D

Daama (Damia)(d. c303 AD)
Greek Christian martyr
Daama was killed at Tomis, on the Black Sea, probably during the persecutions initiated by the Roman emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 27).

Daan, Petronella van    see   Pels, Auguste van

D’Abreu, Lucy Victoria – (1892 – 2005)
British centenarian
Born Lucy d’Souza at Dharwar in India (May 24, 1892), she was married (1913) to a surgeon, Abundius d’Abreu, to whom she bore several children. Her husband was a cousin by marriage to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother (1900 – 2002), and thus related to Queen Elizabeth II.  With the death of her husband, she finally removed to Scotland to reside near her children (1985). She finally moved into a nursing home, Annfield House, Stirling (1998), after a fall.
D’Abreu was officially confirmed as Britain’s oldest living person at the age of one hundred and ten (May, 2002) when she received an official visit from the Royal Family. She held the distinction of being the oldest person in Scotland (June, 2001 – Dec, 2005) and the oldest person in the United Kingdom (April, 2004 – Dec, 2005). Lucy D’Abreu died (Dec 7, 2005) at Stirling aged one hundred and thirteen years.

Dabrowska      see     Dubravka

Dabrowska, Maria(1889 – 1965)
Polish literary critic and author
Maria Dabrowska was born at Rusow, near Kalisz, and was educated in Belgium, and the University of Lausanne, in Switzerland. Prior to World War II she resided in France and Britain. Dabrowska’s lifelong sympathy with the lives of the Polish peasantry was revealed in her collections of short stories, Ludzie stamtad (The People from over There) (1925) and Gwiazda Zaranna (Morning Star) (1955).
Dabrowska is best remembered for her epic family saga, Noce i dnie (Nights and Days) (1932 – 1934), which was published in four volumes, and chronicled the lives of an ordinary Polish family from the 1860’s until the eve of World War I. Her many plays included the historical drama Stanislaw i Bogomil (Stanislaw and Bogomil) (1945), and she also produced a series of critical essays concerning the Polish born author Joseph Conrad, Szkice o Conradzie (Sketches of Conrad) (1959). Maria Dabrowska died (May 19, 1965) aged seventy-five, in Warsaw.

Dache, Lilly – (1898 – 1989)
American milliner
Lilly Dache was born at Beigles in France, and was apprenticed as a young girl to a milliner in Bordeaux. After her arrival in Paris she worked in the same capacity under the leading French milliners, Caroline Rebux and Suzanne Talbot before immigrating to the USA (1914). Dache settled in Atlantic City with relatives before moving to New York where she worked as a saleswoman in a laege department store.
Dache worked hard to save money and eventually bought out her boss’s business, which she used to establish the the famous Lilly Dache Building on East 56th Street. Well-known for her flamoyant style and exquisite taste, she favoured draped turbans and cloche hats, and designed hats for famous movie stars such as Marlene Dietrich and Betty Grable. After WW II Dache branched out into creative ready-to-wear dresses and accessories for the next two decades, and finally retired (1968). Dache edited The Glamour Book (1956) with Dorothy Roe Ellis. Lilly Dache died in France.

Dacier, Anne(1651 – 1720)
French translator and scholar
Anne Lefebvre was born at Preuilly-sur-Claise, near Paris, the daughter of Tanneguy Lefebvre, a Protestant scholar, who instructed her in Greek and Latin at Saumur. With the deaths of her father and first husband, she removed to Paris, where she later married (1683) the publisher and editor, Andre Dacier, and both of them converted to Catholicism. A specialist in the classics, Madame Dacier produced the first French translation of the Greek poet Sappho in Les Poesies d’Anacreon et de Sappho (The Poems of Anacreon and Sappho) (1681).
Anne collaborated with her husband on a translation of the works of the Roman poet Horace, and was herself the author of, On the Causes of the Corruption of the Tastes (Des causes de la corruption des gouts) (1714) and Homere defendu (In defence of Homer) (1716). She is best remembered for her translations of the Iliad (1699) and the Odyssey. Anne Dacier died (Aug 17, 1720) aged sixty-six, at Preuilly-sur-Claise.

Dacomb, Beatrice Eliza – (1863 – 1947)
Australian inventor
Beatrice Dacomb was born in Portland, Victoria (Nov 22, 1863), the daughter of a merchant. With her younger sister, Clara Thurston Dacomb (1867 – 1946), who likewise remained unmarried, Beatrice was the inventor of the Dacomb shorthand system, which was later officially adopted by the Department of Education in Victoria (1943).
The sisters co-wrote Web Speed (1921) and established the Dacomb College in Little Collins Street, Melbourne (1936). The Dacomb shorthand was later adopted in Buenos Aires in Argentina (1956) and in the kingdom of Tonga (1974). Beatrice survived her sister, and died (Feb 12, 1947) aged eighty-three, in South Yarra.

Dacre, Anne Sackville, Lady – (1534 – 1595)
English Tudor courtier
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Sir Richard Sackville, treasurer of the exchequer to Queen Elizabeth I, and his wife Winifred Brydges, later the wife of William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester. She was sister to Thomas Sackville, the first Earl of Dorset. Her marriage (c1550) with Gregory Fiennes (1539 – 1594), tenth Baron Dacre of Gilisland (1541 – 1594) remained childless but the couple resided together on the terms of greatest affection. A woman of imperious disposition, Lady Anne once addressed a letter of complaint to the queen against her husband’s sister Mrs Margaret Lennard, for raising false reports against her, and of trying to prejudice the queen against her. With the death of her mother Lady Winchester (1586) Anne inherited the former home of Sir Thomas More, chancellor to Henry VIII in Chelsea.
Anne survived her husband only eight months, and died (May 14, 1595) at Chelsea, aged sixty, and was interred with him in the More Chapel in Chelsea Old Church, where a magnificent marble monument was erected, which exhibited full life-size effigies of the couple under a Corinthian canopy festooned with flowers. Her epitaph described Lady Dacre in very laudatory terms. She made provision in her will for the construction of an almshouse to house twenty people and for a school for twenty children, the funds for these projects being taken from the income of the manor of Brandesburton in Yorkshire. She left Queen Elizabeth her collection of jewels and to her brother, Lord Dorset she left a portrait of the queen set in jewels.

Dacre, Barbarina Ogle, Lady (Lady Brand) – (1768 – 1854)
British poet, translator and dramatist
Barbarina Ogle was the daughter of Admiral Sir Chaloner Ogle, and his wife Hester, the daughter of John Thomas, Bishop of Winchester. Barbarina was married firstly to Valentine Henry Wilmot, a Guards officer, by whom she left a daughter, Arabella Wilmot, later the wife of Frederick Sullivan, vicar of Kimpton in Hertfordshire. She was married secondly (1819) to Thomas Brand, Lord Dacre (1774 – 1851) whom she survived as the Dowager Lady Dacre (1851 – 1854).
An accomplished and talented woman, Lady Dacre published a collection of verse in two volumes entitled Dramas, Translations, and Occasional Poems (1821), which included four plays, including Gonzalvo of Cordova (1810), Pedarias, a tragic drama (1811), and the Anglo-Saxon drama Ina (1815), which was produced by Richard Sheridan at Drury Lane Theatre. The Italian poet, Ugo Foscolo dedicated to Lady Dacre his Essays on Petrarch (1823), and she produced Translations from the Italian (1836) in eight volumes, which consisted mainly of the works of Petrarch. Lady Dacre edited two further works, Recollections of a Chaperone (1831) and Tales of the Peerage and Peasantry (1835). Lady Dacre died (May 17, 1854) aged eighty-five, at her home in Mayfair, London.

Dacre, Charlotte(c1772 – 1825)
British poet and novelist
Charlotte Dacre co-wrote with her sister Sophia, a volume of poems entitled Trifles of Helicon (1798). Dacre’s poetic style was heavily influenced by the Della Cruscan school, and she wrote cerse for the Morning Post newspaper (1802 – 1815) using the pseudonym of ‘Rosa Matilda.’ During this time she was involved in a liasion with the editor, Nicholas Byrne, to whom she bore three children before their eventual marriage several years later (1815).
Charlotte Dacre is best remembered for her lurid and salacious Gothic novel, Zofloya or The Moor (1806), full of murder and deception, in which the title figure eventually reveals herself to be the Devil. Her other novels included Confessions of a Nun of St Omer (1805), The Libertine (1807) and The Passions (1811), and a further volume of poems Hours of Solitude. After her death, Dacre’s husband Byrne was murdered by a mysterious masked figure who was never identified.

Dacre, Joan – (c1433 – 1486)
English Plantagenet heiress
Joan dacre was the daughter of Sir Thomas Dacre and his wife Elizabeth Bowet, the daughter of Sir William Bowet of Horsford, Norfolk. She became the wife of Sir Richard Fiennes. Joan inherited the barony of Dacre of Gilisland which title was held by her husband in her right from 1459 as the seventh Baron Dacre (1459 – 1483). Joan survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Dacre of Gilisland (1483 – 1486). Lady Joan died (March 8, 1486) and was interred at Herstmonceaux in Sussex.

Dacre, Magdalen – (1538 – 1608)
English Tudor courtier
Magdalen Dacre was born at Naworth Castle, in Northumberland, the daughter of William Dacre, third Baron Dacre of Gillisland, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Talbot, the daughter of George Talbot, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury. Magdalen was appointed as maid-of-honour to Queen Mary Tudor (1553), and walked in the bridal procession on the occasion of the queen’s marriage with King Philip of Spain (1554). Despite her attachment to the queen, Magdalen disliked King Philip, and on at least one occasion she resisted the amorous advances of this prince, indignantly beating his offending hand with a wooden staff. She later attended Queen Mary’s funeral at Westminster Abbey (Dec, 1558). Tall, stately, and beautiful, Magdalen served Queen Elizabeth in the same capacity, but was scornful of the immorality of the new court.
Magdalen Dacre refused the suit of Sir John Arundel, and was married instead (1558) to Sir Anthony Browne (1528 – 1592), first Viscount Montague (1554 – 1592), as his second wife. There were no children. A fervent Catholic, Lady Montague was not a frequent visitor to Queen Elizabeth’s court, though she was in attendance at the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots (1587). Nevertheless she and her husband entertained Queen Elizabeth at Cowdray Park in Sussex for a week (Aug, 1591). She survived her husband as the Dowager Viscountess Montague (1592 – 1608). A staunch Papist recusant, Lady Montague resided during her widowhood at the family mansion of St Mary Overy’s, Southwark, which was unsuccessfully searched on one occasion for gunpowder (1599). Two holograph letters survive from Lady Montague, addressed to her godson, John Caesar, master of the Court of Requests. Her life, written in Latin by Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon, was later translated into English (1627). Lady Magdalen Montague died (April 8, 1608) aged sixty-nine, at Battle Abbey, Sussex, and was interred with her husband at Midhurst.

Dacre, Mary Nevill, Lady – (c1519 – 1576)
English Tudor literary figure
Mary Nevill was the wife of Thomas Fiennes (1515 – 1541), ninth Baron Dacre of Gilsland. She bore him two sons, George Fiennes (died 1558) who was restored to the barony of Dacre as the first Baron Dacre (1548) and Arthur Fiennes (died 1561). Her husband was put to death (June, 1541) after being found guilty of having killed one of his guards. Lady Dacre worked for many years to rehabilitate her husband’s memory, which she finally achieved in 1558. Her portrait by Hans Eworth (c1555) now hangs in the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. It shows a smaller portrait of her husband, painted by Hans Holbein (1540) in the top left hand corner.
Sir Henry Wotton’s collection of stories from Italian romances, which he interspersed with verse and entitled A Courtlie Controversie of Cupid’s Cautels containing five Tragicall Historyes by three Gentlemen and two Gentlewomen (1578), was posthumously dedicated to Lady Dacre. Two copies of this work, both imperfect, are known, one was preserved within the Bodleian Library (1900) and the other is in the British Museum having one been owned by Thomas Corser (1793 – 1876) editor of Collectana Anglo-Poetical.

Dacre, Philippa Neville, Lady – (1386 – c1457)
English medieval peeress
Lady Philippa Neville was born at Raby Castle, Staindrop in Durham, the second daughter of Ralph Neville (1364 – 1425), the first Earl of Westmorland, and his first wife Margaret de Stafford, the daughter of Hugh, second Earl of Stafford, and a descendant of King Edward I (1239 – 1307). Philippa’s mother died in 1396, and her stepmother, Joan Beaufort, the daughter of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, was a granddaughter of King Edward III (1327 – 1377). Philippa was married by her father (1399) to another powerful northern border lord, Thomas Dacre (1387 – 1458), sixth Baron Dacre of Gilisland, to whom she bore a large family of nine children, all of whom were born at Naworth, near Bampton in Cumberland. Lady Dacre was living (July 8, 1453) and narrowly predeceased her husband who died (Jan, 1458). Her children included,

Dacre of Gilisland, Margaret   see   Fiennes, Margaret

Dada of Montfaucon – (fl. c1020 – c1050)
German noblewoman
Her mother Clothildis was the illegitimate daughter of the last Saxon emperor Otto III (983 – 1002) by an unknown mistress. Dada became the wife of Conan (died c1065), Lord of Montfaucon in Burgundy and was the mother of his successor Seigneur Richard I of Montfaucon (c1042 – c1090). Her younger son Hugh de Montfaucon entered the church and was a monk at the Abbey of St Benigne at Dijon before becoming Abbot of Flavigny (1097 – 1100). Hugh de Montfaucon recorded the known details of Dada’s family in his Chronicon. Through Otto III Dada was a descendant of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, and through her elder son she was ancestress of the counts of Neufchatel and Montbeliard.

Dade, Anne – (c1557 – 1612)
English Tudor noblewoman
Anne Cornwallis was the daughter of Richard Cornwallis of Shotley in Suffolk, and his wife Margaret Lowthe, the daughter and heiress of Lionel Lowthe of Sawtrey in Huntingdon. Through her father Anne was a descendant of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and Eleanor of Castile through their daughter Joan of Acre, Countess of Gloucester. Anne was married (c1575) to Thomas Dade (1556 – 1619) of Tannington, Suffolk, as his first wife. She bore him nine children including William Dade (1579 – 1660) of Tannington and Ipswich, Suffolk, who married twice and left issue. Anne Dade died (May 2, 1612) and was buried at Tannington with a monumental inscription. Her descendants survive in the USA.

Dade, Frances(1910 – 1968)
American stage and film actress
Frances Dade appeared on stage form the early age of sixteen. Blonde and attractive, Dade became a leading actress of the 1930’s, though her popularity waned after that period. Her film credits included Grumpy (1930), Raffles (1930), Dracula (1931), Seed (1931), Pleasure (1931), The She-Wolf (1931) and Daughter of the Dragon (1931) amongst others.

Daedalia, Manlia(fl. c390 – c420 AD)
Roman Christian patrician
Manlia Daedalia was born into a senatorial family and bore the style of clarissima femina. She was perhaps the sister of Flavius Mallius Theodorus, consul 399 AD. Daedalia never married and became a Christian nun (virgo sacrata) and died aged sixty, leaving her kinsman Theodorus as her heir. Daedalia is attested by a surviving inscription and by mention in an acclamation Daedalia, vivas in Christo, from Milan.

Dafrosa – (c325 – 363 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Dafrosa was the wife of Flavian, a former prefect of Rome, and mother of two daughters, Viviana and Demetria, the family being prominently Christian. During the Christian persecutions organized during the reign of the emperor Julian (361 – 363 AD), the governor of Rome, Apronianus, ordered the arrest and torture of Flavian, who was then banished to Aquae Taurinae (Acquapendente) where he quickly died. Dafrosa was placed under house arrest for several days before being taken outside the gates of the city and beheaded.  Her two daughters were imprisoned and martyred the following year. The church honoured her as a saint her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Jan 4).

Dagila – (c440 – 483 AD)
Gothic Christian martyr
Dagila was the wife of the steward of Hunneric, king of the Vandals. During the persecutions instigated against Christians by King Geiseric, Dagila had confessed her faith, but had been released. During Hunneric’s reign, she was again arrested and imprisoned, but this time she was condemned, and was beaten to death with whips and staves. The church honoured her as a saint (July 12), her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Dagmar of Bohemia     see    Margaret of Bohemia

Dagoe, Hannah – (c1737 – 1763)
British thief
Hannah Dagoe was born in Ireland, and immigrated to England at a youthful age, quickly becoming a hardened petty criminal. Arrested after breaking into and completely looting the home of a poor widow in Covent Garden, London, she was tried and condemned to death, being hanged at Tyburn (May 4, 1763). On her way to her execution, she cursed and reviled both the gathered crowds, and the executioner. Finally she broke free of her restraints, and stripped off her clothing which she then threw to the crowds, thus robbing the executioner of his prerequisites. She struggled with the executioner and jumped from the cart breaking her neck.

Dagory, Josette    see    Day, Josette

D’Agoult, Comtesse    see     Agoult, Comtesse d’

Dagover, Lil – (1897 – 1980)
Dutch film actress
Born Marie Antonia Siegelinde Marta Liletts in Madiven, Java, Indonesia, she was the daughter of a Dutch forest ranger. Educated in Germany, she was married to the actor Fritz Dagover (1872 – 1935) from whom she was divorced (1919). Darkly beautiful and enigmatic, Dagover made her silent film debut in Harakiri (1916) produced by Fritz Lang, which was followed by her appearance in the classic horror film, Das Kabinett das Dr Cagliari (The Cabinet of Dr Cagliari) (1919), produced by Robert Weine.
Dagover specialized in playing tormented or menaced heroines, and other film credits included Destiny (1921), Chronicles of the Grey House (1924), Tartuffe (1926), The White Devil (1930), and, Kreutzer Sonata (1935). Dagover also starred in films made in Sweden (1926 – 1927) and in France (1928 – 1929). Her only role in an American film was, The Woman from Monte Carlo (1931), but she continued to perform until her death, being awarded the West German Cross of Merit (1967). Her later films including Die Fussganger (The Pedestrian) (1973), Karl May (1974), and Geschichten aus der Wienerwald (Tales from the Vienna Woods) (1979).

Dahlgren, Madeleine Vinton – (1825 – 1898)

American novelist and essayist

Sarah Madeleine Vinton was born at Gallipolis, Ohio, the daughter if Samuel Finlay Vinton, a politician and Congressman. She was married firstly to David Converse Goddard, who died in 1862, leaving her with a daughter. She then became the wife (1865) of Rear Admiral John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren (1809 – 1870), friend to President Abraham Lincoln, a widower with two children. They had three more children, and became prominent members of Washington society.
Her essays include, Idealities (1859) and South Sea Sketches (1881), and she also produced the, Memoirs of Ulric Dahlgren (1872) and, Memoir of John A. Dahlgren (1882) who died in 1870. Dahlgren’s novels included, The Lost Name (1886), Lights and Shadows of a Life (1887), Divorced (1887) and, The Secret Directory (1896). Her last fiction work, The Woodley Lane Ghost, and Other Stories, was published posthumously (1899). Madeleine Vinton Dahlgren died (May 28, 1898) aged seventy-two.

Dahlinger, Evangeline Cote – (1894 – 1974)
American socialite
Evangeline Cote was born of French-Canadian parentage. Her family had theatrical connections and Evangeline was a cousin to the famous actor, Tyrone Power (1913 – 1958). Cote was originally employed at the Ford Company (1910) as a stenographer. Darkly attractive and self-confidence, she soon rose to head that department and attracted the attention of the automobile manufacturing magnate Henry Ford (1863 – 1947), whose mistress she became.
A harness-racer and an accredited pilot, she also carried a handgun in purse. Ford married her off to Ray Dahlinger, in to appease appearances, but it was amarriage of convenience only. Evangeline Dahlinger was the mother of Ford’s son, John Cote Dahlinger (b. 1923), though Ford never publicly acknowledged paternity. Despite this he gave Evangeline a one hundred and fifty acre property and mansion at Dearborn, whilst her mother and two brothers were also generously provided for. Dahlinger remained beside Ford until his death, when the family forced her to officially retire from the company. With the death of Clara Ford (1950) Ray Dahlinger also lost his position with the company. Her son later wrote her biography (1978).

Dahteste – (c1865 – after 1913)
Native American Indian warrior
Dahteste was a member of the Chiricahua Apache tribe. She was married to a warrior and had borne him several children, and also accompanied him on various raids against settlers. She later with the forces of the warrior leader Geronimo (1829 – 1909) and proved useful in negotiating his final surrender to the American cavalry. Dahteste was then kept imprisoned for two decades, firstly in Florida, and later at Fort Sill in Oklahoma. After her release she was taken to the Mescalero Apache Reservation in south central New Mexico, where she eventually died.

Daibu, Ukyo no – (1157 – after 1185)
Japanese courtier and diarist
Ukyo no Daibu served at the Imperial court as a lady-in-waiting to the empress during the Heian period. She kept a personal diary, with poetry, which was discontinued after the death of her lover sukomori (1185). These were later translated into English and published in the twentieth century as The Poetic Memoirs of Lady Daibu (1980).

