1929) in Greenough, Western Australia, aged eighty-four.

Forrester-Brown, Maud Frances – (c1883 – 1970)
Scottish physician and orthopaedic surgeon
Her father served as the consulting engineer for the British Government in India. Maud trained at the School of Medicine for Women and became a practicing surgeon at the Samaritan Hospital in Glasgow in Scotland. She worked at various hospitals such as the Liverpool Royal Infirmary and the Edinburgh Royal Hospital for Sick children in the same capacity. Forrester-Brown was later appointed as the resident surgeon at the Edinburgh War Hospital in Bangour (1916 – 1921). Her last appointment was as the orthopaedic consultant at the Holy Cross Hospital at Transkei in South Africa (1958 – 1959).
Maud Forrester-Brown was the author of several health related works such as Diagnosis and Treatment of Deformities in Infancy and Early Childhood (1928), Paralysis Section in Modern Trends in Orthopaedics (1949) and Compensation Treatment of T.B. Spines in Orthopaedics (1959). She also published articles in such orthopaedic publications as the British Journal of Surgery, Lancet and the Medical Women’s Journal. She was a member of the International Orthopaedic Society and of the British Orthopaedic Association, and was awarded the Royal Society Medal. Maud remained unmarried and died (Jan 12, 1970) in Edinburgh.

Forrest-Thompson, Veronica – (1947 – 1975)
British poet
Veronica Forrest-Thompson was born in Malaya, and was raised in Glasgow, Scotland. She trained as a teacher in Liverpool, Lancashire, and worked as a lecturer at Cambridge University.  Her marriage to the critic, Jonathon Culler, ended in divorce. She died in Cambridge under tragic circumstances. Forrest-Thompson was the author of the collection of verse entitled Collected Poems and Translations (1990), which was published posthumously, as was her, Poetic Artifice (1978). Other poetic cellections included Language-Games (1971), and Cordelia, or A’ poem should not mean, but be (1974), which was published shortly before her death.

Forsayth, Emma Eliza    see   Coe, Emma Eliza

Forster, Agnes – (c1430 – c1484) 
English prison reformer
Agnes Forster was the widow of a wealthy fishmonger who had been lord mayor of London, their son Robert Forster was a prominent London grocer. During her widowhood, Agnes became actively involved in reforms within the Ludgate Prison for which she provided additional buildings to house French prisoners or war, whose ransoms were of considerable value.

Forster, Ann    see   Field, Ann

Forster, Cornelia – (1906 – 1990)
Swiss painter and sculptor
Forster was born (Jan 5, 1906) at Zollikon in Zurich Canton. She attended the School of Arts and Crafts in Zurich and studied at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere in Paris and in Naples, Italy. She was particularly interested in Egyptian classical and primitive art forms, and worked with ceramics and various textiles to produce tapestries and fabrics. She also designed theatre sets amd costumes. Cornelia Forster died (Oct 10, 1990) aged eighty-four, at Sala Capriasca in Ticino Canton.

Forster, Ellen – (1866 – 1921)
Austrian soprano and lieder singer
Forster was born (Oct 11, 1866) in Vienna, and studied her craft under Marie Louise Dustmann-Meyer. She made her stage debut in Danzig and thereafter she performed with the Vienna Court Opera (1887 – 1906). Ellen was a popular concert performer and was best known for her interpretations of the works of Mozart and Wagner. Ellen Forster died (July 16, 1921) aged fifty-four, in Baden.

Forster, Emily Rachel     see     Hinton, Mary

Forster, Florentine – (1826 – 1905)
German stage actress
Florentine was born (Sept 14, 1826) at Rosenberg. She was sold to a theatrical company as a small child and was raised to work on the stage. Her first husband died in 1845, and Florentine then remarried to the author and actor August Forster, at which time she retired from the stage. She then advised her husband on matters pertaining to the theatre. Florentine Forster died (Jan 20, 1905) aged seventy-eight, in Vienna.

Forster, Helga – (1929 – 1989)
German-Australian civic leader and philanthropist
Forster was born in Vienna, Austria, and immigrated to New South Wales, Australia, after WW II (1948). Helga had been a follower of the principles laid down by Dr Rudolf Steiner, and later joined the Anthroposophical Society, and worked solidly throughout the 1970’s to establish a retirement home for the elderly, Christophorus House, at Hornsby (1980). She later received the Premier’s Award (1985) and the OAM (Order of Australia Medal) in recognition of her services to the community. Helga Forster died (July 1, 1989) at Gosford, near Sydney, aged fifty-nine.

Forster, Rachel Cecily Douglas-Montagu-Scott, Lady – (1868 – 1962)
British peeress (1919 – 1936) and courtier
Rachel Montagu-Douglas-Scott was born (Aug 15, 1868), the only daughter of Lord Henry John Douglas-Montagu-Scott (1832 – 1905), first Baron Montagu of Beaulieu, and his wife, Cecily Susan Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie, the daughter of James Archibald, first Baron Wharncliffe. Rachel was married (1890) to Sir Henry William Forster, later first Baron Forster (1919 – 1936), who was ennobled by George V (1919). The couple attended the court during the last years of Queen Victoria, and during the reigns of Edward VII and George V and Queen Mary. Lady Forster survived her husband for twenty-five years (1936 – 1962) as the Dowager Baroness Montagu of Beaulieu. Her two sons, John (born 1893) and Alfred Henry (born 1898), both perished in action during WW I without leaving children, and the barony of Forster became extinct with her husband’s death. Lady Forster died (April 12, 1962), aged ninety-three. Her two surviving daughters were,

Forster, Sophie – (1831 – 1899)
Austrian vocalist
Forster was born in Berlin in Prussia and studied singing under Gustav Wilhelm Teschner. She made her concert debut at Leipzig in Saxony (1854). Her stage debut took place at Erfurt in Thuringia (1861) after which she performed with the Munich Court Opera in Bavaria (1864 – 1865) and in Rotterdam in Holland. During this period she became best known for the operatic roles of Norma and Pamina. After stints with the theatres in Zurich in Switzerland and Stettin in Poland she retired from the stage (1869) and became a singing teacher. Sophie Forster died (Feb 27, 1899) aged sixty-seven, in Vienna.

Forster, William    see    Felseneck, Marie von

Forster-Nietzsche, Elisabeth – (1846 – 1935)
German literary figure and editor
Elisabeth Nietzsche was born (July 10, 1846) at Rocken, near Lutzen, the daughter of a church pastor, and was sister to the noted philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844 – 1900). She was married (1885) to Bernard Forster and accompanied him to join the Aryan colony in Paraguay, South America. This venture failed and Bernard died there (1889). Elizabeth returned to Germany where she acted as the secretary, nurse and biographer to her brother Nietzsche.
Elisabeth established the Nietzsche Archive in Weimar and published his works and correspondence. Her publication of his works entitled Der Wille zur Macht (1901) in considered to be inaccurate. After WW I she became a strong supporter of Adolf Hitler. Elisabeth survived her brother for over three decades and died (Nov 8, 1935) aged eighty-nine, at Weimar.

Fort, Cornelia – (1919 – 1943)
American aviatrix
Fort was raised in Nashville, Tennessee. She gained her pilot’s license at the age of nineteen (1938), becoming an instructor in the following year.  Cornelia was actually engaged in a flying lesson with a student when she nearly collided with a Japanese fighter plane engaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor (1941). Fort joined the Air Transport Command during the war, and was engaged in ferrying planes for the military. Her death occurred whilst she was in the process of ferrying a bomber, thus becoming the first female pilot to be killed in the war.

Fort, Dame Maeve Geraldine – (1940 – 2008)
British diplomat and ambassador
Maeve Fort was born (Nov 19, 1940) in Liverpool in Lancashire, the daughter of a medical administrator. She attended school at Nantwich before studying English and French at Trinity College in Dublin. She went on to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, and successfully applied to join the civil service at the Foreign Office (1962). Fort served in New York, Germany and Asia before being appointed an officer of the Diplomatic Service (1973). She then served as the first secretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office prior to returning to New York to work with the United Nations (1978).
Fort became a specialist on fairs of Namibia in Africa and worked for many years to secure peace and independence for that nation. She was appointed as counselor, Head of Chancery and Consul-General in Santiago, Chile (1984 – 1986) and was then appointed to head the West Frican Department of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1986). Her most important appointment was as the British High Commissioner in South Africa (1996 – 2000) at which time she was the highest ranking female diplomat in the royal service. In recognition of her valuable service she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II. Dame Maeve Fort died (Sept 18, 2008) aged sixty-seven.

Fort, Syvilla – (1917 – 1975)
Black American dancer and choreographer
Fort was born in Seattle, Washington, D.C., and attended the Cornish School of Arts in that city. She originally worked as a solo performer with the Katherine Dunham group in the fim Stormy Weather. Fort was married to the noted dancer Buddy Phillips (died 1963), whilst the famous avant-garde musician and composer, John Cage, wrote the piano concerto, Bacchanal, especially for her. She later worked as a dance director at the Katherine Dunham School (1948 – 1955) and was a music and dance teacher ay Columbia University for two decades (1955 – 1975). Syvilla Fort died (Nov 8, 1975) in Manhattan, New York, aged fifty-eight.

Forten, Charlotte Louisa – (1837 – 1914) 
Black American poet and diary
Forten was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Robert Bridges Forten. Her personal diary was published posthumously (1953) as The Journal of Charlotte L. Forten. It was written during the period (1854 – 1864), and remains one of the earliest journals in existence for an African American, and the first such work to be published. Charlotte’s poety was published in abolitionist periodicals such as The Liberator, and repeated the theme of using education to eradicate oppression. In 1862 she moved to the Sea Islands of South Carolina, where she worked as a teacher amongst the runaway slaves, who were living there under the protection of the Union army. Also stationed on the island of St Helena, Charlotte wrote a chronicle of her experience, ‘Life on the Sea Islands,’ which was published in, The Atlantic Monthly (May, 1864). After a return to Charleston, in South Carolina, Charlotte removed to Washington, D.C. (1872), where she remained for the rest of her life. She was married (1878) to Francis Grimke, but their only child died young.

Fortescue, Emily Ormsby-Gore, Countess – (1856 – 1929)
British courtier
The Hon. (Honourable) Emily Ormsby-Gore was the daughter of the second Baron Harlech, and was married (1886) to Hugh Fortescue (1854 – 1932), Viscount Ebrington, who later succeeded his father as fourth Earl Fortescue (1905). She left three sons, of whom Hugh William (1888 – 1958) succeeded his father as fifth Earl Fortescue (1905 – 1958). He left no male heir and was succeeded in turn by his surviving brother Denzil George (1893 – 1977) as sixth Earl Fortescue. Countess Fortescue attended the court of Queen Victoria, and Queen Alexandra, her husband serving as ADC (aide-de-comp) to King Edward VII (1903 – 1910). Lady Fortescue was later appointed as extra lady of the bedhcamber to Queen Mary, the wife of George V (1910 – 1936). She was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) in recognition of her service to the royal family. Lady Fortescue died (July 12, 1929) aged seventy-two.

Fortescue, Georgiana Augusta Charlotte Caroline Dawson-Damer, Countess – (1826 – 1866)
British peeress and society figure
Georgiana Dawson-Damer was born (June 13, 1826) the granddaughter of Lionel Dawson-Damer, the third Earl of Portarlington. A noted beauty at the court of the young Queen Victoria, Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte asked for her hand in marriage. Georgiana was forced by her family to refuse his suit, as he then had few prospects and no income. Had the family permitted the marriage Georgiana would have become Empress of France when Bonapart becme the Emperor Napoleon III (1852).
Georgiana was married instead at Carne in Dorset (1847) to Hugh Fortescue (1818 – 1895), Viscount Ebrington, the eldest son and heir of Hugh, the second Earl Fortescue, and became the Viscountess Ebrington (1847 – 1861). Her former royal suitor made a wedding present to Lady Ebrington of a fan which had belonged to his late mother Queen Hortense of Holland. When her husband succeeded his father as the third Earl Fortescue Lady Ebrington became the Countess Fortescue (1861 – 1866). Countess Fortescue died (Dec 8, 1866) aged forty, at Castle Hill, after giving birth to her fourteenth child. Her children included,

Fortescue, Margaret – (c1698 – 1760)
British Hanoverian claimant
Margaret Fortescue was the only daughter and younger child of Hugh Fortescue of Filleigh, Devon, and his first wife Bridget, the daughter of Hugh Boscawen, of Tregothnan, Cornwall, and his wife Lady Margaret Clinton, the daughter of Theophilus Hastings, fourth Earl of Lincoln. Margaret Fortescue never married. With the death of her only brother (1751), the barony of Clinton actually fell into abeyance between Miss Fortescue and her cousin Margaret Rolle, the countess of Orford. In practice however, she assumed the style of ‘Baroness Clinton’ as her brother’s closet heir. Her will which was proved after her death by her stepmother, she described herself as ‘Margaret, Lady Baroness Clinton, heretofore Margaret Fortescue.’ Margaret Fortescue died (March 14, 1760) at Ebrington, Gloucestershire.

Fortescue, Winifred Beech, Lady – (1888 – 1951)
Britis novelist
Winifred Beech was born (Feb 7, 1888), the elder daughter of a clergyman, Howard Beech, rector of Barlavington and Burton-with-Coates in Sussex. Despite her background she was raised in somewhat straitened circumstances, and Winifred went on the stage in London, where she joined the company of Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree. Her most notable appearacne was a role in the play, The Passing of the Third Floor Back, written by Jerome Jerome. Winifred was married (1914) to John William Fortescue (1859 – 1933), the royal librarian and archivist, later Sir John (KCVO) (Knight Commander of the Victorian Order). The marriage was congenial to both, despite the differences in age, but remained childless. Lady Fortescue later established an interior design business before becoming a writer and editor for such important English news publications at the Daily Chronicle and the Evening News.
Between the rwo world wars, the couple removed to Provence in France, due to both health and financial reasons. There they established themselves at near Grasse, Provence, where Lady Fortescue established mountain terraces and planned extensive gardens. She wrote several books all concerned with their lives in France such as Perfume from Provence (1935). With the death of her husband she remained in France, and later published her autobiography There’s Rosemary, There’s Rue (1939). Lady Fortescue died (April 9, 1951) at Opio, Provence, aged sixty-three.

Fortescue-Brickdale, Eleanor – (1872 – 1945)
British painter, designer, and illustrator
Mary Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale was born (Jan 25, 1872) in Norwood, Surrey and studied at the Royal Academy and at the Crystal Palace School of Art. Her work was later exhibted at the Royal Academy (1896 – 1897). Fortescue-Brickdale completed the illustrations for various books and collections of verse, including Lord Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911), and she was also a teacher at the Byam Shaw School of Art. She travelled extensively in Italy and France and during WW I she worked for the government designing posters to aid the war effort. After the war she established herself as a stained-glass designer of considerable skill. She was the first woman to be elected as a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters and her best known painting was The Foreunner (1920). Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale died (March 10, 1945) in Kensington in London, aged seventy-three.

Fortis Froilaz – (c907 – c960)
Spanish Infanta of Leon
Infanta Fortis was the eldest daughter of Fruela II (c875 – 925), King of Leon and his first wife Nunilo Ximena of Navarre, the daughter of Sancho I (c862 – 925), King of Navarre. She remained unmarried and took religious vows as a nun being appointed to serve as abbess of the royal convent at Lugo.

Fortune, Mary – (1833 – 1912)
Irish-Australian detective novelist and journalist
Fortune was born in Belfast, and travelled to Canada, where she later married and bore a son before joining her father on the Victorian goldfields in Australia (1855). Fortune was a contributor to the popular Australian Journal magazine, and sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Waif Wanderer.’ For almost four decades (1870 – 1909) she wrote many police detective novels. Some of her crime stories were published seperately as The Detective’s Album (1871).

Forz, Aveline de – (1259 – 1274)
English medieval heiress
Lady Aveline de Forz was born (Jan 20, 1259), at Burstwick, Yorkshire, the daughter of William de Forz, sixth Earl of Devon and Aumale, and his wife Isabella, the daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon.With the death of her only surviving brother (1269), Aveline succeeded as countess of Aumale. Only a matter of weeks afterwards she was married (1269) in the newly rebuilt Westminster Abbey, London, to Prince Edmund, Earl of Lancaster (1245 – 1296), the younger son of Henry III (1216 – 1272), as his first wife. The marriage remained childless. Aveline de Forz died (Nov 10, 1274) at Stockwell, Surrey, aged only fifteen. As she was childless, Edward I tried to keep control of the Island of Wight, but her mother, Countess Isabella retained control till her death two decades afterwards (1293), when she signed it over to Edward in her will.

Forz, Christian de (Christina) – (1220 – 1246)
English Norman heiress
Christian de Forz was the second daughter and coheiress of Alan, Earl of Galloway, Constable of Scotland (1215 – 1234) beingh his elder daughter by his second wife Margaret of Huntingdon, the daughter of Prince David of Scotland (1144 – 1219), Earl of Huntingdon. She was the great-niece of William I the Lion, King of Scotland (1165 – 1214). When her father died (1234) his lands were distributed according to feudal law between his three daughters, Helena, the wife of Roger de Quincy, the daughter of his first marriage, and Chridtian and Devorguilla, the wife of John de Baliol, the two daughters from his second marriage. However the people of Galloway preferred to be ruled by Thomas of Galloway, Alan’s bastard son. Finally, King Alexander II took up the cause of the displaced heiresses.
King Alexander invaded Galloway (April, 1236) and defeated the partisans of Thomas. He restored Christian and her sisters to their inheritance, dividing their lands equally between them, and bestowing Christian’s hand in marriage to William de Forz (1215 – 1260), the sixth Earl of Aumale. Christian became the Countess of Aumale but died childless a decade later (shortly before July 29, 1246). Until her death Lord Aumale ruled virtually a third of Galloway though his possession was by no means undisturbed.

Forz, Isabella de – (1237 – 1293)
English medieval heiress and ruler
Lady Isabella de Forz was the daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon, whom she succeeded as countess of Aumale and ruler of the Isle of Wight. Her mother was Lady Amicia de Clare, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, sixth Earl of Gloucester. She was married (1249) to William de Forz (1215 – 1260), the sixth Earl of Aumale, and lord of Holderness, Skipton, and Cockermouth, to whom she bore several children. Her husband’s early death (1260) in France left Isabella with the control of Lord Aumale’s estates, which she managed on behalf of her young sons. With the death of her father, Baldwin de Redvers (1262), the countess became heir to the earldom of Devon and the Isle of Wight. She successfully repulsed the dynastic ambitions of Simon de Montfort, who desired to marry her and thus gain control of her valuable estates, the force of his suit making it necessary for Isabella to flee for greater safety into Wales.
The countess later gave refuge to a known pirate on the Isle of Wight (1267), which gave Henry III the opportunity to dispossess Isabella and placed the island temporarily under the control of the crown. This arrangement ended with the marriage (1269) of Isabella’s only surviving child, Aveline de Forz with King Henry’s younger son, Edmund ‘Crouchback.’ However, this marriage remained childless, and with Aveline’s death (1274), Edward I became determined that the island should come under permanent royal control. Isabella managed to refuse his considerable financial offers until she was on her deathbed, when she finally signed the Isle of Wight and other possessions over to the crown. Isabella de Forz died (Nov 10, 1293) aged fifty-four, and was interred in Thornton Priory.

Fosburgh, Lacey – (1942 – 1993)
American journalist, novelist and writer
A staff correspondent with the New York Times (1966 – 1974), Fosburgh was born (Oct 3, 1942) in New York, the daughter of Hugh Whitney Fosburgh, a writer. Fosburgh was educated at Sarah Lawrence College, and began her journalistic career at the New York Herald Tribune before moving to the New York Times. She covered sensational murder trials and the trial of Patty Hearst. Fosburgh later worked freelance from 1974, and was an assistant professor at the Graduate School of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley. She spent the last decade of her life as the special editor of the Oakland Tribune (1983 – 1993). She received several awards and accolades throughout her career including the Edgar Allan Poe Special Award from the Mystery Writers of America for the biography, Closing Time (1978). Fosburgh published two novels Old Money (1983), and India Gate (1991). Lacey Fosburgh died (Jan 1, 1993) at San Francisco, California, aged fifty.

Fosburgh, Minnie Cushing (Mary) – (1905 – 1978)
American socialite
Minnie Cushing was born in Baltimore, Maryland, into a wealthy family, and was the sister of Betsey Whitney and Barbara Paley. She was married firstly to Vincent Astor, and secondly to the artist, James Whitney Fosburgh.

Fosca    see   Fusca

Fosdick, Dorothy – (1913 – 1997)
American foreign policy specialist and author
Fosdick was born (April 17, 1913) at Montclair, New York, the daughter of the famous pacifist clergyman, Harry Emerson Fosdick. She studied at Smith College and Columbia University, and trained as a teacher of sociology and political theory. Fosdick was an expert in foreign relations, whose personal expertise in this particular field was used to organize and implement several US government initiatives during WW II, such as the Marshall Plan, the the Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco conferences, which resulted in the formation of the United Nations, and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization).
After the war Dorothy Fosdick was engaged as chief personal adviser to Adlai Stevenson on foreign policy during his presidential campaign (1952), and the two were engaged in a romantic liasion. Fosdick then spent nearly three decades (1954 – 1983) as political strategist for the Democrat senator Henry Jackson, the intricacies of Cold War diplomacy being her especial area of interest. She was the author of What is Liberty? and Common Sense and World Affairs. Dorothy Fosdick died (Feb 5, 1997) in Washington, aged eighty-three.

Foshay, Ella Dunlevy – (1909 – 1982)
American benefactor and philanthropist
Born Ella Milbank, she became the wife of William Ford Foshay, the chairman of a New York lawfirm. Foshay was a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (1975 – 1980), and also served for many years as trustee of the New York Zoological Society. She had the distinction of being the first woman to serve as vice-president. She spearheaded research projects concerning the jaguars of South America and the Indian rhinoceros of Nepal. Ella Foshay died at Hobe Sound, Florida.

Fossey, Dian – (1932 – 1985)  
American zoologist
Fossey was born in San Francisco, California. She was originally trained as an occupational therapist. Her first visit to Africa (1963) under the guidance of the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey, and his wife Mary, during which she psent some time with the giorillas of the Virunga mountain region, determined her desire to study gorillas in the wild. Fossey returned to the USA before establishing herself at the Karisoke Research Centre in Rwanda. There she spent almost two decades studying and interacting with the local gorilla population. However her research and public revelations of the dangers posed to the gorillas by local farmers and poachers, eventually caused her to be murdered at Karisoke (Dec 27, 1985), at the age of fifty-three. Her own book Gorillas in the Mist (1983), was made into a successful film of the same title (1988), in which she was portrayed by Sigourney Weaver.

Foster, Agness Greene – (1863 – 1933)
Southern American poet
Foster was born in Athens, Alabama, and published several collections of poetry such as The Weaving of Life’s Fabric (1907), and Your Happy Verse, and Other Verse for Occasions (1924). She also published By the Way: Travel Letters (1903). Agness Foster died (Sept 12, 1933) aged seventy.

Foster, Cynthia Adelaide Davis, Lady – (1844 – 1919)
Canadian reformer and author
Cynthia Davis was born in Hamilton, Ontario, the daughter of Milton Davis. She married as her second husband (1889) Sir George Foster, the minister of Trade and Commerce for Canada. A resident of Ottawa for over thirty years, Lady foster was noted for her public service. Lady Foster was the founder of the Victoria Order of Nurses (1897), and she served as president of that organization for many years, and was closely involved with the Canadian Red Cross. She also served as president of the Women’s Canadian Club during the war years. Many of Sir George’s letters to Lady Foster, written to her in Ottawa from France, are preserved in the Dominion Archives in Ottawa. Lady Foster was editor of the Women’s Journal in Ottawa. Lady Foster died in Ottawa after a lengthy illness.

Foster, Edith Annie – (1874 – 1949)  
Anglo-Australian nurse and matron
Foster was born in London, and immigrated to New South Wales, where she trained as a nursing sister. She was employed by the Government Asylums Department before being appointed as senior nurse at Rookwood (1901 – 1908). During WW I she saw active nursing service in France, England, and Egypt, and after the war she served on the staff of four military hospitals (1919 – 1927). She remained unmarried. Edith Foster died (May 24, 1949) in Sydney, aged seventy-five.

Foster, Lady Elizabeth   see   Devonshire, Elizabeth Hervey, Duchess of

Foster, Emily – (1804 – 1885)
British poet and novelist
Born Mary Amelia Foster, Emily was a friend to Washington Irving who unsuccessfully proposed marriage to her. Emily was later married to a clergyman (1821), whom she accompanied abroad to the Saxon court in Dresden. During this time she kept a private diary (1821 – 1824) which was published posthumously as The Journal of Emily Foster (1938).

Foster, Genevieve – (1893 – 1979) 
American children’s author and illustrator
Genevieve Stump was born in Oswego, New York, but grew up in rural Wisconsin. She attended Wisconsin University (1917 – 1922) and then married Orrington C. Foster. Genevieve contonued her career after marriage, and studied advertising and commercial art at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts in Illinois, and produced illustrations for Child Life and other magazines. Foster wrote and illustrated nineteen books including George Washington’s World (1941) and, The Year of the Flying Machine (1977). Her work was translated into over a dozen languages, and the film Genevieve Foster’s World told the story of her artistic life. Genevieve Foster died in Westport, Connecticut.

Foster, Hannah Webster – (1759 – 1840)
American colonial novelist
Foster was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Foster was the mother of six children, including the novelists, Eliza Lansford Foster Cushing (born 1794) and Harriet Vaughan Foster Cheney (born 1796). Hannah was the author of the popular epistolary novel The Coquette; or, The History of Eliza Wharton (1797), which was published anonymously and The Boarding School: Or, Lessons of a Preceptress to her Pupils (1798). Hannah Webster Foster died (April 17, 1840) aged eighty.

Foster, Isabel – (1500 – 1556)
English Protestant martyr
Isabel was born at Greystock in Cumberland, and she later came to London in order to marry a tradesman. Isabel became a member of the new Protestant sect in London but later during the persecutions instituted under Queen Mary. Brought before Edward Bonner, Bishop of London Mistress Foster refused to recant and was found guilty of heresy. She was burnt at the stake (Jan 22, 1556) at Smithfield, aged fifty-five.

Foster, Jeanne Robert – (1879 – 1970)
American poet and editor
Born Julia Elizabeth Oliver (March 10, 1879) at Johnsburg in New York, she studied drama and was employed as a magazine journalist. She was married (1896) to Matlock Foster of Rochester in New York. As ‘Jeanne Foster’ she became an important literary hostess, and was appointed as the literary editor of the American Review of Reviews (1910 – 1922). Mrs Foster travelled Europe and published collections of verses concerning the Adirondack mountain regions such as Wild Apples (1916) and Neighbours of Yesterday (1916).

Foster, Lilian Avice – (1870 – c1958)
Australian civic leader and activist
Foster was born in Sale, Victoria, the daughter of William Henry Foster. She was educated privately at home by a governess, before having formal schooling at Fairelight in Melbourne. Lilian Foster never married, and during WW I she was engaged in volunteer work for the Soldiers’ and sailors’ Families Association. She served as a nurse in France and was commandant of the General Service VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) in France during and after the war (1917 – 1920). She worked with Russian refugees in Anatolia, Asia Minor, before eventually returning to Australia. Foster’s work during the war was formally recognized by King George V, when she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1934). She was later elected as a delegate for the National Council of Women. Lilian Foster died in Melbourne.

Foster, Susanna – (1924 – 2009)
American soprano and film actress
Born Suzanne DeLee Flanders Larson (Dec 6, 1924) in Chicago, Illinois, she was raised in Minneapolis in Minnesota. She was trained for a career as an actress at MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) studios in Hollywood. She declined the lead role in National Velvet because there was no singing role and it went to Elizabeth Taylor instead (1944). Foster then left MGM and went to Paramount Studios, where she received vocal training from Gilda Marchetti.
Her first film role was in The Great Victor Herbert (1939) in which she first appeared as ‘Susanna Foster’ with Mary Martin. Her other credits included There’s Magic in Music (1940) and Glamour Boy (1940). Foster was best known for her lead role of Christine in the famous film The Phantom of the Opera (1943) in which she appeared with Nelson Eddy and Claude Rains. She left the industry in 1945 and toured Europe singing with opera star Dusolina Giannini (1946). Foster appeared in the title role of Naughty Marietta produced by the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera. She later appeared on television during the 1960’s in episodes of the popular Mr Ed series and returned to the screen three decades later appearing in the movie Detour (1992). Her later life was much afflicted by mental illness and alcoholism. Susanna Foster died (Jan 17, 2009) aged eighty-four.

Fothergill, Jessie – (1851 – 1891)
British novelist
Fothergill was born (June, 1851) at Cheetham Hill, in Manchester, Lancashire, the daughter of the Quaker, Thomas Fothergill, a cotton industrialist, and his wife Anne Coultate. She was educated locally and in a boarding school in Harrogate. Her visit to Germany (1874) was the impetus for her first published work, Healey (1875), and she achieved considerable literary success with her third novel The First Violin (1877). Other works included Aldyth (1876), The Wellfields (1880), One of Three (1881), and, The Lasses of Leverhouse (1888). She sufferred from chronic ill-health, and the later years of her life were spent living abroad in Europe. Fothergill remained unmarried. Jessie Fothergill died suddenly (July 28, 1891) at Berne, Switzerland, aged forty.