Daidildis (Dadilde) – (fl. 884 – c890)
Queen consort of Navarre
Daidildis was the daughter of Lope I, Count of Pailhars and Bigorre, whilst her mother was a daughter of Raymond I, Count of Toulouse. She was sister to Dato II, Count of Bigorre. She was married (884) to Garcia II Jiminez, King of Navarre (c845 – c890) as his second wife, and survived him. Daidildis was the mother of Sancho I Garcia, King of Navarre (c885 – 925).

Dai Houying – (1938 – 1996)
Chinese novelist and writer
Dai Houying was born in central Anhui province into a relatively poor family. She attended university and trained as a teacher in Shanghai. During the Cultural Revolution she was forced to sit on a committee which condemned the poet Wen Jie, and the two formed an attachment. She was accused of counter-revolutionary behaviour and her husband divorced her. The government refused Dai and Wen permission to marry and Wen then committed suicide. Her grief at his death led to Dai taking up writing and she produced several novels including Humanity which was published in English as Stones of the Wall (1986). Her works have the recurring theme of suicide. Dai Houying was murdered in her own home in Shanghai, aged fifty-eight.

Dainton, Barbara Joyce – (1911 – 2007)
British survivor of the Titanic disaster
Barbara West was born (May 24, 1911) at Bournemouth in Dorset. As a ten month old baby Barbara accompanied her parents aboard the Titanic at Southampton (1912) as second class passengers, bound for Gainesville in Florida to visit relatives. Barbara, her sister and their mother survived the sinking of the ship and were rescued aboard the Carpathia but her father perished. She returned to England with her mother aboard the Celtic, and was later married (1952) to William Ernest Dainton. Mrs Dainton was a longtime resident of Truro in Cornwall, and always adamantly refused to speak of her experiences. Mrs Dainton died (Oct 16, 2007) aged ninety-six, in Truro. Her funeral at Truro Cathedral took place, at her express wish, prior to any public announcement was made of her death.

D’Albret, Jeanne     see    Jeanne III

Dalby, Amy(1888 – 1969)
American character actress
Amy Dalby usually appeared in old maidish role in films such as The Wicked Lady (1945), The Straw Man (1952), The Man Upstairs (1958) as Miss Acres and The Secret of My Success (1965), The Spy With a Cold Nose (1967), amongst others. Dalby, who also appeared as the duchess in the Italian film Fumo di Londra (1966) which appeared in Britain as Smoke Over London, was also a character actress in many British tevlevision series, most notably, the, New Adventures of Charlie Chan (1957), Z Cars (1962 – 1963), and seven episodes of, Dixon of Dock Green (1957 – 1965). Her later roles included appearances in the series The Avengers (1968), and as Dolly, one of the sisters of the elderly Mr Godfrey in the highly popular televison series Dad’s Army (1969). Amy Dalby died (March 10, 1969) aged eighty-one.

Dale, Esther – (1885 – 1961)
American character actress
Esther Dale was born in Beaufort, California (Nov 10, 1885) and was educated in Townsend, Vermont. She studied music in Berlin, Prussia, and established herself as a popular and talented lieder vocalist, her career being managed by her husband, Arthur Beckhard, who narrowly predeceased her (March, 1961). Dale worked on the stage on Broadway in New York, and starred in the play, Carrie Nation (1933), appearing with Mildred Natwick and James Stewart.
Her first film appearance was in Crime Without Passion (1934) and she usually appeared in grandmotherly roles. Dale featured in films such as, Dead End (1937), The Mortal Storm (1940), North Star (1943), Ma and Pa Kettle (1949), On Moonlight Bay (1951), as Aunt Martha, and, Ma and Pa Kettle at the Fair (1952). Dale also appeared in many popular television series, such as, Cavalcade of America (1952), Four Star Playhouse (1954), Maverick (1957), Wagon Train (1957), The Donna Reed Show (1959), and, Checkmate (1961). Esther Dale died (July 23, 1961) aged seventy-five, in Los Angeles, California.

Dale, Margeurite Ludovia – (1883 – 1963)
Australian feminist and dramatist
Margaret Dale was born in Boorowa, New South Wales (Oct 22, 1883), the daughter of a grazier, and great-niece to the famous explorer, Hamilton Hume. She was educated at home and at the Ascham School in Sydney. Margeurite was married (1907) to a solicitor, George Samuel Dale, to whom she bore two daughters. Dale was a prominent campaigner for the Women’s Legal Status Act (1918) and was active within the Women’s Reform League of New South Wales, later being elected presidenr of the re-organized Women’s League (1923).
Dale wrote several plays including, Secondary Considerations, which was produced in Sydney by Gregan McMahon (1921), and The Mainstay, which was also performed in Sydney (1923), to raise funds for the International Woman Suffrage Alliance’s congress in Rome. Other plays included Paris in the Air and Meet as Lovers, both produced in Sydney (1930). Margeurite Dale died (May 13, 1963) aged seventy-nine, at Neutral Bay in Sydney.

Daley, Cass(1915 – 1975)
American commedienne and actress
Born Katherine Dailey in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, she was the daughter of a streetcar conductor. She began her stage career as a nightclub vocalist in Camden, New Jersey. Known for her boisterous vocal style and raucous sight-gags, Daley did some work in New York with the Ziegfeld Follies (1936 – 1937) before being hired by Paramount Studios, and she appeared in several films, such as, The Fleet’s In (1941), Star Spangled Rhythm (1942), Crazy House (1943), Out of This World (1945), Ladies’ Man (1947), Here Comes the Groom (1951), and Red Garters (1954). Daley was the top rating radio commedienne for her appearances on The Fitch Bandwagon (1946). She later retired from the business to raise her family, a decision she later came to regret. Daley later made several more films including The Spirit is Willing (1967), and Norwood (1969), and organized a stage comeback in the vaudeville revue, The Big-Show of 1936 (1972). Cass Daley died (March 22, 1975) aged fifty-nine, in Hollywood, California, aged fifty-nine, after a freak accident in her apartment.

Daley, Henrietta Jessie Shaw – (1890 – 1943)
Australian civic leader
Henrietta Obbinson was born at Malvern, in Melbourne, Victoria (May 17, 1890), the daughter of Thomas Pryce Obbinson, a real estate agent. She was eductaed at the Presbyterian Ladies’ College, Rosbercon College at Brighton, and at Melbourne University. She was married (1917) to Charles Daley, a civil servant, to whom she bore five children. Daley moved with her family to Canberra (1926) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), where she soon immersed herself in civic concerns, and joined the Canberra Society of Arts and Literature. She appeared in several of their stage productions and served as wardrobe mistress.
Henrietta Daley served as memberm and then as president of the Canberra Golf Club Associates and was first president of the Canberra Ladies’ Choir. Daley later served as president of the Girl Guides (1930) and later served as district commissioner (1931 – 1932). After a disappointing run as president of the Mothercraft Association (1935), she resigned and devoted her considerable energies to acting as a hostess and cultural organiser for the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association). Daley later used her influence to help establish the first National Council of Women in the ACT, and was elected as founding-president (1939). Henrietta Daley died of cancer (Nov 10, 1943) aged fifty-three, at Mosman, in Sydney, New South Wales.

Daley, Jean – (1881 – 1948)
Australian political organizer
Jane Daley was born (Sept 24, 1881) at Mount Gambier in South Australia. She was educated by nuns and known as ‘Jean’ and remained unmarried. Jean Daley later joined the labour movement in Melbourne, Victoria and joined the anti-conscription campaign. Daley served as the first president of the Women’s Central Orgaising Committee (1918) and worked to improve conditions for working women and educational opportunities for children from poorer families.
Jean Daley became the first female Labour candidate in Victoria when she stood for the seat of Kooyong (1922) though she proved unsuccessful. She was later appointed as the women’s orgaiser of the state Australian Labour Party, and then served as the secretary of the Labour Women’s Interstate Executive until 1947. Jean Daley died (Nov 5, 1948) aged sixty-seven, in Melbourne.

Dalgarno, Anne Patricia – (1909 – 1980)
Anglo-Australian nurse and politician
Anne Smith was born (July 6, 1909) at Wrentham in Suffolk, England, the daughter of a farmer. She was great-niece to the noted churchman, Cardinal Patrick Moran. Educated by governesses and nuns, she immigrated to Western Australia with her family (1926). Anne trained in Perth as a registered nurse and midwife (1933) and worked at the Women’s Hospital in Crown Street, Sydney, New South Wales. She was married (1937) to Kenneth Dalgarno, a civil engineer, to whom she bore two children. Dalgarno removed to Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) (1948), where she later established (1954) the Nurse’s Club, which later evolved into the Nursing Service Agency, which supplied nurses for home and specialist hospital care. She ran the service from her own home for twenty-five years (1954 – 1979). Dalgarno served as president (1965 – 1966) of the ACT branch of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation. Dalgarno became involved in politics in Canberra, and was elected as a Liberal candidate (1958) and then as an Independent (1966), and her standing for the seat of the ACT in the House of Representatives proved unsuccessful (1967). Dalgarno was chairman of the recreation and culture committee of the ACT Advisory Council (1970 – 1974). She established the ACT Emergency Housing Committee (1973) and was elected MBE (Member of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1977) because of her contributions to public life. Anne Dalgarno died (May 6, 1980) aged seventy, in Canberra (May 6, 1980).

Dali, Gala Elena – (1894 – 1982)
Russian-French model
Gala Elena Dali was the wife (1935) of the noted surrealist painter Salvador Dali (1904 – 1989). She was born Elena Dmitrievna Diakonovna, in Kazan, in Russia, and emigrated after the Revolution, settling in France. Gala was married firstly to Paul Elivard, but first met and captivated the decade younger Dali in Paris (1932). She married him (1935) and became both his artistic inspiration and his model for many years. Dali sometimes signed his oil paintings with the names ‘Dali-Gala,’ in intertwined script. Dali constructed a surrealist object with a glass of warm milk and one of Gala’s slippers. This was developed into the famous ‘slipper-hat’ by Elsa Schiapparelli, and which Gala was the first to wear. She resided with Dali in Spain and in New York. Gala Dali died (June 10, 1982) aged eighty-seven, at her castle at Pubol, near Port Ligat, in Catalonia, Spain.

Dalibard, Francoise Therese – (c1710 – 1757)
French poet, novelist and writer
Born Francoise Aumerle de Saint-Phalier, her first two published novels, Le Portefeuille rendu, ou lettres historiques (The Returned Wallet, or Historical Letters) (1749) and Les Caprices du sort, ou l’histoire d’Emilie (The Whims of Fate, or the Story of Emilie) (1750) appeared under her maiden name of Mlle de Saint-Phalier. Likewise under her maiden name she published a collection of verse, entitled Recueil de poesies (Collected Poems) (1751). Her only known play, La rivale confidente (The Rival Confidante), a comedy in three-acts, was performed at the Theatre Italien in Paris (1752). Her last published work, Murat et Turquia (1752) has sometimes been erroneously attributed to the prose fiction authors, Madamoiselle Lubert (c1710 – 1779) or Margeurite de Lussan.

Dalida – (1933 – 1987)
Egyptian vocalist and actress
Dalida Yolanda Cristina Gigliotti was born (Jan 17, 1933) at Shoubra in Cairo, her family being of Italian origins and her father being a violinist with the Cairo Opera. Dalida attended a local Catholic school and later worked as a fashion model in Cairo (1954). After coming first in a beauty pageant she attracted the attention of the French film director Marc de Gastyne and moved to Paris where she pursued a career as a singer using only her first name of ‘Dalida.’
Dalida performed in various languages including Arabic, German, Hebrew, English, Greek and Japanese, her most popular songs including ‘Avec le temps,’ ‘Je suis malade’ and Salma ya salama.’ She worked in cabaret before teaming up with the record producer Eddie Barclay and to Lucien Morisse, later to become her first husband, and who both assisted with the launching of her career. Her song ‘Bambino’ became nationally famous in France and retains the record of being one of the largest selling singles in French popular music history (1956). This success continued with ‘Gondolier’ (1957). She worked on stage with singer Charles Aznavour at the Paris Olympia Theatre and then toured the USA and Italy. Though internationally famous throughout Europe, Dalida was not so well received in the USA where she was much less known. She received the Medaille de la Presidence de la Republique from General de Gaulle (1968), being the only person from the music industry to be so honoured.
A French version of her song ‘Paroles, Paroles’ which she had originally recorded with Alain Delon in the 1950’s became hugely popular again (1973), and became the number one single in France and Japan. Her next hit ‘Venait d’Avoir dix-Huit Ans’ sold over three and a half million copies in Germany, whilst ‘Gigi l’Amoroso (1974) became a number one hit in a dozen European countries. Hugely popular in Egypt and embarked upon a nation wide tour (1980) and by 1981 the sales of her records had exceeded 86 million. Dalida also appeared in over a dozen films such as Joseph and His Brothers (1954) with Omar Sharif, Le Masque de Toutankhamon (1954), Brigade des moeurs (1957) with Eddie Barclay, Menage all’italiana (1965) and she appeared in the documentary entitled Dalida pour toujours (1977). Despite her hugely successful career Dalida’s private life had been plagued by personal problems and she eventually committed suicide (May 3, 1987) aged fifty-four, in Paris and was interred in the Cemetery of Montmartre. Her friend Aznavour later recorded the song ‘De la scene de la Seine’ (2000) in her memory and her portrait later appeared in a French postage stamp (2002).

Dalkeith, Caroline Campbell, Countess of(1717 – 1794)
Scottish peeress
Lady Caroline Campbell was born (Nov 17, 1717) at Sudbrooke, in Surrey, England, the eldest daughter of John Campbell, Duke of Argyll. Caroline was coheiress, with her three sisters, to their father’s extensive estates (1743), and was thus a considerable heiress. Lady Caroline was married in London (1742) to Francis Scott (1721 – 1750), earl of Dalkeith, eldest son and heir of the Duke of Buccleuch, and a grandson of the famous and ill-fated James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II (1660 – 1685) and Lucy Walter. Lord Dalkeith died of smallpox, at Adderbury, Oxon (April 1, 1750), and Caroline survived him for over four decades as Dowager Countess of Dalkeith (1750 – 1794). The couple had six children,

Lady Dalkeith later remarried (1755) to the Hon. Charles Townshend (1725 – 1767) and was created a peeress by George III as Baroness Greenwich of Kent (1767 – 1794), with remainder of that dignity granted to the heirs male of her body by Charles Townshend. Townshend died of a fever in London (Sept 4, 1767), only a fortnight after Lady Dalkeith’s elevation to the peerage. She survived him over two decades and died (Jan 11, 1794) aged seventy-six, at Sudbrooke. Her children by her second marriage were,

Dalkeith, Henrietta Hyde, Countess of – (1677 – 1730)
British Stuart and Hanoverian courtier
Lady Henrietta Hyde was the second daughter of Laurence Hyde, first Earl of Rochester and his wife Henrietta Boyle, and was the first cousin to queens Mary II (1688 – 1694) and Anne Stuart (1702 – 1714). She was the granddaughter of Sir Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, adviser to Charles II. Henrietta was married (1694) to James Scott, Earl of Dalkeith (1674 – 1705), the son of the Duke of Monmouth, and grandson of Charles II and his mistress Lucy Walter. She was the mother of Francis Scott (1694 – 1751), second Duke of Buccleuch in succession to his grandmother, Anne Scott (1732). Widowed in 1705, she never remarried. The countess was reknowned for her overuse of rouge and other beauty aids, and was something of a figure of fun at the courts of Queen Anne and George I. The noted author Jonathan Swift wrote, ‘I do not like her, she paints too much.’ (Feb, 1713). She survived her husband for over two decades as the Dowager Countess of Dalkeith (1705 – 1730). Lady Dalkeith died (May 30, 1730) and was interred in Westminster Abbey, London.

Dall, Caroline Wells – (1822 – 1912)
American suffragist and author
Born Caroline Healey in Boston, Massachusetts (June 22, 1822) and received an excellent education. She taught Sunday school and ran a nursey school for the children of working mothers (1837 – 1842). She was married (1844) to the Rev. Charles Dall, of Baltimore, Maryland, and was a prominent member of the women’s suffrage movement, and is considered one of the pioneers of women’s education in America. She published her autobiography Alongside (1900).
Dall’s other works included Historical Pictures Retouched (1860), Egypt’s Place in History (1868), The Romance of the Association ; or, One Last Glimpse of Charlotte Temple and Eliza Wharton (1875), and the travelogue My First Holiday; or, Letters Home from Colorado, Utah and California (1881). She also wrote the historical works What We Really Know About Shakespeare (1886) and Barbara Frietchie – a Study (1892). Dall also wrote biographies of two noted female physicians Marie Zakrzewska (1860) and Anandabai Joshee (1888). She was a founder of the American Social Science Association (1865) of which she later served as vice-president (1880 – 1905). Caroline Wells Dall died (Dec 17, 1912) aged ninety, in Washington, D.C.

Dalla Rizza, Gilda – (1892 – 1975)
Italian soprano and operatic performer
Gilda Dalla Rizza was born (Oct 2, 1892) in Verona, and was trained in Bologna. She made her stage debut as Charlotte in Werther (1912) in Bologna, and from 1915 she appeared at La Scala Opera House in Milan. The composer Puccinin created the role of Magda in his opera La Rondine (1917) especially for her but she was best remembered in the role of Violetta. She became the wife of the tenor Agostino Capuzzo (1889 – 1963) and later performed with great success at Covent Garden in London. With her eventual retirement from the stage (1939) Madame Dalla Rizza became a voice instructor at the Venice Academy. Gilda Dalla Rizza retired as a teacher (1955) and died two decades afterwards (July 4, 1975) aged eighty-two, at Milan in Lombardy.

Dallas, Isabella   see   Glyn, Isabella Dallas

Dalley, Marie (‘Ma Dalley’) – (1880 – 1965)
Australian businesswoman
Born Minnie Mary Fimmell at Minyip, near Warracknabeal, Victoria (June 4, 1880), she was married (1901) and bore two daughters, including the city councillor for Kew, and noted civic leader, Clare Josephine Cascarret (1902 – 1977). With the early death of her husband (1905), Dalley established herself as a reputable junk dealer, and built up a successful business enterprise for herself as a dealer in scrap metal. Dalley prospered considerably during WW I, and was among the largest dealers in scrap metal in Australia. She later settled in North Melbourne, where she made her employees shareholders in the company, and became involved in civic activities. Dalley was a generous patron to various charities and was appointed a Justice of the Peace (1936).
Dalley was later appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1949) in recognition of her work with the children’s courts in Melbourne. She later served as the first female Mayor of Kew, in Melbourne (1954). Marie Dalley died (May 9, 1965) aged eighty-four, in Melbourne.

Dallmer, Mary Joseph – (1852 – 1909)
American Ursuline nun and letter writer
Born Mary Frances Johnston, she became an Ursuline nun as Sister Mary Joseph and trained as a teacher. Her personal correspondence was later edited and published in New York as A Light Shining: The Life and Letters of Mother Mary Joseph Dallmer, Ursuline of the Roman Union (1937).

Dall’Oglio, Elena(1462 – 1520)
Italian nun and saint
Elena Duglioli was born near Bologna, the daughter of Silverio Duglioli, a notary, and his wife Penthesila Boccaferri. Elena was married (1479) to Benedetto Dall’Oglio. With her husband’s death Elena took religious vows and became greatly esteemed for her religious piety and sanctity. She built a chapel dedicated to St Cecilia, in the church of the Lateran canons known as San Giovanni in Monte. One of these canons, Pietro Lucensis, wrote Elena’s vitae. Elena was revered as a saint at her death, and her feast (Sept 23) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Dalmatia – (c459 AD – 510)
Roman matron
Dalmatia came from a patrician family and was a friend to Ennodius, Bishop of Ticinum. At her death the bishop composed her epitaph, the Epitaphium domnae Dalmatiae, which appears in his Carmina.

D’Almeida, Anna – (fl. c1850 – 1863)
British traveller and author
Anna D’Almeida the wife of William D’Almeida, a British diplomat, whom she had accompanied to his postings in Hong Kong and Java. At the end of this appointment Anna and her husband travelled extensively through the Philippines, parts of the coast of China during the Taiping rebellion, and Japan. When the voyages were over, Mrs D’Almeida wrote a thoroughly entertaining account of their travels, entitled A Lady’s Visit to Manilla and Japan (1863), which she had obviously thoroughly enjoyed.

Dal Monte, Toti – (1893 – 1975)
Italian coloratura soprano
Born Antoinette Meneghelli, Toti made her singing debut at La Scala in Milan (1916) in the role of Biancofiore in Zandonai’s production of Francesca da Rimini and later sang in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony at Turin under Arturo Toscanini. Considered one of the greatest of her era, one of her best remembered roles was that of Gilda in Rigoletto. Which she first performed st La Scala (1922). She sang at the Metropolitan Opera House from 1924 – 1925, appearing in Lucia di Lammermoor, and from 1925 – 1928 she sang with the Chicago Opera. Her public performances were rare after 1945, but she maintained a successful career as a vocal teacher, and gave occasional concerts. Her brilliant performances of difficult coloratura roles caused her to be favourably compared with Adelina Patti. Toti Dal Monte died at Treviso, Italy.

Dalrymple, Jean – (1902 – 1998)
American theatrical publicist, producer and director
Jean Dalrymple was born in Morristown, New Jersey (Sept 2, 1902), and began her career in vaudeville, establishing herself as a comedienne. She was married firstly to Ward Morehouse, the Broadway critic, and secondly to Philip de Witt Ginder. Dalrymple wrote the play Salt Water with Dan Jarrett. It was produced for the stage by John Golden, who hired her as a general production assistant and publicist.
With her first husband she wrote the script for the film It Happened One Night (1935) which starred Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, and organized the publicity behind the Broadway productions of Mr and Mrs North (1941), One Touch of Venus (1943), and Anna Lucasta (1944).Employed as press manager for such personalities as Lily Pons, Andre Kostelanetz, Leopold Stokowski and actress Mary Martin, she also successfully produced several Broadway plays such as Hope for the Best (1945), Brighten the Corner (1945), Burlesque (1946) and Red Gloves (1948). Dalrymple assisted with the founding of the New York Center (1943, now part of the Lincoln Center) which became her focus over the next decades, as she organized productionsof revivals for the center’s benefit. She wrote her autobiography, September Child (1963) and memoirs, From the Last Row (1975). Jean Dalrymple died (Nov 15, 1998) aged ninety-six, in Manhattan.

Dalrymple, Learmonth White – (1827 – 1906)
New Zealand educator, author and feminist
Learmonth Dalrymple was born in Angus, Scotland, the daughter of a prosperous merchant. She was educated at Madras College in St Andrews, and travelled in Europe before accompanying her family to Otago in New Zealand aboard the Rajah (1853). A teacher of Sunday school in Otago, Dalrymple was committed to the cause of progressive education for girls in New Zealand, and she began a campaign for the establishment of a secondary school for girls (1863) which led to the opening of the the famous Otago Girls’ High School in Dundedin (1871). She successfully argued, and fought, for the admission of female students to the University of New Zealand.  Dalrymple also fostered primary and nursery education, publishing a pamphlett concerning the German kindergarten methods espoused by Froebel, and strongly supported the work of the suffrage movement. During her later years she became involved with the Women’s Temperance Union, and became president of the Feilding branch of the association. Her faculties faded during her last years. Learmonth Dalrymple died (Aug 26, 1906) aged seventy-nine, at Ashburn Hall, Dundedin.

Dalton, Dorothy – (1894 – 1972)
American stage and silent screen actress
Dorothy Dalton was born in Chicago, and first appeared on stage with a traveling repertory company. She was noticed by Thomas Ince who then took control of her film career. She made film debut in Pierre of the Plains (1914) and Across the Pacific (1915), and then appeared as Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII in D’Artagnan (1916). She later worked for Paramount Studios and appeared in films such as The Dark Mirror (1920), Behind Masks (1921), The Crimson Challenge (1922), The Siren Call (1922), Fogbound (1923) and The Lone Wolf (1924) which was her last film. She retired in order to become the wife of the Broadway producer Arthur Hammerstein.

Dalton, Katharina – (1917 – 2004)
British physician
Katharina Dalton became a pioneer in the study and research into the menstruation cycle in women, and brought the term ‘premenstrual stress syndrome’ into common daily usage. She produced several works exploring aspects of the syndrome such as One a Month: The Original Premenstrual Syndrome Handbook (1978). Katharina Dalton died (Sept 17, 2004) aged eighty-seven.

Dalton, Olivia    see     Headfort, Olivia Stevenson, Lady

Dalton, Ruth Fox, Lady – (1889 – 1966)
British Labour politician
Ruth Fox was the daughter of T. Hamilton Fox, and became the wife (1914) of the Edward Hugh Dalton (1887 – 1962), who later was created a life peer as Baron Dalton (1960) by Queen Elizabeth II. Their marriage remained childless, and Mrs Dalton became immersed in politics. She later stood briefly as Member of Parliament for Bishop Auckland (Feb – May, 1929). Lady Dalton died (March 15, 1966) aged seventy-six.

Dalven, Rae – (1905 – 1992)
Jewish-American translator and historian
Rae Dalven was born in Preveza, Greece, and immigrated to the USA with her family during childhood. She graduated from Hunter College, and New York University. Dalven was known for her translations of Greek poetry, such as, Modern Greek Poetry (1949), The Poems of Cavafy (1961), and, The Fourth Dimension (1977), a translation of the works if Yannis Ritsos. She also wrote two plays, A Season in Hell, which concerned the lives of the French poets Rimbaud and Verlaine, was successfully produced for the stage (1950) and Our Kind of People (1991), an autobiographical production concerning a family of Jewish-Greek immigrants. Dalven’s especial interest was in the history of the Jews in Greece, particularly the northern Ioannina community, who traced their ancestry to the ancient Palestinians (c300 BC) and had retianed their own customs and religious liturgy. She edited the academic journal the Sephardic Scholar and served as president of the American Society of Sephardic Studies. Rae Dalven died (July 27, 1992) in Manhattan, New York.

Daly, Anne – (1860 – 1924)
Australian nun
Anne Daly was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, the daughter of John Daly and his wife Mary Cleary. They immigrated to Australia in Sydney, New South Wales (1865). Anne resolved to take holy orders, and became a nun with the Sisters of Charity (1881) as Sister Mary Berchmans. Anne was later sent to Melbourne, Victoria (1888) and made superior of the order in that city (1892). She founded St Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne (1893), and was eventually appointed Superior-General of the Sisters of Charity (1920). Anne Daly died in Sydney.

Daly, Elizabeth – (1878 – 1967)
American mystery author
Elizabeth Daly was born in New York (Oct 15, 1878). She was the author of popular works such as Deadly Nightshade (1940), The House Without a Door (1942), The Book of the Dead (1944) and Night Walk (1947). A collection of her works was published under the title The Elizabeth Daly Omnibus (1960). Elizabeth Daly died (Sept 2, 1967) aged eighty-eight.

Daly, Maria Lydig – (1824 – 1894)
American anti-abolitionist and anti-slavery reformer
The wife of Judge Charles Daly, she was a prominent Union figure and did not support the policies of Abraham Lincoln. She left a personal diary which described social life in Washington during the Civil War period. They were later edited by Harold Earl Hammond and were published in New York as Diary of a Union Lady, 1861 – 1865 (1962).

Damareta      see also     Demarete

Damareta(c265 – 214 BC)
Syrakusan princess
Damareta was the daughter of King Hiero II and his queen Philistis, the daughter of Leptines, a descendent of King Dionysius I, and was sister to King Gelo II (c240 – 216 BC). Damareta was married to the patrician Adranadoros. She and her husband were killed by the mob during the revolt which destroyed the royal house in the reign of her nephew, the youthful King Hieronymus (216 – 214 BC).

Damasceni-Peretti, Felice(c1604 – 1650)
Italian papal courtier
Felice Damasceni-Peretti was the daughter of Michele Damsceni-Peretti. She was the grandniece and heiress of Pope Sixtus V (1585 – 1590), formerly Felice Peretti. She was married to Bernardo Savelli, prince d’Albano and was the mother of Giulio Savelli, Prince d’Albano (1626 – 1712).

Damaspia – (c480 – 424 BC)
Queen consort of Persia
Damaspia was almost certainly of Persian birth, and was probably a connection of the Achaemenid dynasty. She was the first wife of King Artaxerxes I Longimanus (465 – 424 BC), and the mother of his successor, Xerxes II (424 BC), who was assasinated after a short reign of only forty-five days by his half-brother, Sogdianus. According to the Greek historian, Ctesias of Cnidus, Queen Damaspia and her husband both died together, on the same day (March, 424 BC) during a military expedition and the corpses were embalmed and returned to Persia for royal internment.

Dame aux Camelias, La     see    Plessis, Alphonsine

Damer, Anne Seymour(1749 – 1828) 
British sculptor
Anne Seymour-Conway was the only child of Field Marshal Henry Seymour-Conway, and niece of the first marquess of Hertford. Through her mother she was the granddaughter of the Duke of Argyll, and she studied sculpture under John Bacon and Giuseppe Ceracchi. She married (1767) John Damer (1744 – 1776), the eldest son of Joseph Damer, Lord Milton, later first earl of Dorchester. Artistically inclined, her talent was recognized by Sir Horace Walpole during her youth, and she became his protegee.
Her husband’s suicide in Covent Garden, brought on by his desperation concerning mounting debts, left her a childless widow. In order to maintain herself, Damer became a professional sculptor, and worked abroad in Italy and Portugal, as well as in England. She was particularly known for her portraits busts, producing studies of King George III, the emperor Napoleon, Lord Nelson, the politician Charles James Fox, and the actress Sarah Siddons. Appointed as an executrix of Walpole’s estate (1797), she received his country estate of Strawberry Hills at Twickenham for her life, and resided there until 1811, when it passed to Lord Waldegrave. Her private papers were burnt at her death, after her own instructions, and the ashes of her pet dog and her working tools were interred with her.

Damer, Mary Georgiana Emma (Minnie) – (1798 – 1848)
British socialite, traveller, and author
Mary Seymour was the daughter of Lord Hugh Seymour, and his wife, Lady Horatia Waldegrave, the daughter of James, third Earl of Waldegrave and Maria Walpole, later wife of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, brother to George III (1760 – 1820). She was adopted by Maria Fitzherbert, first wife of the Prince Regent and features in many contemporary memoirs as ‘Minnie Seymour.’ Mary later married (1825) Colonel Hon. (Honourable) George Lionel Dawson-Damer (1788 – 1856), the younger son of John, first Earl of Portarlington. The couple had six children, including, Lionel Dawson-Damer (1832 – 1892) who succeeded as fourth Earl of Portarlington (1889), and Constance, wife of the Irish baronet, Sir John Leslie, of Glaslough, becoming ancestress of the author Anita Leslie. Mrs Damer travelled extensively throughout the Middle East with her husband, and left an account of her journey entitled Diary of a Tour in Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and the Holy Land (1841). Minnie Damer died (Oct 30, 1848) aged fifty.

Dameta – (fl. c1115 – c1125)
Norman concubine
Dameta was the mistress of Stephen of Blois, King of England (1135 – 1154) during his youth. She became the mother of his illegitimate son, Gervaise of Blois (c1118 – 1160), who became a monk and was later appointed abbot of Westminster, London by his royal father (1136). He was later deposed from office by Henry II (1157). Charter evidence reveals that Dameta had two other sons, Almaric and Ralph, who were called brothers of abbot Gervaise when they witnessed a charter, but whether they were fathered by Stephen, or by a prior or later husband, remains unknown. Dameta may also have been the mother of an unnamed natural daughter of King Stephen, who became the wife (before 1139) of Hervey, Vicomte of Leon, in Brittany.

Damhnat (Damhnait) – (fl. c500)
Irish virgin saint
Sometimes confused with St Dympna, she was a native of Tedavnet, near Slieve Beagh, in county Monaghan, and quite a distinct personage. Damhnat is listed in the, Martyrology of Donegal as ‘of Sliabh Betha,’ and her feast day given as June 13. Her crozier has survived, and was preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. A second St Damhnat, of Kildalkey, county Meath (May 15) is identical also with St Dympna.

Damhurasi – (fl. c1800 – c1770 BC)
Assyrian queen
Damhurasi was a secondary wife of Zimri-Lim, King f Mari. Surviving clay tablets from the palace archive reveal that Damhurasi was second in rank after the king’s chief consort Queen Shibtu, and that she received larger rations for her household than did Zimri-Lim’s sisters or daughters. Quite a number of her letters have survived at Mari, and reveal that the queen held important responsibilities concerning the administration of the royal household, and on one occasion reprimanded the royal physician during the king’s absence on a military campaign. Queen Damhurasi had her own palace at Terqa and two of her letters addressed to the royal official Sin-muballit have survived. The queen had some form of association with the cult of the deity Dagon in Terqa.

Damia   see   Daama

Damiana – (c430 – c490 AD)
Greek patrician
Damiana was the daughter of Asclepiodotus, a Graeco-Roman senator from Aphrodisias in Caria, Asia Minor. She was married there to the philosopher Asclepiodotus (died c495 AD) and they resided in that city for some years before Damiana accompanied her husband to Alexandria in Egypt. They had several daughters though Asclepiodotus later tried to pass over another woman’s child as Damiana’s claiming a pagan miracle. This story was recalled in the Vita Severi of Zacharias the rhetor. Damascius and Suidas both recorded that Asclepiodotus left his property to his daughters, encumbered with debt, so it appears that Damiana predeceased him.

Damiane – (fl. 589 – 602)
Greek patrician
Damiane was the daughter or daughter-in-law of a lady named Jannia, and was the mother of Athenogenes, Bishop of Patra. She is mentioned in the Pratum Spirituale of Johannes Moschius, who stated that she and the emperor Maurice shared a niece, so she was also related to Domitianus, Bishop of Melitene (c580 – 603). Damiane is thought to be identical with the lady of the same name, related to the Byzantine Imperial family, who was venerated as a saint in Jerusalem. She sent large sums of money to Pope Gregory I for the liberation of slaves.

D’Amico-Inguanez, Maria Francesca Carmen Sceberras – (1865 – 1947)
Maltese peeress
Maria Francesca Sceberras D’Amico-Inguanez was born (Aug 20, 1865), the elder daughter of Alexander Sceberras D’Amico-Inguanez, fifteenth Baron della Castel Cicciano (1821 – 1880), and his second British wife, Frances Ann Wittuck. She was married (1890) to a British officer, Colonel Alexander Chalmers McKean, of the 6th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards. The couple remained childless. Maria Francesca succeeded her father as sixteenth Baroness della Castel Ciciano (1880), and, with the death of her great-aunt, Maria Teresa (1797 – 1880), the nineteenth Baroness Djar and Buqana, she succeeded also as twentieth Baroness of Djar-il-Bniet and Buqana, a title she held for over sixty-five years (1880 – 1947). The baroness represented the Maltese nobility at the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902), and again at the coronation of George V and Queen Mary (1911). She was awarded the coronation medals from these events, and later also the Jubilee Medal (1935). Baroness Maria Francesca died (Dec 26, 1947), aged eighty-two, her heir general being her nephew, Alexander Arthur Ian Austin Chesney-Sceberras D’Amico-Inguanez (1896 – 1960), who succeeded her in both titles.

Damita, Lili – (1901 – 1994)
French actress
Born Liliane Marie Madeleine Carre in Bordeaux, Guyenne, she performed in music halls from the age of sixteen, and eventually succeeded the famous Mistinguette as the star performer of the Casino de Paris revue. In her first film, L’Empereur des Pauvres, Corsica (1921) she starred as Damita del Rojo, and in her second, Fille sauvage (1922) as Lily Seslys. For her third film La Voyante (1923) she adopted the name of Lili Damita, which she then retained. From 1925 – 1928, Lili made several movies in Britain, Germany and Austria, including The Queen Was in the Parlour (1927) the British version of the German film Die letzte Nacht (Forbidden Lolve). After this she was invited to make films in Hollywood by producer Samuel Goldwyn. Damita made a few films in America, such as The Bridge of San Luis Rey (1929) : The Match King (1931) : Goldie Gets Along (1933) and The Frisco Kid (1936), but she was more notorious because of her well publicised and tempestuous marriage (1935 – 1942) with the Australian born actor Errol Flynn (1909 – 1959) whose first wife she became. Lili retired from the stage after their marriage. Their son, the actor Sean Flynn (1941 – 1971) disappeared in Vietnam where he was serving officially as a war correpondent.

Dammartin, Agatha de – (c1215 – 1268)
French mediaeval heiress
Agatha de Dammartin was the daughter of Simon de Dammartin (c1180 – 1239), Comte de Aumale, and his wife Countess Marie of Ponthieu, the daughter of Guillaume III, count of Ponthieu (c1165 – 1228). She became the second wife (c1234) to Aimery II, vicomte de Chatellerault (c1170 – 1242), as his second wife. Agatha left an only child and heiress, Jeanne (c1240 – 1315), who succeeded her childless half-brother Vicomte Jean, as vicomtesse de Chatellerault (1280 – 1315). She was married firstly to Geoffrey I de Lusignan (1226 – 1263), seigneur de Jarnac, and secondly Jean II, Comte d’Harcourt (c1245 – 1302) and left descendants through both marriages. Agatha was the maternal aunt, and her daughter first cousin, of Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 1290), the first wife of Edward I, King of England.

Dammartin, Antoinette de Chabannes, Comtesse de – (1498 – 1527)
French heiress
Antoinette de Chabannes was the daughter of Jean IV de Chabannes, Comte de Dammartin, and his wife Suzanne de Bourbon-Rousillon. She became the wife (1515) of Rene d’Anjou, Baron de Mezieres (1483 – 1521), seneschal of Maine in Normandy. With the death of her elder sister Anne, the wife of Jacques de Coligny, Antoinette inherited the county of Dammartin in the Ile-de-France, which later passed to her eldest daughter Francoise d’Anjou-Mezieres, the wife of Philippe, seigneur de Boilainvilliers and de Verneuil, and their children, who eventually sold the county to the Montmorency family. Antoinette also held the fiefs of Saint-Fargeau and de Piusaye, and left four children, including Nicolas d’Anjou, Marquis de Mezieres and Comte de Saint-Fargeau (1518 – after 1568), who was appointed governor of Aquitaine by Charles IX (1560 – 1574). Her youngest daughter Antoinette d’Anjou-Mezieres (1521 – 1542) became the first wife of Jean I de Bourbon, third Vicomte de Lavedan (c1478 – 1549), by whom she left issue.

Damon, Cathryn Lee – (1930 – 1987)
American actress
Cathryn Damon was born (Sept 11, 1930) in Seattle, Washington, and later trained in New York as a ballet dancer. She then went on stage, appearing in successful productions such as Shinbone Alley, The Red Menace, Sweet Bird of Youth, and The Cherry Orchard. Damon also worked in television, where she was best remembered for her appearances in the two popular television series Soap (1977 – 1981) for which she received an Emmy Award (1980), and as Cassie Parker in Webster (1984 – 1986). She also appeared in the film, How To Beat the Cost of Living (1980). Her last film role was as the mother of actor Kevin Bacon in the film She’s Having a Baby (1988), which was released posthumously. Cathryn Damon died of cancer (May 4, 1987) aged fifty-six.

Damophyle – (fl. c600 – c550 BC)
Greek poet
Damophyle was a native of Pamphylia in Asia Minor, and was mentioned by the author Philostratus in his Life of Apollonius of Tyana as the writer of lyric love poems and hymns. She was said to have been a contemporary of the famous Sappho and to have written religious hymns in honour of the goddess Artemis of Perga. Her works from the archaic period were used by subsequent writers but they have not survived.

Damostratia – (c165 – 189 AD)
Roman Imperial courtier
Damostratia was the wife of Marcus Aurelius Cleander, praetorian prefect (187 – 189 AD), by whom she was the mother of one or more children. Damostratia, who was of freed slave status, was mistress to the emperor Commodus (180 – 192 AD), which arrangement was condoned and encouraged by her husband as a means of retaining his control over Imperial affairs. However, with Cleander’s eventual downfall and murder at the hands of the angry Roman mob, Damostratia and her children were also brutally murdered.

Dampier, Lily – (1875 – 1915)
Australian actress
Lily Dampier was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of the noted actor and dramatist, Alfred Dampier. During childhood she travelled to England with her father, where she appeared on the stage in her youth, appearing in her father’s own productions of His Natural Life (1886) and Robbery under Arms (1890), amongst others. Dampier is perhaps best remembered for her popular appearances with her sister Rose in Garnet Walch’s production of Helen’s Babies. She later appeared with great success in Shakespearean roles such as Lady Macbeth and Rosalind. Lily Dampier died (Feb 6, 1915) aged thirty-nine, in Melbourne.

Dampierre, Agnes de    see   Bourbon, Agnes de

Dampierre, Philippa de – (c1287 – 1306)
Flemish princess
Philippa de Dampierre was the daughter of Guy de Dampierre, Count of Flanders, and his second wife Isabella, the daughter of Henry II, Count of Luxemburg and Namur. Whilst Philippa was still a child (1294), her father supported Edward I of England against Philip IV of France. This support was provided in secret as the French king was Guy’s suzerain, but to prove his loyalty, he agreed to the marriage of Philippa with King Edward’s son and heir, Edward of Caernarvon (Edward II). Count Guy was summoned to Paris and imprisoned, and Philippa herself was brought to the Louvre Palace to be brought up and educated, to prevent the English alliance from materialising. Her father was completely defeated by Philip (1300), and Philippa was released from captivity. She remained unmarried. Philippa de Dampierre died (May, 1306) aged about nineteen.