Fotheringhame, Pattie Lewis – (1852 – 1955)
Australian journalist and photo engraver
Pattie was married to the ship captain, James Fotherinhame (c1857 – 1935). Using the pen-name ‘Mab’ she wrote articles for the Bulletin newspaper in Sydney, New South Wales, of which her brother-in-law, W.H. Traill was editor (1881 – 1886). Pattie later she published the women’s weekly magazine Splashes (1899 – 1917) and the children’s magazine Junior Australians, which she bought from Louisa Lawson, and edited for over three decades. Pattie Fotheringhame died aged one hundred and three years.

Foucault, Genevieve Marie Pauline de – (fl. 1913 – 1918)
French war diarist
Genevieve de Foucault went to reside at the Chateau of Pronleroy in Picardy. With the outbreak of WW I soon afterwards, Madame Foucault decided to remain there, despite the danger of being behind enemy lines at times. Foucault then opened up her chateau to provide a home for war refugees, as well as for Allied staff and their officers. Her personal reminiscences A Chateau at the Front, 1914 – 1918, was later translated into English (1931). 

Foudras, Anne de    see   Chateautiers, Anne de

Fougeret Elisa de – (1768 – after 1797)
French Revolutionary memoirist
Elisa was the daughter of Jean de Fougeret, the reciever general of fianances under Louis XVI, who perished on the guillotine during the Terror (1794), and was sister to Angelique, Comtesse de Mauisson. With her mother she attended the court of Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles and was involved in philanthropic activites to aid the poor and young mothers at the Societe de la Charite Maternelle, founded by her mother. Elisa survived the horrors of the Revolution and emigrated abroad (1791 – 1797) living in Holland and England. She left memoirs entitled Souvenirs d’Emigration (1934), which were published posthumously. Her married name was Menerville.

Foulds, Elfrida Vipont     see     Vipont, Elfrida

Fountaine, Margaret Elizabeth – (1862 – 1940)
British entomologist, traveller, and memoirist
Fountaine was the born in Norfolk, the daughter of a clergyman. An inheritance (1889) enabled Fountaine to pursue her dream of travelling and butterfly collecting, and she journeyed extensively throughout Europe, northern and southern America, Africa, the Middle East, India, Tibet, China, Japan, and Australia and New Zealand. From the age of sixteen Fountaine kept diaries until her death, which reveal her highly romantic and highly-sexed nature. Many of her travels were also conducted in the pursuit of a variety of romantic attachments, but she eventually remained involved in a three decade liasion (1901 – 1939) with an Eastern dragoman, Khalil Neimy, which ended only with his death. They never married as he had a wife living, and the couple resided alternately in Damascus in Syria and in Australia.
With Neimy’s death, Fountaine continued her travels up the Amazon and the Orinoco rivers, into Kenya and Uganda in Africa, to Singapore, and to Kampuchea in Cambodia. She died in Trinidad, aged seventy-eight, and left her considerable butterfly collection to the Castle Museum at Norwich in Norfolk. Her diaries were edited and published posthumously in two volumes as Love Among the Butterflies:The Travels and Adventures of a Victorian Lady (1980) and Butterflies and Late Loves: The Further Adventures of a Victorian Lady (1986).

Fouque, Caroline (Karoline) – (1773 – 1831)
German novelist and author
Caroline was the daughter of a wealthy Prussian landowner. Her first marriage with an army officer was unhappy due to the enormous debts incurred by his gambling habits. Caroline began proceedings for a divorce, but before they could be finalized her husband shot himself and died. Caroline was remarried (1803) to the famous romantic writer Friedrich Heinrich de la Motte, Baron Fouque (1777 – 1843), the author of, Undine (1811). Her own writing career now began, and her work included fairy-tales, short-stories, letters, and essays. Madame Fouque’s published works included Briefe uber Zwech und Richtung weiblicher Bildung (Letters on the Purpose and Direction of Female Education) (1810) and Die Frauen in der grossen Welt.Bildungsbuch beim Eintritt in das gesellige Leben (Women in the Wider World, A Guide for Entering Society), published in (1826).

Fourcade, Marie Madeleine – (1909 – 1989)
French war heroine and Resistance leader
Marie Bridou was born in Marseilles, the daughter of Lucien Paul Bridou, a shipping magnate, and was educated in Paris. She married firstly an army officer, Edouard Meric, from whom she was divorced, and secondly, the industrialist, Hubert Fourcade. Madame Fourcade pursuded a journalistic career with several French magazines including L’Ordre National (1939), but with the war and the following Nazi occupation, she became closely involved with Georges Loustaunau-Lacau and Commandant Louis Faye, in the Resistance movement. Fourcade became the head of the spy ring ‘Alliance’ (1942 – 1944) she herself taking the code name of ‘Hedgehog.’ Fourcade was later appointed as a commander of the Legion d’Honneur, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre, for France and Belgium (1939 – 1945), amongst other recognition of her heroic war service, and appeared as a witness at the trial of Nazi leader Klaus Barbie (1987). She left memoirs L’Arche de Noe (Noah’s Ark) (1968). Madeleine Fourcade died in Paris aged seventy-nine (July 20, 1989).

Fourmantel, Kitty (Catherine) – (fl. 1758 – 1760)
British popular vocalist
Kitty Fourmantel was a descendant of French Huguenots who had fled to England after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). She was a popular performer at the Vauxhall Gardens in London. According to unreliable tradition, Kitty died insane.

Fourment, Helene – (1614 – 1673)
Flemish artistic muse
Fourment was born in Anvers, the daughter of Daniel Fourment. She became the second wife (1630) of Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640), the famous master, whom she survived. He painted her nude as Andromeda, and she was the subject of the portrait The Fur Coat. She remarried to the Baron de Bergeyck, and died in Brussels.

Fowke, Edith Margaret – (1913 – 1996)
Canadian folk-lorist and author
Fowke was born (April 30, 1913) at Lumsden, near Regina. She studied English literature at the University of Saskatchewan and teaching at the Saskatchewan College of Education. Edith trained as a teacher, and later married (1938) to Frank Fowke, after which the couple moved to Toronto. There she worked in radio, and prepared the popular CBC weekly programs ‘Folk Song Time’ (1950 – 1963) and ‘Folk Sounds’ (1963 – 1974). She served as editor of the Canadian Folk Music Journal for four decades (1956 – 1996) and was appointed as a member of the Oder of Canada (1978). She later taught at York University and at the University of Calgary, and served as president of the Folklore Studies Association of Canada (1985 – 1986).  Fowke was the author of over twenty books including Sally Go Round the Sun: 300 Songs, Rhymes and Games of Canadian Children, was awarded a bronze medal by the Association of Children’s Librarians (1970). Edith Fowke died (March 28, 1996) in Toronto, aged eighty-two.

Fowler, Edith Henrietta – (1865 – 1944)
British novelist
Hon. (Honourable) Edith Fowler was born (Feb 16, 1865) at Wolverhampton, the daughter of Henry Hartley Fowler, first Viscount Wolverhampton, and his wife Ellen, the youngest daughter of George Benjamin Thorneycroft. She was the younger sister to the writer Ellen Thorneycroft Felkin.  She was educated privately at home by a governess, and later attended a secondary school in Middlesex. She remained unmarried. Edith Fowler died (Nov 18, 1944) aged seventy-nine.

Fowler, Eileen – (1907 – 2000)
British physical fitness promoter
Fowler was born in Hertfordshire, the daughter of a civil engineer. She studied music and dance and pursued an acting career, appearing at the Drury Lane Theatre in London. However she became involved with the benefits of physical fitness and left acting to establish the Industrial Keep Fit classes for workers. She joined the WAAF (Women’s Auxiliary Air Force) during WW II. After the war she branched into radio and television and then established the Keep Fit Association (1956).
Fowler published Stay Young Forever (1961) and later returned to television during the 1970’s with popular dance disco fitness programs. She was appointed MBE (Member of the Order of the Briitsh Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975) in recognition of her contribution to public health. Eileen Fowler died aged ninety-three.

Fowler, Ellen Thorneycroft    see     Felkin, Ellen Thorneycroft

Fowler, Lilian – (1886 – 1954)
Australian council alderman and politician
Elizabeth Lilian Maud Fowler was born in Sydney, New South Wales. She was elected to the Newtown Municipal Council, becoming the first female alderman in NSW, and served for two decades (1928 – 1948). Fowler then served as mayor of Newtown (1938 – 1939), being the first female in Australia to serve in that public office. She was active in Labour politics, and served as the member for Newtown during the Lang government (1944 – 1950), and was the third woman in Australia to be elected to the Legislative Assembly. The electorate of Fowler in Sydney in named for her, as are several parks.

Fowler, Lydia Folger – (1822 – 1879)
American physician
Lydia Folger was related to several famous persons, particularly to the famous scientist and statesman Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790), and to the noted astronomer, Maria Mitchell and the suffrage leader Lucretia Coffin Mott. After her marriage with Lorenzo Fowler (1844) Fowler was able to attend the Rochester Eclectic Medical College and graduated as a practising physician (1850), beoming the first American woman to receive a medical degree. She then became the first woman to be appointed professor of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children at Rochester (1851). Apart from organizing her own private practice in New York, she wrote concerning medical and social matters affecting women and children. Folger later visited England (1858), travelling there with her husband, where Lydia performed volunteer work in the slums of London. Lydia Folger Fowler died in London of pnuemonia.

Fowler, Tillie – (1942 – 2005)
American politician
Fowler was born (Dec 23, 1942) the daughter of Culver Kidd, the noted Georgian Democrat politician. Tillie gravitated towards politics whilst in college, and served with the Jacksonville City Council (1985 – 1992) before serving with the US Congress (1993 – 2001). During this period she served as adviser to the Secretary of State, Donald Rumsfeld. Tillie Fowler died (March 2, 2005) aged sixty-two.

Fox, Anna Maria – (1817 – 1897)
British translator
Fox was born in Cornwall, the elder daughter of the wealthy Quaker industrialist, Robert Were Fox. She remained unmarried. With her younger sister, the noted diarist Caroline Fox, she translated several Italian devotional works into English including Il Mozzo Bertino (1867), which was published in Florence. Anna Maria Fox died (Dec, 1897) aged eighty.

Fox, Caroline – (1819 – 1871)
British Quaker diarist
Fox was born (May 24, 1819) at Falmouth, Cornwall, into a wealthy Quaker family, the daughter of Robert Were Fox, of Penjerrick. She formed part of the literary circle that surrounded Thomas Carlyle and his wife Jane, and John Mills and Harriet Taylor. An intelligent and accomplished woman, her private recollections contained detailed portraits of various famous contemporary intellectual figures and was published posthumously in two volumes as, Memoirs of Old Friends (1882). Caroline Fox died (Jan 12, 1871) aged fifty-one

Fox, Charlotte Milligan – (1864 – 1916)
Irish folk-lorist
Charlotte Milligan was born in Omagh, County Tyrone, the daughter of Seaton F. Milligan, and elder sister of the author Alice L. Milligan. Charlotte was educated at the Methodist College, Belfast, and Magee College, Derry. She travelled all over Ireland collecting folk songs and traditional tunes, preserving them on gramophone recordings. She established the Irish Folk Song Society (1904) and was the author of, Annals of the Irish Harpers (1911). Charlotte Milligan Fox died in London.

Fox, Elizabeth Vassall     see   Holland, Elizabeth Vassall, Lady

Fox, Ethel Carrick    see   Carrick-Fox, Ethel

Fox, Dame Evelyn Emily Marion – (1874 – 1955)

British pioneer for the mentally handicapped
Fox was born (Aug 15, 1874) at Morges, Switzerland, a descendant of the Whig politician, Charles James Fox. She was also related to the famous poet Maria Edgeworth. Evelyn attended a boarding school in Morges, and then attended Somerville College, at Oxford on her return to England, where she became involved with the activities of the Women’s University Settlement.
Fox was responsible for the passing of the Mental Deficiency Act (1913), and of the establishment of the Central Association for Mental Welfare (1913). She served as honorary secretary for the association until it was subsumed by the Nation al Health Service (1946). She fought constantly to force civil servants, medical officers, and social workers to receive adequate training, and also for the education of the public in general with regards to the mentally handicapped. Fox was the first secretary of the Child Guidance Council, which later became the National Association for Mental Health. In recognition of her life work on behalf of the mentally challenged, Evelyn was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1937) and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1942). Dame Evelyn Fox died (June 1, 1955) at Laughton, Sussex, aged eighty.

Fox, Julia Carlile – (1874 – 1916)
Anglo-Australian physician
Julia Thomas was born in London, the daughter of Sydney Stranger Thomas, and emigrated to New South Wales with her parents (1882). Julia attended the University of Sydney, where she studied medicine, and was married to fellow physician, Robert Algernon Fox. Julia Fox founded the Sydney Medical Mission (1898) which provided care for the poor without payment. Julia Carlile Fox died in Sydney (Dec 28, 1916) aged forty-two.

Fox, Kate – (1841 – 1892)
American spiritualist and fraud
Fox was the daughter of John Fox, of Hydesville, and younger sister to Leah and Margaret Fox. With her elder sister Margaret she feigned poltergiest activities in the family home, which was believed to be caused by the troubled spirit of a murdered peddler, named Charles Rosa. Under the guidance of their elder sister, Kate and Margaret gave public performances, which included the manifestation of the spirit of Benjamin Franklin. Phineas T. Barnum brought them to New York, and after her sister left the act due to alcoholism, she gave performances of slate-writing. She later visited England (1871), where her skills were much admired by Sir William Crookes. Kate Fox was married to an Englishman, Henry Jencken (1872) and bore him two sons. After her husband’s death (1885), Kate returned to the USA, but several years later, her alcoholism continuing, her elder sister Leah succeeded in having her sons removed from her care. With Margaret she later admitted their fraud publicly (1888), but she conitnued to work as a medium. Kate Fox died (July 2, 1892) aged fifty-six.

Fox, Leah – (1814 – 1891)
American spiritualist
Fox was the daughter of John Fox, of Hydesville, and elder sister to Margaret and Kate Fox. She was residing in Rochester, New York, with her husband and daughter, in straitened financial circumstances, when her two much younger sisters became celebrities after falsley claiming to be the victims of a spiritual phenomenon in the family home (1848). Leah Fox took charge of her sisters’ activities, and organizes their ‘performances,’ renting a public hall so that they could put on a stage show. Leah later remarried to a wealthy businessman (1857), and retired from the act. Later, due to the alcoholism of her sister Kate, Leah assisted the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in removing her children from her care. Her sisters later exposed the fraud publicly (1888). Leah Fox died (Nov 1, 1891) aged seventy-seven.

Fox, Margaret (Maggie) – (1838 – 1893)
American spiritualist and fraud
Fox was the daughter of John Fox, of Hydesville, and the younger sister of Leah, and elder sister to Kate Fox. With her sister Katie she invented poltergeist activities by surreptitious rapping in the family home, which achieved her and her sisters’ national fame for herself and her sisters with the media (1848). With her sister she gave public performances under the guidance of their much older sister Leah. They were brought to New York by Phineas T. Barnum, the circus entrepeneur, but Margaret became disillusioned with the act and began to drink heavily. She wanted to leave, especially after converting to Roman Catholicism, but her family would not permit the act to be broken up, and she was forced to continue. With the death of her fiancee, Elisha Kane, a naval officer, her condition deteriorated. Maggie was later called before a commission of enquiry, and dismally failed the tests they put before her (1884). Despite this, she managed to continue working as a medium in New York, though the two sisters publicly acknowledged their fraud in 1888, though Maggie later retracted her confession. Margaret Fox died (March 8, 1893) in Brooklyn, aged fifty-nine.

Fox, Mary – (1877 – 1962)
Australian educator
Fox was born in Ross, Tasmania, the daughter of William Walker Fox (1837 – 1925). She was educated in Launceston and at the University of Tasmania, where she was trained as a teacher.
Fox served for thirty-five years (1903 – 1941) as headmistress of the Methodist Ladies’ College in Launceston, and was the founder of the Association of Headmasters and Headmistresses of Public Secondary Schools. For her contributions to education, Mary Fox was awarded the MBE (Member of the British Empire) medal by King George VI (1942). She remained unmarried. Mary Fox died (Aug 31, 1962) in Melbourne, Victoria, aged eighty-five.

Fox, Mary Fitzclarence, Lady – (1798 – 1864)
British Hanoverian royal
Lady Mary Fitzclarence was born (Dec 19, 1798), the second illegitimate daughter of King William IV (1830 – 1837) and his mistress, the actress Dorothea Jordan. Mary was the sister of George Fitzclarence, the first Earl of Munster, and was herself granted the rank and precedence of a marquess’s daughter by her father (1831), as were her sisters. Lady Mary Fitzclarence was married to General Charles Richard Fox (1796 – 1873), the illegitimate son of the third Baron Holland, as his first wife. He had originally been betrothed to her younger sister Elizabeth (later Countess of Erroll) but she refused him, and he later married Lady Mary instead. She served for many years as the state housekeeper of Windsor Castle in Berkshire. Lady Fitzclarence died childless (July 13, 1864) aged sixty-five, and was interred in Kensal Green cemetery in London, where her tomb survives.

Foxe, Cyrinda – (1952 – 2002)
American model and film actress
Born Kathleen Victoria Hetzekian (Feb 22, 1952) in Santa Monica, California, and resided in Texas prior to settling in New York. She adopted the name of ‘Cyrinda Foxe’ and became part of the nightclub set. Her best known film appearance was in the Andy Warhol movie Bad (1977). One of the most prominent women involved in the punk-rock scene Foxe had an affair with the popular singer David Bowie, and then became involved with David Johansen, the manager of the glam-rock band the New York Dolls whom she married (1977). Foxe soon left Johansen for Steven Tyler, the lead singer of Aerosmith. She bore Tyler a daughter and later married him but the marriage ended in divorce. Foxe published the memoir entitled Dream On (1997) but was later prevented by Steven Tyler from publishing nude photographs of him (1999). Cyrinda Foxe died (Sept 7, 2002) aged fifty, in New York.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth – (1941 – 2007)
American feminist and historian
Elizabeth Fox was born (May 28, 1941) the daughter of the historian Edward Whiting Fox of Cornell University. She studied in Paris, at Bryn Mawr College, and at Harvard University, becoming a professor of history at the Institute of Women’s Studies at Emory University. Elizabeth was married to fellow historian, Eugene Genovese, and received the National Humanities Medal from President George W. Bush (2003). She was particularly noted as an historian of the old south, and her published works included Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (1988), and The Mind of the Master Class: History and Faith in the Southern Slaveholders’ Worldview (2005), which she co-wrote with her husband. Fox-Genovese also wrote concerning many feminist subjects. Elizabeth Fox-Genovese died (Jan 2, 2007) aged sixty-five.

Foxwell, Edith Sybil Lambart, Lady – (1918 – 1998)
British society figure
Edith Lambart was the only child of Hon. (Honourable) Lionel Lambart and his wife Adelaide Douglas Randolph, and granddaughter to Frederick Lambart, ninth Earl of Cavan. Edith married (1940) Major Ivan Cottam Foxwell, of Home Farm, Sherston, Malmesbury, Wiltshire, to whom she bore two daughters, the younger of whom, Atalanta Edith Foxwell (born 1956) became the wife of the papal patrician, Prince Stefano Massimo of Roccasecca dei Volsci. She was granted by Queen Elizabeth II, the title, rank, and precedence as the daughter of an earl (Aug, 1947), as had her father not been killed in action (1940) he would have succeeded his brother Frederick Rudolph Lambart as eleventh earl of Cavan, which title passed instead to Edith’s uncle Horace Lambart, Archdeacon of Salop and Prebendary of Lichfield Cathedral. Beautiful and high-spirited, Edith was a famous patroness of the Embassy Club, in Bond Street, London. She divorced her husband (1974) after thirty-five years of marriage, and resided at Home Farm, at Sherston, in Wiltshire, and in London.

Foxworth, Sophia Graves – (c1840 – 1932)
Southern American poet
Sophia Graves was born in Mt Carmel, Mississippi, the daughter of a clergyman. She was married (1859) to Stephen Foxworth, a farmer from Hopewell in the same state. The family later moved to Columbia where Sophia Foxworth worked as a schoolteacher for three decades (1902 – 1932). She was the author of a volume of lyric poetry entitled The Old Mansion and Other Poems (1896).

Foy     see     Faith

Frame, Janet Paterson – (1924 – 2004)
New Zealand author and poet
Frame was born at Omaru, near Dunedin and was educated at Dunedin Teachers College and at the Otago University, where she trained as a schoolteacher. She later worked as a children’s nurse. Frame travelled in Europe (1956 – 1964), during which time she published several works such as the three novels Faces in the Water (1961), The Edge of the Alphabet (1962), and Scented Gardens for the Blind (1963), and the two collections of stories entitled Reservoir (1963) and Snowman, Snowman (1963).
Frame sufferred from excruciating shyness, which led to her being misdiagnosed as a schizophrenic. These events were harrowingly described in her autobiography, An Angel at my Table (1984), and were also depicted by director Jane Campion in the film of the same name (1990). Frame also produced children’s books and collections of verse such as The Pocket Mirror (1967). She was made an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Janet Frame wrote two other volumes of autobiography To the Island (1983) and The Envoy from Mirror City (1985).

Framechildis (Framechilde) – (fl. c620 – c640)
Merovingian nun
Framechildis was of high birth, and was married to Vaufroy (Badefroi), count of Hesdin, and mayor of the Palace under Childeric II, King of Neustria. She was the mother of Austreberte, the famous abbess of Port. After the death of her husband Framechildis became a nun and was revered as a saint. Her feast (May 4) is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum and the French Martyrology.

Frampton, Mary – (1773 – 1846)
British society and literary figure, diarist, and letter writer
Frampton was the daughter of James Frampton, of Moreton, Dorsetshire. Intelligent and well educated, she never married, but was a prominent figure in Dorchester society, and often attended the court in London, where Lady Campbell, governess to Princess Charlotte, daughter of the Prince Regent, was a particular friend of the Frampton family. Mary Frampton died (Nov 12, 1846), aged seventy-three. Frampton’s private diary was edited by her niece, Harriot Georgina Mundy in London, forty years after her death as The Journal of Frampton, from the year 1779, until the year 1846 (1885).

Franca, Celia – (1921 – 2007)
Canadian ballerina and artistic director
Celia Franks was born (June 25, 1921) in London, England, the daughter of a tailor. She studied dance from early childhood amd went on to study at the Guildhall School of Music and at the Royal Academy of Dance. Celia joined Marie Rambert’s company (1936), and adopted the stage surname ‘Franca.’ She was one of the best dramatic ballerinas ever to perform with the Sadler’s Wells Company, and was best remembered for her performances as, Giselle. She worked as a television choreographer, and created the first two ballets ever commissioned by the BBC (British Broadcast Corporation), Eve of St Agnes and Dance of Salome. Franca later founded the National Ballet of Canada (1951), and served as artistic director of that organization for almost twenty-five years. Her contriubtions to dance were formally recognized when she was appointed an Officer (1957), and later a Companion (1985) of the Order of Canada. Celia Franca died (Feb 19, 2007) in Ottawa, aged eighty-five.

Franca di Vidalta      see     Vidalta, Franca di

France, Ruth – (1913 – 1968)
New Zealand poet and dramatist
Born Ruth Henderson, she trained as a librarian. She wrote anonymous verses which were published in the New Zealand Listener magazine, and later published two volumes of verse under the pseudonym ‘Paul Henderson’ entitled Unwilling Pilgrim (1955), and, The Halting Place (1961). France’s novels included the yachting novel The Race (1958), and the family disaster story Ice Cold River (1962). She was the author of children’s book The Shining Year (1964), which was set in New Zealand.

Frances of Rome, St      see    Ponziani, Francesca

Francesca da Rimini       see     Rimini, Francesca da

Francesca of Fano – (fl. 1420 – c1440)
Italian nun
Francesca became a Franciscan nun under the rule of Felicia da Meda at the convent of Corpus Christi in Pesaro. She was revered as a saint (Sept 30).

Francesca Maddalena – (1648 – 1664)
Duchess consort of Savoy
Born Princess Francoise Madeleine d’Orleans (Oct 13, 1648) in Paris, the third daughter of Prince Gaston, Duc d’Orleans, the brother of Louis XIII (1610 – 1643), and his second wife, Margaret of Lorraine. Known from birth as Madamoiselle de Valois, she was a rather shadowy figure, and seems to have been viewed as a possible bride for her cousin, Louis XIV. The little that is known of her comes from the Memoires of her much older half-sister, La Grande Madamoiselle, who wished to legally adopt the girl after the death of Duke Gaston (1660). However, Louis XIV would not permit this, and Francoise was married (1663) to Carlo Emmanuele II (1634 – 1675), duke of Savoy (1637 – 1675), as his first wife. Duchess Francesca Maddalena died young within a year (Jan 14, 1664), aged only fifteen.

Franceschini, Marthe – (1750 – 1799)
French adventuress
Franceschini was captured by the Turks and became Lalla Davia. She entered the harem of the Ottoman sultan, Muhammad III, and died at Marrakech.

Franchi-Verney della Valetta, Contessa Teresina    see    Tua, Teresina

Francillon, Clarisse – (1899 – 1976)
French romantic novelist
Francillon was born at Saint-Imier. Her works included La Belle Orange (1944), Gens du Passage (1959), and Le Cornet a lucarnes (1967). Clarisse Francillon died in Paris.

Francine, Anne – (1917 – 1999)
American stage and film actress, contralto vocalist, and nightclub performer
Francine was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She made her debut as a loung singer, and performed at the prestigious Algonquin Club, amongst others. Imposingly beautiful and with perfect manners, Francine performed successfully in Paris and London during the 1940’s, and was known for her renditions of the works of Cole Porter and Jerome Kern. With her return to the USA, Francine worked on Broadway, appearing in productions such as By the Beautiful Sea (1954), The School for Scandal, and played Vera Charles in Mame (1966) opposite Angela Lansbury. Her last stage appearance was in a revival of the play Anything Goes (1987). Francine worked in television and was best known as Flora Simpson Reilly in the popular series Harper Valley P.T.A. (1981). Anne Francine died in Connecticut, New Hampshire, aged eighty-two.

Francis, Ann – (1738 – 1800) 
British poet and translator
Ann was the daughter of Rev. Daniel Griffiths, rector of South Stoke, near Arundel, Sussex. Educated in the classical languages and Hebrew by her father, Ann became a noted linguist.  Ann married Rev. Robert Bransley Francis, rector of Edgefield, near Holt, Norfolk, but she corresponded with literary figures such as John Parkhouse and William Jones of Nayland.  Her first work A Poetical Translation of the Song of Solomon, From the Original Hebrew (1781) was dedicated to Parkhouse. She was also the author of poem The Obsequies of Demetrius Poliorcetes: A Poem (1785). Ann also wrote A Poetical Epistle from Charlotte to Werther (1788), a response to Goethe’s famous novel. Her later works included Miscellaneous Poems, By a Lady (1790) published at Norwich, and, A Plain Address to My  Neighbours (1798) which dealt with the threat of the French invasion of England. Ann Francis died (Nov 7, 1800) at Edgefield, near Holt, aged sixty-two.

Francis, Arlene – (1907 – 2001)
American film and television actress
Born Arlene Francis Kazanjian (Oct 30, 1907) in Boston, Massachusetts, she was the daughter of Armenian immigrants. She began her career on the stage (1932) and appeared in the play, All That Glitters (1938). Her greatest stage success was as Natalia in the Broadway stage production of the play, The Doughgirls (1942 – 1943), and also worked in radio. Francis later worked as a television panellist on popular quiz shows such as What’s My Line, on which she appeared for almost two decades (1950 – 1967) and (1968 – 1975). She hosted the popular radio interview program, The Arlene Francis Show in New Yor for two and a half decades (1960 – 1984). Her husband was the character actor, Martin Gabel (1912 – 1986). Her film credits included, Murders in the Rue Morgue (1932), Stage Door Canteen (1943), All My Sons (1948), The Thrill of it All (1963), and, Fedora (1978). Francis appeared on many other popular television programs such as, Blind Date (1949 – 1952) and, Talent Patrol (1955 – 1957). Arlene Francis died (May 31, 2001) in San Francisco, California, aged ninety-three.

Francis, Harriet Elizabeth Tucker – (1828 – 1889)
American traveller and letter writer
Harriet Francis was born into a wealthy family. She travelled around the world and through Europe in comfortable style (1875 – 1876) and left an account of her travels in her surviving letters, published as Across the Meridians; And Fragmentary Letters (1887).

Francis, Kay – (1899 – 1968)
American film actress
Born Katherine Gibbs, she was a famous leading lady of Hollywood films during the 1930’s. Her movie credits included Street of Chance (1930), One Way Passage (132), Trouble in Paradise (1932), Cynara (1932), The White Angel (1936), in which she portrayed Florence Nightingale, First Lady (1937), Charley’s Aunt (1941), the war film, Four Jills in a Jeep (1944), and Divorce (1945).

Francis, Mary    see    Follett, Mary

Francis, Sarah (1) – (fl. 1792 – 1801)
British stage actress
Sarah Francis was originally employed by the Theatre Royal in York, who came to London to perform at Covent Garden (1798). Her husband, Francis Francis, was a well known comic artist.