Dan, Lidia Osipovna – (1878 – 1963)
Russian revolutionary
Lidia Osipovna was the sister of the Menshevik leader Martov, and became the wife of revolutionary politician, Fedor Ilyich Dan (1871 – 1947). With the Bolshevik takeover, they were expelled from Russia by Lenin, and went to reside in Berlin, Prussia. The rise of Hitler and the Nazis forced them to remove first to Paris, and later to the USA. Widowed in 1947, Dan contributed articles to the Menshevik journal, Sotsialisticheskii Vestnik.

Dana, Eleanor Naylor – (1907 – 1982)
American philanthropist
Eleanor Naylor was born in Texas, and married firstly David Tarlton Stafford, from whom she was divorced, and secondly to Charles A. Dana (1880 – 1976), the wealthy industrialist. 

Her husband founded the Charles A. Dana Foundation (1950) which provided financial resources for many philanthropic causes, including higher education and cancer research, and Dana served on the Foundation’s board from 1950 – 1982. A prominent socil figure, and a leader of New York society, she maintained homes in Connecticut, Scotland and Acapulco. She was a trustee of the Philharmonic Symphony Society, and was appointed an honorary life trustee of the University of Bridgeport.

Dana, Leora – (1923 – 1983)
American minor actress
Leora Dana was born in New York (April 1, 1923). She didn’t begin appearing in films until after the age of thirty, appearing as Annie Fry in, Williamsburg: The Story of a Patriot (1956). Dana then made such films as Some Came Running (1958), with Frank Sinatra, where she appeared as the jeweller’s wife, Agnes Hirsh, Kings Go Forth (1958), Pollyanna (1960), Change of Habit (1969), and, Baby It’s You (1982), amongst others. She received the Tony Award from Broadway as Best Supporting Actress in, The Last of Mrs Lincoln (1973).  Her film roles included those of Evelyn Fowler in, A Gathering of Eagles (1963), Mary Bottomly in, The Boston Strangler (1968), Charlotte DeVoe in, Shoot the Moon (1982), and Emma Caswell in, Amtiyville 3-D (1983).  Her last film appearance was i Nothing Lasts Forever (1984), which was released posthumously. Leora Dana died of cancer (Dec 13, 1983) aged sixty, in New York.

Dana, Viola – (1897 – 1981)
American film actress
Born Virginia Flugrath (June 28, 1897) in Brooklyn, New York, she appeared on stage as a dancer with her sister actress Shirley Mason (1901 – 1979) and adopted the professional name of Viola Dana. Dana appeared in the successful Broadway production of Poor Little Rich Girl (1913) and then appeared in films during the silent era, usually in comic roles or drama. Her film credits included Molly the Drummer Boy (1914), Rosie O’Grady (1917), Riders of the Night (1918), The Parisian Tigress (1919), Cinderella’s Twin (1920) The Willow Tree (1920), Crinoline and Romance (1923), The Beauty Prize (1924), Merton of the Movies (1924) and Kosher Kitty Kelly (1926). She retired from movies after making The Show of Shows (1929).

Danacia Quartilla Aureliana – (fl. c210 – c230 AD)
Roman patrician
Danacia was the wife of Quintus Acacius Modestus Crescentianus, consul (228 AD) during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus (222 – 235 AD). She was attested by a surviving inscription from Horrea Caelia in Africa which styled her clarissima femina.

Danae – (c280 – 245 BC)
Seleucid conspirator and courtier
Danae was the daughter of the Epicurean philosopher Metrodorus, and his wife Leontion. Her father died in her youth, and he placed her under the care of his teacher Epicurus.

Danae became a member of the court of the Seleucid queen Laodice I, the wife of Antiochus II at Antioch, in Syria. Later she became involved in a liasion with Sophron, who was appointed by the queen to be governor of the city of Ephesus. Suspicious of his behaviour, Queen Laodice summoned him to return to Antioch, intending to kill him. During his audience with the queen, Danae managed to signal to him, and he requested time to consider their talk, which enabled him to flee. Laodice discovered Danae’s treachery, and ordered the woman thrown from a cliff.  On the way to her death Danae is recorded to have observed that it was understandable why the gods were despised, when she was being killed for saving the life of her lover, whilst the queen had murdered her husband and had been rewarded with her own kingdom.

Danby, Bridget, Countess of    see   Leeds, Bridget Bertie, Duchess of

Danby, Frank – (1864 – 1916)
Irish novelist, art historian, and biographer
Born Julia Davis (July 30, 1864), she was the daughter of an artist. Educated at home by the daughter of the noted Karl Marx, she later removed with her family to London, in England, where she was married (1883) to a prosperous merchant, Arthur Frankau, to whom she bore four children. The first of her fourteen novels, all published under the pseudonym ‘Frank Danby’ was, Dr Phillips, a Maida Vale Idyll (1887), proved extremely popular, and she did not hesitate to make illicit romance and moral rebellion the strong themes of her works. Danby was a co-founder of The Independent Theatre. She is perhaps best remembered for her creation of the noted Irish aesthete character, Sinclair Furley in her novel, A Babe in Bohemia (1889). Her later novel, Pigs in Clover (1902), deals with two Jewish half-brothers and is set against the Boer War. Danby’s biographical works included her, Life of John Raphael Smith (1902), The Lives of James and William Ward (1904), and, The Story of Emma, Lady Hamilton (1910). Frank Danby died (March 17, 1916) aged fifty-one.

Dancer, Ann     see    Barry, Anne

Dancourt, Mimi – (c1684 – after 1728)
French actress
Born Marie Anne Michelle Dancourt, she was the daughter of the famous actor and dramatist, Florent Carton Dancourt (1661 – 1725), and his wife, the actress Therese de La Thorilliere, daughter of the noted comedian, Francois Lenoir de La Thorilliere. Her sister Manon was the wife to the rich financier, Samuel Bernard. She was mother to actress Therese de La Popeliniere (Therese Deshayes) (1713 – 1756). Dancourt joined the troupe at the Comedie Francaise in Paris (1695), where she later became a member (1699). A talented and popular actress, her career lasted over three decades. With the death of her father, Mimi inherited the chateau of Courcelles-de-Roy, near Gien, where she settled her family in the following year (1726). She kept an apartment in Paris till her retirement (1728) with an annual pension of 1000 pounds. She was widowed soon afterwards.

Dando, Jill – (1961 – 1999)
British television presenter
Famous as the popular host of the BBC program Crimewatch, Jill Dando was born in Weston-Ssuper-Mare (Nov 9, 1961), and was educated at the Worle School and the South Glamorgan Institute in Wales. She worked as a reporter for the Weston Mercury newspaper before joing the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), where she became newsreader for BBC Radio Devon (1985). She soon moved to BBC Television South West, where she briefly presented a regional news magazine programme, Spotlight South West, before moving on the present daytime television news in London (1986).
Dando became a household name in Britain, presenting such popular programmes as Breakfast News, the Six O’Clock News, and the crime series, Crimewatch UK. Jill Dando was murdered on the steps of her own home at Fulham, in London (April 26, 1999) aged thirty-seven, supposedly being shot in the head by an obsessive male neighbour Barry George, who was subsequently caught, amidst great public outcry, and jailed for the crime for life. Tributes to her memory were paid by Queen Elizabeth II, the Prime Minister Tony Blair, and many others, whilst her fiance and a former co-worker, established The Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science at the University College, London, in her memory (2001). Barry George’s conviction was later overturned when a judge declared him incapable of committing such planned crime, and he was later released after having spent eight years in prison (2009).

Dandolo, Giovanna – (c1397 – after 1469)
Dogaressa of Venice
Giovanna Dandolo was the daughter of Antonio Dandolo, and married (1414) Doge Pasquale Malipiero (1457 – 1462) whom she survived. Cultured and well educated, Giovanna encouraged and patronised men of letters, and herself became the particular patron of the printing press, which was established in Venice (1441), and which flourished more wideley three decades later, after the invention of the new moulded types. The first book ever printed in Venice, a translation of Cicero’s Epistolae ad Familiares, was dedicated to the dogaressa by Giovanni Spira of Speyer (1469). The dogaressa was also the especial patron of lace making, and was instrumental in the development of the lace industry in Burano, from whence all the later forms of lace, such as Valenciennes, Brussels, Honiton, and Mechelin, would evolve. Receiving the popular epithets of the ‘Empress of Printing’ and the ‘Queen of Lace,’ she was later interred beside her husband in the Church of San Giovanni and San Paulo.

D’Andrea, Novella     see    Andrea, Novella d’

Dandridge, Danske – (1854 – 1913)
American author
Born Caroline Lawrence Bedinger in Copenhagen, Denmark, she was the daughter of Henry Bedinger, the first minister appointed by the USA to the Danish court. Her parents gave her the nickname ‘Danske’ (little Dane). With the deaths of her parents, she resided with relatives in Flushing, Long Island, where she attended school. She was married (1877) to Adam Stephen Dandridge, to whom she bore three children, who were raised at the family estate of Rose Brake, near Shepherdstown, in West Virginia, which she had inherited from her mother. Devoted to gardening, her collection of roses, which had been started by her mother, eventually exceeded one hundred varieties.
Dandridge wrote several horticultural articles which were published in American magazines such as Forest and Stream and Garden and Forest, and also in British publications such as, Flora and Silva. She also produced a collection of verse entitled, Joy and Other Poems (1888), which is generally considered to be her best work. She later wrote several historical works such as, George Michael Bedinger: A Kentucky Pioneer (1909) and, American Prisoners of the Revolution (1911). Depressed after the deaths of two of her children, and by her husbnad’s worsening financial situation, Danske Dandridge committed suicide.

Dandridge, Dorothy Jean – (1920 – 1965)
Black American actress and vocalist
Dorothy Dandridge was born (Nov 9, 1920) in Cleveland, Ohio, the daughter of actress Ruby Dandridge and a clergyman. Dorothy was one of the first ever African-American movie stars. She starred in films during her childhood, but she is best remembered for her performance in Carmen Jones (1954) and Porgy and Bess’ (1959) though her voice was dubbed by Lena Horne. Her personal life was unhappy, and she did not receive roles that would have adequately displayed her talent.
Her film credits included Lady From Louisiana (1940), Drums of the Congo (1942), The Harlem Globetrotters (1951) and Tamango (1959). Her second husband (1940 – 1945) was the actor, dancer and vocalist Harold Nicholas (1921 – 2000), whilst her lover included the famous producer Otto Preminger, and actors Peter Lawford and Curt Jurgens. She died tragically in poverty, from a drug overdose. Her life was portrayed on television in Dorothy Dandridge (1999) with Halle Berry in the title role.

Dane, Clemence – (1888 – 1965)
British novelist
Born Winifred Ashton, in Blackheath, London, she was educated in England, Germany, and in Switzerland. She studied art at the Slade School. Ashton enjoyed a brief stage career at the Criterion Theatre under the stage-name of Diana Portis, in H.V. Esmond’s Eliza Comes to Stay (1913), but the war and ill-health forced her to abandon this career path. With the success of her first play, A Bill of Diovrcement (1921), starring Basil Dean and Meggie Albanesi, which dealt sympathetically with the scenario of a divorce being granted on the grounds of hereditary insanity, she adopted the literary name of ‘Clemence Dane,’ taking it from the church of St Clement Danes, in the Strand.
Dane write two further plays, Will Shakespeare (1921), an insight into the dramatist’s personal life, which proved to be a distinguished literary disaster, despite being cleverly written, and Wild Decembers (1932), which dealt with the lives of the Bronte sisters, and starred Diana Wynyard as Charlotte Bronte. She wrote the bleak tragedy Granite (1926), followed by Call Home the Heart (1927). Other plays included, Moonlight is Silver (1936) with Gertrude Lawrence and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., and The Happy Hypocrite (1936) starring Ivor Novello and Vivien Leigh.
Her play, Eighty in the Shade (1958) was written to celebrate the golden wedding of acting duo Lewis Casson and Dame Sybil Thorndike. Dane’s other novels include Regiment of Women (1917), First the Blade (1918), Legend (1919), Broome Stages (1931) and The Flower Girls (1954). She produced a volume of history of Covent Garden interpersed with memoirs, entitled, London has a Garden (1964). Clemence Dane died aged seventy-seven (March 28, 1965).

Danelian, Aikanush Bagdasarovna – (1893 – 1958)
Georgian soprano
Born in Tiflis, she received her vocal training from Natalia Iretskaia at the Petersburg Conservatory. From 1924 she was a soloist with the Tbilisi Opera, and was later attached to the Erevan Opera as a soloist for fifteen years (1933 – 1948). Appointed a professor of music at the Erevan Conservatory (1943), she retired in 1951. Aikanush Danelian died in Erevan, aged sixty-four (April 19, 1958).

Dangar, Anne Garvin (Nancy) – (1885 – 1951)
Australian painter and potter
Anne Dangar was born (Dec 1, 1885) in Kempsey, New South Wales, the daughter of a minor politician. She attended a local secondary school, and then studied under Horace Moore-Jones in Sydney. She then studied painting at the Julian Ashton School in Sydney, and was employed there as a teacher by 1920. She frequented the society of noted artists such as Grace Cowley, Rah Fizelle, and Dorrit Black, and then travelled to France to study at the Academie Lhote in Paris. Having met Paul Cezanne, she imbibed the philosophy and style of the cubist movement. She returned to France (1930), where she assisted Albert Gleitze as a teacher in his school in the artist’s commune at Moly-Sabata. It was during this period that she began to produce her own pottery, and corresponded with Crowley in Australia. Dangar later spent a period at Fez, in Morocco (1939), and her work became influenced by Islamic designs.
During WW II she was confined at Sablon, where she taught English in order to survive, and even spent five days in a concentration camp at Grenoble (1943). She remained in France for the rest of her life, and died of cancer (Sept 4, 1951), tended to the end by Catholic monks, and was buried at Sernieres in Ardeche. Always better known in France than in Australia, examples of her work are preserved in the Musee National d’Art Moderne in Paris, and in the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra, amongst others.

Dangcil, Linda – (1942 – 2009)
American television actress
Dangcil was born (June 19, 1942) in San Francisco in California, and was educated in a convent in Los Angeles. She appeared on Broadway as a teenager with actress Mary Martin in Peter Pan. After appearing television in the Jerome Robbins adaptation of West Side Story she was cast in the role of Sister Ana in the ABC (American Broadcasting Companies) series The Flying Nun (1967 – 1970) with Sally Field in the title role, for which she part she was best remembered by audiences.
Her other work included appearances in such television shows as Rawhide and The Judge, and in Here Comes the Bride with Bruce Lee. She starred as Elena in the bilingual children’s series Villa Alegre during the 1970’s, and she also forayed into voice animation most notably as Carmen ‘Raya’Alonso in the animated series Jem. During this time she continued with her theatre career. Linda Dangcil died (May 7, 2009) aged sixty-six, in Los Angeles.

Dangerfield, Elma Tryphosa – (1907 – 2006)
British journalist, dramatist, and writer
Elma Dangerfield was born at Wavertree, in Liverpool (Oct 11, 1907), the daughter of a banker. She was married (1926) to Captain Edward Dangerfield, of the Royal Navy, to whom she bore a daughter. Widowed in 1941, she survived her husband sixty-five years, and never remarried. Dangerfield was a co-founder of the European-Atlantic Groip (1954), and re-founded The Byron Society (1975), of which she served as director (1971 – 2006). She wrote the famous play Mad Shelley (1936), a dramatic life of the famous poet in five acts. Her story Radio Lover (1936) formed the basis of a film produced by Ian Dalrymple. She was also the author of Byron and the Romantics in Switzerland 1816 (1978).
Dangerfield is especially remembered for a series of harrowing articles she wrote for The Nineteenth Century and After periodical (1943) in which she gave details of disturbing Nazi activities and atrocities. She later wrote an account of the numerous Poles deported to Russian camps in Beyond the Urals (1946), the preface of which was written by Dame Rebecca West. A close friend of Katharine Ramsay, Duchess of Atholl, the famous ‘Red Duchess,’ both were closely associated with the British League for European Freedom. In recognition of her journalistic work Dangerfield was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1960) and later CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (2002). Elma Dangerfield died in London (Jan 22, 2006), aged ninety-eight.

Dangerosa (Dangereuse) – (c1090 – 1151)
French concubine
Dangerosa was the daughter of Bartholomew, seigneur de L’Isle-Bouchard, and his wife Gerberga. She was married to Aimery I, Vicomte of Chatellerault (c1076 – 1144), to whom she bore several children including vicomte Hugh II (c1110 – 1172) and Raoul de Chatellerault, Comte de Faye. Dangerosa was abducted (1114) and was seduced (or allowed herself to be) by the famous troubadour, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (1071 – 1127). He carried her back to his court at Poitiers, and installed her in the Maubergeon tower of the ducal palace, which caused her to be popularly known as ‘La Maubergeonne’ by the Poitevins. The duchess, Philippa of Toulouse, retired from the court in protest to the Abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault, and the duke installed Dangerosa as his unofficial consort, and secured this arrangement by marrying her daughter Aenor (whom she had brought with her on her abduction/flight) and married the girl to his own eldest son and heir, William X (1099 – 1137). With William’s death (1127), Dangerosa retired public life, but was honoured as the mother of the reigning duchess consort. She was the maternal grandmother of the famous Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Dangerosa survived William over two decades, and remained resided at Poitiers, where she died aged in her early sixties (Nov 7, 1151). A family legend has it that a holy hermit once came to Duke William and remonstrated with him concerning the abduction, rape, and his subsequent scandalous relationship with Dangerosa. The duke mocked him and the hermit laid a curse upon Dangerosa. It is said that neither he nor their descendants, in the male of female line would know happiness in their children.

Dangeville, Catherine – (c1685 – 1772)
French actress
Born Anne Catherine Desmares, she was the daughter of actor Nicolas Desmares, and his wife, fellow-actor, Anne d’Ennebault. Her elder sister was actress Charlotte desmares, and she was niece to the famous actress, Marie Champmesle. Her first recorded role was as Pauline in Polyeucte at the Comedie Francaise (1707). She retired from the stage (1712) with a pension, after her marriage with the choreographer from the Royal Academy of Dance, Antoine Botot Dangeville, to whom she bore several children, including the prominent actors, Etienne (Stephen), Francois, and Marie Anne Botot Dangeville. Catherine Dangeville died aged eighty-six (July 1, 1772).

D’Angeville, Henriette    see     Angeville, Henriette d’

Dangeville, Marie – (1714 – 1796)
French actress
Marie Dangeville possessed a reputation for artistic greatness. The famous vocalist La Clairon was once her understudy.

D’Angouleme, Duchesse     see    Angouleme, Marie Therese Charlotte, Duchesse d’

Daniel, Mary – (fl. c1730 – 1755)
British actress and dancer
Mary Daniel was married firstly to the actor, William Daniel, with whom she worked in various travelling troupes. Her first recorded appearance was at Drury Lane Theatre as Harriet in The Miser (1742). Daniel performed variously at the James Street Theatre, Haymarket Theatre, and at the Tottenham Court Fair, before joining the company at the Goodman’s Fields Theatre, where she appeared in such favourites as The Glorious Queen of Hungary (1743), The Recruiting Officer (1744), and as Lady Townley in The Provok’d Husband (1745). Daniel later appeared at Covent Garden (1746 – 1747) where she played the Duchess of York in Richard III. She acted in various minor London theatres, usually with her husband, with whom she later sailed to Jamaica to join anacting troupe. Her husband established himself in Kingston as a printer to the Assembly, and with his death, she remarried (1755) to his executor, Charles Somerset Woodman, who took over the running of his printing business. Nothing further is recorded of her life.

Daniel, Minna Lederman – (1896 – 1995)
American music editor
Minnaa Lederman was born (March 17, 1896) in Manhattan in New York. She was trained in dance, drama and music from childhood and later attended Barnard College. Lederman established the League of Composers (1923) who performed new contemporary music and gave public concerts. She was the founder of the important magazine Modern Music which she edited for over two decades (1924 – 1946) and which chronicled all new contemporary music from the USA, Europe and Latin America. Minna became the wife of the artist Mell Daniel (died 1975).
Minna Daniel edited the anthology Stravinsky in the Theater (1947) and contributed articles to the Saturday Review and the American Mercury publications. She established the Archives of Modern Music in the Library of Congress (1974) and produced the monograph The Life and Death of a Small Magazine (1983) which was published by the Institute for Studies in American Music. Minna Lederman Daniel died (Oct 29, 1995) aged ninety-nine, in Manhattan.

Danielis – (fl. c865 – c900)
Greek Imperial supporter and businesswoman
Danielis was a native of Patras and possessed considerable estates throughout the Peloponnese in Greece. Presumably after the death of her husband Danielis controlled the administration of a profitable carpet making venture. She provided property and moneys to the Imperial official Basil, which assisted with his rise to the throne as Emperor Basil I. after he was enthroned in Constantinople Danielis was invited to visit the court there. Basil granted her the title of Basilomitor (king’s mother) and she made his son Leo VI the heir of her fortune.

Daniell, Georgiana – (1835 – 1894)
British army mission activist
Georgiana Daniell was the daughter of Captain Frederick Daniell, of the East India Company, and his wife Louisa Drake, she was born in India. With her father’s early death, she returned to England with her mother (1837) and attended school in Brighton. Daniell later resided with her mother in Warwickshire, before they removed to the army camp at Aldershot, in Hampshire, where they worked togther to found the first Soldiers’ Home and Institute (1835), in order to provide a place for off duty soldiers to relax, that would not encourage vice. With her mother’s death (1871), Georgiana continued the work. A woman possessed of shrewd financial acumen, she raised enough capital to found other Soldiers’ Homes, and wrote Aldershot: a Record of Mrs Daniell’s Work amongst Soldiers, and its Sequel (1879).

Daniell, Louisa – (c1808 – 1871)
British army mission activist
Born Louisa Drake, she was orphaned during early childhood. She was married to Frederick Daniell, a captain attached to the East India Company. Their daughter Georgiana was born in India (1835), where Louisa established a name for herself as a devout Christian evangelist, holding prayer meetings and distributing religious pamphlets. With the death of her husband (1837), Daniell returned to England with her daughter. Later resident in Warwickshire, Daniell became prominently involved in local religious activities, organizing cottage bible readings and scripture classes. With her daughter she founded the first Soldiers’ Home and Institute at Aldershot, Hampshire (1863), designed to provide soldiers with a place of relaxation that would not provide unneccessary temptations. She established a refuge for girls at Aldershot, and instituted the Band of Hope (1866) for camp children, which would later develop into a school for which tuition was provided by the soldiers themselves. She died after a long illness.

Daniello, Antonia – (c1365 – 1408)
Italian medical practitioner
Antonia Daniello studied medicine at the famous school in Florence. Granted her degree which enabled her to practice her profession legally (1386), she became formally known as ‘Maestra Antonia.’

Daniels, Alicia – (c1770 – 1826)
British stage actress and vocalist
Alicia Daniels was trained for the theatre under the watchful eye of her mother, and played chorus roles before appearing at Drury Lane Theatre, London as Leonora in, The Padlock (1791), her first recorded stage role. By the end of 1791 she had left Drury Lane and joined the company at Manchester, in Lancashire, managed by Banks and Ward. There she appeared with the leading actor, George Frederick Cooke, whom she later married at Chester (1796), probably as his second wife. The roles accorded her included Clarissa in, Lionel and Clarissa, and Ariel in, The Tempest (both 1793). In 1794 she joined the Sadler’s Wells Theatre as a soprano, before returning to work in Manchester. Back in London she appeared as Ophelia in Hamlet and the Lass in, England’s Glory (1796).
Daniels’s worked with her husband in Manchester and then in Dublin, Ireland, but his increasing alcoholism irreperably damaged the marriage, whereupon Alicia seperated from him, and later had their union declared null and void in London (1801). She then performed in the popular Vauxhall Gardens as a singer (1799 – 1804) where she performed renditions of several popular works including Ere my dear Laddie gade to Sea, by Brooks, and, Oe’er Highlands and Lowlands. During the latter part of her career, Daniels’s appeared at the Theatre Royal, in Bath, and at Haymarket Theatre where she played Rosina in, The Spanish Barber (1804). She may have remarried to the talented pianist Windsor, a member of the Bath Philharmonic Society. Alicia Daniels died at Bath (April 30, 1826).

Daniels, Anna Klegman – (1893 – 1970)
Russian-American obstetrician
Anna klegman was born (June 10, 1893) at Kiev in the Ukraine. She immigrated to the USA with her family and was naturalized (1906). Kleegman attended Cornel Medical College and served with the military during WW I, being employed as an army surgeon. Her first marriage with Maurice Daniels, a stockbroker, ended in divorce, whilst her second, to Richard Fondiller, was annulled, and she retained her first husband’s surname. Daniels was a founding member of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and was herself attached at various times during her career to the New York Infirmary, the Bellevue Hospital, and the City House of Detention for Women. Daniels also served as the medical director of the Planned Parenthood Association for the South Shore of Long Island She wrote several works such as The Mature Women and It’s Never Too Late to Love. Anna Klegman Daniels died in New York (March 25, 1970) aged seventy-six.

Daniels, Annette – (1961 – 2004)
Black American mezzo-soprano
Annette Daniels was born (Sept 10, 1961). After suitable vocal training, Daniels appeared with various opera companies including those in Washington, D.C., San Diego, Cincinnati, and Portland. Daniels appeared in concert with various orchestras and performed numerous oratorios, her most memorable role being that of Betty in the first production of the opera Monticello. Annette Daniels died tragically young, aged only forty-two (April 1, 2004).

Daniels, Bebe – (1901 – 1971)
American actress
Phyliss Daniels was born into a theatrical family in Dallas, Texas. Known as ‘Bebe’ she was famous as ‘The World’s Youngest Shakespearian Actress,’ and made over two hundred silent films and westerns. She survived the transition to sound but then worked in radio broadcasting in London, England with her husband, actor Ben Lyon (1901 – 1979). The couple worked together in the long running comedy series entitled Life With the Lyons (1955 – 1960). She was awarded the American Medal of Freedom (1946) for her work entertaining the troops during WW II.

Daniels, Dolly Nampiljinpa – (1936 – 2004)
Australian aboriginal painter and activist
Dolly Nampiljinpa was a member of the Warlpiri tribe, and settled with them at Yuendumu in Central Australia (1946). A noted tribal linguist, her knowledge and fluency of various native dialects, including the Pitjantjatjara, Pintupi, Gurindji, and Anmatyerre, proved of valuable assistance to linguistic and anthropologist researchers such as Ken Hale and Nancy Munn. Her art works, which utilized brightly coloured acrylic canvasses is recognized world wide, and was chairwoman if the Warlukurlangu Artists Association at Yuendumu. Daniels became prominently involved in the land claims of her people (1976 – 1984) which saw large tracts of the Central Australian desert returned to her people, and retained strong ties with the Central Land Council. Dolly Nampiljinpa died of cancer.

Daniels, Kay – (1941 – 2001)
Australian historian and civil servant
Kay Daniels was born in Adelaide, South Australia (June 17, 1941), the daughter of a tram worker. She was educated at the Adelaide Teachers College, the University of Adelaide, and the University of Sussex in England, after being awarded a George Murray scholarship by Adelaide University. Daniels taught history for two decades at the University of Tasmania (1967 – 1988), and co-edited the feminist newsletter, Liberaction with Shirley Castley in Hobart during the 1970’s. With a respected career within the public service system, which she joined in 1989, Daniels was the author of Women in Australia: An Annotated Guide to the Records (1977), and co-wrote Uphill All the Way (1980) with her partner, Mary Murnane. Other works included So Much Hard Work (1984), a history of Australian prostitution, and Convict Women (1998). She remained unmarried. Kay Daniels died in Canberra, ACT (Australian Capital Territory) of pancreatic cancer, aged sixty (July 17, 2001).

Daniels, Mabel Wheeler – (1878 – 1971)
American pianist and composer
Mabel Daniels was born (Nov 27, 1878) in Swampscott, Massachusetts, and was taught piano from early childhood. She was educated at Radcliffe College, and then studied under the noted composer, George Crawford. During this period Daniels co-composed the operetta, The Show Girl (1902) and then travelled abroad, to Bavaria, where she continued her studies under Ludwig Thuille in Munich. She left a written account of her two year stay in Germany, An American Girl in Munich: Impressions of a Music Student.
Daniels wrote orchestral music and produced works for the harp. Her best remembered pieces were probably the hauntingly romantic orchestral piece, Deep Forest, and her Songs for Elfland, which were composed especially for a soprano and female chorus. She was awarded a prize from the National Federation of Music Clubs (1911), for the songs, Eastern Song and The Voice of My Beloved, which were also composed soley for women’s voices, and accompanied by two violins and the piano. Daniels served as music director of the Bradford Academy (1911 – 1913) and music director at the Simmonds College in Boston (1913 – 1918). Famous for her association with the MacDowell Colony summer festival in New Hampshire, Daniels was later awarded a MacDowell Fellowship (1931). Some of her later works included a, Pastoral Ode (1940), for flute and strings, and, Digressions (1947), for a string orchestra. Her last two works were, A Psalm of Praise (1954), for chorus, trumpet, percussion, and strings and, Piper, Play On! (1961). Mabel wheeler Daniels died (March 10, 1971) aged ninety-two.

Daniels, Marlene – (1941 – 1997)
American maritime law expert
Marlene Daniels was born in Englewood, New Jersey, the daughter of Joseph H. Daniels, founder of the weekly Palisades Newspapers in Bergen, New Jersey. Daniels graduated from the Dwight School for Girls, the Connecticut College for Women and the Fordham Law School. She joined the law firm Hill, Betts & Nash as an associate (1967) and was later made a partner (1973). Daniels co-founded the Admiralty/Finance Forum (1986) which dealt with issues affecting the shipping industry, and was a member of the Maritime Law Assciation of the United States, the European Maritime Law Asscoaition, and was a member of the executive committee of the board of the Norwegian-American Chamber of Commerce. She left Hill, Betts & Nash to become a partner in the New York law firm of Seward & Kissel (1992). Marlene Daniels died of pancreatic cancer in New York (Jan 5, 1997).

Danilova, Alexandra Dionisyevna – (1904 – 1997) 
Russian ballerina
Alexandra Danilova was born at Peterhof (Nov 20, 1904), and attended the Russian Imperial and Soviet State Ballet schools in Leningrad, studying dance under Agrippina Vaganova. She became a soloist with the Mariinsky Theatre (later the Kirov). Danilova visited Europe in 1924 with a small ballet ensemble headed by George Balanchine. The entire group joined the Ballets Russes, and never returned to Russia. Danilova soon established herself as a prominent ballet performer, and created the lead roles in productions such as Apollo, La Pastorelle, and The Triumph of Neptune.
With the death of Diaghilev, she joined the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo (1929), and made her debut in the USA in 1933, after which she toured the country extensively. She appeared as a guest performer with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet in Britain, and toured Japan, the Philippines, and South Africa with her own touring company, Great Moments of Ballet (1954 – 1956).
The winner of the prestigious Capezio Award (1958) her best remembered performances included, the street dancer in Le Beau Danube, the glove seller in Gaite Parisienne, Odette, in Swan Lake, and Swanilda in Coppelia. Danilova also taught dance and gave lecture tours, she appeared in the musical comedy O Captain (19588) and the film The Turning Point (1977). Later in her career she was a faculty member of the School of American Ballet, and she staged a full production of Coppelia for the New York City Ballet (1974 – 1975). Alexandra Danilova died aged ninety-two (July 13, 1997).

Danischewsky, Monika – (1911 – 1994)
Russian-Anglo author and film producer
Momika Danishcewsky immigrated to Great Britain with her parents after the Revolution. She was then employed as a publicist and scriptwriter for Ealing Studios (1938 – 1948). Danischewsky produced films like, Whisky Galore (1948), The Battle of the Sexes (1961), and wrote several screenplays, including, Topkapi (1964). She published two volumes of autobiography White Russian, Red Face (1966) and Out of My Mind (1972).

Dankmodis – (c1050 – after 1109)
German aristocrat
Dankmodis was sister of Ruthard, archbishop of Mainz, and became the wife (c1065) of Richolf, Rheingrave of Dhaun (c1045 – c1110). The couple had four children,

Dann, Belinda – (c1900 – 2007)
Australian aboriginal tribal elder
Quinlyn Wardagoo was the daughter of a white father and an aboriginal mother from the Nygina tribe. She was taken from her parents as a child and raised by Catholic nuns at Beagle Bay, near Broome in Western Australia and was renamed Belinda Boyd. She was married to Matthias Dann of the Nyul Nyul tribe, and bore him six children. She assisted her husband and others with the constructioin of the Sacred Heart Church at Beagle Bay, and established the College of St Cecilia at Port Headland. Only five months prior to her death she was reunited with a younger brother from whom she had been separated for one hundred years. Belinda Dann died (Oct 9, 2007) aged about one hundred and seven, at Port Hedland.

Dannila of Lithuania – (1306 – 1364)
Polish princess
Danila was the daughter of Grand Prince Gedimin and his third wife Jewna Ivanovna, the daughter of Ivan, Prince of Polotzk. She was married (1320) to Duke Vaclav of Masovia and Plock (1291 – 1338) and was called Elzbieta (Elizabeth) by her husband’s subjects. She survived her husband and was Dowager Duchess of Masovia for twenty-five years (1338 – 1364). The couple left two children,

Danti, Teodora – (1536 – 1586)
Italian painter
Teodora Danti was the aunt of the Umbrian artist Ignazio Danti. An accomplished painter, none of whose work is known to survive, Teodora apparently instructed her talented nephew in his youth. In the foreward of Danti’s edition of Sacrobosco’s, Sphaera Mundi, published in Florence in 1571, he pays literary tribute to the artistic instruction provided for him by his aunt.

Dantika – (fl. c520 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Dantika was born in Savatthi, and was the daughter of an official of the King of Kosala. She never married and joined the Buddhist nuns established under Pajapati. Dantika meditated in the forest and also resided there for a period as a solitary. Her poem ‘As I left my daytime resting place on Vulture Peak’ is preserved in the Therigatha.

Dantzig, Catherine Hubscher Lefebvre, Duchesse de – (1753 – 1830)
French Bonpartist courtier and salonniere
Catherine Hubscher was born of humble parentage and background at Goldbach-Altenbach in the upper Rhine region (Feb 2, 1753), the daughter of Andre Hubscher and his wife Madeleine Christ. She was employed as a washerwoman to the future emperor Napoleon, when he was still only a corporal. She was then married (1783) to one of his future generals, Pierre Francois Joseph Lefebvre (1755 – 1820), later Marshal of France (1804). The couple had fourteen children, of whom only one survived infancy, Marie Joseph Xavier Lefebvre (March 10, 1785 – Dec 15, 1812), a general who was killed at Vilna in Poland.
Madame Lefebvre was a member of the court surrounding the empresses Josephine and Marie Louise, at Fontainebleau and Versailles, but her lack of polite manners and ignorance of Imperial protocol much annoyed Napoleon, and she was popularly referred to as ‘Madame Sans-Gene’ (Madame No Embarassment). They retained their precedence at the Bourbon Restoration (1814), when Louis XVIII created her husband Duc de Dantzig. Widowed in Paris (Sept 14, 1820), Catherine was Dowager Duchesse de Dantzig (1820 – 1830). The famous novelist and dramatist, Victorien Sardou wrote a famous play entitled Madame Sans-Gene (1893) and she was portrayed on the stage and the screen in France, England and New York by the famous French actress Rejane, and by Italian actress Sophia Loren in the Spanish-Italian-French film of the same name (1962).

Danuta of Lithuania – (1362 – 1448)
Polish princess
Danuta was the second daughter of Kiejstut, Grand Prince of Lithuania and his second wife Biruta, who were both murdered (1382). She was half-sister to Grand Prince Vitold (1382 – 1430). She was married (c1376) to Prince Janusz I of Masovia (1341 – 1428), whose subjects called her Anna. Danila survived her husband and was Dowager Duchess of Masovia for two decades (1428 – 1448). The couple left several children,

Danzas, Julia Nikolaievna – (1879 – 1942)
Russian Catholic nun and author
Julia Danzas was born in Athens, Greece, the daughter of a Russian diplomat. She then served at the Imperial court as lady-in-waiting to the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, wife of Nicholas II.
Interested in the occult and theosophy, Danzas became a freemason. A friend of the novelist, Maxim Gorky, she was later appointed professor of the history of religion at Petrograd University (1917). The author of, V Poiskakh Bozhesteva, she later converted to Roman Catholicism (1920), eventually taking vows as a nun (1923). Arrested with other Catholics, she spent eight years incarcerated in the Colovki concentration camp (1923 – 1931) before being released due to the intervention of Gorky on her behalf. Permitted to join her brother in Berlin, Prussia, Danzas eventually removed to Paris, where she set up and organized the Centre of Soviet Studies, known as ‘Istina.’ Danzas published the Russian periodical Russie et Chretiente and memoirs of her imprisonment at Solovki Bagne Rouge (1935). Her last work was a biography of the Empress Alexandra entitled L’imperatrice tragica e il suo tempo which was published in Verona, Italy (1942).

Danziger, Paula – (1944 – 2004)
American children’s author
Danziger was born (Aug 18, 1944) and attended Montclair State University. She originally trained as a schoolteacher, but a car accident caused her to concentrate on her writing career instead.
Danziger was particularly remembered for the Amber Brown series of children’s books, and for works such as The Cat Ate My Gymsuit (1974). Other popular series included the Matthew Martin books, and the Rose and Phoebe books, whilst she also wrote works like Remember Me to Harold Square (1987) and Thames Doesn’t Rhyme With James (1994). Her works were published and translated into over a dozen languages. Paula Danziger died of a heart attack in New York (July 8, 2004), aged fifty-nine.

D’Aragona, Tullia      see    Aragona, Tullia d’

D’Aranyi, Jelly     see    Aranyi Jelly Eva d’

Darbile   see   Dervilla

Darbishire, Helen – (1881 – 1961)
British literary scholar, critic and educator
Helen Darbishire was born at Oxford, the daughter of a physician attached to the Radcliffe Infirmary, Samuel Dukinfield Darbishire. She attended Oxford High School and Somerville College, and studied languages and literature. Darbishire took up her first teaching appointment at the Royal Holloway College in London (1904), but returned to Somerville to lecture in English literature, most notably, the works of the poets, John Milton (1608 – 1674) and William Wordsworth (1770 – 1850). Darbishire published editions of Wordworth’s poems for 1807, and produced an edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost, book I (1931).
This was followed by The Early Lives of Milton (1932) and an edition of the Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth (1958). She was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1955), in recognition of her contributions to literature. Darbishire spent one years abroad as a visiting professor at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, USA (1925 – 1926), and then served fourteen years as principal of Somerville College (1931 – 1945), and then retired to live at Grasmere in the Lake District, where she had served as a trustee, and then chairman (1943), of Dove Cottage, the home of William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Helen Darbishire died (March 11, 1961), aged eighty, at Grasmere, in Westmorland.

D’Arblay, Madame    see     Burney, Fanny

Darby, Ada Claire – (1883 – 1953)
American editor and author
Ada Darby was born in St Joseph, Missouri (Dec 31, 1883). For eight years she served as literary editor of the St Joseph News Press periodical (1916 – 1924). Darby’s written works included Pinafores and Pantalettes (1927), Sometimes Jenny Wren (1931), Peace-Pipes at Portage (1938), the travelogue “Show Me,” Missouri (1942), and Island Girl (1951). Ada Darby died aged sixty-nine (Dec 23, 1953).

Darby, Catherine    see   Peters, Maureen

Darcey, Mary Winifred Lerisa – (1854 – 1917)
Australian educator
Mary O’Brien was born at Colebrook in Tasmania, and was educated by Catholic nuns in Hobart. She trained as a teacher and was married to Martin Francis Darcey to whom she bore seventeen children, eleven sons and six daughters including the noted educator Martin Francis Darcey (1874 – after 1922) the secretary of the Teacher’s Union. Mrs Darcey worked as a teacher with the Education Department and was appointed to various schools in Tasmania such as Bellerive and Westbury. She became a campaigner for the Labour party and later served as a delegate at various Labour conferences. Mrs Darcey died (April 18, 1917).

D’Archy, Susan – (c1854 – 1922)
Australian journalist
Susan D’Archy was born along the Murrumbidgee River in New South Wales, the daughter of a station owner. She remained unmarried and worked as afashion journalist for the Daily Telegraph newspaper. She travelled abroad to Europe on several occasions and had articles printed in Parisian papers. D’Archy also contributed articles to the rural publication Maitland Mercury. Susan D’Archy died (Aug 10, 1922) in Artarmon in North Sydney.

Darclee, Hariclea – (1860 – 1939)
Romanian soprano
Born Hariclea Hartulary at Braila, near Bucharest (June, 10, 1860), she studied in Romania, and then in Paris under the baritone, Jean Baptiste Faure. She adopted the professional name of ‘Darclee,’ and made her stage debut in Paris in the role of Charles Gounod’s Faust (1888), and became an instant success when she replaced Adelina Patti as Juliet in Gounod’s Romeo et Juliette (1889). Darclee had great success in various roles, most notably as Odalea in Antonio Carlos Gomes’ production of Condor (1891), which was performed at La Scala in Milan, in La Wally (1892) produced by Alfredo Catalani. She also appeared in the title roles of Pietro Mascagni’s Iris (1899) and Giacomo Puccini’s Tosca (1900), both performed at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome. She was the first soprano to perform the role of Elisabeth in Richard Wagner’s Tannhauser at La Scala (1894). Haricleia Darclee died in Bucharest, aged seventy-nine.