Francis, Sarah (2) – (1765 – after 1793)
British stage actress, vocalist, and dancer
Francis was christened in London (April 3, 1765), the daughter of Bodley William Francis, and was sister to the noted instrumentalist, Thomas Bodley Francis (1768 – 1802), and William Bodley Francis (1766 – 1827), the noted actor and ballet master. A talented and versatile actress, Sarah Francis worked mainly in secondary roles, and in the chorus at Covent Garden. Her last recorded appearance was as Stella in the play Robin Hood (1793).

Francis, Susan – (1884 – 1946)
Australian political figure and activist
Susan Radford was born in Brisbane, Queensland, the daughter of William Radford, and trained as a nurse. She was married twice but retained the surname of her first husband. Susan Francis established herself in public practice as a midwife, and worked amongst the poor in the inner city suburbs of Sydney. She became a member of the Labour Party and was elected to the ALP Federal Electorate Council (1925). Francis contested the NSW Legislative Assembly election for the suburb of Bondi (1927). Susan Francis died (April 22, 1946) in Sydney.

Francisca Christina of Sulzbach – (1696 – 1776)
German countess and nun
Countess Francisca Christina of Sulzbach was born (May 26, 1696) the second daughter and third child of Theodore (1659 – 1733), Count Palatine of Sulzbach in Bavaria and his wife the Landgravine Marie Eleonore of Hesse-Rheinsfeld-Rothenburg, the daughter of Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Rheinsfeld-Rothenburg (1648 – 1725). She never married and took religious vows as a Catholic nun. She was appointed as Abbess of the Imperial abbey of Thorn, a position she kept until her death six decades later (1717 – 1776). She was subsequently appointed as Abbess of Essen (1726) and Prioress of Dusseldorf (1733) which positions she held concurrently. Countess Francisca Christina died (July 16, 1776) aged eighty.

Francisca Josefa of Braganza – (1699 – 1736)
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta Francisca Josefa was born (Jan 30, 1699) at Lisbon in Estramadura, the eighth and youngest child and sixth daughter of Pedro II, King of Portugal (1683 – 1706) and his second wife Countess Palatine Maria Sophia of Neuburg, the daughter of Philip Wilhelm, Elector Palatine of Neuburg (1685 – 1690), and was the sister of King Joao V (1706 – 1750). The Infanta never married and died (July 15, 1736) aged thirty-seven, in Lisbon. She was interred within the monastery of Sao Vicente de Fora in Lisbon.

Francisco, Betty – (1900 – 1950)
American minor film actress
Born Elizabeth Barton (Sept 26, 1900) at Little Rock in Arkansas, she was sister to the actress Evelyn Francisco. She adopted the professional surname of ‘Francisco’ and appeared in many silent films such as A Broad Cowboy (1920), Midsummer Madness (1920), A Guilty Conscience (1921), Her Night of Nights (1922), Crinoline and Romance (1923) and was a WAMPAS Baby Star (1923). She continued her career with the advent of sound and appeared in films such as Smiling Irish Eyes (1929), Madam Satan (1930), Charlie Chan Carries On (1931) as Sybil Conway, and portrayed a showgirl in Broadway Bad (1933). Francisco was married (1930) to Fred Spradling and retired after making the film Romance in the Rain (1934). Betty Francisco died (Nov 25, 1950) aged fifty at El Cerito in California.

Francisco, Evelyn – (1904 – 1963)
American minor silent film actress
Born Evelyn Barton (Aug 13, 1904) at Little Rock in Arkansas, she was the sister of actress Betty Francisco. She adopted the professional surname of ‘Francisco’ and followed her sister Betty into movies, making her film debut in Flip Flops (1923). Her film credits included The Hollywood Kid (1924), Bright Lights (1924), Madame Behave (1925) as Laura Barnes, The Raspberry Romance (1925), The King of Kings (1927) and King of the Herd (1927). Evelyn’s last film was The Godless Girl (1929), her career not surviving the advent of sound. Evelun Francisco died (Jan 27, 1963) aged fifty-eight, at Corona in California.

Franclieu, Aglae de – (1762 – 1858)
French aristocrat
Aglae de Franceuil never married and was a canoness. She sufferred imprisonment, but otherwise survived the horrors of the Revolution. She left memoirs entitled Memoires de la chanoinesse de Franclieu, publies par Jean Marchand (1930), published in Paris seventy years after her death.

Franco, Dolores – (1912 – 1977)
Spanish essayist and philosopher
Franco was born in Madrid, and studied philology at the University of Madrid. With a deep and abiding interest in philosophy, she also taught literature. Dolores was married to the philosopher, Julian Marias and died in Madrid. Her published works included the anthology, La preocupacion de Espana en su literatura (The Concern for Spain as Expressed in Its Literature) (1944) which went through two further editions (1960) and (1980) with the title Espana como preocupacion (Spain as a Concern).

Franco, Veronica – (1546 – 1591)
Italian poet and letter writer
Franco was born in Venice. Married in her youth to a respectable physician, to whom she bore a son, with his early death, Veronica established herself a career as a cortegiana honesta (honest courtesan). A member of the salon of Domenico Venier in Venice, she was a friend and admirer of artists like Tintoretto, and her public fame and celebrity such that she received the Valois king, Henry III, in her own home. Around the age of thirty, Veronica retired from this life, and began to devote herself to religious works and charitable and philanthropic concerns, eventually founding a hospice for fallen women (1577). Her two most famous works were Terza Rima (1575), a collection of poetry, and her Letters (1580), which expose the underlying harshness of the life and career of the successful courtesan.

‘Francoise’   see   Barry, Robertine

Francoise d’ Amboise – (1427 – 1485)
Duchess consort of Brittany and religious foundress
Francoise was the daughter of Louis d’ Amboise, vicomte de Thouars, and his wife Marie de Rieux. She was betrothed in infancy (1431) to Peter, the son of Duke Jean V of Brittany, and was raised at the Valois court. Francoise was married (1442) to Peter and held court with him at Guingamp, until he succeeded his brother Francois I as duke (1450). They were crowned at Rennes. Their marriage remained childless, and after her husband’s death (1457) the duchess founded a Clarissan convent at Nantes (1463), and interested herself with the canonization of St Vincent Ferrer. The duchess resisisted all attempts made by Louis IX of France to entice her to remarry, and with the permission of her nephew, Duke Francois II, Francoise retired to Vannes, where she took the veil in the Carmelite house she had founded there (1468). Francoise was later elected prioress for life (1472) and then founded another house at Couets, near Nantes. Duchess Francoise died (Nov 4, 1485) at Couets, aged fifty-eight. She was later beatified (Nov 5) by Pope Pius IX (1863).

Francqueville, Sophia Matilda Palmer, Comtesse de – (1852 – 1915)
Anglo-French political hostess and letter writer
Lady Sophia Palmer was the daughter of Sir Roundell Palmer, first Earl of Selborne and his wife Lady Laura, the daughter of William, eighth Earl Waldegrave. She married (1903), when she was over fifty, Amable Charles Franquet, Comte de Francqueville (1840 – 1919).Madame de Francqueville was acitvely interested in contemporary British and French politics, especially during the prime ministership of William Gladstone, and corresponded with Sir Arthur Gordon during the period (1884 – 1889) on a variety of political subjects. These letters have been edited and published by the American Philosophical Society with the title A Political Correspondence of the Gladstone Era: The Letters of Lady Sophia Palmer and Sir Arthur Gordon, 1884 – 1889. Her sister Lady Laura Ridding published in London after her death Sophia Matilda Palmer, Comtesse de Francqueville, 1852 – 1915: A Memoir (1915). Lady Ridding used extracts from Sophia’s personal letters to augment this biography.

Francuccia, Giustina Bezzola – (c1266 – 1319)
Italian virgin saint
Sometimes known as Justina of Arezzo, she was born in Arezzo, and became a Benedictine nun at the convent of San Marco in that town (c1279).  Four years later, due to the depradations of robbers, the sisters removed to the convent of Ogni Santi. Desiring a more private life, Giustina obtained permission to reside with one female companion as an anchorite, spending her time in prayer and religious meditations. She tended her companion until her death, and then, feeling her safety threatened by her own failing eyesight and wandering wolves, Giustina removed to a convent. Before her death she had become completely blind. Regarded a saint, her feast (March 12) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Frank, Anne – (1929 – 1945)
German-Jewish holocaust victim and diarist
Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, the daughter of Otto Frank, and his wife Edith. With the rise of the Nazi Reich, the family fled to Amsterdam in Holland (1933), where Mr Frank relocated his business. With the Nazi occupation of Holland, Anne went into hiding with her family and four other people in the sealed-off back room above her father’s office (1942). They remained there until discovered (Aug, 1944), when all were sent to Belsen concentration camp, where Anne, her mother, and sister Margot died. Only Mr Frank survived of the original group.
Her personal diary which she kept during the period of hiding was recovered by friends, and published after the war as, Het Achterhuis (1947), which was translated into English as The Diary of Anne Frank (1952).

Frank, Evelyn – (1947 – 2003)
American lawyer
Frank graduated from Brandeis University and the University of California at Berkeley law school, and spent nearly twenty years working with the Legal Aid Society, of Alameda County. Evelyn successfully prevented government attempts to reduce elegibility for welfare and state medical benefits, and worked to preserve state care for the many aged, disabled, and blind people across the United States. She was honoured by the California Bar Association for her long career of service to the poor and underprivileged (1992). Evelyn Frank died of breast cancer.

Frank, Joan Heming – (1920 – 1997)
American television producer
Joan Heming was born in White Plains and attended Vassar College. During WW II she was employed as an economist by the Office of Price Administration. She was married to John Frank to whom she bore two children. Mrs Frank worked for Compass Productions and produced the famous Hallmark Hall of Fame drama series during the 1950’s and 1960’s at the NBC studios in Brooklyn. She was later employed by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Joan Frank died (July 24, 1997) aged seventy-seven, in Manhattan.

Frankau, Julia Davis   see   Danby, Frank

Frankau, Pamela – (1908 – 1967)
Jewish-British novelist, journalist and story writer
Frankau was born (Jan 3, 1908), the daughter of the novelist, Gilbert Frankau, and his wife Dorothea Drummond-Black. She attended school at Burgess Hill, Sussex, and served with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) during WW II (1939 – 1945). Known for her peculiar wit and conversational abilities, Frankau later converted to Roman Catholicism, and published works included, Marriage of Harlequin (1927), her first novel, The Devil We Know (1939), Appointment With Death (1940), The Willow Cabin (1949), which was considered her best novel, The Truth (1957), Ask Me No More (1958), Road Through the Woods (1960), and, Slaves of the Lamp (1964), amongst others. Pamela Frankau died (June 8, 1967) aged fifty-nine.

Franken, Rose Dorothy – (1895 – 1988)
American novelist and dramatist
Franken was born into a Jewish family in Texas (Dec 28, 1895), and was raised in New York, where she attended the School of Ethical Culture. Her first published work was the semi-autobiographical novel, Pattern (1925). She was later married to the author, Willaim Brown Meloney (1905 – 1971), ten years her junior. Rose Franken’s first play, Another Language (1932), was selected for publication in The Best Plays of 1931 – 1932, and was adapted for cinema under the same name (1933) with Helen Hayes in the starring role. Despite this success, Rose Franken was best-known for her series of seven novels beginning with, Claudia and David: The Story of a Marriage (1939), which traced the married life of her heroine Claudia Naughton. This work was also adapted by Franken for the stage.  With her husband she co-authored several other novels such as, Strange Victory (1939), American Bred (1941), and Many Are the Travellers (1954), using the joint pseudonym ‘Franken Melloney.’ Also using the pseudonym ‘Margaret Grant’ she was the author of the novel, Call Back Love (1938). Rose Franken died (June 22, 1988) aged ninety-two.

Franken, Wallis – (1949 – 1996)
American-French model
Wallis Franken was married and produced two daughters, and was well established in her successful modeling career when she became the friend of the famous fashion designer Claude Montana (born 1949). Wallis modeled and inspired many of his form-fitting garments made of leather, or of lighter fabrics. Nearly two decades later Franken married Montana (1993) who was openly gay, the union being a matter of convenience between two friends. She appeared as herself in the film Mode in France (1984) and as an actress in the movie Jeux d’artifices (1987). Wallis Franken died (May, 1996) in Paris, after falling from their third floor apartment, her death being ruled a suicide.

Frankenhofen, Anna von – (c1195 – 1244)
German nun and saint
Anna was born into a patrician family, and was dedicated to the religious life as a child. She joined the Cisterician order, and became abbess of the convent of Seefeld, where she succeeded Tudeca as abbess. When Conrad von Winterstettin, count of Thann built the nunnery of Paindt, near the monastery of Wingarten in the diocese of Constanz, Anna removed there to take up the position of first abbess (1241 – 1244). She was succeeded in office by Conrad’s daughter, Ermengard von Smalneckh. The church venerated Anna as a saint (March 6).

Frankland, Jocosa (Joyce) – (1531 – 1587)
English Tudor philanthropist and educational patron
Jocosa Trappes was born in London, the daughter of Robert Trappes, a goldsmith. Her first husband was the merchant Henry Saxey, her second was William Frankland of Rye House, Hertfordshire. Her only son, William Saxey (1567 – 1581) died young whilst still a law student. With her son Jocosa had established junior fellowships and scholarships at Caius and Emmanuel Colleges at Cambridge, and with his early death, Jocosa made even more substantial endowments. With the death of her second husband, she founded a free school at Newport Ponds in Essex, and paid for four scholarships at Lincoln College at Oxford. She left estates in her will for the use of Brasenose College (1586).
Jocosa Frankland died at Aldermanbury, London, and she was interred in the Church of St Leonard, in Foster’s Lane. The fellows of Brasenose College erected a monument there to her memory, which was destroyed during the Great Fire (1666). Her portrait, engraved by Fittler, is preserved at Brasenose College, and another is preserved at Caius College, Cambridge.

Franklin, Ann – (1696 – 1763)
American printer
Franklin was the sister-in-law of Benjamin Franklin. She took over as manager of her husband’s printing business on Rhode Island after his death, in order to provide for her and their children. Her first printed work was, The Rhode Island Almanack for the year 1737. Mrs Franklin organized the printing of legal documents for the Rhode Island General Assembly, and later retired (1748), handing over the business to her son.

Franklin, Eleanor Anne – (1797 – 1825)
British poet
Eleanor Porden was the daughter of the architect, William Porden, and became the first wife (1823) of the noted Arctic explorer, John (later Sir John) Franklin (1786 – 1847). Her first collection of verse was published as The Veils, or the Triumph of Constancy, when she was eighteen (1815). Eleanor Franklin’s other works included, Coeur de Leion, an Epic poem in 16 cantos (1822), which was published in two volumes. She never recovered from the birth of her only daughter, and died (Feb 22, 1825), aged only twenty-seven, less than a week after her husband had embarked upon his second trek through North America.

Franklin, Gloria Friedman – (1930 – 1992)
American psychoanalyst
Gloria Friedman became the wife of fellow psychoanalyst Girard Franklin, to whom she bore three children. Gloria Franklin joined the faculty of the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry in New York where she was employed as a supervising analyst. She also worked as an analyst at the Institute of Psychotherapy and was the attending psychologist at Roosevelt Hospital. She was a lecturer in psychiatry at Columbia University and Dr Franklin later served as the president of the William Alanson White Psychoanalytic Society (1990 – 1992). She was a specialist in the difficult area concerning mother and daughter relationships. Gloria Friedman Franklin died (Feb 3, 1992) aged sixty-one, in Manhattan.

Franklin, Gretchen – (1911 – 2005)
British character actress
Franklin was born (July 7, 1911) in London to a theatrical family, the daughter of a vocalist and dancer, and the granddaughter of a music hall performer. She was related to actor Clive Dunn, famous as Corporal Jones in the popular television series, Dad’s Army. Gretchen received dance lessons from the Theatre Girls’ Club in Soho (1929) and made her debut in a pantomime chorus in Bournemouth. Franklin was not a beauty and soon established herself as a first-rate character actress, who specialized in comic roles. She worked in stage and films, appearing in the movie Before I Wake (1954) and also appeared in television dramas such as, Z Cars and, Dixon of Dock Street. In her later career she was best remembered in the role of the interfering busybody Ethel Skinner in the popular television series Eastenders (1985 – 1988), a role which made her famous internationally. Gretchen Franklin died (July 11, 2005) aged ninety-four.

Franklin, Henrietta – (1866 – 1964)
Anglo-Jewish feminist, educator and author
The Hon. (Honourable) Henrietta Samuel-Montagu was born (April 9, 1866) in London, the eldest daughter of Sir Montagu Samuel-Montagu (1832 – 1911), the first Baron Swaythling (1907 – 1911) and his wife Ellen Cohen, the daughter of Louis Cohen of the Stock Exchange. She was the sister of Louis Samuel Montagu (1869 – 1927), the second Baron Swaythling (1911 – 1927) and was married (1885) to Ernest Louis Franklin (died 1950), to whom she bore six children.
The Hon. Mrs Franklin was closely associated with the National Council of Women and served as president and vice-president of that organization. She was appointed as the secretary of the Parents’ National Educational Union (1890), and was the founder of the PENEU School for girls at Overstone in Northampton and the equivalent school for boys at Desmoor, near Dewhurst. She lectured on educational and social subjects throughout the world including the Europe, USA, Canada and South Africa, and founded the school of St Julian at Estoril in Portugal. She was appointed as delegate for Great Britain to the International Council of Women and published many articles and pamphlets. She was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1950) in recognition of her valuable contribution to education. The Hon. Mrs Franklin died (Jan 7, 1964) aged ninety-seven.

Franklin, Jane Griffin, Lady – (1792 – 1875)
British traveller and social reformer
Jane Griffin was born into an upper class family, the daughter of John Griffin, of Bedford Place. She accompanied her father on his various travels. A minor heiress, she did not marry until over the age of thirty-five, when she became the second wife (1828) of the noted explorer, Sir John Franklin (1786 – 1847). The marriage remained childless. Lady Franklin accompanied her husband on his various diplomatic postings, visiting Australia, where he was appointed governor-general of Tasmania, and countries throughout the Mediterranean.
When her husband disappeared during his last expedition (1845), Lady Franklin financed several expeditions in order to discover his fate. The last such expedition provided evidence that Sir John had died in 1847, and that his expedition had discovered the famous North-West Passage. To commemorate this event, the Royal Geographical Society conferred the Founder’s Medal upon Lady Franklin (1860). Lady Franklin died (July 18, 1875) aged eighty-three

Franklin, Miles – (1879 – 1954)
Australian writer
Born Stella Marian Sarah Franklin (Oct 14, 1879) at Talbino, neat Tumut, in New South Wales, the first decade of her life was spent on a farm with her siblings and parents in the bush of the Monaro district, later described in Childhood at Brindabella (1963). Financial considerations later forced the family to remove to a more modest farming district, which she fictionalized in My Brilliant Career (1901) as Possum Gully. This book was published with the assistance of Henry Lawson. The family later settled in Sydney, and Franklin worked as a nurse and a journalist, also becoming involved with the feminist movement. She immigrated to Chicago in the USA (1906) where she became the secretary to the Women’s Trade Union League and worked with fellow Australian suffragette Alice Henry.
Despite her own heartfelt abhorrence of the war, Franklin returned to England to serve in the war effort, and worked with the Scottish Women’s Hospital at Ostrovo, in Macedonia, Greece. She spent some time in London, but later returned permanently to Australia (1927), where her ‘Brent of Bin’Bin’ series of books published under the pseudonym of Miles Franklin, and beginning with, Up the Country (1928), engendered much speculation as to the identity of the author. However, her best work is considered to be those published under her own name, namely the early autobiographical novels, All That Swagger (1936), which won her the S.L. Prior Memorial Prize, My Career Goes Bung (1946), and the collection of essays concerning Australian literature entitled Laughter, Not for a Cage (1956). During her later years Franklin gave radio broadcasts and lectures for the Commonwealth Literary Fund. She supported the novelist and poet David Marshall (born 1915) and the New Zealand author and political activist Jean Devanny. Miles Franklin died (Sept 19, 1954) in Sydney aged seventy-four. The Miles Franklin Award for Australian literature was established in her honour.

Franklin, Rosalind Elsie – (1920 – 1958)
British biophysicist and x-ray crystallographer
Franklin was born (July 25, 1920) in London, and was educated at Cambridge University. She began early research into gas-phase chromatography, which led to further physical chemical research on the structure of coals and carbonized coals. Franklin travelled to Paris where she conducted further research using the techniques of X-ray diffusion to illuminate the study of carbons. Franklin joined the research staff at King’s College in London (1951), where she worked on the problems of viral structures, and was trying to develop models of carbon structure and was conducting reaearch in order to investigate changes under high temperatures. She now began to concentrate upon X-ray diffraction pictures of DNA. Her experiments revealed that the patterns of DNA crystallinity were compatible aith a helical structure, and she attempted to build up an overall picture of the structure using empirical means, whilst she simultaneously investigated various theoretical models, such as anti-parallel rods in pairs back to back. Her own research to find a satisfactory helical structure was preempted by the discovery of the ‘double helix’ solution by the molecular biologist Francis Crick  and the American James D. Watson (April, 1953). She had remained unmarried. Rosalind Franklin died of cancer (March 20, 1958) in London, aged only thirty-seven.

Franks, Lorraine Leavitt – (1917 – 1976)
America opera director
Franks was born in Kankakee, Illinois, and attended Sweetbriar College, graduating from the University of Wisconsin. She married a management consultant, and bore him two daughters. Lorraine was the founding director of the Guild of the Opera Company of Boston, acting as treasurer for the first decade, and was a member of the Council of Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. A director and trustee of the Hospital Aid Foundation (1973), Franks also served as trustee of the Newton-Wellesley Hospital, and a supporter and patron of the Episcopal Church of St Andrew in Boston.

Frann, Mary – (1943 – 1998)
American television actress
Frann was born in St Louis, Missouri, and was a child model. She attended Northwestern University and became involved in television. She appeared for several years on the popular NBC (National Broadcasting Company) soap opera Days of Our Lives and then appeared in the ABC (American Broadcasting Companies) series Kings Crossing (1982). However, she was best remembered for her performance as Joanna Loudon, the wife of comedian Bob Newhart in the popular CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) comedy series Newhart (1982 – 1986).
Mary frann became associated with the Los Angeles Mission in California, where she worked with women trapped in prostitution or dealing wth drug and alcohol problems, and galvanized the support of other actresses such as Diahann Carroll, Linda Gray and Donna Mills. Mary Frann died (Sept 23, 1998) aged fifty-five, in Los Angeles.

Frantz, Virginia Johnson – (1837 – 1890)
American poet and writer, she was born in Rankin County, Mississippi. She was married to A.J. Frantz, the editor of the Brandon Republican newspaper. Her verses and prose work were later published in Ina Greenwood: Or, Life Mysteries and Other Poems (1885). Virginia Frantz died (Feb 15, 1890) in Brandon.

Frantz, Virginia Kneeland – (1896 – 1967)
American surgical pathologist and medical educator
Virginia Kneeland was born (Nov 13, 1896) in New York into a wealthy family. She was married (1920) to Angus Macdonald Frantz, and bore him three children. Virginia Frantz trained at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University, and became the fist woman to be appointed to a surgical internship at the Presbyterian College, which was affiliated with College of Physicians and Surgeons (1922). She was author of the monograph, Armed Forces Atlas of Tumor Pathology (1959), which long remained a standard reference work in that field. Frantz served as president of the New York Pathology Society (1949) and the American Thyroid association (1961) and received the Elizabeth Blackwell Award from the New York Infirmary (1957) because of her services to medicine. Virginia Frantz died of cancer (Aug 23, 1967) in New York, aged seventy.

Franz, Ellen     see     Heldburg, Baroness von

Franz, Marie Louise von – (1915 – 1998)
Austrian Jungian psychologist
Baroness Marie Louise von Franz was born (Jan 14, 1915) in Munich, Bavaria. After WW I she was raised in Switzerland and she studied under Carl Jung in Zurich, becoming his most devoted advocate, firmly believing his theory that religion and fairy tales had an important place in the collective human consciousness, unlike Sigmund Freud who eschewed all religion as bunkum. She obtained a doctorate from the University of Zurich (1940) and with Jung’s death (1961) she did all she could to promote his theories and his memory, and published such works as An Introduction to the Psychology of Fairy Tales, Redemption Motifs, Shadow and Evil in Fairy Tales and Problems of the Feminine in Fairy Tales. She lectured widely throughout the USA and interpreted tens of thousands of dreams according to Junian psychology. Marie Louise von Franz died (Feb 17, 1998) aged eighty-three, at Kusnacht in Switzerland.

Franzblau, Rose – (1902 – 1979) 
American psychologist
Franzblau graduated from Hunter College (1926) and Columbia University (1931) and also studied abroad at Heidelberg University in Germany, and at the Sorbonne in Paris. During WW II, rose was the director of placement and training of overseas personnel for the Unites Nations Relief and Rahabilitation Administration, and was later named associate director of the International Tensions Research Project of UNESCO (1947). From 1951 – 1976 she wrote the daily question and answer column ‘Human Relations’ on such subjects as sex, marriage, parenthood and basic human interaction which was syndicated in newspapers such as The New York Post. She also worked in radio, and hosted ‘Dr Franzblau’s World of Children’ on WCBS Radio. Franzblau was also a patron of the Broadway theatre financing such films as Fiddler on the Roof, and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum. Rose wrote several works including A Sane and Happy Life: A Family Guide (1963), in conjunction with her husband, The Way It Is Under 20 (1964), and The Middle Generation (1971). Rose Franzblau died (Sept 2, 1979) in Manhattan, New York.

Franziska of Luxemburg (Francoise) – (c1513 – 1566)
Franco-German princess consort
Franziska was the daughter of Charles I of Luxemburg, Comte de Ligny (1488 – 1530), the governor of Paris under Francois I (1515 – 1547). Her mother was Charlotte d’Estouteville, the daughter of Jacques d’Estouteville, Baron d’Yvoy. Franziska was married firstly (1535) to Bernard IV, margrave of Baden (1474 – 1536), to whom she bore two sons before his early death, her younger being born posthumously. They were,

Franziska was later remarried for dynastic purposes, becoming the wife (1543) of Adolf IV, Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein (1518 – 1556), several years her junior. She survived him a decade as Dowager Countess of Nassau-Idstein (1556 – 1566) and died (June 17, 1566), aged in her early fifties. Apart from one daughter who died in early infancy, Franziska left two daughters from her second marriage,

Franziska Sibylla Augusta – (1675 – 1737)
German princess, art collector and architectural patron
Princess Franziska Sibylla was born at Ratzeburg, the younger daughter of Julius Franz, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and his wife Hedwig, the daughter of Christian August, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, and was raised at the family castle of Schlackenwerth. Franziska and her elder sister Anna Maria Francesca (1672 – 1741), later the wife of Gian Gastone de Medici, Grand duke of Tuscany, were co-heiresses to the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg. The Salic Law prevented either of them being duchess-regent at their father’s death (1689), but his extensive possessions were divided between them.
Franziska was married (1690) to Ludwig Wilhelm (1655 – 1707), Margrave of Baden-Baden, a commander in the Imperial service. Six of her children died in infancy, but two sons Ludwig George Simpert, and August George Simpert, and a daughter Augusta, survived. Augusta became the wife (1724) of Louis I, Duc d’Orleans. With her husband’s death the margravine ruled the small state (1707 – 1720) as regent for her young son Ludwig George Simpert, with her court at Durlach. She vainly attempted to arrange the advantageous marriage of her eldest son with the rich Polish princess Maria Clementina Sobieska at Innsbruck (1719). During her period in power she organized the completion of the castle and town of Rastatt. This work was executed by the architect Johann Rohrer and his brother, and took twenty years. Rohrer built the small Bohemian Baroque palace of Favorite, near Rastatt for the margravine, in which she housed her large collection of paintings, including works by Lucas Cranach the elder, Hans Baldung, and Lorenzo de Credi. The margravine died (July 10, 1733) at Ettlingen.

Fraser, Agnes – (1877 – 1968)
Scottish minor actress
Born Agnes Fraser Elder Fraser-Smith (Nov 8, 1877) in Springfield, Scotland, she was elder sister to the famous actor Alec Fraser (1884 – 1956). Her career in films was brief and pre WW II, playing a stenographer in Meet the Boyfriend (1937), and a society matron in the classic movie The Women (1939), with Norma Shearer and Joan Crawford. Agnes Fraser died (July 22, 1968) in London, aged ninety.

Fraser, Augusta Zelie – (c1861 – 1925)
British writer
Augusta Webb was born in Scotland, the daughter of William Webb, and spent several years travelling abroad, before she became the wife (1889) of Affleck Fraser, of Reelig, Inverness-shire, to whom she bore three children. Mrs Fraser accompanied her husband to Jamaica, when he took up a government appointment there (1892), and became interested in the folk-tales of the local West Indians. A friend suggested she write them down, and this resulted in such works as A Study in Colour, A Reluctant Evangelist, and Livingstone and Newstead (1918). She sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Alice Spinner.’ Augusta Fraser died (Dec, 1925) at Newstead Abbey, Nottingham.