D’Arconville, Genevieve    see    Arconville, Genevieve d’

D’Arcy, Dame Constance Elizabeth – (1879 – 1950)
Australian obstetrician and gynaecologist
Constance D’Arcy was born at Rylestone, New South Wales (June 1, 1879), the daughter of Murty D’Arcy, a police sergeant, and his wife, Bridget Synott. She was educated at Riviere College, at Woollahra, and graduated from the University of Sydney (1904). D’Arcy was appointed resident medical officer at the Royal Hospital for Women at Paddington (1905), and later practised at the royal Hospital for Women and at Rachel Forster Hospital. She was a founding member of the College of Surgeons of Australasia (Royal Australian College of Surgeons), and assisted with the reformation of the Medical Women’s Society of New South Wales, which organization she then served as president (1933 – 1934).
Constance D’Arcy became one of the leading figures in many organizations devoted to the betterment of women, including the National Council of Women, and was also a lecturer in clinical obstetrics at Sydney University. Appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1935) she served for thirty years (1919 – 1949) as an elected member of the senate of the University of Sydney, the first woman to be so elected. Dame Constance D’Arcy died aged seventy (April 25, 1950).

D’Arcy, Ella – (1856 – 1939)
British writer and translator
Ella D’Arcy was born in London, the child of Irish parents. She was raised in the Channel Islands, and spent some time in France and Germany, continuing and completing her education. She attended the Slade School of Art in London, but her studies there had to be abandoned due to her poor eyesight. D’Arcy took up creative writing as a career, and proved very successful in this field, her work being published in ten issues of the Yellow Book. She worked with the male editors of this periodical, Henry Harland and John Lane, and her association is said to have led to the magazine being more accessible for the published works of female writers, such as Charlotte Mew and Edith Nesbit. D’Arcy’s stories were published in two volumes as Monochromes (1895) and Modern Instances (1898). She also published the novel, The Bishop’s Dilemma (1898) and produced a translation of Ariel (1923), the fictional biography of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, written by Andre Maurois (1885 – 1967).

Darcy de Knayth, Davina Marcia Herbert, Lady – (1938 – 2008)
British peeress and disability campaigner
Davina Herbert was born (July 10, 1938), the daughter of Viscount Clive and his wife Vida Cuthbert (later Mrs Derek Schreiber). Her father was killed on active service during WW II (1943), and Davina succeeded her father as eighteenth Baroness Darcy de Knayth, which ancient feudal barony had been originally granted by Edward III (1332). Davina was married (1960) to the publisher Rupert Ingrams (died 1964), to whom she bore three children. Lady Darcy de Knayth was later confined to a wheelchair after a car-rail accident which killed her husband and left her severely injured, being paralyzed from the neck down. She later regained some control of her upper body, but remained wheelchair dependant. Lady Darcy de Knayth became an active and vocal campaigner on behalf of the disabled. With three other wheelchair confined peers, Lady Davina greatly influence the debate concerning the private members Bill (1970), which raised the public awareness of the plight faced by disabled people. Lady Davina was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1996), in recognition of her services to the disabled, and she was sometimes known as Dame Davina Ingrams. Lady Darcy de Knayth died (Feb 24, 2008) aged sixty-nine, and was succeeded by her only son Caspar David Ingrams (born 1962) as nineteenth Baron Darcy de Knayth.

Darcy de Knayth, Elizabeth Meinill, Baroness    see   Meinill, Elizabeth

Dard, Charlotte – (1799 – 1862)
French disaster survivor and memoirist
Charlotte Picard was the eldest daughter of Charles Picard, by his second (common-law) wife, Marie Antoinette Fleury. With her family she embarked aboard the ill-fated Meduse (1816) traveling to Senegal in Africa. Other passengers included the newly appointed royalist governor of Senegal, Colonel Julien Schmaltz with his family. Her father was returning to the colony in a legal capacity. The family survived the initial wreck of the ship on the Arguin Bank, near Cap Blanc. They were then forced to travel inland amidst harsh conditions. Charlotte was forced to remain in Senegal, enduromg great privation and hardship, until she was married to Jean Dard (1824), a French teacher, with whom she eventually returned to France. Her account of her experiences, La Chaumiere Africaine (1824) was published in Dijon, Burgundy. Madame Dard later returned to Senegal and died there. This memoir was reprinted in Paris one hundred and eighty years later (2005).

Dare, Edith Graham – (1883 – 1969)
British matron
Edith Dare was educated at Woodville, near Pershore in Worcestershire, and was one of the early pioneers into the use of analgesia in childbirth. Dare served for twenty-five years as matron of Queen Charlotte’s Hospital in London (1923 – 1948). She established the first Human Milk Bank in Britain (1938) and was appointed as honorary director of this foundation, being later appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by George VI (1948) in recognition of her work for the public welfare. Edith Dare died at Windsor in Berkshire (Nov 8, 1969), aged eighty-six.

Dare, Ellen – (c1650 – 1739)
British silversmith
Born Ellen Knight, she became the wife (c1668) of the goldsmith, Thomas Dare the younger (1644 – 1685), whose business was registered in Taunton. She bore him several sons. Her husband had to flee to Holland because of her politically seditious activities, and Ellen ran and administered the business during his absence abroad. Perhaps because of these activities, Dare took unusual legal precautions to ensure that Ellen would be able to continue the goldsmith business if she were to become a widow. With the early death of her husband, Ellen Dare was permitted to use his mark to keep the family business operating, later registered her own cinquefoil mark, and was assisted with the business by her two younger sons, John and James Dare. She contracted some of her work out to other silversmiths in Taunton, such as Richard Hamlin and Samuel Dell, and was later ordered to travel to London, where she was fined for selling substandard goods (1699). Despite this however, Dare’s business continued to thrive. She never remarried and survived her husband forty-five years. Ellen Dare died at Taunton, aged almost ninety (Feb, 1739).

Dare, James     see   Quin, Tarella Ruth

Dare, Phyllis – (1890 – 1975)
British actress
The younger sister of Zena Dare, she was born (Aug 15, 1890) in London. She began her career in pantomime in London, and made her stage debut in Bluebell in Fairyland (1901), at the early age of eleven. She appeared with sister Zena in The Catch of the Season (1904). Her starring roles in productions such as The Girl from Utah (1913), Hanky Panky (1917), and Lido Lady (1926), ensured that Phyllis remained a popular pin-up girl during and for some years after World War I. With the outbreak of Wolrd War II, Phyllis joined with her sister and went on tours performing the plays of Novello. She appeared with her sister in King’s Rhapsody (1949), playing the king’s faithful mitress. Phyllis Dare died (April 27, 1975) aged eighty-four.

Dare, Virginia – (b. 1587)
The first English child born in the American colonies
Virginia Dare was the daughter of Ananias Dare, and his wife Eleanor, the daughter of John White, governor of the Roanoke colony, where she was born (Aug 18, 1587). Her parents had been among the 117 settlers who had left England under the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh, intending to settle in America. The week after her birth, Virginia’s grandfather, John White, embarked for England, intending to obtain further assistance for the colony. War with Spain delayed his return, and White did not manage to reach Roanoke with a relief force until Aug, 1590, only to find no trace of the settlers, and only the word ‘croatoan’ carved on a post as a clue. The infant Virginia had vanished with her parents and all the other colonists. No details of their fate have ever been discovered, though it is likely they may have survived as captives of the surrounding Indian tribes.

Dare, Zena – (1887 – 1975)
British actress
The sister of Phyllis Dare, she was born Florence Hariette Zena, in London, the daughter of Arthur Albert Dones. She began her stage career in pantomime, and made her stage debut in musicals such as, An English Daisy (1902), and, The Catch of the Season (1904). Marrying in 1911 to the Hon. (Honourable) Maurice Vyner Baliol Brett (1882 – 1934), a younger son of Reginald Brett, Viscount Esher, to whom she bore three children, Zena did a stint in serious theatre, but later returned to musicals, to much popular acclaim such as, Careless Rapture (1936), King’s Rhapsody (1949), and My Fair Lady (1958). Soon after the beginning of World War II, Zena joined with her sister Phyllis in a revival tour of Novello’s plays. She later appeared as the Red Queen in Alice Through the Looking Glass but rejoined Novello in his Perchance to Dream (1945). She later appeared with Phyllis in the Ruritanian story, King’s Rhapsody (1949), where she played the king’s mother. Zena later replaced Joyce Carey in the role of the bogus painter’s widow in Noel Cowards’s Nude With Violin and played the role of Mrs Higgins in My Fair Lady at Drury Lane Theatre, for five years. Zena Dare died aged eighty-eight (March 11, 1975).

Darejan Bagrationi – (1664 – 1695)
Georgian princess of Imereti
Princess Darejan Bagrationi was the only surviving legitimate child of Beagrat IV the Blind, King of Imereti (1660 – 1685). Her first marriage (1677) with Giorgi III of Guria ended in divorce (1682). She was married twice more, secondly (1683) to Prince Paata Abashidze, who died in 1684, and thirdly (1685) to Duke Papuna II of Racha (d. 1686). One of her elder daughters became the second wife (1700) of Simon I, King of Imereti (1698 – 1701), whilst Thamar of Racha, born to her last husband, was married (1714) to Giorgi VI, King of Imereti (1703 – 1720).

Darenia – (fl. c450 – c480 AD)
Irish queen
Darenia was the daughter of Conall the Red, Prince of Oriel in Ulster, and his wife Briga, and was the sister to Enda, abbot of Arran and saint Fanchea, amongst other Irish saints. She was married to Angus, king of Cashel, and later assisted her sister Fanchea in buidling the famous monastery of Rosairthir (Rossory) on the banks of Lough Erne, county Fermanagh.

Darerca (1) – (c395 – c450 AD)
Celtic patrician
Darerca was the daughter of a priest and was sister or half-sister to St Patrick, Apostle to Ireland (c390 – c461 AD). She became the wife of Conan Meriadoc, duke of Armorica in Brittany, and was the mother of Urbien, and the grandmother of Salomon, both successive dukes of Armorica. Her great-grandson was Budic I, King of Brittany (c470 AD – c513), and Darerca may have been an ancestress of the famous King Arthur. The early Roman-Celtic church, probably recalling her relationship to St Patrick, honoured her memory (March 22).

Darerca (2) – (c425 – c490 AD)
Irish Christian saint
Darerca was born in Magh Coba, in County Down, and was a member of the Conaill clan. Converted to Christianity by St Patrick during her youth, Darerca was placed in charge of teaching the new converts. One of her pupils was the future St Luger, whom she fostered, and who founded the church of Ruscaigh (Rooksey), in Louth. Darerca later visited the abbey of St Brigid at Kildare, and placed herself under the religious direction of Bishop Ibhair at Aird Conais, near Wexford, who appointed her as abbess to a convent of noble widows. She later removed to Faughart, in Louth and Slieve Gullion, in Armagh, before finally founding the abbey of Cill Shleibhe at Killeavy, in Armagh, where she became abbess till her death.

Dargan, Olive Tilford – (1869 – 1968)
American poet and dramatist
Born Olive Tilford in Grayson County, Kentucky, she was the daughter of teachers. She removed firstly to the Missouri Ozarks with her parents where they established a school, and then to Arkansas (1882). She was a school teacher from the age of fourteen (1883), and managed to obtain a scholarship to study at Peabody and Radcliffe Colleges. She was married (1898) to Pegram Dargan with whom she moved to New York. Dargan later resided in England (1911 – 1914), where she supported the cause for female suffrage. After her husband drowned (1915), she returned to the USA and settled in the mountains of North Carolina. She was a prolific author, and sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Fielding Burke.’ Her last collection of verse, The Spotted Hawk (1958), won Dargan three prestigious awards. She also published two collections of plays, Semiramis, and Other Plays (1904) and, The Mortal Gods, and Other Dramas (1912). Other works included several collections of verse, such as, The Cycle’s Rim (1916), and Lute and Furrow (1922), and an anthology of stories, From My Highest Hill (1941). Olive Tilford Dargan died aged ninety-eight (Jan 22, 1968).

Dargon, Augusta – (1850 – 1902)
Irish-American actress
Augusta Dargon was born in Dublin. Possessed of a rich resonant voice and near perfect elocution skills, Augusta became a famous tragic actress. She narrowly escaped death during the great Chicago Fire (1871) clad only in her nightclothes, and gave dramatic public recitals concerning her ordeal. Dargon specialized in roles like Lady Macbeth, Lucrezia Borgia and Mary, Queen of Scots, but was especially admired in the role of Queen Elizabeth I. Augusta also appeared in such pieces as The School for Scandal, The Hunchback, and the popular East Lynne. She toured Australia, and died at Gundagai, New South Wales. She was interred in Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, where her monument remains.

Daria – (c230 – c259 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Daria was the wife of the senator Chrysanthius from Alexandria in Egypt. Chrysanthius was converted to Christianity whilst visiting Rome with his father, and had then married Daria, who came from a noble Athenian family. She was converted by her husband and the two resided in the same house as brother and sister practicing chastity. Both were imprisoned and suffered torture before being executed during the persecution initiated by the Emperor Valerian. A tomb was erected to the couple along the Via Salaria, outside Rome. The church venerated Daria and Chrysanthius together as martyrs (Aug 12). The Roman Martyrology commemorated them together (Oct 12) as did the Menology of the Emperor Basil (Oct 17). Daria and Chrysanthius were mentioned in collections of the lives of the saints from the early years of Christianity.

Daria Giorgievna (Darejan) – (1734 – 1807)
Queen consort of Georgia (1762 – 1798)
Princess Daria Giorgievna Dadiani was daughter of Prince Giorgi Dadiani of Mingrelia. She became the third wife (1750) of King Irakli II (1721 – 1798), to whom she bore twelve sons and many daughters. Her fourth son Theimuraz (1763 – 1828) was the last Palatine Catholicos of Georgia 1788 – 1811, as Antoni II. With the accession of her stepson Giorgi XII she constantly intrigued to raise her own sons, Yuloni, Vakhtang, or Alexander, to the throne. Giorgi lived in constnat fear of being deposed or murdered by his half-brothers. With Giorgi’s death (Jan, 1801) his eldest son David declared himself regent of Georgia. At the capital of Tbilisi Queen Daria incited her sons into open rebellion against David, her stepgrandson. Indeed her son Alexander even fled to offer his services to Fath-‘Ali, the new Shah of Persia, in the hope of military assistance with their venture.
Even after the Russians took over rule in Georgia, the queen mother continued to intrigue on behalf of her eldest son Prince Yulon, whom she wished to see established as king under Russian protection. The queen mother held out against the Russian take over of Georgia until 1804, when she was forced into exile in Russia with the rest of her family. Due to her incessant talent for spirited intrigue, the Russian general Prince David Tsitsianov referred to her as ‘the hydra.’ Appointed as a Lady of the Russian Order of St Catherine, the queen mother died in St Petersburg, and was interred in the church of the Assumption in the Alexander Nevsky monastery. Of her nine daughters, two died young, whilst the other seven all married Georgian princes.

Dark, Eleanor – (1901 – 1985)
Australian novelist
Eleanor O’Reilly was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of Dowell O’Reilly, author and politician. She married Eric Dark (1922), the well-known physiotherapist, and the couple set up home at Katoomba, in the Blue Mountains, outside Sydney. Preferring rural isolation rather than submit to public scrutiny, she was an immensely self-reliant personality. Her early works included, Prelude to Christopher (1934), Return to Coolami (1936), Sun Across the Sky (1937), Waterway (1938) and, The Little Company (1945). However, it was her epic historical trilogy, The Timeless Land (1941), Storm of Time (1948), and No Barrier (1953), which established Dark as one of Australia’s foremost literary figure. She also produced, Lantana Lane (1959), a series of essays and short stories, based upon the experiences of the Dark family as rural farmers in Queensland and she was noted for her sympathetic portrayal of aborigines. Eleanor Dark died at Katoomba aged eighty-four (Sept 11, 1985).

Darley, Lucy Browne, Lady – (1835 – 1913)
Australian public figure
Lucy Browne was the daughter of Captain Sylvester John Browne, and his wife Elizabeth Argell Alexander. Her brother Thomas Alexander Browne was the famous novelist ‘Rolf Boldrewood.’ From 1839 the family resided at Heidelberg in Melbourne, Victoria, and Lucy accompanied her brother on a visit to England, where she was married (1860) to Sir Frederick Matthew Darley (1830 – 1910), the colonial politician, (knighted 1887) to whom she bore ten children. The couple twice revisited London (1902 – 1903), when they attended the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, and (1909 – 1910), when Sir Frederick died in London (Jan 4, 1910).
An accomplished and devoted political wife and hostess, Lady Darley was a member of numerous charitable organizations, and wrote to various politicians concerning contentious public issues. Possessed of an admirable contralto singing voice, many of her letters survive. At her death she was buried with her husband in Dublin. Their youngest daughter, Frederica Sylvia Darley (1876 – 1958) was married twice, leaving issue by both marriages, firstly to Sir Windham Robert Carmichael-Anstruther, ninth and last Baronet (1877 – 1903), and secondly to Major Hon. Algernon Hanbury-Tracy (1871 – 1915), who was killed in action during WW I.

Darling, Diana Janet – (1889 – 1961)
British civic leader
Diana Darling was the second daughter of the noted barrister, Charles John, first Baron Darling (1849 – 1936), and his wife Mary Caroline, the daughter of Major-General William Wilberforce Greathed. Darling remained unmarried and was appointed as Justice of the Peace for Hants (1941). After the war she served as honorary county secretary of the Hampshire Federation of Women’s Institutes (1945 – 1955), and was then elected vice-chairman of the National Federation of Women’s Institutes (1957 – 1961). Diana Darling died in office (Feb 25, 1961) aged seventy-one.

Darling, Flora Adams – (1840 – 1910)
American clubwoman and founder
Flora Adams was born in Lancaster, New Hampshire (July 25, 1840), and was educated at the Lancaaster Academy. She married (1860) a Southerner, Edward Darling of Louisiana, who was killed in action during the Civil War. After a brief continued residence in Louisiana as a widow, Darling returned to the north and was employed as a clerk in Washington D.C., and expressed her Southern views through her novels and short stories. She was the author of Mrs Darling’s Letters, or Memories of the Civil War (1883).
Flora Darling was one of the women who spearheaded the nationalist sentiment of the 1890’s and founded the Daughters of the American Revolution. She served as vice-president until 1901, when she resigned due to inhouse disagreements. Mrs Darling founded two other patriotic societies, The Daughters of the Revolution (1890) and the United States Daughters of the War of 1812 (1892). Soon after the end of the war Darling instituted a legal claim against the federal government, in an attempt to be recompensed for personal valuables that she claimed were stolen from her luggage by Union soldiers. She persevered with the claim for several decades, receiving a modest award (1903). Her novels included A Social Diplomat (1889), A Winning, Wayward Woman (1889), Senator Athens, C.S.A. (1889) and Was It a Just Verdict? (1890). Flora Adams Darling died aged sixty-nine (Jan 6, 1910).

Darling, Grace Horsley – (1815 – 1842) 
British heroine
Grace Darling was born in Bamburgh, Northumberland, the daughter of William Darling (1795 – 1860), lighthouse keeper of the Longstone Lighthouse, on one of the Farne Islands, off the coast of Nortumberland, and his wife Thomasin Horsley. Darling became famous because of her brave participation with her father, in rescuing survivors of the shipwrecked Forfarshire (1838), including five people who were clinging to rocks. Feted by London society, Grace and her father were awarded gold medals for bravery by the Humane Society, and Queen Victoria sent her a gift of fity pounds as a mark of her approval of her brave conduct. Beset by requests for locks of her hair or to have her portrait painted, she resisted all offers of marriage, and remained on Farne Island until her early death from consumption. She was interred at Bamburgh Churchyard, where a statue and epitaph were raised to her memory.

Darling, Lois MacIntyre – (1917 – 1989)
American author and illustrator
Lois MacIntyre was born in New York (Aug 15, 1917), the daughter of a mechanical engineer. She attended the Grand Central School of art (1935 – 1940) and Columbia University (1947 – 1951), having studied under artists Frank Reilly and Frank v. DuMond. She was married (1946) to Louis Darling, Jr (April 26, 1916 – Jan 21, 1970), the noted author and illustrator. Darling collaborated with her husband, and produced, Before and After the Dinosaurs (1959), Sixty Million Years of Horses (1960), The Science of Life (1961), Bird (1962), Coral Reefs (1963), The Sea Serpents Around Us (1965), General Ecology (1967), and, A Place in the Sun (1968), amongst other educational works for children. She produced the illustrations fo,r Sou’West and by West (1948), by Llewellyn Howland, and, Evolution of the Vertebrates (1955), by Edwin H. Colbert. A prominent yachtswoman, Darling was a sailing instructor at the Riverside Yacht Club, and was the winner of the national women’s sailing championships (1941). She was the author of, H.M.S. Beagle: Further Research, or Twenty Years a-Beagling (1977). Lois MacIntyre Darling died of leukaemia (Dec 19, 1989) aged seventy-two.

Darlington, Charlotte von Kielsmansegge, Countess of    see also    Kielsmansegge, Charlotte Sophia von

Darlington, Grace Fitzroy, Countess of – (1697 – 1763)
British Hanoverian peeress
Lady Grace Fitzroy was the daughter of Charles Fitzroy, first Duke of Cleveland and Southampton, and was the granddaughter of King Charles II (1660 – 1685) and of his mistress Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, and the niece of James II (1685 – 1688). She was first cousin to queens Mary II (1688 – 1694) and Anne Stuart (1702 – 1714). Grace became the wife (1725) of Henry Vane and became Lady Vane. She bore her husband six children.
When her husband succeeded as the third Baron Barnard Lady Vane became the Baroness Barnard (1753). When he was created the first Earl of Darlington by George II (1754) Lady Barnard became the Countess of Darlington (1754 – 1758). Grace survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Darlington (1758 – 1763) and as a widowed peeress she was present at the coronation of George III and Queen Charlotte (1761) in Westminster Abbey. Her children were,

Darnell, Linda – (1921 – 1965)
American actress
Linda Darnell was born Monetta Eloisa Darnell. Blonde and glamorous, she was a n extremely popular leading lady during the 1940’s, appearing in such famous films as The Song of Bernadette (1946), as the Virgin Mary, It Happened Tomorrow (1944), Anna and the King of Siam (1946) with Rex Harrison and Irene Dunne, and Forever Amber (1947), where she portrayed Amber St Clare, the mistress of Charles II, played by George Sanders. Her career began to decline during the 1950’s though she continued to make films. After her last Black Spurs (1965) she died tragically in a fire.

Darnley, Lady Catharine – (1679 – 1742)
English Stuart patrician
Lady Catharine Darnley was the illegitimate daughter of James II and his mistress Catharine Sedley. She was the first cousin to William III, Mary II and Queen Anne. Legally seperated from her first husband Lord Annesley, Catharine remarried to John Sheffield, first Duke of Buckingham (1663 – 1721). Her excessive pride in her royal parentage and connections was considered outrageous by Horace Walpole. She later bequeathed her large estates to her grandson Lord Mulgrave, and was interred in Westminster Abbey.

Darrah, Ann Sophia Towne – (1819 – 1881)
American painter, she was basically self taught and was sister to the botanical illustrator, Rosa Towne. She produced landscapes and marine paintings, her work being exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy over three decades (1856 – 1883), and at the Boston Athenaeum (1855 – 1864).

Darragh, Lydia – (1729 – 1789)
American midwife and colonial war heroine
Lydia Darragh had originally immigrated to America from Britain (1753). She settled in Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, where she established herself in practice as a midwife and nurse. When her house was requisitioned by the British military forces, she accidentally overheard plans for an attack on the forces of George Washington. Her ability to send this information in time, led to the victory of the colonial forces over the British, and she was honoured as a heroine of the American Revolution.

Darrell, Elizabeth – (c1505 – after 1554)
English Tudor courtier
Elizabeth Darrell was the daughter of Sir Edward Darell of Littlecote in Wiltshire, who served at court as the Lord Chamberlain to Catharine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII. Elizabeth was trained and raised in the household of the Marchioness of Dorset, whose husband Sir Thomas Grey, second Marquess of Dorset, was the first cousin to Henry VIII. Sometime soon after 1520 Elizabeth was sent to court where she served as maid-of-honour to Queen Catharine. Elizabeth maintained her loyalty to Queen Catharine when the king began divorce proceedings and she refused to swear to the Oath of Supremacy. She remained with the queen until her death at Kimbolton Castle (Jan, 1536) and was bequeathed a legacy of two hundred pounds towards a suitable marriage, in recognition of her loyalty. Whether or not Elizabeth received this legacy remains unknown.
Soon afterwards Elizabeth served at court in the newly formed household of Queen Jane Seymour (1536 – 1537) and was thus saved from penury, Jane having previously served with Elizabeth under Queen Catharine. With the death of Queen Jane, Elizabeth became the mistress of the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder (1503 – 1542) who was living apart from his wife. At least one of Wyatt’s surviving poems may have been inspired by Elizabeth but this remains scholarly speculation. Elizabeth bore Wyatt three sons, Henry Darrell (born 1538) who died an infant, Francis Darrell (born 1540) and Edward Darrell (1541 – 1554).
Wyatt left Elizabeth somes estates in Dorset, and his son Sir Thomas the Younger granted Elizabeth the manor of Tarrant. Elizabeth Darrell was still living in 1554 when she became the wife of Robert Stroude. Her youngest son Edward Darrell was implicated in the rebellion of his legitimate half-brother the younger Wyatt and was executed by order of Mary I despite his youth. Elizabeth Darrell was portrayed by actress Krystin Pellerin in the Showtime television series The Tudors (2007 – 2009), though this has her ridiculously commiting suicide by hanging herself in her grief at the death of Queen Catharine.

Dartmouth, Ruperta Wynn-Carrington, Countess of – (1883 – 1963)
British peeress (1936 – 1958)
Lady Ruperta Wynn-Carrington was the third daughter of Sir Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington, first Marquess of Lincolnshire (1843 – 1928), and his wife Cecilia Margaret, the daughter of Sir Charles Harbord, fifth Baron Suffield. Lady Ruperta was married (1905) to William Legge, Viscount Lewisham (1881 – 1958), who succeeded as seventh Earl of Dartmouth (1936). As Dowager Countess of Dartmouth (1958 – 1963), her official residence was at Patshull House in Wolverhampton. Lady Dartmouth died aged seventy-nine (June 26, 1963). She left six children,

Darusmont, Frances     see    Wright, Frances

Darvi, Bella – (1927 – 1971)
Polish-French actress
Born Bayla Wegier, in Sosnowiec, Poland, she took the professional name of ‘Bella Darvi’ after she was discovered by American movie mogul Daryl Zanuck (1951), she appeared in several films during a ten year period, such as, Hell and High Water (1954), Je Suis Un Sentimental (1955), Sinners of Paris (1959), and, Lipstick (1965). Her best known role was as the beautiful, but amorally calculating Babylonian courtesan, Nefer, who takes advantage of the innocent physician Sinuhe, played by Edmund Purdom (1924 – 2009) in The Egyptian (1954). Bella committed suicide shortly after making her last film, Les Petites Filles Modeles (1971).

Darwell, Jane – (1879 – 1967) 
American character actress
Born Patti Woodward, she was the daughter of a railway magnate, and made her stage debut inn 1906. Her career began in silent films such as Rose of the Rancho (1914) and Brewster’s Millions (1920), under the direction of Cecil B. De Mille and she portrayed a succession of motherly figures. Darwell appeared in many films with the advent of sound, such as, Tom Sawyer (1930), Design for Living (1934), Captain January (1936), Three Blind Mice (1938), and, Jesse James (1939). She won an Academy Award for her performance as Ma Joad in, The Grapes of Wrath (1940) and played the title role in, Captain Tugboat Annie (1946). Other film credits included, My Darling Clementine (1946), Wagonmaster (1950), The Lemon Drop Kid (1951), We’re Not Married (1952), Hit the Deck (1955), and, The Last Hurrah (1958). One of her last film appearances was as the aged bird lady in, Mary Poppins (1963), with Julie Andrews and Dick Van Dyke.

Daryush, Elizabeth – (1887 – 1977)
British poet
Elizabeth Bridges was born in Berkshire, the daughter of Robert Bridges, the eminent Poet Laureate (1913 – 1930). She was educated at home there, and later in Oxfordshire, and wrote several volumes if verse, such as, Charitessi (1911), and, Verses (1916), which was published in seven volumes over seven decades ending with, Verses VII (1971).Elizabeth studied the Persian language in which she became proficient, and published several translations of Persian poetry in her work, Sonnets from Hafiz and Other Poems (1921). She then married (1923) a Persian government official, Ali Akbar Daryush, the couple residing in Oxffordshire in England from 1927. Daryush’s best known poem, the sonnet ‘Still Life,’ was written in syllabic metre, and included in her collection of verse entitled The Last Man and Other Poems (1916). She later rejected the themes and ideas expressed in some of her work written prior to 1930, and this pruned out selection of her own choice was published in Collected Poems (1976).

Dash, Comtesse de  see   Du Poilloue, Gabrielle Anne de Cisterne de Courtiras, Vicomtesse de

Dashkova, Ekaterina Romanovna Vorontzova, Princess – (1743 – 1810)
Russian educator and memoirist
Countess Ekaterina Vorontzova was born in St Petersburg (March 28, 1743), the daughter of Count Roman Vorontzov and his wife Martha Surmin. She was married (1759) to Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Dashkov. With the death of the Tsarina Elizabeth (1762) and the accession of Peter III and his wife Catharine, with whom Dashkova had formed a close friendship, the princes became involved in the conspirace which ultimately removed Peter from the throne, and made the Empress Catharine regent for their young son Paul. Later she also participated in the palace coup d’etat that made Catharine sole ruler.
In later years, her firendship with the empress sufferred, and Dashkova travelled abroad extensively, visiting the papal court of Pope Pius VI, court of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette at Versailles, and Edinburgh, in Scotland, before finally returing to St Petersburg (1782). The empress then appointed her as directress of the prestigious Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences. The Russian Academy was founded at Dashkova’s instance to promote the study and use of the Russian language, and she was appointed the first president (1783). During her period of directorship a Russian dictionary was produced. With the empress’s death (1796), Tsar Paul deprived Dashkova of her offices and forced her to retire from court and from St Petsersburg. She left her diary, Memoirs of the Princess Daschkow, Lady of Honour to Catherine II, Empress of all the Russias, Written by Herself, published posthumously (1840), and other written works. Princess Dashkova died near Moscow, aged sixty-seven (Jan 16, 1810).

Dashwood, Edmee Elizabeth Monica   see   Delafield, E.M.

Dassel, Herminia Borchard – (c1822 – 1857)
German-American painter
Herminia Borchard was born in Konigsberg, Prussia, the daughter of a wealthy banker. When the family sufferred heavy financial losses (1839), she resolved upon a career as an artist in order to provide an income. Borchard worked in Konigsberg as an amateur before going to Dusseldorf to study under the painter Carl Sohn. She supported herself by painting scenes of rual daily life. After further travel and work in Vienna and Italy, she travelled by sea to Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania, USA (1849), where she married a man named Dassel, whose name she used thereafter.
Her work was exhibited at the American Art Union in New York and at the National Academy. Dassel continued with her genre painting, as well as producing portraits of wealthy New York families to augment her income, but she became increasingly fascinated by the Native Americans. Her most famous works were the portrait entitled, Abram Quary, the Last Indian on Nantucket Island (1851), and her portrait of the celebrated female astronomer, Maria Mitchell (1851).

Dasumia Polla – (fl. c80 – c120 AD)
Roman Imperial matriarch
Dasumia Polla was probably the sister of Lucius Dasumius Hadrianus, consul suffect (93 AD) and proconsul of Asia (c106 AD), they being the children of a Dasumius and his wife Aelia, the paternal aunt of the Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD). Thus Dasumia was the first cousin to Hadrian and his sister Domitia Paulina, the wife of Julius Ursus Servianus. Dasumia was probably married firstly to Publius Tullius Varro, proconsul of Macedonia (before 79 AD) to whom she bore two sons, and secondly to Gnaeus Domitius Tullus, consul (98 AD). Her last husband was Lucius Catilius Severus, quaestor (before 92 AD) and governor of Cappodocia, Armenia and Syria, and then consul ord. (120 AD) under the Emperor Hadrian. Dasumia’s son Publius Dasumius Rusticus, consul ord. (119 AD) was legally adopted as his heir by her brother.

Datini, Margherita – (1360 – 1423)
Italian letter writer
Born Margherita di Domenico Bandini, she became the wife (1376) of the wealthy merchant, Francesco di Marco Datini, of Prato. Margherita was charged with the organisation of a large medieval household, though her relationship with her female servants was made more difficult due to her husband’s penchant for taking them as mistresses. Her letters survive.

Dativa – (c440 – 484 AD) 
Roman Christian martyr
Dativa was of patrician rank, the sister of Dionysia and aunt of Majoricus. Converted as an Arian Christian, Dativa, along with her sister, nephew, and many others, perished during a persecution of the Arians instigated by King Hunneric. The Roman Martyrology honoured both women as saints (Dec 6).

Dato Muruais, Filomena – (c1854 – 1926) 
Spanish poet
Filomena Dato Muruais was born at Ourense, in Galicia, Castile, and was influenced during her youth by the literary movement, the ‘Rexurdimento,’ which revolved around Rosalia de Castro and other important contemporary writers. Dato Muruais wrote articles for the El heraldo gallego newspaper, in Galicia, and published four collections of poems, including, Penumbras (Shadows) (1880), and, Romances y cantares (Ballads and Songs) (1885), and, La letania lauretana en verso (The Lauretian litany in verse) (1887), and, Fe (Faith) (1911), both of which have religious themes. She also wrote a book of poetry in her native Galician, Follatos (Pages) (1891) in which included her prize winning feminist poem, ‘Defensa das mulleres,’ and the heroic ode, ‘A Galicia.’ She died at Sada Coruna.

Dat-So-La-Lee (Louisa Kayser) – (c1840 – 1925)
Native American Indian basket weaver
Dat-So-La-Lee was born near Lake Tahoe, on the border of California and Nevada, a member of the Washo tribe. She was trained to weave baskets from earliest childhood, and later supported herself by working as a domestic for white miners and their families. She was married to Charles Kayer, and took the white Christian name of Louisa. One of the children looked after by her during this part of her life, Abe Cohn, later recognized Dat-So-La-Lee’s talent, and with his financial assistance, he provided her and her husband with a house and workshop, acting as her business manager, so that Dat-So-La-Lee was able to devote hersell full-time to production. Unable to write, she signed her work with her hand-print, and she gained critical acclaim for her talent at the St Louis Exposition (1919). Cohn himself had kept a careful, numerical record of all her works, which has enabled modern art historians to trace and detail the gradual development of Dat-So-La-Lee’s artistic style.

Daubenton, Jeanne – (c1330 – 1372)
French heretic
Jeanne Daubenton was brought before the parlement of Paris, and charged with being one of the ringleaders of a breakaway religious sect known as the turlupins, or Society of Paupers. Found guilty of heresy, Jeanne was burnt at the stake in Paris in 1372.

Daubie, Julie Victoire – (1824 – 1874)
French writer and feminist
Julie Daubie was taught Latin and Greek and was employed as a governess. Despite government opposition, Daubie was the first woman to participate in exams organized by the Academie de Lyon (1862) and again in (1871). Her written works included La femme pauvre au XIXe siecle (1866) and L’emancipation de la femme (1871).

Daudet, Julia – (1844 – 1940)
French poet and essayist
Born Julia Allard, she became the wife of the noted author and man of letters Alphonse Daudet (1840 – 1897) and acted as his personal secretary. She kept her own salon and received the likes of Marcel Proust and Robert de Montesquiou. She was the mother of Leon Daudet (1867 – 1942), the noted memoirist and friend of Proust, and co-founder of the popular daily newspaper, L’Action Francais (1908), and the author Lucien Daudet (1878 – 1946). Her letters were published by her younger son under the title, Lettres intimes adressees a Madame Alphonse Daudet (1935).

Dauge, Henri    see   Hammond, Henrietta Hardy

Daulton, Agnes McClelland – (1867 – 1944)
American writer
She was born Agnes Warner (April 29, 1867) in New Philadelphia, Ohio. Daulton wrote several popular novels such as Wings and Strings (1903), From Sioux to Susan (1909), and The Green Gate (1926) amongst others. Agnes Daulton died aged seventy-seven (June 5, 1944).

Dauphine, St      see     Sabran, Delphine de

Dauser, Sue – (1888 – 1972)
American nurse
Dauser joined the US Navy (1918), and attended President Warren Harding at his death (1923). Dauser was later appointed superintendent of the Navy Nursing Corps (1939) and it was due to her efforts that female recruitment grew on a widespread scale. She was the first female military personnel to be awarded the Distinguished Service Medal (1945).

Dauthendy, Elisabeth – (1854 – 1943)
German writer
Born in St Petersburg in Russia, her father was the court photographer. Dauthendy wrote short novels, stories and fairy-tales. She was particularly remembered for her espousal of the cause of lesbianism as the ideal relationship for women which was the theme of her work Vom neuen Weibe und seiner Liebe.Ein Buch fur reife Geister (Of the New Woman and Her Love-life, A Book for Mature Spirits (1900).

Davenant, Henrietta Maria du Tremblay, Lady – (c1620 – 1691)
French-Anglo theatrical manager
Henrietta Maria du Tremblay was born at St Germaine Beaupre and was a married woman when she first met the Englishman Sir William Davenant during a visit to France (1646). With the death of her husband, Henrietta Maria married Davenant, them himself a widower, and came with him to England (1655). Lady Davenant bore her husband nine children before his death (1668), and several of her stepchildren were also raised in her household, as was the famous actress, Elizabeth Barry. During her widowhood she was proprietress of the Duke’s Company (1668 – 1673), and she proved herself a capable business administrator. Artistic management was placed under the control of her premier actors, Henry Betterton and Henry Harris, and Lady Davenant herself established the Barbican Nursey (1672) for young actors. Lady Davenant was closely associated with the establishment of the new Dorset Garden Theatre, but gradually turned over more of the management to her adult sons. Lady Davenant died aged about seventy, and was interred (Feb 24, 1691) in the vault of the church of St Bride, in Fleet Street.

Davenport, Doris – (1915 – 1980)
American actress and poet
Born in Moline, Illinois, she appeared in several films early in her career such as, Kid Millions (1934), The Westerner (1940), and, Behind the News (1940). Davenport later devoted her career to writing, and produced many articles for peridicals such as the, Mid-American Review and, Lesbian Studies. Her three volumes of poetry, It’s Like This (1980), Eat Thunder and Drink Rain (1982) and Voodoo Chile, Slight Return (1991) were all published posthumously. Doris Davenport died at Santa Cruz, California (June 18, 1980).

Davenport, Dorothy – (1895 – 1977)
American film actress, screenwriter, producer and director
Dorothy Davenport was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of actor Harry Davenport (1866 – 1949) and his first wife the actress Alice Davenport. Dorothy made her debut in the silent film Her Indian Hero (1909). This was followed by appearances in The Intruder (1913), and Fruit of Evil (1914). She appeared as a leading lady in films with her husband Wallace Reid (1891 – 1923). With his death which was caused by alcohol abuse, Davenport turned her talents to directing films such as Linda (1929), Sucker Money (1933) and Woman Condemned (1934).

Davenport, Frances – (fl. c1660 – 1668) 
English Restoration actress
Frances Davenport was probably the elder sister of Elizabeth and Jane Davenport, both contemporary actresses during this period. Her first recorded appearance was as Calis in Thomas Killigrew’s profuction of Thomaso (1664). Frances was officially a member of the King’s Company from 1666 – 1668. Her roles during this period included those of Flavia in Secret Love and Valeria in The Black Prince. In 1668 she appears to have retired from the stage to become a kept mistress. The famous diarist Samuel Pepys thought her an untalented actress.

Davenport, Hester – (c1640 – 1717)
English Stuart actress
Born Elizabeth Davenport, she was known as ‘Hester.’ She became an actress on the London stage, being attached to the Duke of York’s company of players. She famously created the role of Roxelana in the Siege of Rhodes. Hester was taken from the theatre to be the kept mistress of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth Earl of Oxford (1637 – 1703). The details of their liasion are recorded the Memoires of the Comte de Gramont, who refers to her situation as ‘recent proof of man’s perfidy.’
Lord Oxford, then a widower, married Hester in a mock ceremony, which she believed to be real, having one of his servants disguised as the priest that performed the ceremony. Their illegitimate son, Aubrey de Vere (1664 – 1708) died claiming to be earl of Oxford. Hester Davenport considered herself the legal and rightful countess of Oxford, and appears to have always used that title. She was later remarried to Peter Hoet, only a month after the death of Lord Oxford, from whom she had long been seperated (1703), being then styled ‘Dowager Countess of Oxford.’ Widowed in May, 1717, Hester survived her second husband only six months, and died in Soho, London, aged about seventy-seven (Nov 20, 1717).

Davenport, Marcia – (1903 – 1996)
American writer, novelist and music critic
Marcia Davenport was born (June 9, 1903), the daughter of the soprano Alma Gluck and the stepdaughter of the violinist Efrem Zimbalist. She worked on the staff of the New Yorker magazine, and was a music critic with Stage magazine. She kept the name of her second husband the novelist Russell Davenport. Marcia Davenport was best known for her biography Mozart (1932) and several novels such as Of Lena Geyer (1936) the life of a fictional opera star, the dynastic saga The Valley of Decision (1942) and The Constant Image (1960). She published the autobiography Too Strong for Fantasy (1967). Marcia Davenport died (Jan 16, 1996) aged ninety-two, at Monterey in California.