Fraser, Bessie – (fl. 1887 – 1915)
Scottish-Australian vocalist
Born in Glasgow, she immigrated to Melbourne, Victoria as a child with her parents. She received considerable singing training under Julius Herz. She later went to Dundedin in New Zealand, where she established herself as a popular singer of Scottish ballads. Upon her return to Sydney, Bessie became a performer with the Highland Society.

Fraser, Eliza – (1798 – 1858)
Australian colonial captive and memoirist
Eliza was the wife of James Fraser, a sea captain. With her husband and three children, she was saved from the wreck of the Stirling Castle (1837), on Sandy Bay (modern Fraser Island). They were kept captive by the native aborigines, who killed Captain Fraser, and brutally murdered several other males in the party. Eliza was kept as a servant and nursemaid by the aboriginal women, before they were rescued by a search party from Moreton Bay, led by John Graham. Left with almost no finances, Eliza wrote a narrative account of her experiences, somewhat exaggerated for the sake of sales entitled Narrative of the capture, Sufferrings and Miraculous Escape of Mrs Eliza Fraser (1837). Two decades later she was killed in a carriage accident. She was portrayed on the screen by British actress Susannah York in the film Eliza Fraser (1976).

Fraser, Elisabeth – (1920 – 2005)
American film and television actress
Born Elisabeth Fraser Jonker (Jan 8, 1920) in Brooklyn, New York, she began acting immediately upon leaving secondary school appearing in the Broadway production of There Shall Be No Night. She then gained a contract with Warner Brothers Studios, adopting her middle name as her professional surname, and appeared in such films as The Man Who Came to Dinner (1941) with Bette Davis. Famous for her brassy blonde roles Fraser also appeared in films with stars such as Frank Sinatra and Burt Lancaster.
Fraser appeared in The Tunnel of Love (1958) but was best known for her role in the film A Patch of Blue (1965) with Shelley Winters. However, she was best remembered as the girlfriend of Sergeant Bilko in the popular 1950’s television series The Phil Silvers Show. Elisabeth Fraser died (May 5, 2005) aged eighty-five, at Woodland Hills in California.

Fraser, Juliette May – (1887 – 1983)
Hawaiian mural painter and illustrator
Fraser worked as an art teacher in Hawaiian schools before graduating in art at Wellesley College (1915). With three other artists, Juliette was commissioned (1934) by the Federal Works Project Administration, to produce the mural housed in the Hawaiian State Library. Juliette later produced the Hawaiian Pavilion at the 1938 World’s Fair in San Francisco, California. During World War II Juliette served the war effort, becoming attached to the camouflage department of the American military. This experience led her to later fresco work depicting The Konane Players (1949). The most common theme in her work was the use of Hawaiian legends and folk-lore, which she utilized to great effect when she was commissioned to produce a mural for the Board of Water Supply (1954).  In 1967 she was chosen to paint the mural for the Ipapandi Chapel, a gift from the people of Hawaii to the people of Greece, who further accoladed her work by naming a street in Athens in her honour. She was the author and illustrator of Ke Anvenue (1952).

Fraser, Marjory Kennedy     see   Kennedy-Fraser, Marjorie

Fraser, Mary – (1851 – 1922)
British traveller and author
Born Mary Crawford in Rome, Italy, the daughter of the noted sculptor, Thomas Crawford, and was sister to Marion Crawford. She was educated at Bonchurch and in Rome, and was married to the diplomat Hugh Fraser, the royal minister to the Imperial court of Japan. Mrs Fraser accompanied her husband on his diplomatic postings, visiting much of Asia, Europe and the USA. Her published works included A Diplomatist’s Wife in Japan (1899), The Customs of the Country, or, Tales of New Japan (1899), A Diplomatist’s Wife in Many Lands (1911), Further Reminiscences of a Diplomatist’s wife (1912), and Seven Years on the Pacific Slope (1915). Mary Fraser died (June 7, 1922).

Fraser, Roslin – (1927 – 1997)
Scottish nurse and official
Roslin was born (May 21, 1927) and attended the Dingwall Academy before studying science at Edinburgh University. Her career was interrupted by her marriage to Ian Fraser and the births of her five children. To augment the family income Mrs Fraser wrote articles for the People’s Friend. Her husband had been a medical consultant at Prudhoe in Northumberland and as a widow Roslin trained as a nurse for the mentally handicapped (1967), and became the first such nurse to be elected as the deputy president of the Royal College of Nursing, a position she held twice. She also served as a Mental Health act commissioner and was a chairwoman of the National Alliance of Women’s Organizations (1996). Roslin Fraser died (Dec 8, 1997) aged seventy.

Fraser-Tytler, Christian Helen – (1897 – 1995) 
British Senior ATS Controller
Christian Shairp was the daughter of John Campbell Shairp. Educated at home, she was employed in the British Foreign Office (1917 – 1919). She retired at the time of her marriage with Col. Neil Fraser-Tytler (1889 – 1937) of Aldourie Castle, Inverness, who had been awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French government, and to whom she bore two daughters. With the outbreak of WW II Christian returned to work and from 1939 – 1943 was actively employed by the War Office. From 1943 – 1945 she worked at the Anti-Aircraft Division (A.A.). Her war service was recognized with a military CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1941). Christian was also the Senior Controller of the Auxiliary Territorial Service (A.T.S.) during the war, and this also was recognized when she was awarded the Territorial Efficiency Decoration (T.D.). Christian Fraser-Tytler died at the age of ninety-seven, having survived her husband by almost sixty years.

Frasi, Giulia – (fl. 1742 – 1772)
Italian opera vocalist
Her brother Giovanni Frasi (John) (1729 – 1795), was a well known embroiderer in London. Her original instructor was Brivio. Giulia came to England as a young girl (1742) and later joined the cast at King’s Theatre in Haymarket, where she performed many works by George Frederic Handel. For many years she graciously gave public performances for the benefit of destitute performers, and was still living three decades afterwards, when she was mentioned in the Gentleman’s Magazine (1772).

Frassinetti, Paula – (1809 – 1882)
Spanish nun and founder
Frassinetti was born into a poor family, and was raised in Quinto. Paula began her career teaching children, and later founded the Order of the Sisters of St Dorothy, which devoted themselves to the education of young children. Schools of this order were established in Portugal and Brazil. She was later beatified.

Frasso, Dorothy di – (1888 – 1954)
American socialite
Dorothy Chadwell Taylor was married firstly (1912) to Claude Grahame-White from whom she was divorced (1916). Her second husband (1923) was the Italian nobleman Conte Carlo Dentice di Frasso. She had been variously the mistress of the actor Gary Cooper, of the mobster Bugsy Siegel and of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Her liaison with Mussolini resulted in the countess being placed under surveillance by the American FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Her soirees were attended by many from the world of stage and screen such as Tallulah Bankhead and Helen Hayes, and the countess, ‘Dottie’ to her friends, entertained Bette Davis in Acapulco, Mexico

Fratellini, Annie – (1932 – 1997)
French clown and stage performer
Fratellini was born into a circus family, but began her career on stage as a cabaret singer. She only turned to the work of clowning after her marriage (1960) to stage performer Pierre Etaix, who recognized her unique and innate talent in this area. Fratellini overcame the prejudice that entrenched prejudice that women could not endure the humiliation of working as a comic performer, and worked for decades with the famous Big Apple Circus. She later founded a college, the National Circus School, for the education of circus performers. She appeared in the film Zazie Dans le Metro (1961), which was produced by Louis Malle. Annie Fratellini died (July 1, 1997) in Paris of cancer, aged sixty-four.

Fratellini, Giovanna – (1666 – 1731) 
Italian painter
Born Giovanna Marmocchini-Cortese in Florence, she was raised and educated in the household of the Grand duchess of Tuscany, Vittoria della Rovere. Instructed in the art of miniature painting by Galantini, Giovanna became an accomplished portraitist, and executed commissions. These works were done in miniature in oils, enamels and pastels, and were of members of the Medici family, including Grand duke Cosimo III, and his sister-in-law, Violante Beatrice of Bavaria. Her own self-portrait survives in the Uffizzi Gallery in Florence. Devoted to her son she never recovered from her grief at his death.

Fratria – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Fratria was killed in the arena in Cordova, Lusitania (Spain), during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Revered as a saint, her feast (June 27) was recorded in the Martyrology of St Jerome, and in the Acta Sanctorum.

Frazee, Jane – (1918 – 1985)
American film actress and vocalist
Born Mary Jane Frehse, she became a leading lady of secondary musicals during the 1940’s. Her movie credits included Moonlight in Havana (1942), Kansas City Kitty (1945), and Rhythmn Inn (1951). Frazee later appeared in the televsion series Beulah (1952).

Frazier, Brenda Diana Duff – (1921 – 1982)
American socialite and author, she was the daughter of Frank Duff Frazier, and his British wife, Brenda Taylor, the daughter of Sir Frederick Williams-Taylor, the banker. She made her society debut at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in New York (1938) and was married several times, last husband being the sales executive Robert Chatfield-Taylor (died 1980). She left a scathing memoir of high-society which was published in Life magazine (1963). Brenda Frazier died (May 3, 1982) in Boston, Massachusetts, aged sixty.

Frazier, Maude – (1881 – 1963)
American educator and state legislator
Frazier was born (April 4, 1881) near Baraboo in Wisconsin, the daughter of a Quaker farmer. She was trained as a school teacher, and worked as such in mnay small towns in Nevada, before being appointed as deputy state superintendant of education (1921 – 1946). Frazier was successful in her application to join the Nevada state legislature as a member of the Democratic Party (1950). She was appointed as chairman of the education committee, a post she retained for six terms. Her most important contribution to the state was in reducing the number of school districts from over two hundred to only seventeen (1955), and she established the Nevada Southern University. She was chosen to serve as lieutenant governor of the state (1962), the first woman ever to hold that office. Maude Frazier died unmarried (June 20, 1963) aged eighty-two, in Las Vegas.

Frece, Lady de      see     Tillay, Vesta

Fredeburga of Vienne – (c948 – after 1012)
French heiress
Fredeburga of Vienne was the daughter of Richard, Count of Vienne, himself the son of Charles Constantine, Count of Vienne, and his wife Theutberga of Troyes. Her grandfather was the son of the emperor Louis III the Blind (900 – 905), and his first wife, Adelaide of Burgundy. Fredeburga was married (c965) to Guigues IV, count of Albon and sire de Vion (died 996), to whom she brought considerable lands west of the Rhone as her dowry. Because of her close kinship with Rudolf III, king of Burgundy, the countess managed to obtain for her children, the concession of valuable lands situated between the valley of Valloure, and the village of Cusin. Fredeburga survived her husband as Dowager Countess of Albon and was living in 1012. Her children were,

  1. Guigues V of Albon (c970 – 1009). He succeeded as Count of Albon and sire de Vion. He was married and left descendants.
  1. Humbert of Albon (c980 – c1025). He became a monk and made Bishop of Grenoble.
  1. Richard of Albon (living 996).
  1. An unnamed daughter. She became the mother of Mallenus (died c1036), Bishop of Grenoble.

Fredegonde – (545 – 597) 
Merovingian queen
Fredegonde was the daughter of a minor nobleman, count Vaubert of Cambrai. She came to court to serve Queen Audovera, the first wife of Chilperic I, King of Neustria (539 – 584).

After arranging her mistress’s dismissal to a convent (566), Fredegonde, who was probably already the king’s mistress, arranged for the murder of his second wife Queen Galswintha (568), whereupon Chilperic married Fredegonde and accorded her the rank of queen. Her marriage caused the emergence of a relentless and bloody feud with Chilperic’s sister-in-law Brunhilda, the wife of his brother Sigebert I, who was the sister to the murdered Galswintha.

This quarrel only intensified the rivalry which had already existed between the kingdoms of Neustria and Austrasia. Eventually, Fredegonde succeeded in having Sigebert murdered by slaves whom she supplied with poison daggers (575), and managed the removal of her stepsons, to clear the path for her own son Clotaire. Chilperic himself was assassinated (584), probably with her privity, though she accused his own chamberlain, Eberulf of the crime. Fredegonde fled to the Paris cathedral with her son Clotaire II (569 – 629) for whom she now ruled as regent, under the protection of Chilperic’s surviving brother, King Guntram of Burgundy. When Bishop Praetextatus of Rouen preached against the iniquities of her court, Fredegonde had him assassinated in his own cathedral whilst at prayer on Easter morning (586). However, with Guntram’s death (593), sigebert’s son Childebert II attempted unsuccessfully to gain control of the Neustrian kingdom.

Fredegonde continued her vendetta against Brunhilda, masterminding the Neustrian victory at Truccia (593), even after the death of the latter’s son (595), and eventually decisively defeated her in battle at Laon (596). Despite her crimes, Queen Fredegonde died peacefully in her bed, and was interred with Chilperic in the Church of St Vincent, in Paris. Two poems addressed to Fredegonde and Chilperic, written by the poet Venantius Fortunatus to console them for the deaths of several of their infant sons, are preserved in his Carmina.

Frederica of Hesse-Kassel – (1768 – 1839)
German princess
Born Marie Frederica at Hanau (Sept 14, 1768) into the ruling family of Hesse-Kassel, she was the elder daughter of Wilhelm I, elector of Hesse-Kassel (1803 – 1821), and his wife Princess Caroline, the daughter of Frederik V, king of Denmark (1746 – 1766). Frederica became the wife (1794) at Kassel, of the reigning prince, Duke Alexis of Anhalt-Bernburg (1767 – 1834) and was duchess consort of that principality (1806 – 1817) until she and Alexis were divorced, despite the fact that she had borne several children. She never remarried and returned to the Hessian court. She was the mother of Alexander Karl (1805 – 1863), who succeeded his father as Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg (1834 – 1863). He was married to Frederica of Holstein-Glucksburg (1811 – 1902) but their marriage remained childless, and he was the last ruling prince of that family. Her daughter Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1799 – 1882) became the wife of Prince Friedrich of Prussia. Princess Frederica died (April 17, 1839) aged seventy, at Hanau.

Frederica of Neuenstadt – (1699 – 1781)
German princess
Frederica was the sixth daughter of Duke Frederick August of Wurttemburg-Neuenstadt (1654 – 1716) and his wife Countess Sophia Esther von Eberstein, daughter of Count Casimir von Eberstein. She never married and served a decade as Protestant abbess of Wallo in Denmark (1738 – 1748). Princess Frederica died aged eighty-one (May 8, 1781).

Frederica of Saxe-Gotha – (1715 – 1775)
German princess and duchess consort
Princess Frederica of Saxe-Gotha was born (July 17, 1715) the elder surviving daughter of Friedrich II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1691 – 1732) and his wife Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst, the daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1667 – 1718). Her elder brother was Duke Friedrich III of Saxe-Gotha (1732 – 1772) whilst her younger sister Augusta became the wife of Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of George Ii, King of Great Britain (1727 – 1760). Thus Frederica was the maternal aunt of King George III (1760 – 1820).
Princess Frederica became the second wife (1734) of Duke Johann Adolf of Saxe-Weissenfels (1685 – 1746). When he succeeded his brother Christian I (1712 – 1736) as the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederica became his duchess consort for a decade (1736 – 1746). Frederica survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (1746 – 1775). Duchess Frederica died (May 12, 1775) aged fifty-nine. Her five children were,

Frederica Amalia of Denmark – (1649 – 1704)
Duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp (1667 – 1695)
Princess Frederica Amalia was born (April 11, 1649), the second daughter of Frederik III, King of Denmark (1648 – 1670), and his wife Sophia Amalia, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg. She was the younger sister to King Christian V (1670 – 1699). Frederica Amalia was married (1667) to Christian Albert (1641 – 1695), Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, whom she survived as Dowager Duchess (1695 – 1704). During her widowhood, the duchess administrated the castle and estates of Kiel, and possessed some some not inconsiderable political influence during the reign of her son. As a widow she travelled to Sweden where she visited the court of her sister, Queen Ulrica Eleanora. She died (Oct 30, 1704) aged fifty-five. Through her eldest son Frederik the duchess was the great-great grandmother of the Russian tsar, Paul I (1796 – 1801), and was ancestress of the Romanov dynasty. She left four children,

Frederica Charlotte Antoinette – (1738 – 1785)
German princess
Born the Burgravine Friederike von Dohna-Schlodien-Leistenau (July 3, 1738) at Konigsberg in Prussia, the daughter of the Burgrave Albert Christopher von Dohna-Schlodien (1698 – 1752) and his wife Princess Sophia Henrietta of Holstein-Beck (1698 – 1768), the daughter of Ludwig Friedrich (1654 – 1728), Duke of Holstein-Beck. Through her mother Frederica was the descendant of the kings of Denmark.
Frederica was married firstly (1754) at Konigsberg to Hereditary Prince Karl Anton of Holstein-Beck (1727 – 1759) the eldest son and heir of Duke Peter Augustus of Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, and became the Hereditary Princess of Holstein-Beck (1754 – 1759). Karl Anton was killed at the battle of Kunnersdorff (Sept 12, 1759) leaving Frederica with an only child Prince Friedrich Karl (1757 – 1816) who succeeded as the reigning Duke of Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and left many descendants including Christian IX, King of Denmark (1863 – 1906) and his many descendants including the descendants of Edward VII of Great Britain (1901 – 1910) and the Romanov descendants of Tsar Alexander III (1881 – 1894).
Frederica remained the Dowager Hereditary Princess of Holstein-Beck for over three decades (1759 – 1785). When she had been a widow for almost twenty years Princess Frederica was remarried a second time (1777) to Count Friedrich Detlev von Moltke. Princess Frederica died (April 21, 1785) aged forty-six, at Walde.

Frederica Charlotte Marie of Wurttemburg    see   Elena Petrovna

Frederica Charlotte Ulrica Catherine – (1767 – 1820)
Duchess of York (1791 – 1820)
Princess Frederica was born (May 17, 1767) in Potsdam, the only child of King Frederick William II (1786 – 1797) and his first wife Elizabeth Christina, the daughter of Karl I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. She was married at Charlottenburg in Berlin (1791) to Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1763 – 1827), the second son of George III. The couple remained childless. After a decade or so, the duchess became unofficially seperated from her husband and retired to her country estate at Oatlands Park in Weybridge, Surrey, where her husband occasionally visited her. When one of his mistresses once went into the local church to observe the duchess at her prayers, Frederica expressed her severe displeasure in a letter to the prime minister. Famous as an insomniac, she duchess spent most evening in a little grotto built in the grounds of her house, and was protected by a large group of stray dogs that she had saved and then adopted. The duchess died at Oatlands, aged fifty-three (Aug 6, 1820) and was interred in Weybridge Church. The local villages, who had been the chief beneficiaries of the duchess’s philanthropy, erected a monument to her memory at Weybridge.

Frederica Dorothea Wilhelmina – (1781 – 1826)
Queen consort of Sweden (1797 – 1807)
Frederica was born (March 21, 1781) the daughter of Karl Ludwig, hereditary margrave of Baden, and his wife Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was married at sixteen (1797) to Gustavus IV Adolf (1778 – 1837), king of Sweden (1792 – 1809), to whom she bore five children. Frederica was later crowned queen at Norrkoping (1800). A popular figure with the Swedish people, the towns of Fredrika (1799), Dorotea (1799), and Vilhelmina (1804) in Laponia, were all named for her. Gustav Adolf was deposed and removed from power during a palace coup d’etat (1807), organized by those fearful of his increasingly eccentric behaviour. He was taken to Gripsholm Castle, despite the pleas of Queen Frederica, who was later allowed to join him there. Charles XII Bernadotte was proclaimed king, and the former king, queen and their children were permitted to leave the country and resided in Germany, where they adopted the titles of count and countess of Gottorp. The couple were later divorced (1812) and Queen Frederica retired with her children to live with her family in Baden. Queen Frederica died (Sept 25, 1826), aged forty-five. Her great-granddaughter, Victoria of Baden (1862 – 1930) became the wife of Gustavus V, King of Sweden, and this marriage reunited the royal House of Bernadotte with the previous ancient Vasa dynasty. Her children were,

Frederica Dorothea Sophia – (1736 – 1798)
German duchess consort of Wurttemburg (1795 – 1797)
Margravine Frederica of Schwendt was born (Dec 18, 1736) at Schwendt, the eldest of the three daughters of Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg, Margrave of Schwendt (1711 – 1771) and his wife Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia, the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1713 – 1740) and sister of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786). Frederica was married (1753) at Schwendt to Friedrich Eugene of Wurttemburg (1732 – 1797) Prince de Montbeliard. She was known as the Princesse de Montbeliard until her husband succeeded as the reigning Duke Friedrich II Eugene of Wurttemburg (1795) and Frederica became the duchess consort (1795 – 1797).
The marriage proved to be an extraordinarily happy one and Frederica de Montbeliard bore her husband twelve children of whom Friedrich I became the first King of Wurttemburg (1805 – 1816) his second wife and queen being the Princess Royal Charlotte Augusta Matilda of Great Britain, the eldest daughter of George III. Most important of her daughters was Princess Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemburg who became the empress of Russia as Marie Feodorovna, the second wife of Tsar Paul I (1796 – 1801) and mother of Tsars Alexander I (1801 – 1825) and Nicholas I (1825 – 1855).
A graceful and accomplished woman, many familiar notices of the princesse and her children and family members, in particular her daughter Sophia Dorothea are found in the Memoires of Madame d’Oberkirche, who attended her daughter’s court for the first time in 1769, but forever remained a close friend of the future tsarina. Frederica survived her husband for barely three months as the Dowager Duchess of Wurttemburg (1797 – 1798). Duchess Frederica died (March 9, 1798) aged sixty-one, at Stuttgart. Her children were,

Frederica Elisabeth of Bayreuth – (1732 – 1780)
German duchess consort of Wurttemburg
Princess Frederica Elisabeth was born (Aug 20, 1732) the daughter of Heinrich of Brandenburg, Margrave of Bayreuth and his first wife Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of King Friedrich Wilhelm I (1713 – 1740) and sister of Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786). She was raised at Castle Ermitage near Bayreuth, and spent much time in the company of her future husband and his brothers, who were being educated in Berlin. She was betrothed (1744) to Duke Karl Eugene of Wurttemburg (1728 – 1793) the union being a childhood love match. The marriage took place at Bayreuth (1748) and Frederica Elisabeth became the Duchess of Wurttemburg. Endowed with wit and intelligence, and carefully educated, the adventurer Giacomo Casanova called the duchess ‘one of the most accomplished princesses in Germany.’ Their only child Princess Augusta Louisa Charlotte of Wurttemburg (1750 – 1751) died in infancy.
The duchess was a patron of the arts and Duke Karl Eugene opened the Stuttgart Opera House in her honour. She established a court theatre at Stuttgart where she herself performed in several productions of Voltaire and Lamothe, and arranged for a troupe of French actors to be quartered at Stuttgart. Her husband’s involvement in several amours, combined with the influence of her mother-in-law, the Dowager Duchess Maria Augusta, caused the ducal marriage to break down. Casanova’s Memoires also indicate that the duchess may have interfered in the government. The couple travelled to Italy together (1753) in a bid to solve their differences. They visited Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice but the duke’s infidelities continued, and with their return to Germany, Duchess Frederica Elisabeth separated from Karl Eugene and retired to the court of her parents in Bayreuth (1754).
All efforts made by Karl Eugene and their respective families to bring about a reconciliation failed. The duke granted her Neustadt Castle with four thousand florins annually for her maintenance. With the death of her mother Wilhelmina (1758) Margrave Heinrich granted his daughter the castle of Fantaisie, to which she made structural changes. At Fantaisie the duchess lived a retired life devoted to literature and the theatre. Maubert wrote of her ‘philosophising more from reason than by inclination, showing herself capable of rising above her misfortune by her feelings, as she had risen above the malice of courtiers by her behaviour.’ She made several visits to the court of her uncle Friedrich the Great in Berlin and also visited Voltaire at Verney. Ill-health saddened the duchess’s later years, and aggravated the eccentricity of her character. Duchess Frederica Elisabeth died (Sept 26, 1780) aged forty-eight. Madame d’Oberkirche observed that ‘she was not regretted; she was a strange person, who was able to make neither the Duke nor her own familiars happy.’

Frederica Elisabeth of Saxe-Eisenach – (1669 – 1730)
German duchess consort
Princess Frederica Elisabeth of Saxe-Eisenach was born (May 5, 1669), the younger daughter of Johann George, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (1662 – 1686) and his wife Countess Johanetta von Sayn-Wittgenstein, the daughter of Count Ernst von Sayn-Wittgenstein. She was the sister of Duke Johann George of Saxe-Weimar (1686 – 1698) and was the maternal aunt of Caroline of Ansbach, the wife of George II, King of Great Britain (1727 – 1760). Frederica Elisabeth was married (1698) to Johann George (1677 – 1712), the reigining Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (1687 – 1712), who was eight years her junior. Frederica Elisabeth became duchess consort of Saxe-Weissenfels (1698 – 1712) and survived her husband for almost two decades as the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels (1712 – 173). Duchess Frederica Elisabeth died (Dec 12, 1730) aged sixty-one. Only one of her seven children survived to adulthood,

Frederica Louisa of Prussia – (1714 – 1784)
German princess
Frederica Louisa was born (Sept 28, 1714) in Berlin, the second daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1713 – 1740) and his wife Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, the daughter of Ernst Augustus, elector of Hanover (1692 – 1698) and sister of George I, King of Great Britain (1714 – 1727). Possessed of a beautiful and fearless, but of a distinctly capricious and unpleasant nature, her marriage (1729) in Berlin to Karl of Brandenburg (1712 – 1757) the reigning Margrave of Ansbach (1723 – 1757) was not congenial. Despite this the Margravine managed to bear her husband two sons including the future Margrave Karl Alexander I (1736 – 1806).
Observances of Margravine Frederica’s unhappy married life can be found in the Memoires of her elder sister Wilhelmina, the Margravine of Bayreuth, and in her surviving letters to her brother Friedrich II the Great, with who she remained on at least cordial terms. Her marital enmity ended only with her husband’s death, after a mutually embittered union of nearly thirty years. Frederica Louisa survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Margravine of Ansbach (1757 – 1784). Frederica Louisa died (Feb 4, 1784) aged sixty-nine, at Schwaningen. Her son was married twice, firstly to Princess Frederica Caroline of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1735 – 1791), and secondly and morganatically (1791) to Lady Elizabeth Berkeley (1750 – 1828), the widow of William, Lord Craven, but left no issue from either marriage.

Frederica Louisa of Saxe-Gotha – (1741 – 1776)
German princess
Princess Frederica Louisa was born (Jan 30, 1741) the elder daughter of Duke Frederick III and his wife Louisa Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen, the daughter of Ernest Louis I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. An intelligent and well educated girl, with a taste for philosophy inherited from her cultured mother, Princess Frederica was one of the princesses considered as a possible bride for her cousin George III of England (1760), the son of her father’s sister Augusta, Princess of Wales. The marriage never evntuated because the king’s adamant refusal to consider marriage with a woman whose intellectual interests would lead to her possible involvement in court politics, and also because Frederica had a slight deformity, which led to doubts concerning her ability to bear healthy children. She remained unmarried. Princess Frederica died (Feb 5, 1776) aged thirty-five.

Frederica Louisa Caroline Sophia Alexandrina – (1778 – 1841)
Queen consort of Hanover (1837 – 1841)
Princess Frederica was born (May 2, 1778) at Hanover in the Rhineland, the fourth daughter of Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and his first wife, Frederica Caroline Louise, the daughter of George William, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. A noted beauty, Frederica was married firstly (1793) to Prince Louis of Prussia (1773 – 1796), a younger son to King Frederick William II (1786 – 1797), to whom she bore two sons and a daughter before being divorced for adultery shortly before his death. Frederica then remarried (1798) to her former paramour, Prince Frederick William von Solms-Braunsfelds (1770 – 1814), to whom she bore six children,

The second marriage proved unhappy, and Princess Frederica was accused by popular gossip of being involved with the death of her second husband. She returned to her father’s household in Neustrelitz, where she met her notorious British first cousin, Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1771 – 1851), the son of George III and of her paternal aunt, Queen Charlotte, nee princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Despite the strong disapproval of Queen Charlotte, who refused to receive her niece at her court, because of her former divorce and the gossip surrounding the death of the Prince von Solms-Braunsfelds, the couple married in Germany (1815), the ceremony being repeated at Carlton House in London after their arrival in England. After the birth of two stillborn daughters, Duchess Frederica produced the only surviving child of this marriage, the future King George V of Hanover (1819 – 1878), who was later deposed by the Prussians (1866).
With the death of William IV of England (June, 1837), Ernest Augustus succeeded as king of Hanover, instead of Queen Victoria due to the existence of the Salic Law which prevented the accession of a female to the throne. The queen was popular with the Hanoverian people, and devotedly loved by her husband. Queen Frederica died in Hanover, aged sixty-three (June 29, 1841). Her tomb in the chapel of Herrenhausen Castle was destroyed during Allied bombing in WW II.

Frederica Louisa Thyra Victoria Margaret Sophia Olga Cecilia Isabella Christa – (1917 – 1981) 
Queen consort of Greece (1947 – 1964)
Princess Frederica was born at Blankenburg, in the Harz Mountains, the daughter of Ernest Augustus of Hanover, Duke of Brunwswick-Luneburg, and his wife Princess Victoria Louise, only daughter of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Raised with her family at Hubertihous Castle in Austria, she spent several years in England attending boarding school, before attending the Agricultural School at Obernkirchen, near Hanover. Frederica married Prince Pavlos (Paul) of the Hellenes, heir to the throne of Greece (1938), and eventually converted to the Gree Orthodox faith (1946). With the outbreak of World War II, Frederica organized hospitals and the distribution of clothing and supplies for the troops in Athens. With the Nazi advance, the family were forced to flee to Egypt (1941), being evacuated from Crete by plane, before managing to reach safety in England. She was able to return to Greece after the liberation (1946) and then Paul succeeded on the death of his childless brother Giorgios II (1947).
Queen Frederica founded the Northern Provinces Welfare Fund (1947) popularly known in Greeece as the ‘Vasiliki Pronoia’ (royal welfare fund) in order to help those provinces of Greece most devastated by the war. The queen also founded the ‘Paidoupolo,’ (Children’s Committee) in order to provide for orphaned and destitute children, establishing over fifty such groups throughout the country. She also worked for the release of nearly 30, 000 Greek children then held in Communist prison camps.
In 1963 the queen received an honorary degree and doctorate of law from Colombia University in the USA. With her husband’s death (March 6, 1964), Queen Frederica remained resident in Athens, but with the fall of the monarchy (1967) she was forced to leave the country with the rest f the royal family, and she retired to live in Rome. She refused the mean allowance offerred her by the Greek government, and when her son finally gave up hope of regaining the Greek throne (1974), the queen mother became involved with mysticism.  She resided in India for some years prior to her death, living as a religious recluse under the guidance of a guru. Queen Frederica was the mother of King Konstantinos II (born 1940), whilst her daughter Sophia (born 1938) married Juan Carlos I, King of Spain. She left memoirs Measure of Understanding (1971). Queen Frederica died in Madrid (Feb 6, 1981).

Frederica Louisa Wilhelmina – (1770 – 1819)
German princess consort
Princess Frederica Louisa of Orange was born (Nov 28, 1770), the only daughter of Wilhelm V Batavus, Prince of Orange (1751 – 1806) and his wife Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia. She was niece to King Friedrich II the Great (1740 – 1786) and sister to Friedrich Wilhelm II (1786 – 1797). Frederica Louisa was married (1790) to the Hereditary Prince Karl George (1766 – 1806) of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, eldest son and heir of Duke Karl II Ferdinand (1780 – 1806) and his wife Augusta Charlotte of England, the elder sister of King George III of Great Britain (1760 – 1820).
Frederica Louisa then became the Hereditary Princess consort (1790 – 1806) but the marriage produced no children. Her husband was killed in battle with his father and Fredrica Louisa became the Dowager Hereditary Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1806 – 1819). The princess died (Oct 15, 1819) aged forty-eight.

Frederica Sophia Marie Henrietta Amelia Theresa – (1848 – 1926)
Princess of Hanover
Frederica was born there (Jan 9, 1848) in Hanover, the elder daughter of King George V (1851 – 1866) and his wife Mary of Saxe-Altenburg, daughter of Duke Joseph. When the royal family was deposed by the Prussians (1866), they resided in Paris, France. Frederica was briefly considered by Queen Victoria as a bride for her second son Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh (1864), who seemed attracted by her, but she did nit encourage the affair, as the princess had little prospects, and he was married to the Romanov grand duchess Maria Alexandrovna, instead. After the takeover of Hanover by the Prussians, Frederica and her parents reached safety in Paris, and were received there by Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenie (1866 – 1868), prior to making their permanent home in England. With her father’s death (1878), Queen Victoria invited Frederica to reside in England. Known affectionately by her British relatives as ‘poor Cousin Lily of Hanover,’ she was granted an apartment at Hampton Court Palace by Queen Victoria.
Frederica was eventually married at St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle (1880) to the German Baron Alphonse von Pawel-Rammingen (1843 – 1932), her father’s former equerry. Their only daughter Victoria died in infancy (1881). Princess Frederica later received a share of the financial reperation granted to her family by the Prussian government (1892). She resided annually at Biarritz in France, and it was at her villa, that Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, Victoria Ena of Battenberg, was courted by Alfonso XIII of Spain (1905) and she attended their wedding in Madrid (1906). Princess Frederica died (Oct 16, 1926) at Biarritz, aged seventy-eight.

Frederici, Blanche    see   Friderici, Blanche

Frederick, Cassandra – (c1744 – after 1770)
British vocalist, harpsichordist, and organist
Cassandra Frederick was the aunt of the the noted Italian musician, Count Giuseppe Massinghi. She received her early musical training under Pietro Domenico Paradisi (1707 – 1791), and performed at the Haymarket Theatre in London at the age of five years (1749).  Frederick performed the works of George Frederic Handel and sang in Alfred the Great (1759), by Thomas Augustine Arne. She also performed concerto on the organ. Frederick retired from the stage after making a suitable marriage (1770) with Thomas Wynne, a landowner from South Wales.

Frederick, Christine McGaffey – (1882 – 1970)
American home economist, author and lecturer
Christine Campbell was born (Feb 6, 1882) in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of a clergyman, William R, Campbell. She was later adopted by her stepfather, Wyatt McGaffey. She was married to Justus George Frederick (1882 – 1964), a marketing research author, to whom she bore four children. As a young wife with four young children and a household of her own to run, Christine believed that women should be persuaded to use labour saving devices in domestic management, as much as financial circumstances would allow.
Frederick assisted with the establishment of the Advertising Women of New York (1912), and pioneered for domestic efficiency for many years, delivering lectures, writing books on househhold management and female consumerism, and acted as consulting director for the Ladies’Home Journal. Frederick later moved to Laguna Beach, where she taught at the Orange Coast College, and established a new career for herself as an interior designer. Christine Frederick was the author of several works such as The New Housekeeping (1913), and Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home (1915). Frederick died (April 6, 1970) in Newport Beach, California, aged eighty-seven.

Frederick, Lynne – (1953 – 1994)
British actress
Frederick was married firstly (1977) to actor Peter Sellers (1925 – 1980), as his fourth wife, and secondly to the television presenter, Sir David Frost (born 1939). Her film credits included No Blade of Grass (1970), Vampire Circus (1971), Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972), and Voyage of the Damned (1976). In the film Nicholas and Alexandra (1971) she played the Grand Duchess Marie, the Tsar’s second daughter.

Frederick, Pauline (1) – (1883 – 1938)
American stage and silent film actress
Born Pauline Libbey, she became a famous leading lady of the silent era. Her film credits included Bella Donna (1915), Madame X (1920), Her Honour the Governor (1926), and Mumsie (1927). Her career petered off with the advent of sound though she still appeared in a few films such as The Phantom of Crestwood (1932) and Thank You Mr Moto (1938).

Frederick, Pauline (2) – (1906 – 1990)
American television news analyst
Born in Galitzin, Pennsylvania, she was educated at the George Washington University, where she studied international law. Frederick began her career as a free-lance journalist, working for various news publications and radio stations, before becoming a nwes ocmmentator for the ABC (American Broadcasting Companies) (1946 – 1953). She compered her own morning radio show, and was the first female reporter to cover a national political convention (1948). She later moved camp to NBC (National Broadcasting Company) (1953) as their Unites Nations correspondent, and covered various important world crises, such as those in Vietnam and the Middle East with great success for the next twenty years. Pauline Frederick was the recipient of various awards and honorary degrees on account of her impressive work and career. She acted as moderator during the election campaign debate held between Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford (1976).

Frederiksson, Marianne – (1927 – 2007)
Swedish novelist and author
Born Marianne Persson (March 28, 1927) at Gothenburg, she worked mainly as a journalist, being attached to the staff of various magazines and publications, most notably, Svenska Dagbladet.
Frederiksson only began her book writing career in middle age and wrote over a dozen popular novels such as Evas bok (The Book of Eve) (1980), Paradisets barn (Children of Paradise) (1985), Gatan (The Enigma) (1989), Enligt Maria Magdalena (According to Mary Magdalene) (1997), and Alskade barn (Loved children) (2001), which have been translated into several languages including English, German, and Dutch. Marianne Frederiksson died (Feb 11, 2007) at Osterskar, aged seventy-nine.

Frederuna of Friesland (Frederonne) – (c884 – 917)
Queen consort of France (907 – 917)
Frederuna was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814), being the younger daughter of Godfrey of Friesland, King of Haithabu in Sweden, and his wife Gisela, the daughter of Lothair II, King of Lorraine (855 – 869) and his second wife (and former concubine), Waldrada of Nordgau. She was sister to Bovo, Bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne, and her niece, Mathilda of Westphalia (daughter of her elder sister Reinilda), was the second wife of the Emperor Henry I the Fowler (919 – 936). She became the first wife (April, 907) of Charles III the Simple (879 – 929), King of France (893 – 923).
Queen Frederuna was granted dower lands at Corbeny and Ponthieu by her husband, though Ponthieu was later given as a gift to the abbey of St Corneille at Compiegne, near Paris (925). In the surviving document which records her dower arrangements, King Charles referred to Frederuna as a worthy wife, from whom he could produce sons fit to rule the kingdom. She was officially consecrated as queen, but produced six daughters, and no male heir.
The queen died (Feb 10, 917) aged only in her mid-twenties, and was interred in the Abbey of St Remigius at Rheims, near Paris. Her death was probably the result of childbirth and the necrology of Rheims recorded the death of Frederuna regina. After her husband’s subsequent deposition and imprisonment (923), Queen Frederuna’s daughters were confirmed in their inheritance by the new king, Raoul of Burgundy (923 – 936). Through her eldest daughter Frederuna was the great-grandmother of St Adelaide, Abbess of Bellich. Her children were,

Frederuna of Neustria – (c910 – after 929)
Carolingian princess
Princess Frederuna was the second daughter of Charles III the Simple, King of France (893 – 922) and his first wife Frederuna of Friesland, the daughter of Godfrey of Friesland, King of Haithabu. She was recorded as the daughter of King Charles in the Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis which called her ‘Frederunam.’ She survived the deposition of her father and his subsequent death (929) and her dowry was confirmed to her by charter of Raoul of Burgundy, King of France (922 – 936).
Frederuna has been suggested as the unidentified first wife of Arnulf I the Old, Count of Flanders (918 – 964) who had loyally served Raoul of Burgundy against the Normans. His marriage with Frederuna may have sealed such an alliance. If this marriage could be proved then Frederuna was the mother of his eldest daughter Hildegarde of Flanders (933 – 990) who became the wife of Dirk II, Count of Holland, and presumably died in childbirth before Arnulf remarried (934) to Adelaide of Vermandois who was the mother of his younger children.

Freed, Doris Jonas – (1902 – 1993)
American law expert
Doris Jonas was born in St Louis, and studied at the New York University School of Law, and then worked with a law firm in New York. She was married to Arthur Freed. Doris Freed became a national specialist in the difficult field of matrimonial and family law, and was appointed to head the committee on divorce laws and procedures which was established by the American Bar Association. She co-wrote Law and the Family, New York (1966) with Henry H. Foster, and co-authored the six volume revision of this work two decades later (1986 – 1990).
Doris Freed was closely associated with the reform of the New York divorce laws on an equal partnership between the sexes (1980), and was the author of studies such as Surrogate Parenting Contracts (1993) and Transfers of Pension Benefits (1993). She was the recipient of the exceptional merit award from the Family Law Section of the American Bar Association for nine years running (1980 – 1989). Doris Jonas Freed died (July 23, 1993) aged ninety, in Baltimore, Maryland.

Freedericksz, Hedwige Johanna Alexandra Boguszewska, Countess – (1838 – 1919)
Russian courtier
Hedwige Boguszewska was the daughter of General Alois Bouguszewski. Her first husband was a Polish nobleman named Ciecholewski. with his death she became the was the wife of Baron Vladimir Freedericksz (1838 – 1922) an important minister under Tsar Nicholas II, to whom she bore two children. Baroness Freedericksz served at court as lady-in-waiting to the Empress Alexandra. When her husband was created a count by the Tsar the Baroness became the Countess Freedericksz (1913 – 1919). The Count and Countess were amongst those courtiers who remained till the last with the Imperial family at Tsarskoie-Selo before they were removed to Siberia (1917). Her husband provided details of their lives at this time in his memoir Last Days at Tsarskoie-Selo. Countess Freedericksz died (Oct 5, 1919) aged eighty-one, in St Petersburg. Her children were,

Freedman, Blanch – (1909 – 1967)
American lawyer and feminist
Freedman became a successful legal practitioner, and was for many years an active figure in the Women’s Trade Union League. Freedman later formed a working partnership (1948 – 1952) with the famous lawyer and civil libertarian, Carol Weiss King. 

Freedman, Rose – (1893 – 2001)
American shop-girl, disaster survivor and centenarian
Rose Freedman was born in Vienna, Austria, and came to New York City as an immigrant (1909). She was employed with five hundred other young women to stitch buttons on dresses at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York, most of the women employed there being from poor immigrant families. A small fire smouldering unnoticed in a bin on the eighth floor caused the infamous Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (March 25, 1911) which claimed the lives of almost one hundred and fifty young people, one hundred and thirty of them women.
Rose Freedman had survived. The fire doors had been bolted and the fire escape collapsed, so Rose and some others had fled to the roof where the firefighters lifted them to the safety of an adjacent building. She later married and produced two sons. Mrs Freedman continued to work after becoming a widow (1952) and was able to lie so successfully about her age that when she retired (1973) she was actually well past the mandatory retirement age. Rose Freedman died aged one hundred and seven years, in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles in California.

Freeman, Mrs     see     Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of

Freeman, Ann – (1797 – 1826)
British Methodist preacher
Born Ann Mason at Horathorne in Devonshire, the daughter of a farmer, and was raised in the Anglican faith. Ann was originally apprenticed as a dressmaker, but the onset of consumption rendered her unable to complete her training. Instead, with her sister she joined a local Methodist group, and succeeded in converting several members of her own family. Her subsequent involvement with the Arminian Bible Christians or Bryanites, led to her eventual marriage (1824) with Bryanite preacher, Henry Freeman. Ann accompanied her husband to Ireland where their public preaching against the use of the sacraments led to them being stoned by angry mobs on more than one occasions. Her poor health continued to decline and she died at her father’s home after her return to England. She wrote the autobiographical A Memoir of the Life and Ministry of Ann Freeman ….. written by Herself ….. (1826).

Freeman, Betty – (1921 – 2009)
American musical philanthropist and art collector
Freeman was born (June 3, 1921) in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of a chemical engineer. She was raised in Brooklyn, New York and studied English literature and music at Wellesley College, apart from being an accomplished pianist. She was married twice and left several children, her second husband being the famous Italian painter and sculptor Franco Assetto (1911 – 1991). Freeman was famous for her generosity to composers and was a considerable patron of contemporary classical music. The composer John Cage dedicated his Freeman Etudes to her whilst Lou Harrison composed his Serenade for Betty Freeman and Franco Assetto which was dedicated to Betty and her husband. Also dedicated to her was the opera Nixon in China (1985 – 1987) by John Adams and Steve Reich’s work Vermont Counterpoint (1982). Betty Freeman died (Jan 4, 2009) aged eighty-seven, in Beverly Hills, California.

Freeman, Ethel Cutler – (1886 – 1972)
American anthropologist and cultural historian
Ethel Cutler was born (Nov 25, 1886) in Morristown, New Jersey, and studied anthropology at Columbia University. She was married to the stockbroker, Leon Freeman and bore him several children. During WW I she served with the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service). Ethel Freeman served as the secretary of the Indian committee of the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of the Society of Women Geographers and the American Anthropological Association.She spent thirty years studying the Seminole Indians in the Florida Everglades, and established herself as a specialist in the field. She travelled abroad and lectured in Moscow and Tokyo, and was made an associate of the American Museum of Natural History (1937). Ethel Cutler Freeman died (July 15, 1972) in Morristown, aged eighty-five.

Freeman, Hilda Mary – (1885 – 1937)
Australian writer
Hilda Hodge was born (Oct 6, 1885) in Gordon, Victoria, the daughter of George Hodge. Her married name was Freeman. She went to Prussia in Germany to work as a governess, but the outbreak of WW I brought about the end of this career, and she returned to Australia (1914). She was the author of memoirs entitled An Australian Girl in Germany (1916).

Freeman, Kathleen – (1919 – 2001)
American character actress
Freeman was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of vaudeville performers. She studied at the University of California, in Los Angeles, and began her career in the theatre before moving to films, though she continued to work on stage for the rest of her long career. Freeman appeared in almost one hundred films, and her credits included The Nutty Professor (1947), with Jerry Lewis, Support Your Local Gunfighter (1971), The Blues Brothers (1980), in her famous role as the crabby nun, Sister Mary Stigmata, Hocus Pocus (1993), the comic witch film with Bette Midler, and the remake, Blues Brothers 2000 (1998). She also appeared in several popular television comedy programs, as well as films, in which she was famous for her comically battle-axe performances. These included It’a About Time (1966 – 1967), The Beverly Hillbillies (1969 – 1971), and Lotsa Luck (1973 – 1974). Her last performance was in a one woman stage show entitled Are You Somebody? (1999). Kathleen Freeman died aged eighty-two.

Freeman, Mary Eleanor Wilkins – (1852 – 1930) 
American novelist
Freeman was born (Oct 31, 1852) in Randolph, Massachusetts, and became secretary to the famous author and physician, Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809 – 1894). During this period she began writing poetry and novels, which retained a strong New England nuance including The Adventures of Ann (1886), A Humble Romance, and Other Stories (1887), and, A New England Nun, and Other Stories (1891).  Interested in parasychology and the supernatural, she also was the author of a group of short stories, the most memorable of which include, The Lost Ghost, The Shadow on the Wall, and the chillingly grim story of the evil influence of the evil Aunt Julia in The Southwest Chamber. She co-wrote the novel An Alabaster Box (1917) with Florence Morse Kinglsey and a collection of her work The Best Stories, were edited by Henry W. Lanier (1927). Mary Wilkins Freeman died (March 13, 1930) aged seventy-seven.

Freeman, Ruth – (1906 – 1982)
American public health expert
Ruth Freeman studied at the Mount Sinai Hospital School of Nursing in New York, and became the wife of Anselm Fisher. Freeman was the director of the Red Cross nursing services (1946 – 1950) and was appointed as president of the National League of Nursing. Dr Freeman served as a consultant to the Pan-American health committee of the World Health Organization. She gave lectures on hygiene and public health at John Hopkins University and was created a professor emeritus. Freeman retired in 1971 and was awarded the Florence Nightingale Medal from the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva (1981). Ruth Freeman died (Dec 2, 1982) aged seventy-six, at Cokeysville, Maryland.

Freeman, Tiki – (1921 – 1992)
American vocalist
Tiki Gilner was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a prominent Jewish family. Her mother, Violet Sandheim Gilner, had been private secretary to the Zionist leader, Henrietta Szold. Tiki had been taken to live in Palestine with her family, but with the threat of military involvement, the family returned to the USA (1941), where she attended Brooklyn College. She was married to Joel Freeman, and bore him three children. Freeman studied as a singer, and performed operatic as well as populer works, and religious music. She worked as stage manager for the Westchester Music consrvatory Opera Company, and one of the first women in the USA to become a cantor. Tikki Freeman died (June 27, 1992) at Eastchester, New York, aged sixty-nine.

Freer, Eleanor Everest – (1864 – 1942)
American composer
Freer was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The pupil of Mathilde Marchesi and and Benjamin Godard, she studied music theory with Benjamin Ziehn. Eleanor herself composed eleven operas including, The Court Jester and The Legend of the Piper, and over one hundred and fifty songs. Devoted to the idea of making classical music available to the entire community, Eleanor was a founding member of the American Opera Society of Chicago (1925). She was attached to the American Opera Company (1928 – 1929).

Frege, Livia – (1818 – 1891)
German vocalist
Born Livia Gerhard at Gera, Reuss, she was the pupil of the composer Christian August Pohlenz. She made her stage debut at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig (1832) with Clara Wieck (later Schumann) at the age of fifteen. Livia Frege died at Leipzig, Saxony, aged seventy-three (Aug 22, 1891).

Fregoso, Ginevra – (c1422 – 1489)
Italian Dogaressa of Venice
Ginevra Gattilusio was the daughter of Palamede Gattilusi, Lord of Ainos, and was a descendant of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus (1259 – 1282). Ginevra was married (c1447) to Ludovico Fregoso (c1415 – 1490) the Doge of Venice. Dogaressa Ginevra made her will (May 3, 1489) and died shortly afterwards, having survived her son and narrowly predeceasing her husband. She left three children,

Fregoso, Teodora – (c1352 – c1430)
Dogaressa of Venice
Teodora de Paule was the daughter of Antonio de Paule, a Genoese patrician. She was married (c1368) to Giacomo Fregoso (1347 – 1421), who was later elected as Doge (1390 – 1391), and whom Teodora survived as the Dowager Dogaressa of Venice (1421 – c1430). She left five children,

Frehel – (1891 – 1951)
French music hall performer
Born Margeurite Boulc’h, she performed in street cafes later in nightclubs, and was the lover of the singer and entertainer Maurice Chevalier (1888 – 1972) during her youth. Frehel was particularly remembered for her self-destructive behaviour and lifestyle, which caused her to lose her looks, and encourage her descent into alcoholism and excessive drug-taking. Frehel appeared in several films, but was best remembered as Tania in Pepe le Moko (1937).

Frehse, Mary Jane    see   Frazee, Jane

Freidenberg, Olga Mikhailovna – (1890 – 1955)
Russian scholar and letter writer
Freidenburg was the correspondent (1910 – 1954) of her cousin, Boris Pasternak (1890 – 1960), the famous poet and novelist. Their lengthy correspondence, as well as part of Olga’s private diary, where later translated into English, edited and published as The Correspondence of Boris Pasternak and Olga Freidenberg (1982).

Freitas, Lucy de – (1542 – 1622)
Japanese Christian martyr
Lucy was born into a noble family, and became the wife of Philip de Freitas, a Catholic Portugese merchant and converted to Catholicism. Known for her quiet charitable work, she also visited the sick in hospital to offer them religious comfort. When the shogun Tokugawa incited persecutions of the Christians and their converts (1614), Lucy arranged for several Franciscan priests to hide in her house. She was later betrayed and arrested by the authorities. She was condemned and executed at the age of eighty. Lucy Freitas was revered by the Franciscans as a saint (Sept 10), and was beatified by Pope Pius IX (1867), together with over two hundred other Japanese martyrs from this particular persecution.

Freke, Elizabeth – (1641 – 1714)
English diarist
Freke was born into a Royalist family, being sister to the author, Lady Frances Norton. She eventually became the wife of her cousin, Percy Freke of West Bilney, York, at the rather late age of thirty, but the marriage proved to be both tempestuous and uncongenial, despite the birth of a son, and her husband resided apart form her on his estates at Rathbarry in Ireland. With her husband’s death (1706) she kept a private Journal, which began at the time of her marriage and continued till her death. The work included letters and poems, and the religious work Dialogue between the serpent and Eve. The Bishop of Norfolk is said to have caused her to be excommunicated shortly before her death.

Fremantle, Barbarina Rogers Isaacs, Lady – (1844 – 1923)
Australian civic leader and philanthropist
Barbarina Isaacs was born in Sydney, New South Wales. She became the wife (1866) of the British admiral, Sir Edmund Fremantle, GCVO (Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order) (1836 – 1929) who survived her. She organized nursing units during the Great War, and was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1920) in recognition of her valuable work for the war effort. Lady Fremantle died (May 5, 1923) aged seventy-eight.

Fremiet, Sophie – (1797 – 1867)
French painter
Fremiet studied under the famous Jacques David, in Brussels, and became the wife of the sculptor, Francois Rude. A painter in her own right, nine of her works including a self-portrait, are preserved in the Musee de Dijon in Burgundy, and Fremiet later established herself as a professional teacher.

Fremont, Bessie Benton – (1824 – 1902)
American writer
Bessie Benton was born in Lexington, Virginia, and became the wife of the noted explorer, John Charles Fremont (1813 – 1890). Her published works included The Story of the Guard: A Chronicle of the War (1863), Souvenirs of My Time (1887), and The Will and the Way Stories (1891). Bessie Fremont died (Dec 27, 1902) aged seventy-eight.

Fremstad, Olive – (1871 – 1951)
Swedish-American mezzo-soprano and soprano
Born Anna Olivia Lundquist (March 14, 1871) in Stockholm, she was trained as a pianist in childhood. She was brought to the USA as a child, and settled with her parents in Minneapolis, adopting the surname of Fremstad. Fremstad became a soloist at St Patrick’s Cathedral in New York (1893 – 1894) before studying under Lilli Lehmann in Berlin. She made her stage debut as Azucena in Giuseppe Verdi’s Il Trovatore (1895), and was later attached to the Vienna Royal Opera (1897 – 1900) and the Metropolitan Opera House in New York (1903 – 1914). She was particularly admired for her Wagnerian roles such as as Isolde, Siegelinde and Elsa in Lohengrin, and was famous for her dramatic performances. She performed in San Francisco with Enrico Caruso, the night before the famous earthquake (1906). Fremstad retired in 1920, and had made over three dozen recordings between 1911 and 1915. Both her marriages ended in divorce, and she left no children. Olive Fremstad died (April 21, 1951) at Irvington, New York, aged eighty.

French, Alice – (1850 – 1934)
American writer and novelist
French was born (March 19, 1850) in Andover, Massachusetts. She wrote many novels using the pseudonym ‘Octave Thanet’ such as Stories of a Western Town (1893), A Book of True Lovers (1897), The Lion’s Share (1907), and A Step on the Stair (1913). Alice French died (Oct 6, 1946) aged eighty-six.

French, Anne Warner – (1869 – 1913)
American novelist and genealogist
Born Anne Richmond Warner in Minnesota, she was married (1887) to Charles Eltinge French, a businessman from Minneapolis thirty-five years her senior. Mrs French’s first published work was the family genealogy entitled An American Ancestry (1894). She later travelled extensively in Europe where she resided for much of her later life. Her published novels included The Rejuvenation of Aunt Mary (1905) and The Taming of Amaretti: A Comedy of Manners (1915) which was published posthumously. She was best known for her serials of novels which centred round the village gossip Susan Clegg, such as Susan Clegg and Her Love Affairs (1906) and Susan Clegg and a Man in the House (1907).

French, Annie – (1872 – 1965)
Scottish painter and illustrator
Annie French was born in Glasgow, where she studied at the Glasgow School of Art (1896 – 1902). Her work was exhibited abroad in Brussels (1903) and she was married (1914) to fellow artist, George Woolliscroft Rhead (1854 – 1920). French was noted for her pre-Raphaelite watercolour paintings, and her pen and ink technique was greatly admired. She also completed illustrations for fairty tales, poems, and posters. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy and at the Royal Glasgow Institute of Artists.

French, Ashley    see   Robins, Denise Naomi

French, Evangeline Frances (Eva) – (1869 – 1960)
British Protestant missionary, traveller, and writer
French was born in Algeria, North Africa, the second daughter of John Erington French, and his wife Frances Elizabeth French, his first cousin. She was the elder sister of Francesca Law French and was educated in Geneva, Switzerland. Eva French later travelled to China (1893) to take up her appointment with the China Inland Mission to head the Huozhou mission in Shanxi. The Boxer Rebellion (1900) forced Eva to flee China and she reluctantly returned to England. She quickly returned to China (1902) and was later joined there by her sister Francesca (1908). Together with fellow missionary Mildred Cable, the group became popularly known as ‘the Trio’ and they travelled extensively throughout China for many years until the rise of Communism forced them to retire to England. Eva co-wrote several books with her sister Francesca. Evangeline French died (July 8, 1960) at Shaftesbury in Dorset, aged ninety-one.

French, Francesca Law – (1871 – 1960)
British Protestant missionary, traveller, and writer
French was born (Dec 12, 1871) in Bruges, Belgium, the daughter of John Erington French. With her elder sister Eva she trained with the China Inland Mission (CIM). Evangeline went to China in 1893, being joined there by Mildred Cable. Francesca remained in England until the death of their mother (1909), and then joined her sister and Cable. The three women worked together at Hwochow in Shanxi Province, where they established one of the first girls’ schools. French and the others made extensive tours of Kansu province (1923), which had not been visited by western women, and later removed to work in the notorious Suchow, the ‘City of Criminals’ in north-western China. They successfully crossed the Gobi Desert of five separate occasions, dressed as Chinese. All three retired in 1941. They continued to be active in missionary work, visiting India (1947) and South America (1950).
French collaborated with Cable and wrote concerning their travels and adventures in Dispatches from North-West Kansu (1925), The Challenge of Central Asia: A Brief Survey of Tibet and its Hinterlands (1929), and Something Happened (1933). With her sister Evangeline, Francesca co-wrote A Desert Journal: Letters from Central Asia (1934), The Gobi Desert (1942), and Journey with a Purpose (1950). Francesca French died (Aug 2, 1960) aged eighty-eight, in London,

French, Lillie Hamilton – (1854 – 1939)
American author, she was born (May 17, 1854) in Washington, D.C., and wrote several works including My Old Maid’s Corner (1903), The Joy of Life (1905), and Mrs Van Twiller’s Salon (1905). Lillie French died unmarried (June 3, 1939) aged eighty-five.

French, Lucy Virginia Smith – (1825 – 1881)
American poet, editor, novelist, and essayist
French was born (March 16, 1825) in Accomac County, Virginia. She wrote poetry using the pseudonym ‘L’Icconnue’ including Wind Whispers (1856), Istalixo, the Lady of Tula (1856). These works were followed by Legends of the South (1867), My Roses (1872) and Darlingtonia (1879). She also produced a collection of poems jointly with her sister Lida Smith Meriwether entitled One or Two? (1883). Lucy French died aged fifty-six (March 31, 1881).

French, Margaret Anne – (1860 – 1927)
Australian painter
French was born in Adelaide, South Australia. She was educated there and in Melbourne, Victoria. She specialized as a watercolour artist, and worked as an art teacher at Mt Gambier. French was a long-time member of the local Agricultural and Horticultural Society. She remained unmarried. Margaret French died (June 15, 1927).

French, Marilyn – (1929 – 2009)
American feminist and writer
Marilyn Edwards was born (Nov 21, 1929) in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of an engineer. She studied philosophy and English literature at the Hofstra College in New York and was married to Robert French to whom she bore two children. The marriage proved unhappy and later ended in divorce (1967). She then studied literature at Harvard University and published a thesis on James Joyce’s work Ulysses (1976) after which she was employed as an English teacher in Worcester, Massachusetts.
French was best remembered for her first and controversial novel entitled The Women’s Room (1977) which sold over twenty million copies and was translated into almost two dozen languages. Her later novel In the Name of Friendship (2006) was written as a sequel. Her feminist works included Beyond Power: On Women, Men and Morals (1985) and From Eve to Dawn: A History of Women in the World. The War Against Women (1992). Her other novels such as Her Mother’s Daughter (1987) and My Summer with George (1996) did not achieve the same success as The Women’s Room. Marilyn French died (May 2, 2009) aged seventy-nine, in Manhattan.

French, Valerie – (1931 – 1990)
British film actress
French was the wife of the noted dramatist and screenwriter Michael Pertwee (1916 – 1991), and also spent some time working in Hollywood, California. Her movie credits included Garment Center (1957), The Four Skulls of Jonathon Drake (1959), and Shalako (1968), amongst others.

Frendraught, Elizabeth Gordon, Lady – (c1600 – c1655)
Scottish murderess and figure of folk-lore
Lady Elizabeth Gordon was the eldest daughter of John Gordon, earl of Sutherland, and his wife Agnes Elphinstone. She married (1619) Sir James Crichton, of Frendraught, to whom she bore nine children, but is usually referred to as ‘Lady Frendraught,’ after her husband’s estate.
Lady Frendraught was an active participant in the continual disputes between her husband and his kinsmen, the Gordons and Leslies. Several friends of her husband, whom he had urged to stay at Frendraught House to protect him from the threatened assault of his enemies, where bunrt to death there (Oct, 1630) under circumstances that threw suspicion on himself. The marquess of Huntley, whose son John Gordon, viscount Melgum and laird of Rothiemay, died in the fire, immediately raided Frendraught and looted some of the family’s lands.
The Privy Council of Edinburgh vindicated Sir James of any complicity (1631), but at Frendraught itself, local opinion held Lady Elizabeth responsible for the crime, and an anonymous ballad written several months after the disaster, accused her of locking up her hapless victims, disposing of the keys, and then taunting them from the lawn as they burnt to death. Whatever the truth of these accusations, Lady Frendraught took three of her daughters, and left her husband, living as a recluse at Kinnairdy on the Deveron River. She later signed the Solemn League and Covenant supporting Presbyterianism, and was excommunicated by the Catholic Church. Lady Frendraught died without benefit of religious consolation and was interred in an unmarked grave.

Frenkel-Brunswik, Else – (1908 – 1958)
Polish-American psychologist
Else Frenkel was born (Aug 18, 1908) into a Jewish family in Lemberg, Austria, the daughter of a bank director. She attended the University of Vienna and worked as assistant professor of the Psychological Institute there until the takeover of Austria by the Nazis (1938). She was married to fellow psychologist and teacher, the Hungarian Egon Brunswik (1903 – 1955). Prior to WW II Frenkel-Brunswik researched psychoanalysis with the famous psychologist, Ernst Kris, and logical positivism with Rudolf Carnap. With the outbreak of the war, she and her husband immigrated to the USA, where she was employed as a research psychologist at the Institute of Child Welfare at Berkeley. Her published works inlcuded the monograph Motivation and Behaviour (1942) and she assisted with the establishment of psychological studies in anti-Semitism. With Theodor Adorno she co-wrote The Authoritarian Personality (1950). She never recovered from the death of her husband (1955). Else Frenkel-Brunswik eventually committed suicide (March 31, 1958), aged forty-nine.

Frenk-Westheim, Mariana – (1898 – 2004)
Jewish-German writer, lecturer and Mexican translator
Mariana Westheim was born (June 4, 1898) in Hamburg. She was married to Julio Frenk, to whom she bore two children. Prior to the Nazi takeover, she removed to Mexico with her parents and family. With the death of Frenk, Mariana remarried to the noted art historian, Paul Westheim. Madame Frenk-Westheim was known particularly for her translations of the works of the Mexican author, Juan Rulfo. Her own collection of verse was published as Tausend Reime fur Grosse und Kleine. Die Tier-und Dingwelt alphabetisch vorgestellt (2002), was published when she was aged well over one hundred. Frenk-Westheim died (June 24, 2004) in Mexico City, aged one hundred and six.

Frere, Margeurite Jeanne – (1879 – after 1940)
French soprano
Frere was born (Jan 30, 1879) at Lyons, and attended the Paris Conservatoire. She won two prizes for singing opera, and made her stage debut in the same year (1899). Frere spent most of her long and successful career at the Paris Opera and the Opera Comique. She created the role of ‘Floria’ in Camille Saint-Saens’s opera Les Barbares, which she first performed at Monte Carlo. Other performances included roles in Le Roi Arthur and, Le Voile du Bongeur.

Frere, Mary Eliza Isabella – (1845 – 1911)
British traveller and writer
Frere was born in Gloucestershire, the daughter of Sir Henry Bartle Frere, the noted colonial administrator. She was educated at home by a governess in London, and accompanied her parents to Bombay in India (1863), when her father was appointed as governor. Due to the absence of Lady Frere (1864) Mary deputized as hostess for her father at Government House. Frere accompanied her father on his extensive tours throughou the region and became fascinated by the colourful local stories, folk-lore, and traditions that she heard. She published two dozen of these tales in the work Old Deccan Days (1868), for which her sister executed the illustrations. Some manuscripts which she obtained during her journey to Palestine (1906 – 1908) form part of the Mary Eliza Frere Library at Girton College, Cambridge.

Frescheville, Anne Charlotte de Vic, Lady – (c1636 – 1717)
British Stuart courtier
Anne Charlotte de Vic was the daughter of Sir Henry de Vic, baronet, chancellor of the Garter, and his wife Margaret, the daughter of Sir Philip Carteret. She became the third wife (1666) of John, Baron Frescheville, of Staveley (1606 – 1682) but the marriage remained childless. Lady Frescheville served at court for many years as lady-of-the-bedchamber to Queen Anne, both as queen and as princess of Denmark. Lady Frescheville died (Nov 12, 1717) aged about eighty.

Freshfield, Jane – (c1827 – 1901)
British mountaineer and author
Born Jane Quintin, she was married to Henry Freshfield, a keen mountain climber, and was the mother of Douglas Freshfield, the noted mountaineer. Mrs Freshfield visited the Alps annually with her husband and son, and with a female companion, successfully managed some of the lower ascents. She was the author of two topographical guidebooks Alpine Byways: Or, Light Leaves Gathered in 1859 and 1860 (1861), and A Summer Tour in the Grisons and Italian Valleys of the Bernina (1862).

Freud, Anna – (1895 – 1982)
Austrian-Anglo psychoanalyst and author
Freud was born (Dec 3, 1895) in Vienna, the youngest daughter of the famous psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939). She remained unmarried. Anna taught at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna, and became a member of the International Psychoanalytical Association (1922), and established herself in private practice. She became secretary of the Vienna Training Institute (1925). However, because of her Jewish background she was later forced to emigrate to the safety of England with her father (1938), after the rise and establishment of the Third Reich.
A pioneer in the field of child psychoanalysis, she firstly organized a nursery for children made homeless in the war (1940 – 1945), and then founded the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic in London (1947). Freud served for three decades (1952 – 1982) as the director of this organization. Her work always maintained the importance of the link between the parent and the child, and received recognition for her extensive research and work when she was made CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1967). Her published works included Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1968) and Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973). Anna Freud died (Oct 9, 1982) in London, aged eighty-six.

Freund, Gisele – (1908 – 2000)
German photographer
Freund was born (Nov 19, 1908) into a Jewish family, near Berlin, Prussia. She became invovled in intrigues against Adolf Hitler and his Nazi supporters, and had to flee for her life to Paris (1933). There she attended the Sorbonne, where she studied art history and photography. With the occupation of Paris, Freund worked with the Resistance movement, and resided for several years in South America, where she worked as a film producer and stills photographer.
After her return to France (1952), she gravitated to the Left Bank, where she was part of the group that included Adrienne Monnier, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean Cocteau, Jean Paul Sartre, Andre Gide, Stefan Zweig, Andre Breton, Sylvia Beach, Louis Aragon, and James Joyce. She established herself as a portrait photographer, and her work was published in such magazines as Weekly Illustrated in Britain, Paris-Match in France, and Du in Germany. In recognition of her contribution to the visual arts, President Francois Mitterand appointed Freund as Officier des Arts et Lettres (1982), and she was then appointed a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (1983). She published the work Photography and Society (1974), and the personal memoir Three Days with Joyce (1983). Gisele Freund died (March 31, 2000) in Paris, aged ninety-one.

Frew, Mrs Alexander    see   MacNicol, Bessie

Freyberg, Barbara Jekyll, Lady – (1887 – 1973)
British welfare activist and diplomatic figure
Barbara Jekyll was the daughter of Colonel Sir Herbert Jekyll and his wife Agnes Lowndes Graham. She was married firstly (1911) to the Hon. Francis Walter Stafford McLaren (1886 – 1917), the second son of the first Lord Aberconway, to whom she bore two sons. He was killed in action during WW I, and Barbara remarried secondly (1922) to Bernard Freyberg (1889 – 1963), later created first Baron Freyberg (1951) by King George VI, to whom she bore a son. During WW II Lady Freyberg worked in Cairo, Egypt, as a welfare activist, and was mentioned in despatches. She was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1943) and accompanied her second husband to New Zealand when he was appointed governor-general (1952). Lady Freyberg was appointed GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1953) in recognition of her public service. Lady Freyberg died (Sept 24, 1973) in London.

Freyberg, Maria Elektrine von – (1797 – 1847)
Flemish painter
Maria Elektrine Stuntz was born (March 14, 1797) in Strasbourg. She studied painting in Germany and Italy with Marie Ellenreider before her marriage (1823) with the Baron von Freyberg. Madame von Freyberg bore her husband several children and continued her career as an artist, being appointed as art instructor at the court of Saxe-Weimar and later official painter to the court of Dresen in Saxony (1837). Maria Elektrine von Freyberg died (Jan 1, 1847) in Munich, Bavaria, aged forty-nine. Little of her work has survived though she left Memoirs.

Freycinet, Rose Marie de – (1794 – 1832) 
French traveller and letter writer
Born Rose Pinon de Saulces (Sept 29, 1794) at Saint-Julien-du-Sault, Yonne, she became the first female to sail around the world with her husband, Captain Louis de Freycinet in his ship l’Uranie (1817 – 1820). Whilst viisting Sydney in Australia (Nov – Dec, 1819) she and her husband were entertained by Governor Macquarie and his wife, and Anna Josepha King, amongst other famous colonial Australian figures. She died in Paris (May 7, 1832), and left a written account of her experiences entitled Journal de Madame de Saulces de Freycinet d’apres le manuscrit original accompagne de notes, par Charles Duplomb, which was later translated by Sir William Dixson for the Australian Historical Society Journal (1927).

Frezzolini, Erminia – (1818 – 1884)
Italian soprano
Frezzolini was born at Orvieto, the eldest daughter of Joseph Frezzolini under whom she began her vocal education. Erminia later studied under Manuel Garcia (1775 – 1832) and Nicola Tacchinardi (1772 – 1859) and made her stage debut in Florence in Vincenzo Bellini’s Beatrice di Tende (1838). She later performed in London and was the first to appear in the role of Griselda in Giuseppe Verdi’s opera I Lombardi alla prima Crociata (1843), and the first Gilda in his Rigoletto. She also appeared in the title role of Verdi’s Joan of Arc in New York (1845). Madame Frezzolini also appeared in such roles as Lucia di Lammermoor (1839), Anna Bolena (1840), Ildegonda (1840) and many others. She retired (1860) after an eminently successful career. Erminia Frezzolini died in Paris.

Friderici, Blanche – (1869 – 1933)
American character actress
Friderici was born (Jan 21, 1869) in Brooklyn, New York. With a competent career as a stage actress, and sometimes spelling her name as Frederici, she began her film career in silent movies such as 39 East (1920) and No Trespassing (1922). Friderici appeared in almost sixty films, and appeared as the self-righteous clergyman’s wife in Sadie Thompson (1928) with Joan Crawford, as the nun in Mata Hari (1931), the head nurse in A Farewell to Arms (1932), the countess in Adorable (1933), and Dona Helena in Flying Down to Rio (1933). Her last film role was in It Happened One Night (1934) with Claudette Colbert and Clark Gable. Blanche Friderici died (Dec 23, 1933) at Visalia in California, aged sixty-four.

Frideswide (Frithiswith) – (c680 – c735)
Anglo-Saxon virgin saint
Frideswide was the daughter and only child of a Mercian earldorman named Didanus (Didan), who ruled the Oxford area, and his royal wife Saefrida. She was educated under the care of St Elgiva, Abbess of Winchester. Frideswide became a nun at Binsey, before she founded a double monastery in Oxford on the site of what is now Christ Church.  Formally adopted as the patron saint of Oxford University and of the city itself (c1434), this strengthened Frideswide’s cult in England, and she was canonized (1481). Her feast was observed annually (Oct 19).

Her monastery was later destroyed by invading Vikings in the eleventh century, but was later restored, first by secular canons, and later by Austin canons in the early twelfth century. From the late twelfth century the monastery was occupied by regular canons. It’s suppression by Cardinal Wolsey (1525) paved the way for it to evolve into the chapel of Christchurch, and the Cathedral of the post-reformation diocese of Oxford. Her relics were translated to a splendid shrine (1289) which was later plundered (1538) by a Calvinist divine James Calfhill, her bones being mingled with those of Peter Martyr’s wife Catherine Dammartin, so that religious partisans might hesitate to scatter relics they hated for fear of desecrating those they respected. Her shrine was later restored during the reign of Mary I (1553 – 1558).

Fridiburga – (fl. 612 – 613)
Merovingian royal bride
Fridiburga was the daughter of Gunzo, Duke of Alemannia. She was betrothed to the Merovingian king of Austrasia, Sigebert II (602 – 613), who ruled under the guidance of his great-grandmother, Queen Brunhilda. The proposed alliance was recorded in the Vita Galli chronicle where Fridiburga is called the ‘desponsa’of Sigebert and refers to the princess as Cunzonem ducem…. Filia eius unica Fridiburga. However, the deaths of Sigebert and Brunhilda soon afterwards negated this union, and her later fate remains unknown.

Friedan, Betty – (1921 – 2006)
American feminist and author
Born Elizabeth Naomi Goldstein (Feb 4, 1921) in Peoria, Illinois, she was educated at Smith College and at the University of California, Berkeley. She was married (1947 – 1969) to Carl Freidan and bore several children whom she raised whilst writing articles for magazines.Friedan wrote the best-seller, The Feminine Mystique (1963) and was the founder and first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW) (1966). She led the National Women’s Strike for Equality (1970), and taught at several universities but was outdistanced by more radical feminists. After her divorce (1969) she campaigned actively for the Equal Rights Amendment. Her work The Fountain of Age (1992) was a protest against the modern concepts of ageism. Friedan published The Second Stage (1981), and also wrote her autobiography entitled It Changed My Life (1977). Betty Friedan died on her eighty-fifth birthday (Feb 4, 2006) in Washington, D.C.

Friederich-Freksa, Margit    see   Beutler, Margarete

Friederichs, Hulda – (1853 – 1927)
German-Anglo journalist, translator, and writer
Friederichs was born in Ronsdorf, Prussia. She was educated at Ronsdorf and in Cologne (Koln). She then worked in England as a journalist, and joined the Pall Mall Gazette (1888 – 1898), becoming the first women to be employed there with equal status and pay as the male employees. Friederichs then joined the staff of the Westminster Gazette from 1898, and was the author of several biographies such as Mr Gladstone in the Evening of his Days (1895) and the Life of Sir George Newnes, Bart. (1911). She translated European poetry into English, and edited the Westminster Budget publication (1896 – 1905). She remained unmarried. Hulda Friederichs died (Feb 11, 1927) in London, aged seventy-three.

Friedgund of Chiemgau – (c1035 – after 1075)
German noblewoman and nun
Friedgund was the elder daughter of Siegebert VII (Sizzo), Count of Chiemgau in Bavaria and his wife Philihilda of Andechs, the daughter of Friedrich I of Andechs, Count of the Upper Isar. She was the sister to Count Friedrich I of Tengling (died 1071) and of Sieghard of Chiemgau (died 1077) the Patriarch of Aquileia in Italy. Friedgund never married and became a nun being appointed to serve as the abbess of the convent of Santa Maria in Aquileia, most probably due to the influence of her brother Patriarch Sieghard. Abbess Friedgund was living at the time of her mother’s death (1075).

Friedlander, Margarete – (1896 – 1985)
German potter
Friedlander was born at Lyons, France and studied sculpture in Berlin. She was then employed as a designer for a porcelain factory, and trained as a ceramicist at the Bauhas. She taught ceramics in Halle-Giebichenstein, near Leipzig in Saxony, and was commissioned to design for the Royal Berlin Porcelain Factory. After her marriage (1933), and her subsequent removal to Holland she established a workshop at Putten which produced domestic stoneware. With the outbreak of WW II she moved to the USA, where she taught at Oakland in California, and sometimes worked under her married name of Wildenhain.

Friedman, Elizabeth Smith – (1892 – 1980)
American cryptanalyst
Elizabeth Smith was born in Huntingdon, Indiana, the daughter of a dairyman. She attended college in Wooster in Ohio and at Hillsdale in Michigan where she studied English. She received training at the Fabyan Laboroatory, the government military cryptography school in Geneva, Illinois during WW I and was married to Lieutenant Colonel William Friedman who headed the Armys’s Cryptanalysis Bureau.
Mrs Friedman was then employed as an assistant cryptanalyst for the War Department (1921 – 1922) and for the Navy (1923). Elizabeth Friedman assisted with the deciphering of codes used by US enemies during WW II (1939 – 1945) most notably in the famous ‘Doll Woman Case’ (1944) which involved a female antique doll dealer in New York. She was later actively involved in methods to prevent the escalation of liquor sales during Prohibition and later with drug smuggling operations run by Chinese in Canada (1937). Elizabeth Friedman died (Oct 31, 1980) aged eighty-eight, in Plainfield, New Jersey.

Friedman, Gloria    see   Franklin, Gloria Friedman

Friedman, Rose Director – (1910 – 2009)
American director
Rose Director was born (Dec, 1910) at Staryi Chortoryski in the Ukraine, Russia, the daughter of Jewish parents, and was the sister of the prominent lawyer Aaron Director (1901 – 2004). She came to the USA as a child and attended Reed College and then the University of Chicago where she studied philosophy. She became the wife of Milton Friedman (1912 – 2006), the winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics (1976), to whom she bore two children.
With her husband Mrs Friedman wrote two works on economics, Capitalism and Freedom (1962), Free to Choose and Tyranny of the Status Quo, and their joint memoir Milton and Rose D. Friedman, Two Lucky People (1998). Mr and Mrs Friedman established the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation which promoted freedom of choice in education. Rose Director Friedman died (Aug 18, 2009) aged ninety-eight.

Friedrich, Madame    see   Sentz, Caroline

Friedrich, Caroline (1749 – 1815)
German painter
Friedrich was the daughter and pupil of the water colour artist David Friedrich, and also studied oil painting with her brother Alexander. Caroline Friedrich gained a reputation a teacher in Dresden, Saxony, where she was made a pensioner of the Dresden Academy (1774). Friedrich taught her own nieces, Alexia and Augusta Tettelbach, and Caroline Richter. One of her still-life works is preserved in the Koniglichebemaldegalerie in Dresden, whilst other examples remain in Dessau and Berlin, in Prussia.

Friend, Charlotte – (1921 – 1987)
American oncologist amd medical microbiologist
Friend was born in New York and then attended Hunter College and served with the navy during WW II. After the war she successfully graduated from Yale University. Charlotte Friend joined the group at the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, and served there as the associate professor of microbiology until she was appointed professor at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, a post she held for two decades (1966 – 1987). Friend became famous for discovering the Friend Leukaiemia Virus (FLV), which was named in her honour, and which the disease could be introduced to experimental animals, with fatal results. This led eventually to the recognition that certain cancers could be actually caused by viruses. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1976).

Fries, Adelaide Lisetta – (1871 – 1949)
American Moravian church archivist and author
Fries was born (Nov 12, 1871) at Salem, North Carolina. She published several works concerning the history of the Moravian sect such as the four volume work Records of the Moravians in North Carolina (1922 – 1930), Moravian Customs (1936), and Some Moravian Heroes (1936). She was co-author of the historical work The Moravian Church Yesterday and Today (1926). Adelaide Fries died (Nov 29, 1949) aged seventy-eight.

Fries, Marie Therese de – (1780 – 1849)
German princess von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingfurst
She was a talented painter and sculptor, and was married (1800) to the Comte de Fries. She died at Voslav.

Friesenhof, Natalie von – (1854 – 1937)
German morganatic royal
Baroness Natalie von Friesenhof was born (April 8, 1854) in Vienna, the daughter of Baron Gustav Vogel von Friesenhof. She was married in Vienna (1876) to Duke Elimar of Oldenburg (1844 – 1895) to whom she bore two children. The marriage was not recognized by the royal family and was considered to be morganatic. With the death of her husband twenty years later at Castle Erlaa (Oct 17, 1895) Natalie was created Countess von Welsburg (1896 – 1937) which title was borne by her two children, Count Gustav Gregor Alexander von Welsburg (1878 – 1927) who left descendants, and Countess Alexandrine Gustava Frederica von Welsburg (1877 – 1901) who remained unmarried. Countess Natalie von Welsburg died (Jan 9, 1937) aged eighty-two, at Brogyan.

Frietschie, Barbara – (1766 – 1862)
American patriot
Born Barbara Hauer of German emigrant background, she was the heroine of Whittier’s poem Barbara Fritchie, which had the famous line ‘shoot if you must this old grey head, but spare your country’s flag, she said.’

Frigia – (fl. c560)
Frankish noblewoman
Frigia was the wife of Brumachius, a royal envoy prominent in public life. Her husband died aged forty whilst engaged upon an embassy in Italy. Frigia caused his body to be returned home for burial, and the poet Venantius Fortunatus wrote the Epitaphium Brumachi in his memory which has been preserved in his Carmina.

Frings, Ketti – (1909 – 1981)
American novelist, dramatist, and screenwriter
Born Katherine Hartley in Columbus, Ohio, she was the author of several novels such as Hold Back the Dawn (1942), but was better known as a dramatist and screenwriter for movies. Her screenplay credits included Guest in the House (1941), The Accused (1948), Because of You (1952), Come Back Little Sheba (1953), and By Love Possessed (1961). Frings is best remembered for her play Look Homeward, Angel (1957), for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for drama (1958). The novel was her adaptation of the work of the same title by Thomas Wolfe (1900 – 1938), which was first published almost thirty years earlier (1929).

Frink, Dame Elisabeth Jean – (1930 – 1993)
British sculptor
Frink was born in Thurlow, Suffolk, and was educated in Exmouth and studied at the Guildford and Chelsea schools of Art (1947 – 1953). For the next seven years she taught at Chelsea and at St Martin’s School of Art, and later resided abroad in France. Frink returned to England in 1972, and has exhibited her works regularly from 1955, notably at the Waddington Galleries. Her particular interest in the male head has remained a strong focal point of her work. She was elected to the Royal Academy (1977) and was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1969) and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her contributions to the arts (1982). Frink also illustrated etchings for The Canterbury Tales (1971) and the, Odyssey and Iliad (1974 – 1975).

Frith, Mary (‘Moll Cutpurse’) – (1584 – 1659)
English thief and criminal
Frith was born near the Barbican in London, the daughter of a shoemaker. Personally unattractive and completely uninterested in the traditional domestic roles, Frith early became involved with the criminal underworld of London, and adopted male disguise in order to easier facilitate her acceptance amongst them. Frith quickly became infamous as a highwayman and pickpocket, and also as a fence for stolen goods. She acquired her notorious nickname ‘Moll Cutpurse’ from her habit of using a knife to remove the purses and moneybelts of unlucky travellers. A confirmed royalist, she declared that she would only rob the king’s enemies, and became exceedingly rich from the profits of her illicit trade. During the latter part of her life she ran a brothel in London. She left orders on her death that she be buried face downwards, so as to hide her ugliness from God on Judgement Day, and was interred in the precincts of the churchyard of St Bride (Aug 10, 1659). The epitaph on her marble tombstone was written by the poet John Milton, but was destroyed during the Great Fire (1666).

Frithugyth (Fridogitha) – (c690 – after 737)
Anglo-Saxon queen consort
Nothing is known of her birth or family. She married Aethelheard, King of Wessex (c670 – 740) sometime before his accession (726) but had no children. The queen was distinguished by her generous gifts to the church, and with her husband liberally endowed the Abbey of Glastonbury (726 – 727). She herself bestowed upon the abbey the manor of Brunanton, which consisted of five hides of land. She also persuaded her husband to bestow the manor of Taunton on the church of Winchester. In 737 Queen Frithugyth made a pilgrimage to Rome with Forthere, Bishop of Sherborne, which journey is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Upon her return, the queen seperated from her husband, abandoned all her possessions, and became devoted to the religious life. She was interred within Winchester Cathedral.

Fritigil – (fl. c380 AD)
Marcommanian barbarian queen
Queen Fritigil sought advice from Ambrose, Bishop of Milan concerning instruction in the Christian religion. Fritigil also enlisted Ambrose’s aid in her attempt to convert her husband. Paulinus of Milan mentions the queen in his Vita S. Ambrosii, but does not record the name of her husband.

Frodeberta – (fl. c750)
Frankish saint
Frodeberta resided at Amilly in brie in the eighth century, perhaps as a recluse, and is sometimes referred to as Flobarde. The church venerated Frodeberta as a saint (April 2), and she was mentioned by Cahier in his Caracteristiques des Saints dans l’art populaire and by Guerin in his Petits Bollandistes.

Frodsham, Sarah – (1761 – after 1800)
British stage actress
Frodsham was born in York, the daughter of actor Bridge Frodsham (1734 – 1768). She was married firstly to Reily, and secondly (1792) to George Inchbald (died 1800), the stepson of the famous author Elizabeth Inchbald. Frodsham made her stage debut at the Crow Street Theatre in Dublin (1777), and worked in Manchester, Lancashire, and at the Haymarket Theatre in London, in Norwich, Norfolk (1788 – 1789), and in Lincoln. She retired from the stage altogether after her second marriage.

Frohberg, Regina – (1783 – 1850) 
Jewish-German author and translator
Frohberg was born in Berlin, Prussia. Later converting to Christianity (1813), her first novel Schmerz der Liebe (Pain of Love) was published anonymously (1810) and she wrote other works using the pseudonym of ‘F.’ she also translated and edited French plays, which were published as Theater (1818).

Frohlich-Sandner, Gertrude – (1926 – 2008)
German politician
Gertrude Kastner was born (April 25, 1926) in Vienna. Gertrude was married and after WW II she became a politician with the Social Democratic Party (SDP), spending several decades in public service as Gertrude Frohlich-Sandner. She was appointed as honorary citizen of Vienna (1993). Gertrude Frohlich-Sandner died (June 13, 2008) aged eighty-two, in Vienna.

Frojmark, Kristina – (1957 – 2004)
Swedish television personality
Kristina was the wife of Bjorn Frojmark, a wealthy businessman. She often appeared in the media as a member of the international jet-set class, but achieved celebrity status when she appeared on a popular reality television series, as one of twelve contestants who ran and organized a Stockholm farm. This program was broadcast on TV4.  Kristina Frojmark, her husband, and two children, were all killed at Khao Lak in Thailand (Dec 26, 2004) victims of the Boxing Day tsunami, which followed an underwater earthquake in the Indian Ocean.

Frolich, Henriette – (1768 – 1833) 
German novelist
Frolich wrote poetry from the age of ten. Sufferring the loss of property during the Napoleonic wars, her work was heavily influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution. She was best remebered for her Utopian novels Virginia oder die Kolonie von Kentucky (Virginia or the Colony of Kentucky) (1819).

Froman, Jane – (1907 – 1980)
American popular vocalist and actress
Jane Froman was born in University City, Missouri, and attended college in Columbia, and then attended the University of Missouri. She began her vocal career as a singer with a Cincinnati radio station in Ohio, and then joined the Paul Whiteman band. Froman appeared in the film, Stars Over Broadway (1935), and appeared on Broadway in several musicals such as Ziegfeld Follies (1934), Keep Off the Grass (1940), and Artists and Models (1943). Her career nearly ended when she suffered horrendous injuries following a plane crash, near Lisbon, Portugal (1943), whilst she was touring to entertain the troops during WW II. Froman recovered after extensive surgery, and went on tour to entertain the troops in Europe. Her successful return to the stage was the subject of the film With a Song in My Heart (1952), which starred Susan Hayward as Froman, and used Froman’s voice for the popular songs such as ‘They’re Either Too Young or Too Old’ and ‘Blue Moon.’ Jane Froman was married twice but remained childless. Jane Froman died (April 22, 1980) in Columbia, Missouri, aged seventy-two.

Fromkin, Victoria Alexandra Landish – (1923 – 2000)
American linguist
Fromkin was born in Paissac, New Jersey, and graduated in economics from the University of California at Berkeley (1944). After marriage and raising a child Victoria returned to school in his thirties to study linguistics. Victoria received a master’s degree (1963) and a PhD (1965) from UCLA, and joined the faculty of that institution. From 1980 – 1989 she was vice-chancellor of graduate programs at UCLA, one of the first women in within the University of California to ever hold such a position. She was the author of An Introduction to Language, which ran into six editions.

Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda – (1889 – 1957)
German-American psychoanalyst and psychiatrist
Fromm-Reichmann was born (Oct 23, 1889) at Karlsruhe in Baden, Germany, the daughter of a Jewish merchant and bank director. She was the author of Principles of Intensive Psychotherapy (1950), and was awarded the Adolf Meyer Award from the Association for the Improvement of Mental Hospitals (1952). Frieda Fromm-Reichmann died (April 23, 1957) in California, aged sixty-seven.

Fronilde (Froila) – (c1130 – c1196) 
Spanish religious reformer
Fronilde presented the monastery of Ferreyra to that of Meyra (1175), both being in the diocese of Lugo, in Galicia, thereby placing it under the authority of Abbot Vidal, and subjecting it to Cistercian rule, which had been then newly introduced to Spain, and had acquired a reputation for sanctity. After securing a promise from her family that this property should never be reclaimed by them, but regarded as a permanent bequest, Fronilde gave a large donation to Ferreyra and to all the nuns who chose to enter the Cistercian order there. Her own daughter Guyomar confirmed this gift on the condition that she or any other member of their family who chose to become a nun should be admitted there. At her own death she was interred in the cloister of Ferreyra abbey, and venerated as a saint.

Fronsac, Alaaz de – (fl. c1010 – c1030)
French mediaeval heiress
Alaaz was the daughter of Grimoald, Vicomte de Fronsac in Guyenne, and wife of Auduin II, count of Angouleme. With the death of her husband to whom she had brought the vicomte of Fronsac, Alaaz’s two sons, Guillaume ‘Chaussard’ and Armand, were robbed of their rights in Angouleme was their uncle Geoffrey, though it remains possible that these sons were disinherited by their father due to the crimes of countess Alaaz.

Fronsac, Anne de Caumont, Duchesse de – (1574 – 1642)
French heiress
Anne de Caumont was the daughter of Geoffrey, siegneur de Caumont, in Guienne, and his wife Margeurite de Lustrac, the widow of Jacques d’Albon, Marquis de Fronsac. Her mother betrothed Anne firstly to Jean d’Aubigny, Prince de Carency, but broke off this arrangement in order to marry her to a prince of the blood, Francois d’Orleans-Longueville (1573 – 1631), Comte de St Pol. Anne inherited the important fiefs of Caumont and Fronsac, which became the title of her husband’s dukedom which was granted by Henry IV. Anne’s only child Leonor d’Orleans-Longueville (1605 – 1622), died young and unmarried, and her inheritance was later acquired by Cardinal Richelieu, who passed them to his nephew, Armand de Maille, who then became duc de Caumont and duc de Fronsac.

Frontenac, Anne de La Grange-Trianon, Comtesse de – (1632 – 1707)
French courtier
Anne de La Grange-Trianon was known as Madamoiselle de Neuville before she was married to Louis de Buade-Frontenac, Comte de Palluau et de Frontenac (1620 – 1698), who served two terms as the Governor-General of Quebec in Canada (1672 – 1682) and (1689 – 1698). Beautiful and elegant, Madame de Frontenac attended the precieuse salon which was held by the Marquise de Rambouillet, and served as lady-in-waiting to Anne Marie Louise d’Orleans, Duchesse de Montpensier (La Grande Madamoiselle), the cousin of Louis XIV, together with the Comtesse de Fiesque, and was a prominent figure during the wars of the Fronde. She later accompanied her mistress into exile at the Chateau de Saint-Fargeau.
The comtesse later refused an offer to return to court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Therese, preferring to remain away from the court in the company of her friend Madeleine d’Outrelaize, with whom she resided for over thirty years. The comtesse contributed to Madamoiselle’s Memoires, but after a strong disagreement she and Madame de Fiesque left Saint-Fargeau, and the princess satirized them in her novel L’Histoire de la Princesse de Paphlagonie (1659). Her portrait is preserved at the Palace of Versailles.

Frontiana (Frontina) – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Frontiana was a native of Nikomedia in Asia Minor. She was arrested with a group of Christians during the persecutions organized by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods and was killed. She was revered as a saint (March 14), her feast recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Frontiere, Georgia – (1927 – 2008)
American sportsteam owner
Georgia Irwin was born (Nov 21, 1927) in St Louis, Missouri, the daughter of an insurance salesman and the entertainer Lucia Pamela. She attended college and studied to become a secretary. She later moved to Los Angeles in California in a bid to become an actress and established herself as a popular dancer in Miami in Florida. Georgia was married seven times and retained the surname of Frontiere. By her last marriage (1957) with the millionaire manufacturer Carroll Rosenbloom owner of the NFL (National Football League), Georgia inherited the Rams football team in Anaheim in California (1979). Mrs Frontiere then served as chairman of the Rams whom she moved to St Louis. She was present when the Rams had their famous win over the Tennessee Titans at the Siper Bowl XXXIV (1999) in St Louis. Georgia Frontiere died (Jan 18, 2008) aged eighty, in Los Angeles.

Fronzi, Renata – (1925 – 2008)
Argentinian-Brazilian film and television actress
Ranta Mirra Ana Maria Fronzi was born (Aug 1, 1925) in Sante Fe in Argentina, the daughter of theatre performers. She was raised in Santos in Brazil and she made her stage debut at the Theatro Municipal in Sao Paulo in Na Peca Sol de Primavera (1940). Fronzi later made films with the Atlantida Cinematografica movie studio and her credits in this field included Minha Doce Namoranda (1971), Chega Mais (1980), Corpo a Corpo (1984) and A Idade da Loba (1995).
Fronzi also worked in television where she was best known for her role of Helena in the program Familia Trapo (1967 – 1971) and her recurring role in Malhacao (1996 – 1997). She was the mother of the Brazilian screenwriter Cesar Ladeira Filho. Renata Fronzi died (April 15, 2008) aged eighty-two, at Barra da Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro.

Frood, Hester – (1882 – 1971)
New Zealand landscape painter and printmaker
Frood was born at Bulls, New Zealand and was taken to England as a small child (1887). She studied art under D.J. Cameron, and her married name was Gwynne-Evans. Frood’s works included Tug and grain-barges, York Minster, and Canterbury Cathedral From a Quarry. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and examples are preserved in the National Art Gallery.

Frost, Elizabeth Hollister – (1895 – 1958)
American poet and novelist
Elizabeth Hollister was born in Rochester, New York, the daughter of George Hollister, and his wife Emily Weed, who were both acquaintances of Susan B. Anthony. Her first husband, Elliott Park Frost, was an academic, who was employed as a professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. Elizabeth Frost began writing poetry after the death of her husband (1926), and published the collections of verse entitled The Lost Lyrist (1928), Hovering Shadows (1929), and The Closed Gentian (1931). Her novels included The Wedding Ring (1939) and Mary and the Spinner (1946). She remarried secondly (1932) to Walter Blair. Elizabeth Frost died (April 9, 1958), aged sixty-two.

Frost, Frances – (1905 – 1959)
American soprano, novelist, and poet
Frost was born (Aug 3, 1905) in St Albans, Vermont. Apart from her sitinguished career in opera and music, she published several collections of verse such as Hemlock Wall (1929), These Acres (1932), Road to America (1937), and Little Whistler (1949), and she was also the editor of the, American Poetry Journal for two years (1933 – 1935). Frances Frost died (Feb 11, 1959) aged fifty-three.

Frost, Frances Dora – (1885 – 1934)
Australian educator
Frances Frost was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of William Frost. She was educated in secondary schools in Sydney. Frost taught for several decades in Stanmore and Rozelle, and served as president of the Association of Women First Assistants, and was also a representative at the Council of Teachers’ Federation. She remained unmarried. Frances Dora Frost died (April 22, 1934).

Frost, Lesley – (1899 – 1983)
American poet and author
Lesley Frost was born (April 28, 1899) in Lawrence, Massachusetts, the daughter of the poet Robert Lee Frost (1874 – 1963). She became a teacher in English at Rockford College and was the cultural officer and director for the US Information Service Library in Madrid, Spain. Frost established the summer language school for Spanish and French at La Granja. She published several works for children such as Not Really! and Digging Down to China. She also published the collection of verse entitled Going on Two and the autobiographical Derry Journals of Lesley Frost. Lesley Frost died (July 9, 1983) aged eighty-four, in Fairfield, Connecticut.

Frost, Dame Phyllis Irene – (1917 – 2004)
Australian prison reformer and activist
Phyllis Turner was born (Sept 14, 1917) in Croydon, near Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of businessman H.C. Turner. She was married (1941) to Glenn Frost, later the mayor of Croydon, to whom she bore three daughters. Phyllis became involved with prison reform due to the experiences of an acquaintance. She studied criminology at university, and established the Victorian Women’s Prison Council (1953), of which she was chairwoman for five decades. These years of tireless work culminated with the opening of the Metropolitan Women’s Correctional Centre at Deer Park (1996) renamed the Dame Phyllis Frost Centre (2000). She served as chairwoman of the Victorian Relief Committee (now VicCare) from 1975 – 2000, and also served for two years as the international president of the Freedom From Hunger Campaign and was appointed the first freeman of the city of Croydon (1989). In recognition of her valuable public service she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1974). Dame Phyllis Frost died in Melbourne.

Fruchter, Rachel – (1940 – 1997)
Anglo-American biochemist and health researcher
Rachel Gillett was born in London, the daughter of a botanist. She studied biochemistry at Oxford University, and public health at Columbia University. Soon afterwards she married Norman Fruchter. Rachel Fruchter served as the associate professor of obstetrics and gynaecology at the State University of the Health Science Center in Brooklyn, New York. She prepared several papers concerning the epidemiology of cancer, and spearheaded research into cervical cancer, whilst successfully connecting the human papilloma virus with AIDS. Dr Fruchter founded the woman’s health organization, Health Right, in New York, and was the author of Our Bodies, Our Selves: A Book By and For Women (1971). Rachel Fruchter was killed (July 12, 1997) in a bicycle accident in Brooklyn.

Fructuosa – (d. c305 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Fructuosa was a native of Syria. She was arrested with other Christians during the persecutions instigated by the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. She refused to abjure and was condemned to death in Antioch for her defiance. Her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Aug 23).

Frudoche     see   Findoca

Frum, Barbara – (1937 – 1992)
Canadian radio broadcaster and journalist
Frum was born (Sept 8, 1937) in Niagara Falls, New York, and was educated at the University of Toronto. Frum was famous for her radio and telelvision interviews of famous people, political leaders, and celebrities, and hosted the CBC radio program At It Happens (1971 – 1982), as well as the nightly news program The Journal. Barbara Frum died (March 26, 1992), in Toronto aged fifty-four.

Fry, Agnes – (1868 – 1957)
British author and naturalist
Fry she was the second daughter of the noted judge, Sir Edward Fry, and his wife Mariabella Hodgkin. Through her mother she was niece to the historian, Thomas Hodgkin (1831 – 1913), and she had numerous famous siblings. With her father she co-authored the scientific treatise entitled The Liverworts: British and Foreign (1911) and she herself wrote the Memoir of Sir Edward Fry (1921).

Fry, Elizabeth – (1780 – 1845)
British prison reformer
Born Elizabeth Gurney (May 21, 1780) at Earlham, near Norwich, Norfolk, into a prominent Quaker banking family. She received an interesting and varied education, and adopted the Quaker dress and speech after being impressed with the preaching of the American Quaker, William Savary (1798). She married a fellow Quaker, Joseph Fry (1800) to whom she bore a large family. Elizabeth became interested in social reform from an early age and was appalled by the treatment and conditions of female prisoners inside the notorious Newgate Prison. Fry provided the inmates with decent clothing, and read and explained the Bible to them. The basics of Fry’s rehabilitative principals were outlined in her Observations …. on Female Prisoners (1827). She later formed an association which extended the work she had begun to prisons outside of London, and to prison ships. Forty-four volumes of her own private journals were preserved in the Library of the Society of Friends, whilst her work Texts for Every Day of the Year (1831), was later translated into German, Italian, and French. Elizabeth Fry died (Oct 12, 1845) at Ramsgate, aged sixty-five.

Fry, Joan Mary – (1862 – 1955)
British Quaker social reformer
Fry was born (July 27, 1862) in London, the eldest daughter of the famous judge, Sir Edward Fry, and his wife Mariabella Hodgkin, sister to the historian Thomas Hodgkin (1831 – 1913). Her sibling included the painter Roger Fry and the penal reformer, Margery Fry. Joan Fry never married and during WW I she worked as a prison chaplain with conscientious objectors. After the war she travelled to Germany with others and established networks to distribute food to the starving populace (1919 – 1926). With her eventual return to England, Fry remained active in charitable concerns in London, and with organizing relief for the unemployed and their families. Her several published works included In Downcast Germany 1919 – 1933 (1944), which was later translated into German (1947). Joan Fry died (Nov 25, 1955) in London, aged ninety-three.

Fry, Laura Ann – (1857 – 1943)
American wood carver, ceramicist, designer and sculptor
Fry was the daughter to the famous woodcarver, William Henry Fry. She attended the Cincinnati School of Design (1872 – 1876) before she was taught the art of glazing pottery in Trenton, New Jersey. Fry was the first person to be employed by the Rookwood Pottery factory (1881) and with Louise McLaughlin and Clara Newton she was a founder member of the Cincinnati Art Pottery Club (1879). She introduced the use of the atomizer with underglazing techniques. Fry was later later appointed as a professor of industrial art (1891), and was later employed by the Lonhuda Pottery Company in Steubenville, Ohio (1891 – 1894).

Fry, Margery – (1874 – 1958)
British penal reformer
Sara Margery Fry was born (March 11, 1874) in Highgate, London, the daughter of the Quaker judge, Sir Edward Fry and his wife Mariabella Hodgkins, and was sister to the painter and art critic, Roger Fry and the eminent naturalist, Agnes Fry. She was educated at Miss Lawrence’s Schhol in Brighton (later known as the Roedean School), and at Somerville College, Oxford. She never married.
During WW I Fry worked with the Quakers’ War Victims’ Relief Mission in France (1915 – 1917) and was then appointed secretary of the Penal Reform League (1919 – 1926). After the League’s merger with the Howard Association Fry became the first official education adviser to Holloway prison (1922), and gave evidence against capital punishment to the Select Committee (1929). She then served as principal of her old alma mater, Somerville College (1926 – 1931).
During WW II she made extensive tours of China and the USA, and predicted the future prominence of China in world affairs. Fry served as governor of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (1937 – 1939) and represented Great Britain at the International Penal and Penitentiary Congress (1946) and presented a League memorandum to the Royal Commission against the death penalty (1949), a cause from which she never wavered. Fry was author of several works including A Notebook for the Children’s Court (1942) and Arms of the Law (1951). Margery Fry died (April 21, 1958) in London, aged eighty-four.

Fry, Mariabella Hodgkin, Lady – (1833 – 1930)
British Quaker
Mariabella Hodgkin was born in London, and was sister to the historian Thomas Hodgkin (1831 – 1913), and was the maternal granddaughter of Luke Howard. She was married to Edward Fry (1827 – 1918), a lawyer and judge who was later knighted by Queen Victoria (1877). She survived him as the Dowager Lady Fry (1918 – 1930), and died aged ninety-six. Her children were,

Fry, Norah Lillian – (1871 – 1960)
British educator and mental health pioneer
Fry was born into a prominent Quaker family in Clifrton, Bristol. Her married name was Cooke-Hurle. She worked tirelessly to gain government recognition and assistance for people sufferring with mental disabilities, being particularly concerned with the rights of disabled children. Fry was appointed as the first female government councillor in Somerset (1918). Her continued campaign for the disabled included the organization of proper schools and public housing for them. Norah Fry was an important member of the Somerset Association for Mental Welfare (SAMW) and a hospital was named in her honour in Shepton Mallet, near Glastonbury.

Fry, Ruth (Anna Ruth) – (1878 – 1962)
British Quaker pacifist and social reformer
Fry was born (Sept 4, 1878) at Highgate, London. She was the youngest daughter of the noted judge, Sir Edward Fry, and his wife Mariabella Hodgkin, sister to the historian, Thomas Hodgkin (1831 – 1913). WShe remained unmarried. With the end of the Boer War Fry became involved in relief work amongst Boer families and she was later appointed as honorary secretary of the Friends’ War Victims Relief Committee (1914) which performed valuable work throughout Europe and Russia during WW I. Fry twice visited the USA (1918) and (1923 – 1924), and during her second visit spoke ar dozens of meetings across the country. She was the author of A Quaker Adventure (1926), the preface being written by Lord Cecil.
Ruth Fry later worked with the United Nations and and was the treasurer (1936 – 1947) of the pacifist organization, War Resisters’ International. She was the author of Quaker Ways (1937) which was translated into German and Swedish, Victories Without Violence (1939), Three Visits to Russia (1942) and Ruth’s Gleanings, An Anthology (1943), amongst other published works. Ruth Fry died (April 26, 1962) in London, aged eighty-three.

Fryberg, Vivian Barnard, Lady – (1903 – 1996)
Australian woodcarver and political wife
Vivian Barnard was born (Aug 19, 1903) at Rockhampton in Queensland, daughter of the noted zoologist Henry Greensill Barnard. She had wished to study medicine but her father would only permit Vivian to train as a nurse. She spent five years working in nursing hospitals in India, and was then married (1939) the Jewish physician Abraham Fryberg against the wishes of her family. During the war she worked as a hospital matron at Maryborough.
Her husband later served as the director-general of Health and Medical Services in Queensland (1947 – 1967), and when Sir Abraham was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1968) Vivian became Lady Fryberg. Lady Fryberg’s agreement that her son be inoculated with the Sabin vaccine against polio, together with the son of the Queensland premier Vincent Gair, led to the general acceptance of the vaccination by the Queensland public. A talented watercolour painter and woodcarver, her carved furniture was exhibited at the Queensland Industries Fair whilst she had an especial talent for producing carved Australian animals and marsupials. With Sir Abraham’s death she became the Dowager Lady Fryberg (1993 – 1996). Lady Fryberg died (July 13, 1996) aged ninety-two, in Brisbane.

Fryer, Jane – (1833 – 1917)
Anglo-Australian political activist
Born Jane Minns in England, she was the wife of John Robbins Fryer. Before immigrating to Australia she was associated with the Ragged School Movement and the Chartists. Fryer was the founder of the Australian Secularist Association and supported the anti-conscription movement as well as the Women’s Franchise movement.

Fryer, Katharine Homer – (1907 – 1997)
American artist and educator
Katharine Homer was born in New York, the daughter of the composer Sidney Homer. She studied piano and singing at the Curtis Institute of Music and the Mannes College. She travelled to France and studied at the l’Ecole Julienne in Paris. She became a solo pianist with various chamber music groups and worked as a choir director in New York. Homer also had her paintings exhibited in Paris and in New York. Katharine became the wife (1934) of Dr Douglas Fryer, the noted industrial psychologist and author, to whom she bore several children.
Mrs Fryer was appointed as the head of the Schizophrenia Foundation of New York (1969) which promoted help and treatment for the mentally disabled. She then founded the Fryer Research Center clinic for outpatients in Manhattan of which she was director for over two decades (1971 – 1996). She published Kathy: A Young Mother’s True Story of a Young Girl’s Fight to Regain Health (1956) and The Story of Barbara (1997) which dealt with the suicide of her teenage daughter, and an account of her married life entitled Till Death Do Us Part (1994). Katharine Homer Fryer died (Jan 1, 1997) aged eighty-nine, in Manhattan.

Fryer, Peg (Margaret) – (c1652 – 1747)
English Stuart stage actress and dancer
Peg Fryer first appeared on the stage in the role of the child Nell in Ignoramus, which was performed by the Duke’s Company before the court of Charles II (1662). The name of Peg Fryer’s husband was Vandervelt. The suggestion that she was mistress to the notorious rake, Sir Charles Sedley, whose daughter Catherine was mistress to James II (1685 – 1688) is a confusion with fellow actress, Peg (Margaret) Hughes. Her career in the theatre was a long and accomplished one, and Fryer was still performing energetic jigs before appreciative audiences, aged into her seventies (1720). She was still performing at Haymarket (1723), and died aged about ninety-two. The Scots Magazine (1786) declared that Peg Fryer was aged one hundred and seventeen years at her death, but this is a gross exaggeration.

Fu – (c22 – 1 BC) 
Chinese empress consort
Fu was the daughter of Fu Yan, she became wife to emperor Aidi (25 – 1 BC), of the Han Dynasty, being married to him around the time of his accession (7 BC). His rather dissolute habits, notably his infatuation with the male favourite, Dong Xian, ensured that the Imperial marriage remained childless. Fu was granted the Imperial titles at her husband’s accession, whilst her father was created marquis of Kongxiang. With the emperor’s death (Aug 15, 1 BC), control of the empire was taken over by the Dowager Grand empress Wang, and her nephew, Wang Mang. To prevent any possible move for political power by empress Fu’s family, they were all exiled, or dispossessed of their estates. Empress Fu was, by Imperial decree, degraded to the rank of a commoner for reportedly intriguing with the succession. On receiving news of this, Fu committed suicide in the gardens of her palace.

Fuchs, Lillian – (1903 – 1991)
American violinist, composer and teacher
Fuchs was born in New York, and was taught the piano and violin by her father. She later studied the violin under Franz Kneisel ay the Julliard School in New York (then the New York Institute of Musical Art), and made her debut in New York as a violinist (1926), but then changed to the viola. She was married to Ludwig Stein to whom she bore several children.
Fuchs performed with many chamber groups, most notably the Perole String Quartet, and also appeared with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Casals Festival Orchestra. She was the first violist to both perform and record the six solo cello suites from Bach.  She later taught the viola at the Manhattan School of Music for three decades (1962 – 1991), and also at the Julliard School (1971 – 1993). Her students included Lawrence Dutton, Pinchas Zukerman and Isaac Stern. Fuchs composed several works for the viola such as Twelve Caprices for Viola and, Sixteen Fantasy Etudes for Viola Solo, and the solo piece Sonata Pastoral. Lillian Fuchs died (Oct 6, 1991) in Englewood, New Jersey, aged ninety-one.

Fugger, Barbara – (c1427 – 1497)
Flemish industrialist and successful business entrepreneur
Barbara Basinger was the daughter of Franz Basinger, the master of the Augsburg mint in Bavaria, and was married to Jakob Fugger. With the death of her husband (1469) Barbara Fugger and and three of her sons took over the administration of the family business, with great success. With her son Peter’s death she successfully prevailed upon her son Jakob to take his place and return to the family from Venice. Barbara Fugger died (March 23, 1497).

Fugger, Nora (Eleonore) – (1864 – 1945)
German courtier and memoirist
Princess Nora was born into the princely family of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein, and became the second wife of Karl, fifth Prince Fugger von Babanhausen (1861 – 1925), whom she survived two decades as Dowager Princess (1925 – 1945). Nora Fugger attended the Imperial court in Vienna during her youth, and was a friend of Baroness Marie Vescera, the mistress of Crown Prince Rudolf, who died in a supposed suicide pact at the hunting lodge of Mayerling (1889). After the death of her husband, the princess published her memoirs entitled Im Glanz der Kaiserzeitl (1931).

Fujikawa, Gyo – (1908 – 1998)
Japanese-American children’s author
Fujikawa was born in Berkeley, California, the daughter of Japanese immigrant farmer, and studied at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles. Gyo Fujikawa worked in New York with the advertising department of Walt Disney Studios, but was interned in Arkanasas with her family during WW II. Despite this, she continued to work, providing magazine illustrations and advertising for films. She illustrated the new edition of Robert Louis Stevenson’s, A Child’s Garden of Verses (1953). Fujikawa was most famous for writing and illustrating the popular book, Babies (1977), which was one of the first to depict infants of many races together, and sold well over a million copies. Later works included both words and illustration for See What I Can Be (1990) and Good Night, Sleep Tight, Shhh … (1990). Gyo Fujikawa died (Nov 26, 1998) in New York, aged ninety.

Fujiwara, Nagako (Fujiwara no Nagako) – (fl. 1107 – 1123)
Japanese courtier and diarist
Nagako Fujiwara served at the Imperial court as lady-in-waiting to the emperors Horikawa and Toba. She left a private journal in two parts, both written in verse, the first records the events surrounding the death of the emperor Horikawa (1107), whilst the second is of a more personal nature. This work was printed as Sanuke No Suke Nikki (The Emperor Horikawa Diary) and was translated into English in the twentieth century (1977).

Fukaura, Kanako – (1960 – 2008)
Japanese film and television actress
Born (April 4, 1960) in Tokyo, her film credits included So What (1988), Batoru rowaiaru (Battle Royale) (2000), Inugami (2001) as Momoyo Bonomia, Satorare (Transparent: Tribute to a Sad Genius) (2001), Dog Star (2002), Tasdogare Seibei (The Twilight Samurai) (2002), Ameyori (2005) and LoveDeath (2006). Fukaura also worked extensively in television and appeared on such popular programs as the series Sweet Home (1994), Hideyoshi (1996) and Nobuta wo produce (2005). Kanako Fukaura died (Aug 25, 2008) aged forty-eight, in Tokyo.

Fulford, Sibell Eleanor Maud – (1894 – 1980)
British literary figure
Sibell Adeane was the second daughter of Charles Robert Whorwood Adeane (1863 – 1942) and his wife Madeline Constance Blanche Wyndham. She was the sister of Colonel Sir Robert Philip Adeane of Babraham in Cambridgeshire. Sibell was married firstly (1914) to the Hon. (Honourable) Edward James Kay-Shuttleworth (1890 – 1917), the son and heir of Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth, Baron Shuttleworth. He was killed in an accident leaving Sibell with two children including Charles Ughtred John Kay-Shuttleworth (1917 – 1975) who succeeded as the fourth Baron Shuttleworth and left issue. Sibell’s daughter Pamela Catherine Mabell Kay-Shuttleworth (1915 – 1972) was married four times, the most notable of her husbands being the first two, William Keith Rous (1907 – 1983), fifth Earl of Stradbroke from whom she was divorced (1940) and Major Sir Thomas Assheton Frankland (1902 – 1944), eleventh baronet.
The Hon. Mrs Kay-Shuttleworth then remarried secondly (1920) to the Hon. Charles Frederick Lyttelton (1887 – 1931) a clergyman, the son of the eighth Baron Cobham, to whom she bore two sons. With Lyttelton’s death Sibell remarried thirdly (1937) to Roger Fulford (1902 – 1983) the noted journalist, historian and politician, as his second wife. Fulford was later knighted (1980) by Queen Elizabeth II and Sibell became Lady Fulford. She died shortly afterwards.

Fuller, Amy Vardy – (1869 – 1944)
Australian painter and vocalist
Fuller was born in Geelong, Victoria, the daughter of John Hobsin Fuller, and was the younger sister to Florence Ada Fuller. She sang and performed in London with Minnie Fischer, and settled for a period in Perth, Western Australia, where she worked as a vocal teacher. Fuller visited South Africa where she produced watercolour paintings of native wildlfowers, which were purchased by the Kew Herbarium. She remained unmarried. Amy Vardy Fuller died (Aug 18, 1944) in Melbourne.

Fuller, Anne – (c1763 – c1790)
Irish novelist
Little is recorded concerning her private life. Fuller is known as the author of three novels The Convent, or the History of Sophia Nelson (1786), which was published anonymously, the historical romance Alan Fitz-Osborne (1786), and The Son of Ethelwolf (1789). Anne Fuller died in Cork, of consumption.

Fuller, Elizabeth – (1775 – 1856)
American diarist
Fuller was born in Massachusetts, the daughter of a clergyman. She kept a private journal concerned with domestic affairs (1790 – 1792), which was published by Francis Everett Blake in History of the Town of Princeton, in the County of Worcester and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1759 – 1915 (1915).

Fuller, Florence Ada (1867 – 1946)
Australian painter
Fuller was born in South Africa, the daughter of John Hobson Fuller. She was the elder sister of Amy Vardy Fuller. She studied under Jane Sutherland and Robert Dowling in Melbourne, Victoria before travelling abroad to study in Paris (1894 – 1901). After her return to Australia she settled in Perth (1904). Florence Ada Fuller died (July 17, 1946) in Sydney.

Fuller, Frances – (1907 – 1980)
American stage, film and television actress and business executive
Fuller was born into a patrician family (Oct 4, 1907) in Charleston, South Carolina. She appeared on the stage in early childhood, and later attended the Catholic Academy of the Sacred Heart in Manhattanville, New York. Fuller played a full range of characters on stage and screen, but was best known for her role as Aunt Carrie in the popular sit-com Love of Life and later in career was appointed as president and director of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Frances Fuller died (Dec 18, 1980) in New York, aged seventy-three.

Fuller, Kathleen Elizabeth Farrar, Lady – (1907 – 1964)
British volunteer worker
Kathleen Farrar was born (May 9, 1907), the fourth daughter of Sir George Herbert Farrar, the first baronet (1911). She was married (1945) to Sir Gerard Henry Fleetwood Fuller (born 1906), second baronet from 1915, as his second wife, but their marriage remained childless. She was stepmother to Sir John William Fleetwood Fuller (1936 – 1981), the second baronet. Kathleen Fuller (or Farrar, as she was till 1945) served during WW II (1940 – 1945) with the women’s volunteer forces as a senior commandant of the M.T.C. (Mechanical Transport Corps. She also worked with the ambulance and nursing services with injured servicemen and in recognition of this service was appointed C.St J. (Commander of the Order of St John of Jerusalem), and was made MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George VI (1936 – 1952). After the war Lady Fuller was a member of the Wiltshire City Council (1949 – 1952) as well as being county superintendent of the St John Ambulance Brigade for Wiltshire. Lady Fuller died (April 8, 1964) aged fifty-six.

Fuller, Loie – (1862 – 1928) 
American dancer
Marie Louise Fuller was born in Fullersburg, Illinois, and entered the theatrical life at the age of four appearing in vaudeville. Attaining success as a dancer in 1889, Loie’s career was distinctive because of her innovative ‘skirt dances,’ which, combined with theatrical lighting, achieved spectacular effects such as The Fire Dance, Serpentine Dance, and Rainbow. After performing in Paris for several years, notably with the Folies Bergere in Paris (1892), Loie had her own theatre at the Paris Universal exposition (1900). Later she toured America (1909). Her last appearance was in London (1927) in a ‘Shadow Ballet’ using new silhouette techniques. Prominent artists such as Auguste Rodin and Toulouse-Lautrec used her as a model. Fuller published her memoirs as Fifteen Years of a Dancer’s Life (1913).

Fuller, Margaret – (1810 – 1850)
American feminist and author
Sarah Margaret Fuller was born (May 23, 1810) in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, the daughter of Reverend Timothy Fuller, and his wife Margaret Crane. Margaret was educaated privately at home by her father before attending a local school (1824), where she trained as a teacher. Regarded a child prodigy in Harvard society, Margaret was influenced early in her career by the likes of Ealph Waldo Emerson and Harriet Martineau. She later became a teacher Bronson Alcott’s experimental Temple School, in Boston and was then appointed headmistress of the Green Street School, in Providence, Rhode Island, where she joined the prominent literary circles of the period. Margaret held her famous ‘Conversation ‘classes which were designed to emancipate women from their traditional subservience to men. She encouraged cultural discussions amonsgt ladies’ groups, and was also introduced to transcendentalist theorists like Lydia Maria Child and Sophia Peabody, who affected her profoundly, and all varieties of social reformers.
Margaret Fuller served as a part model for the character of Zenobia in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Blithedale Romance (1852).
Margaret was appointed editor of the transcendentalist journal, The Dial (1840 – 1842) and later removed to New York (1844) where she was employed as a literary critic with the New York Tribune. She travelled to Europe, being feted in London, Paris, and Rome, achieving the distinction of becoming the first American foreign correspondent. She married in Italy (1847) to Giovanni Angelo, Marchese d’Ossoli, and became immersed in the activities surrounding the 1848 Revolution in that country, Margaret being active in organizing relief during the siege of the Roman republic by the French (1849), and after the republic was overthrown. Margaret, together with her husband and infant son Angelo, were all drowned in a shipwreck (July 19, 1850), during a storm off Fire Island, whilst returning from Europe to New York. Her written works included her first published work Summer on the Lakes (1844) and the feminist work which demanded equality for women Woman in the 19th Century and Kindred Papers relating to the Sphere (1845).

Fuller, Margaret Witter – (1871 – 1954)
American poet and author
Fuller was born in Brooklyn, New York. Her published works included A New England Childhood (1916), The Golden Roof (1930), The Complete History of the Deluge, in Verse and Pictures (1936), and Sonnets and Songs (1955). Margaret Fuller died (Feb 1, 1954) aged eighty-two.

Fuller, Mary – (1887 – 1973)
American silent film actress
Fuller was best known for appearances in such films as Frankenstein (1910), the popular serial What Happened to Mary (1912), Under Southern Skies (1915), and Public Be Damned (1917) amongst others. She retired from films in 1917 due to mental instability, and died decades afterwards in a mental hospital in Washington, D.C.

Fuller, Meta Vaux Warrick – (1877 – 1968)
Black American sculptor
Meta Warrick was born (June 6, 1877) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of a barbershop proprietor. She studied art and sculpture at the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts and then went to Paris for further instruction, attending the Ecole des Beaux Arts amd the Colarossi Academy (1900 – 1902), and was introduced to Auguste Rodin, who admired her work, and encouraged her to continue. Meta Warrick was married (1909) to Solomon Carter Fuller, a physician, and bore three sons. Her most important works included The Crucifixion, which was made to commemorate the deaths of four Negro girls in a church bombing (1961), The Talking Skull in the Museum of Afro-American History in Boston, and The Dancing Girl, at the Cleveland Museum of Art. She was forced to retire from work in order to care for her husband, who had gone blind (1950). He died in 1953, and Meta survived him fifteen years. Meta Warrick Fuller died (March 13, 1968) in Framingham, aged ninety.

Fuller, Rosalind – (1892 – 1982)
British stage actress
Fuller was born in Dorset, and performed folk-songs with her sisters, travelling abroad to appear in concert in New York (1913 – 1917). With her return to Britain after the war however (1919), she became determined upon a stage career. Fuller was best remembered for her appearance as Ophelia in John Barrymore’s production of, Hamlet (1922), which played on Broadway, New York.  She was a talented and extremely versatile actress, and was particularly admired for her one-woman touring shows, during which she performed excerpts from the works of authors and poets such as Henry Lawson, Guy de Maupassant, Anton Chekhov, Charles Dickens, and Daisy Ashford, amongst many others. Rosalind Fuller’s contribution to the arts was acknowledged publicly when she was appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1966). Rosalind Fuller died (Sept 15, 1982) in London, aged ninety.

Fullerton, Georgiana Charlotte Leveson-Gower, Lady – (1812 – 1885)
British novelist and philanthropist
Lady Georgiana Leveson-Gower was born (Sept 23, 1812) at Tixall Hall, Shropshire, the youngest daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, first earl of Granville and his wife Lady Harriet Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, fifth Duke of Devonshire. Lady Georgiana was married (1833) to Alexander George Fullerton (1810 – 1907) of Ballintoy Castle, county Antrim, Ireland, and of Westwood, Hants, England. Lady Fullerton’s novels included Ellen Middleton (1844), Grantley Manor (1847) and, Lady Bird (1852). After her conversion to Roman Catholicism and adoption of the Third Order of St Francis (1856), she largely wrote on religious themes. Oliphant wrote two biographies of her Victorian Novelists and, The Inner Life of Lady Georgiana Fullerton. Lady Fullerton‘s novel La Comtesse de Bonneval, histoire du temps de Louis XIV (1857) was translated into English (1858) and she also produced an eight volume life of Elizabeth Cary, Viscountess Falkland (1883). Lady Georgiana died (Jan 19, 1885) in Bournemouth, aged seventy-four.

Fullerton, Mary Eliza – (1868 – 1946) 
Australian feminist, suffragist, and writer
Fullerton was born (May 14, 1868) at Glenmaggie, Victoria, the daughter of a selector. She was educated at home and later attended a local secondary school. Fullerton became an active member of the campaign for women’s suffrage, and during WW I she joined the pacifist group Women Against War. Fullerton later removed to England (1922), where she wrote verses, using the pseudonym ‘E,’ her identity only being revealed after hder death. Her collections of verse included Moods and Melodies (1908) and Moles Do So Little With Their Privacy (1942). Despite these and several published novels, her best regarded work were her personal memoirs Bark House Days (1921). Mary Fullerton died unmarried (Feb 23, 1946) at Maresfield, Sussex, aged seventy-seven.

Fulton, Catherine Henrietta Elliot – (1829 – 1919)
Anglo-New Zealand diarist and social reformer
Catherine Valpy was born (Dec 29, 1829) in England, the daughter of an official of the East India Company. She was raised and educated in England and travelled in Italy with her family at which time she kept a journal of her activities. She sailed to Otago in New Zealand with her family aboard the Ajax (1848 – 1849). She was married at Dunedin to James Fulton, a landowner from Ravenscliffe. Mrs Fulton became a prominent member of the Presbyterian Church in Dunedin and conducted Sunday School and Bible study classes for over six decades.
Catherine Fulton kept a later set of diaries concerning her daily activities which covered six decades (1857 – 1915). Catherine was a prominent supporter of the women’s suffrage campaign and supported the Otago Benevolent Institution and the Otago Industrial School which was also supported by James Fulton. Mrs Fulton established the Dunedin branch of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1885) and served as first president. She later resigned after a disagreement (1892). With the death of her husband (1891) Catherine continued to manage the family stud farm at Ravenscliffe. Catherine Fulton died (May 6, 1919) aged eighty-nine.

Fulvia Flacca Bambula (Fulvia Bamabalia) (77 – 40 BC)
Roman Republican political figure
Fulvia Flacca Bambula was the daughter of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus Bambalio (the last was a nickname given acquired because of his hesitancy of speech), of Tusculum, and his wife Sempronia Tuditana. Fulvia was a descendant of the Gracchae, Claudian, and Licinii gens, and was the paternal granddaughter of M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul (125 BC). Her three husbands were Publius Clodius Pulcher (89 – 52 BC), then Gaius Scribonius Curio (died 49 BC) and thirdly Mark Antony, the troumvir, to whom she bore two sons.
Whilst Antony was in the east (41 BC), she attempted to promote his interests by opposing Octavian’s plan to settle military veterans in settlements throughout Italy. This was the caused of the Perusine War. Octavian’s hostile and extremely successful propaganda succeeded in blackening her reputation, and probably account for her being cast as the main villain of the proscriptions (43 BC). Fulvia was the first Roman woman to be portrayed on the coinage, as the goddess of victory. Her eldest son, Iullus Antyllus was executed after Actium (31 BC), whilst her younger, Iullus (43 – 2 BC), was executed for his intrigue with Julia Maior, the only child and heir of Augustus.

Fulvia Pia – (c120 – c170 AD)
Roman Imperial progenatrix
Fulvia Pia was the daughter of Fulvius Pius, a wealthy patrician, whose ancestors came from the city of Lepcis in Tripolitana, Africa. She was married to Marcus Fulvius Septimius Geta (c110 – 171 AD) and became the mother of Septimius Severus (146 – 211 AD), who succeeded Pertinax on the Imperial throne (193 AD). It is unknown whether Fulvia Pia survived her husband, but she had certainly died before her son assumed the Imperial purple. Her other two children were the future emperor’s elder brother, Geta (c143 – 205 AD), and a daughter, Septimia Octavilla, probably the wife of Lucius Flavius Aper. Fulvia Pia was the paternal grandmother to the emperors Caracalla (211 – 217 AD) and Geta (211 – 212 AD). Her daughter-in-law was Julia Domna.

Fulvia Sisennia – (fl. 34 – 62 AD)
Roman patrician
Fulvia Sisennia was the mother of the poet and satirist, Persius (Aulus Persius Flaccus), who was born at Volterrae (34 AD), and of a daughter, Persia. Few details are recorded of Fulvia Sisennia, apart from the fact that her fist husband died in 40 AD, and she remarried, only to be widowed several years afterwards. With the death of her son (62 AD), Fulvia Sisennia and her daughter inherited a considerable fortune from his will.

Fundania – (fl. c120 – c150 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Fundania was the daughter of Lucius Fundanius Lamia Aelianus, consul (116 AD). Her brother, Fundanius Plautius Lamia Silvanus, was married to Aurelia Fadilla, the elder daughter of the emperor Antoninus Pius (138 – 161 AD), and she was a cousin of Aelius Caesar, the heir of the Emperor Hadrian. Fundania was married (c125 AD) to Marcus Annius Libo (died after 138 AD), consul (128 AD) the paternal uncle of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). She was the mother of Marcus Annius Libo (c130 – 163 AD), consul (161 AD) and governor of Syria, and of Annia Fundania Faustina, the wife of T. Vitrasius Pollio, consul ord. (176 AD).

Furley, Matilda – (1813 – 1899)
Anglo-New Zealand businesswoman and civic leader
Matilda Webb was born (May 30, 1813) at North Nibley near Dursley in Gloucestershire, the daughter of a wool and cloth merchant. She worked in her father’s mill at Dursley and was married (1835) to a weaver named Samuel Furley. They immigrated to Auckland in New Zealand aboad the Royal Admiral (1840 – 1841), and ran a general store until 1844 when they established a bakery and a trading-post at Onehunga.
Mrs Furley traded and bartered with the Maoris, and acted as a meat butcher for the local community. She later establoished a confectionary shop and Samuel Furley later became the licensee of the Royal Exchange Inn in Princes Street in Onehunga (1863). Her husband was involved in many business activities and Mrs Furley proved an able manager of their store and inn during his abscences. She was a prominent member of the Anglican Church and when the settlers evacuated their women and children to onehunga during the Waikato war (1863) Matilda Furley kept them supplied with bread at her own expense. Shortly afterwards she became a founder member of the Onehunga Ladies’ Benevolent Society. With the death of Samuel (1878) Matilda continued to run the bakery for some years. Matilda Furley died (Oct 22, 1899) aged eighty-six.

Furlong, Monica – (1930 – 2003)
British author, journalist, and religious reformer
Furlong was born (Jan 17, 1930) and began her literary career working as a freelance journalist. She became a regular columnist with The Spectator, and wrote concerning religion and spirituality.
Furlong wrote biographies such as, Puritan’s Progress: A Study of John Bunyan (1980), and Therese of Lisieux (1987), amongst others, as well as her own autobiography (1995). Her other works included Birds of Paradise: Glimpses of Living Myth (1995), which explored the spiritual life of the Australian aborigines, and Visions and Longings: Medieval Woman Mystics (1997). Monica Furlong was an advocate of religious reform, and became a strong supporter of the ordination of women within the Anglican Church. Other published works included With Love to the Church (1965), and C of E: the State It’s in (2000). Monica Furlong died (Jan 14, 2003) aged almost seventy-three.

Furlonge, Anne Goldsack, Lady – (1902 – 1975)
British lawn tennis champion and diplomatic figure
Born Anne Goldsack, she was married firstly to J.B. Pittnam and secondly (1952) to the noted diplomat, Sir Geoffrey Warren Furlonge (born 1903). Anne played at Wimbledon for the first time when she successfully beat the French champion, Suzanne Lenglen (1925). She played in tournaments throughout Britain, and in the USA, and reached the final of the ladies’ doubles at Wimbledon (1937). She reached the semi-finals of the women’s singles at Wimbledon (1929) and at Forest Hills (1932), on both occasions being beaten by Helen Wills Moody. Lady Furlonge retired from competition tennis (1939) and after her second marriage she accompanied her husband on his various foreign postings throughout the Empire, including Amman in Jordan (1952 – 1954), Sofia in Bulgaria (1954 – 1956), and Addis Ababa in Ethiopia (1956 – 1959). Lady Furlonge died (March 28, 1975).

Furman, Bess – (1894 – 1969)
American administrator, journalist and author
Furman was born (Dec 2, 1894) in Danbury, Nebraska, the daughter of a local newspaper editor. She attended school in Kirkville, Montana and was trained as a schoolteacher. After a long career in Omaha with the Associated Press, Bess left and joined the staff of the New York Times (1943).  For nearly twenty years she established herself as an authority on the historical facts concerning the White House, and was considered an expert concerning the lives of the presidential families. For two years (1961 – 1963) she served with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Her two books Washington By-Line (1949) and White House Profile: A Social History of the White House (1951), recorded her experiences. Bess Furman died (May 12, 1969) in Woodacres, Maryland, aged seventy-four.

Furness, Betty – (1916 – 1994)
American actress and consumer advocate
Elizabeth Mary Furness was born (Jan 3, 1916) in New York, and began her career as a model before making her first film appearance in Thirteen Women (1932). She also appeared in Magnificent Obsession (1935) and Swing Time (1936) with Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. She appeared in over three dozen movies but her career began to decline during the 1940’s. She then began a successful career in television commercials, most notably for Westinghouse products.
Betty Furness appeared on the popular panel program What’s My Line ? (1951) and then had her own series Meet Betty Furness (1953) which was sponsored by Westinghouse. During the presidency of Lyndon Baines Johnson Furness served as the Special Assistant for Consumer Affairs (1967 – 1969), after which she was appointed to serve as the first chairman and executive director of the New York State Consumer Protection Board (1970 – 1971). Furness later worked as a news anchor on The Today Show and her own program entitled Buyline: Betty Furness received the Peabody Award (1977). Betty Furness died (April 2, 1994) aged seventy-eight, in New York.

Furness, Edith Ellis    see    Ellis, Edith

Furness, Thelma Morgan, Lady – (1904 – 1970)
American-Anglo court figure
The mistress of King Edward VIII (1936) for five years (1929 – 1934), she was succeeded in his affections by Mrs Simpson, whom he later married, and whom she herself had introduced to the king. During her time as mistress she entertained at the prince’s estate of Fort Belvedere. Thelma was the daughter of Henry Hays Morgan, the American Consul-General at Buenos Aires in Argentina, and his wife Laura Kilpatrick. Her first marriage with James Converse ended in divorce, and she then became (1926), the second wife of Marmaduke Furness (1883 – 1940), the first viscount Furness, the noted shipping magnate. They were later divorced (1933). Lady Furness died (Jan 29, 1970) in Manhattan, New York, aged sixty-five. With her sister Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt she co-authored a volume of reminiscences entitled Double Exposure (1958). Her son Anthony (born 1929), the second Viscount Furness (1940 – 1995) died childless and the title became extinct.

Furniss, Grace Livingston – (1864 – 1938)
American dramatist
Furniss was born in New York. With Abby Sage Richardson she co-wrote two plays A Colonial Girl (1898) and The Pride of Jennico (1900). Other works of her sole authorship included Gretna Green (1903) and The Man on the Box (1915), of of which were successfully produced on the stage. Grace Livingston Furniss died (April 20, 1938).

Furnival, Fanny (Elizabeth) – (fl. 1728 – 1752)
British stage actress and vocalist
Fanny was married firstly to Thomas Furnival, and secondly to Roger Kemble. Her first role was in The Provok’d Husband at the Haymarket Theatre in London (1731). Fanny also performed in Smock Alley in Dublin, and in Belfast. Fanny was one attacked by the famous actress, George Anne Bellamy (1745 – 1746) for sabotaging her costume in a jealous rage over Bellamy’s popularity. Furnival’s career was mediocre and she died in obscurity.

Furnivall, Mary Frances Katherine Petre, Lady – (1900 – 1968)
British peeress (1913 – 1968)
Mary Petre was born (May 27, 1900) the daughter of Bernard Henry, fourteenth Baron Petre, and his wife Audrey Clark, daughter of Reverend William Robinson Clark, Prebendary of Wells.
Mary Petre was married twice, firstly (1920) to Captain Augustus Wellington Agar (1890 – 1968), from whom she was later divorced (1932), and secondly (1932) to William Dent, which marriage also ended in divorce (1944). She left two daughters and co-heiresses by her second husband. With the death of her father (1908), the barony of Petre devolved upon her uncle, whilst Mary Frances succeeded with Lord Mowbray, to the co-heirship of the ancient baronies of Strange de Blackmere, Talbot, Howard, and other ancient titles.
The barony of Furnivall had fallen into abeyance with the death of Edward, ninth Duke of Norfolk (1777), who had last held the title. This abeyance was terminated in her favour (1913), whereupon Mary succeeded as nineteenth Baroness Furnivall, the title having originally been created by Edward I (1295). Lady Furnivall died (Dec 24, 1968) aged sixty-eight, when the barony fell into abeyance between her two daughters, Rosamond Mary Dent (born 1933), a Benedictine nun at the abbey of St Mildred, Ramsgate, and Patricia Dent (born 1935), wife of Captain Thomas Hornby, and then Roger Thomas Bence, who had issue by both marriages.

Furry, Elda    see   Hopper, Hedda

Furse, Judith – (1912 – 1974)
British character actress
Furse specialized in matronly roles. Her film credits included Goodbye Mr Chips (1939), Black Narcissus (1947) with Deborah Kerr, Doctor at Large (1957), Carry on Regardless (1961), and The Adventures of Barry McKenzie (1972).

Furse, Dame Katharine – (1875 – 1952) 
British pioneeer service woman
Katharine Furse was born at Clifton, Bristol, the daughter of John Addington Symonds and his wife Janet Catherine North. Educated privately, with tripes to Davos, Switzerland and Italy, because of poor health, she married (1900) the painter Charles Wellington Furse (1868 – 1904) to whom she bore two sons. With the outbreak of WW I, Katharine developed the activities of the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD), established in 1909, and was sent to France by Sir Arthur Stanley, to organize work there, and head the first official VAD unit to be sent abroad. They were instructed to install rest stations along the lines of communication, the first at Boulogne. Returing in the spring of 1915, she became commandant-in-chief of the VAD’s, and was decorated with the Royal Red Cross (1916). She resigned in 1917 in order to become the director of the Women’s Royal Naval Air Service. She was created GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire) (1917) by King George V. Dame Katharine Furse died in London. Her husband’s portrait of her entitled, Diana of the Uplands resides in the Tate Gallery. Furse published her autobiography Hearts and Pomegranates (1940).

Furse, Margaret – (1911 – 1974)
British costume designer
Margaret Watt was the daughter of Arthur G. Watts, the noted illustrator for Punch magazine, and was sister-in-law to the actress Judith Furse. Margaret was married firstly to the art director Roger Furse, and became a specialist in costume design for stage and films.  Margaret Furse was awarded Best Costume Design for, Anne of a Thousand Days (1969), with Richard Burton as Henry VIII, and Genevieve Bujold as Anne Boleyn. She was nominated for an Academy Award for her costumes on five other occasions. She divorced Furse and remarried to the author Stephen Watts, though she maintained the Furse name for professional reasons. She died of breast cancer (July 8, 1974). Her portrait, painted by her first husband, is preserved amongst the collection in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Furse’s film credits included the Victorian drama Blanche Fury (1947), with Valerie Hobson, for which she was assistant costume designer The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958), which starred Ingrid Bergman The Lion in Winter (1968), with Peter O’Toole and Katharine Hepburn, as Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Mary, Queen of Scots (1971) with Vanessa Redgrave. Her last designing work was for the telemovie Love Among the Ruins (1975).

Furtseva, Ekaterina Alexievna (Yekaterina) – (1910 – 1974)
Russian politician
The first female member of the Soviet Communist Party’s Politburo, Furtseva was born (Dec, 1910) at Vyshni Volochek, in the Kalinin region. Ekaterina was educated along technical lines, and became a hard working party member. Furtseva was appointed as district secretary in Moscow (1942) and later became a member of the Central Committee (1956), the first woman to be so honored. She was a supporter of Nikita Kruschev, who arranged for her to become a member of the Politburo (1957 – 1961), but her time there was short, and she was not considered to be politically powerful. Her last appointment was as Minister for Culture (1960 – 1974). Ekaterina Furtseva died in Moscow (Oct 25, 1974) aged sixty-three.

Furujhelhm, Annie – (1860 – 1937)
Finnish suffragette and campaigner
Annie Furujhelhm was the daughter of a high-ranking admiral. She began her early career as a magazine journalist with the women’s publication Astra. Furujhelm was an early supporter of the campaign for women’s rights, and was elected ta member of the Finnish Diet, serving firstly under the Russians (1914 – 1919) and then as a member of the independent parliament (1922 – 1929). She was the instigator of many far reaching social reforms, and was a member of the Finland Swedish Women’s Union and of the International Alliance of Women.

Fusako – (1890 – 1974)
Japanese Imperial princess
Princess Fusako was born (Jan 28, 1890), the second daughter of the emperor Meiji (1867 – 1912) and his concubine, the lady-in-waiting, Sono Sachiko. She was half-sister to the emperor Taisho (1912 – 1926) and aunt to the emperor Showa (formerly Hirohito) (1926 – 1989). Fusako was married (1909) to Prince Kitashirakawa (1887 – 1923) to whom she bore four children, Prince Kitashirakawa (1910 – 1940) who was killed in action during WW II, and three daughters. Her husband was killed in a car accident near Paris (1923). The princess herself was badly injured but survived. After the end of the war Princess Fusako was relegated to commoner status (Oct, 1947) and was no longer officially considered a member of the Imperial family. Adopting the name of Kane, she served as lady custodian and chief priestess of the Grand Ise Shrine until her death. She never remarried and survived her husband more than five decades. Princess Fusako died (Aug 11, 1974) aged eighty-four.

Fusca (Fosca) – (d. c202 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Fusca was the daughter of Sirius, a nobleman of Ravenna. She was converted to Christianity through her nurse, Maura, and she received baptism. Despite the admonitions of her family, who feared for her safety, Fusca refused to abjure her religion, and was arrested and taken before the prefect of Ravenna, Quintianus during the persecutions initiated by the Emperor Caracalla. The two women were killed by the sword outside the city, and their remains were interred in Tripolitana in Africa by some Christian sailors. Fusca was revered as a saint her feast (Feb 13) being listed in the Roman Martyrology.

Fuscina – (c465 AD – c508)
Roman patrician
Fuscina was the daughter of Hesychius, Bishop of Vienne, and was the sister of Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus, Bishop of Vienne (c494 AD – c518). Fuscina became anun during her youth, and her brother dedicated his poem De Virginitate to her. Avitus referred to Fuscina’s recent death in his Epistulae.

Fu Shou – (c182 – 214 AD)
Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty
Fu Shou was the daughter of Fu Wan, Marquis of Buqi, an eastern Han official. Her mother was probably the Princess Yung’an, daughter to the emperor Huandi (146 – 168 AD). She became the first wife of the last emperor, Xiandi (181 – 234 AD), who became emperor (189 – 220 AD), and Fu Shou was later granted the Imperial styles and titles (195 AD). The emperor Xiandi was dominated by various strong warlords during his reign, and when the emperor and empress were forced to flee to the old city of Louyang, the empress’s personal bodyguard were slaughtered, and several official died of starvation due to lack of adequate supplies. The situation improved considerably when the emperor was placed under the protection of Cao Cao, who caused the Imperial court to be removed to Xu (196 AD).
However, the empress quickly came to fear the power and ambition of Cao Cao, which kept her husband as a puppet ruler, and eventually wrote to her father begging him to evolve a plot to remove him. Fu Wan did not act and the letter was discovered. Cao Cao ordered Xiandi to depose the empress. When the emperor hesitated, Cao Cao ordered his troops to remove the empress, her sons, and her family, from the Imperial palace by force, and all were killed. Xiandi was forced to remarry to Cao, the daughter of Cao Cao, and later abdicated (220 AD).

Fusil, Louise – (1774 – 1848)
French actress, vocalist, and memoirist
Louise Fusil was the granddaughter of the famous actor, Fleury (Abraham Joseph Benard) (1750 – 1822). Her father was arrested and imprisoned during the Revolution, but Louise herself escaped these horrors. Louise emigrated and worked abroad in Belgium, Great Britain, and Belgium, using the surname ‘Fusil.’ She even travelled as far abroad as Russia (1806). After a successful career she wrote her memoirs (1832) entitled Souvenirs d’une actrice, par Mme Louise Fusil, which were later published in Paris in three volumes (1841 – 1846) just prior to her death.

Fyge, Sarah      see    Egerton, Sarah Fyge

Fyleman, Rose Amy – (1877 – 1957)
British children’s poet and verse writer, author and dramatist
Fyleman was born in Nottingham into a Jewish family. She attended a private school and later attended the University College in Nottingham. Her lack of academic skill prevented her studying as a teacher so she studied music in Paris and Berlin under Sir Henry Wood instead. Fyleman went on to study with great success at the Royal College of Music in London, and made her stage debut as a vocalist (1903) at the Queen’s Hall, which was well received.  She later staged a successful children’s opera at Guildford (1933). Fyleman remained in this profession until she decided to become a journalist for the popular Punch magazine (1916), which in turn, led to her career in writing for children. Her published works included Fairies and Chimneys (1918), The Fairy Flute (1921), and the collections Eight Little Plays for Children (1924), Nine Small Plays (1934), and Six Longer Plays for Children (1936). Fyleman was famous as the author of the classic poetic line “ There are fairies at the bottom of our garden.” Rose Fyleman died (Aug 1, 1957) aged eighty.

Fyndoc     see   Findoca