Davenport, Mary Ann – (1759 – 1843)
British actress and vocalist
Born Mary Ann Harvey in Launceston, she made her first stage appearance at fifteen (1784) and was married two years afterwards to the noted actor and theatrical manager, George Gosling Davenport (c1758 – 1814). From 1794 the couple appeared at Covent Garden together, and Mary Ann’s talent quickly began to overshadow that of her husband. She appeared as Mrs Hardcastle in, She Stoops to Conquer (1794) and the nurse in, Romeo and Juliet, the singing title role in, The Duenna, and Lady Supple in, The Bank Note, and was soon acclaimed as a popular actress with the public.
Also popular as a singer, Davenport sang Fidget in, Rose and Colin, Deborah in, Love in a Village, Mrs Malaprop in, The Rivals, Lady Acid in, Notoriety, and Lady Sorrel in, The Way to Get Married, amongst many other public favourites, which enhanced her talent for eccentric dowager roles. Davenport herself introduced several roles into established plays, such as Deborah Dowlas in Colman’s, Heir at Law, and Dame Ashfield in Morton’s, Speed the Plough. Mary and her husband were paid equal wages by Covent Garden Theatre, and George Davenport eventually retired due to ill-health (1812). Mrs Davenport continued to work and her wages continued to increase, though in private life she lived in quiet seclusion. Mary Ann Davenport died at Brompton, London, aged seventy-four (May 8, 1843), and was interred in the Church of St Paul in Covent Garden.

Davenport, Novetah Holmes – (1901 – 1992)
American aviatrix
Born Novetah Holmes in Piermont, New York, she was educated there and in San Juan. She retained a lifelong and active interest in the Girl Scouts of America organization, and was married to Guiles Deane Davenport. Davenport received her junior pilot’s license (1930) and was a friend of the noted female flyer Amelia Earhart, as well as being active within the International Women Pilots organization, which Earhart had founded. During her career, Davenport was employed as an executive by various aviation companies, such as Sikorsky Aviation and Fairchild Aviation and the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation. Davenport’s training as a pilot greatly assisted her to survive a Pan American aircrash near San Juan (1952), during which she managed to rescue a child, and over fifty people were killed. Novetah Holmes Davenport died at Pompano Beach, in Florida (July 3, 1992), aged ninety.

Davenport, Sarah – (fl. 1841 – 1852)
Australian colonial diarist
Sarah Davenport immigrated to New South Wales with her husband, a cabinet maker, and several children (1841). During the voyage out, one of her children died as the result of an accident aboard ship, and she herself suffered a miscarriage. Her husband sufferred from illness, and Davenport was forced to go to rural areas in a search for work and money to support her family, and finally arrived in the Albury district, having travelled by bullock wagon. The family’s home was later flooded (1845), and they were reduced to great penuriousness and actual want before moving to Melbourne in Victoria. Davenport and her family later went to the goldfields at Mount Alexander, near Ballarat, where they prospected for gold. Her own partial account of their hard and poverty stricken life in the colonies No place for a nervous Lady (1984), was published one hundred and thiry years after the events she described.

Daventry, Cecilia – (c1185 – 1242)
English nun
Cecilia Daventry was the first recorded leader of the community of nuns established at Northampton Delapre in Northants, which was originally founded by Simon de Senlis, second Earl of Northampton (c1145). She was elected abbess in 1220 and died in office. Cecilia was succeeded in office by Agatha de Navesby and Emma Malore both of whom held lengthy terms of office. Daventry is listed as abbess in the Victioria History of the Counties of England (1906) and in the Heads of Religious Houses, England and Wales 940 – 1216 (1972). Her name also appears in the Calendar of the Patent Rolls (1232 – 1247).

Davey, Maria Augusta     see    Fiske, Minnie Maddern

Davia, Anna Vittoria – (c1654 – 1703)
Italian Jacobite courtier
Anna Vittoria Davia-Monteccucli was born at Modena, the daughter or sister of the marcheses Davia-Monteccuculi, and married Virgio Davia, senator of Bologna. A childhood companion to Mary Beatrice d’Este, the second wife of Stuart king James II, she accompanied that lady to England for her marriage (1671). Davia later accompanied the queen and the infant Prince of Wales, on their escape from Whitehall Palace in London, to safety in France (Dec, 1688). In gratitude, James II created her husband earl of Almond for life. Lady Almond served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary Beatrice at the court in exile at St Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, until her death there (April, 1703).

David, Anne – (1924 – 1987)
American educator and social reformer
Born Anne Rauchman, in New York, she was the daughter of a printer, and graduated from New York University, becoming a teacher. She married (1946) the songwriter and lyricist, Hal David. David supported her husband during the early part of his career was teaching in public schools such as Baldwin, New York (1945 – 1948) and the Roslyn Public School, in New York.
A life-long advocate for the promotion of voluntary work, David devoted herself to volunteer work with various charities and community groups, and served on the board of the League of Women Voters in Roslyn (1961 – 1969). David wrote A Guide to Volunteer Services (1970) and Get Out and Stay Out of Debt (1981). Anne David died of lung cancer (June 26, 1987) in New York.

David, Caroline Martha Mallett, Lady – (1856 – 1951)
Anglo-Australian traveller, writer and civic leader
Caroline Mallett was born (April 26, 1856) at Ipswich in Suffolk, the daughter of a fisherman. She was raised by her grandmother and trained as a schoolteacher at Whitelands College in London. She was appointed as the principal of the Hurlstone Training college for female teachers in Sydney, Australia, and arrived aboard the Potosi (1882) having met fellow passenger Tannatt William Edgeworth David (1858 – 1934) the geologist and Antarctic explorer, whom she later married (1885).
Known affectionately as ‘Cara’ to her husband she lived in primitive conditions with their children when David was mapping the coalfields of the Maitland region. She accompanied her husband on his expedition to Funafuti in the Ellice Islands (1897) organized by the Royal Society. During this trip Cara David kept detailed records, collected artifacts and specimens, was taught the Samoan language by the locals, and part raised a Samoan princess in her household. After her return to Sydney she published the article ‘Mission Work in Funafuti’ in the Australian Mission World (1897) which was followed by the book entitled Funafuti(1899).
From the early 1900’s the family resided at Woodford in the Blue Mountains and Mrs David later became the president of the Bush Book Club of New South Wales (1913 – 1922). During WW I she established a convalescent home for soldiers at Woodford, and served as the president of the Women’s National Movement for Social Reform, and was a campaigner for sex education as a means of containing venereal disease. Her husband was knighted and Cara became Lady David. Associated with the Girl Guide Movement as a divisional commissioner from 1920 Lady David was later appointed as State commissioner for a decade (1928 – 1938). She survived her husband as the Dowager Lady David (1934 – 1951). Lady David died (Dec 25, 1951) aged ninety-five. Her daughter Margaret Edgeworth McIntyre (1886 – 1948) became the first woman to be elected to the Tasmanian Parliament.

David, Elizabeth – (1913 – 1992)
British culinary writer
Elizabeth David was born in Sussex, the daughter of a politician, Rupert Sackville Gwynne, and his wife, the Hon. Stella Ridley. She studied at the Sorbonne in Paris, and was married (1944 – 1960) to Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony David, from whom she was later divorced. There were no children.David resided in Greece during the 1930’s and during W W II was attached to the Ministry of Information in Cairo, Egypt. She returned to England after the war (1946), and never remarried, residing for over three decades with her sister in Chelsea (1952 – 1986). Elizabeth David wrote columns for popular magazines such as, Vogue, the Spectator, and the Sunday Times, and was the author of several volumes on cooking, such as, Mediterranean Food (1950), French Country Cooking (1951), Italian Food (1954), and, Summer Cooking (1955). Her recipes, ideas and passionate approach to food did much to raise the palates of a British population jaded by years of rationing and poor diet. Later works included the highly influential, French Provincial Cooking (1960) and, English Bread and Yeast Cookery (1977). Elizabeth David died aged seventy-eight (May 22, 1992).

David, Florence Nightingale – (1909 – 1993)
American statistician
Florence David was born in Ivington, England, and srudied at Bedford College for Women and the University College in London. David became a professor at the University College (1962), and assisted with the establishmment of the department of biostatistics, which dealt with the demography and vital statisitcs at the University of California at Riverside (1968) and was appointed the first chairwoman of that department. She wrote over one hundred papers on statistics, and nine books including, Games, Gods, and Gambling (1962). Florence Nightingale David died of lung cancer in Kensington, California (July 25, 1993).

David-Neel, Alexandra – (1868 – 1969)
French traveller and oriental scholar
Louise Eugenie Alexandra Marie David was born in Paris and studied the Sanskrit language in India. She also studied music and trained as an opera performer, marrying (1904) Philippe Francois Neel, an engineer. Madame David-Neel travelled wideley studied Tibetan Buddhism and visited the Dalai Lama in exile at Darjeeling in India (1911). She later travelled to Tibet and Mongolia via the Gobi Desert (1916 – 1917) and was the author of My Journey to Lhasa (1927). She and her husband later resided at Kanting in Tibet for a decade before being expelled by the military advance of the Japanese army (1944). Alexandra David-Neel died at Digne in France, aged one hundred years.

Davidson, Bernice Ferry – (1927 – 1998) 
American art historian
Bernice David was born in New York and graduated from Radcliffe College with a degree in art history. She specialized in the work of the great master Raphael, and Perino del Vega, one of his contemporaries and produced, Raphael’s Bible: A Study of the Vatican Logge (1983). From 1965 – 1997 she served as research curator at the Frick Collection in New York. With an interest in Renaissance bronzes and drawings, Bernice wrote the article on sculpture in, Art in the Frick Collection (1996). Her own exhibition at the Frick included, Italian Art at the Close of the Quattrocento: Pollaiuolo and Hercules (1992) and, Severo and the Sea-Monster (1997). Bernice Ferry Davidson died in the Bronx, New York, aged seventy (Feb 24, 1998).

Davidson, Bessie – (1879 – 1966)
Australian painter
Bessie Ellen Davidson studied under Margaret Preston in Adelaide, South Australia. She later studied art in Munich, Bavaria, and in Paris, where she settled prior to WW I. With the outbreak of the war Davidson served with the French army. She specialized in painting interiors, and won more honours in Paris for her work, than any other Australian artist. Her work was exhibited in London, Paris, Edinburgh, New York, and Australia. Examples are preserved in the Art Gallery of South Australia, and she served as president of the Femmes Artistes Modernes in Paris. During WW II Davidson again served her adopted country, performing important work for the French resistance movement. She was made a Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur (1932).

Davidson, Frances Joan Dickinson, Lady – (1894 – 1985)
British politician
Frances Dickinson was born (May 29, 1894), the daughter of William Hyett Dickinson, first Baron Dickinson (1859 – 1943), and his wife Minnie Ekizabeth Gordon Cumming Meade, the daughter of General Sir Richard Meade. She was married (1919) to Sir John Colin Campbell Davidson, first Viscount Davidson (1889 – 1970), of Little Gaddesden, Hertford, to whom she bore four children, including John Andrew, second Viscount Davidson (b. 1928), who left descendants. Their second daughter, Joan Elizabeth Davidson (b. 1924) was married to Hon. Charles Richard Strutt (1910 – 1981), the son of Lord Rayleigh.
Lady Davidson served during WW I working for the war effort, this being recognized by her appointment as OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1920). She decided upon a career in politics, and became a member of parliament for Hemel Hempstead, in London, for over two decades (1937 – 1959). In recognition of her public service, she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1952), and then a life peer as Baroness Northchurch (1963) by Queen Elizabeth II. She was also Dowager Viscountess Davidson (1970 – 1985). Lady Davidson died aged ninety-one (Nov 25, 1985).

Davidson, Lucretia Maria – (1808 – 1825)
American child poet
Lucretia Davidson was born in Plattsburg, New York (Sept 27, 1808), the daughter of a physician, and his wife, the poet Margaret Miller Davidson (1787 – 1844). Her younger sister was the eponymous poet Margaret Miller Davidson. Like her mother she sufferred from ill-health, which was exacerbated by her scholarly studies and life at boarding school. Davidson was the author of over three hundred poems, the longest of which formed the title of the collection, Amir Khan and Other Poems (1829), which was published posthumously. It was later reissued as, Poetical Remains (1841), by Catharine Maria Sedgwick. This work was reissued a second time, three decades afterwards, by Matthias Oliver Davidson. Lucretia Maria Davidson died aged sixteen (Aug 27, 1825).

Davidson, Margaret Agnes Fielding, Lady – (1871 – 1964)
Australian public figure and patron
Margaret Fielding was the daughter of General Sir Percy Fielding (1827 – 1904), and his wife Lady Louisa Isabella Harriet Thynne, the daughter of Henry Frederick, third Marquess of Bath. She married (1907) Sir Walter Davidson (1859 – 1923), as his second wife. They remained childless. Created a D.G.St.J (Daughter of Grace of St John of Jerusalem) because of her work with ambulance and nursing brigades during World War I, she was made DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by George V (1918) because of her work with the Red Cross, both in Newfoundland (1913 – 1916) and later in Sydney, Australia. Her husband was appointed governor of New South Wales in Australia at the end of the war (1918 – 1923) and Margaret was first lady of the state for five years.
Lady Davidson remained involved with various public and charitable organizations. She presided over the inaugral meeting of the New South Wales branch of the Girl Guides’ Association (Aug, 1920), and later succeeded Lady Cullen (1930) as the second commissioner of the NSW branch. Sir Walter Davidson died whilst still in office at Government House (Sept 16, 1923) and Lady Margaret survived him forty years. The Lady Davidson Rehabilitation Hospital, at Turramurra, in Sydney, was named in her honour. Lady Davidson died (Oct 19, 1964) aged ninety-three.

Davidson, Margaret Miller (1) – (1787 – 1844)
American poet
Margaret Miller was born (June 27, 1787) and married a physician. She became the mother of two child poets, Lucretia Maria Davidson, and Margaret Miller Davidson the younger. Her work was edited by Catharine Maria Sedgwick and published as Selections from the Writings (1843). Margaret Miller Davidson died on her fifty-seventh birthday (June 27, 1844).

Davidson, Margaret Miller (2) – (1823 – 1838)
American poet
Margaret Davison was born in Plattsburg, New York (March 26, 1823), the daughter of a physician, and the poet, Margaret Miller Davidson (1787 – 1844) and was the younger sister of poet Lucretia Maria Davidson. Her work was edited posthumously by the noted author Washington Irving (1783 – 1859), and published as Biography and Poetical Remains (1841). Margaret Miller Davidson died (Nov 25, 1838) aged fifteen.

Davidson, Muriel – (1924 – 1983)
American journalist and writer
Born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, her early career began as a publicist at Columbia Pictures before she managed to establish herself as an investigative journalist, and specialized writer concerning organized crime. Davidson’s books included, Til Death Do You Pay, and, The Hot Spot, and she also wrote episodes for the popular television series, Baretta. Just prior to her death she was appointed as vice-president of the film and television department at Jay Bernstein Productions. Her death, which took place in Benedict Canyon, in California (Sept 26, 1983) was believed to be murder.

Davidson, Theodora Keppel, Lady – (1862 – 1945)
British army matron and translator
Lady Theodora Keppel was born (Jan 11, 1862), the daughter of William Coutts Keppel, seventh Earl of Albemarle (1832 – 1894), and his wife Sophia Mary McNab, the daughter of Sir Allan McNab, Prime Minister of Canada. She was married (1887) to William Leslie Davidson (1850 – 1915), to whom she bore five children. Lady Davidson served as matron of a French military hospital in France during WW I (1914 – 1919), for which service she received the Medaille de la Reconnaisance Francoise.
Her husband died on active service (Aug 3, 1915), as did their eldest son, Donald Alastair Leslie Davidson (1891 – 1917), a pilot. Her second son, Colin Keppel Davidson (1895 – 1943) was killed in action in Tunisia, Africa during WW II, whilst her eldest daughter, Hilary Davidson, became a nun. She survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Lady Davidson (1915 – 1945). She translated into English the work of the French editor Louis Cuimbaud entitled Juliette Drouet’s Letters to Victor Hugo (1915). Lady Davidson died aged eighty-three (Oct 30, 1945).

Davie, May – (1891 – 1975)
American civic leader
Eugenie Mary Ladenburg was born in New York, the daughter of Adolph Stevens Ladenburg, a prominent banker, and was cousin to the noted historian, Samuel Eliot Morison. May Ladenburg studied at the Westover School and was married the noted lawyer, Preston Davie. Davie worked actively in the cause of the Republican Party, and was elected as delegate to the Republican National Convention (1936), and headed the group who supported Alf Landon for the presidency in seventeen states. During this campaign she wrote the ‘Our American Way of Life’ column for the New York Herald Tribune newspaper. She later supported Robert Taft in his bids to gain the Republicn presidential nomination, and was assistant treasurer (1952). She served as a delegate to the convention which nominated Richard M. Nixon in his first attempt to become president (1960). She was widowed in 1967. May Davie died in New York (Sept 19, 1975), aged eighty-four.

Davies, Alice Hollingdrake – (1878 – 1968)
British educator and principal
Alice Davies was the daughter of a clergyman, and was educated at high schools in Liverpool, Blackheath and Truro. She was a scholar of the Royal Holloway College and graduated with a degree in Engliah Language and Literature from Oxford University (1900). Davies was appointed as assistant mistress to two London schools, the West Heath School and Clapham High School (1901 – 1906), and then lectured fir five years (1906 – 1911) at the Royal Holloway College and at the East London College, which later became the University of London. Davies served as headmistress of Farringtons School at Chislehurst, Kent for almost three decades (1911 – 1939). Alice Hollingdrake Davies died (Dec 28, 1968) aged ninety, at Chislehurst.

Davies, Anna – (c1770 – after 1836)
British Hanoverian stage actress
Anna Davies was born at Birmingham in Lancashire, the daughter of Thomas Davies, a carver and gilder. Her mother was an actress and Anna appeared on the stage at the Haymarket and Drury Lane Theatres in London (1786 – 1789). She made her stage debut as Amelia in The English Merchant (1786) and then appeared as Louisa Dudley in The West Indian and Kitty Sprightly in All the World’s a Stage (1788). Davies performed in the chorus as well appearing for fifteen weeks as Lucy in The Devil to Pay (1788 – 1789).
Davies retired from the stage after her marriage (1789) with a widower named Emanuel Samuel, a former Jew. She was arrested several times on account of her husband’s debts but managed to evade prison. She later returned to Drury Lane under her married name but was removed from the cast bill (1790). Mrs Samuels later accompanied her husband to the West Indies and with their return to England they resided at Hammersmith, near London (1799). She was living in poverty in London over thirty-five years after this time.

Davies, Betty-Ann – (1910 – 1955)
British actress
Betty-Ann Davies was educated at Goudhurst College, Kent, and made her stage debut at the London Palladium in the chorus of, Life (1926). Davies then joined the acting troupe of C.B. Cochran, appearing in, One Dam Thing After Another (1927) and, This Year of Grace at the London Pavilion. Other famous roles included that of Susie Dean in The Good Companions, and she worked in the cinema for four years after this (1934 – 1938). After this Davies returned to the stage in the Little Theatre in the West End in Nine Sharp (1938) and The Little Revue, appearing with Joyce Grenfell, Hermione Baddeley, and Cyril Ritchard, amongst others. Davies later appeared in the role of Wanda Baring in, Morning Star (1942), and toured in the same role with Emlyn Williams. She also appeared as the ghost Elvira in, Blithe Spirit (1943), but was best remembered in the role of Blanch du Bois in, A Streetcar Named Desire. Betty-Ann Davies died of appendicitis in Manchester, in Lancashire, aged forty-four (May 14, 1955).

Davies, Cecilia – (1753 – 1836)
British soprano
Cecilia Davies was the daughter to the noted musician, Richard Davies, and younger sister to the harminica player, Marianne Davies. She first appeared on the stage in London, during her childhood (1759), performed in Ireland with her family, and sang in public at Naples in Italy (1767). Returning to London she spent several seasons at Marylebone Gardens before travelling again to Europe with her family, and spending some considerable time in Vienna, Austria. There, with her sister, Davies performed at the Imperial court of Maria Theresa, and is said to have been engaged to teach singing to several of her daughters, including the ill-fated Queen Marie Antoinette. She later became the first woman to perform as a prima donna on the Italian stage, where she she was accorded the popular title ‘L’Inglesina.’ She continued performing in London after her return from the Continent (1773), and her performances and style were much admired by Horace Walpole and Charles Burney, amongst others. Davies later resided in Florence with her sister in financial straits, but Lord Mount Edgecumbe made it possible for them to return to England and perform. She was especially noted for her performances in Handel’s Messiah and Judas Maccabaeus. Davies retired in 1791, and lived on in obscurity for another four decades. During her last years she was maintained by a pension granted by the Royal Society of Music. Cecilia Davies died at her home in Great Portland Street, London (July 3, 1836), aged eighty-two.

Davies, Christian    see    Cavanagh, Kit

Davies, Lady Eleanor    see    Douglas, Eleanor Tuchet, Lady

Davies, Eliza – (c1813 – after 1881)
Anglo-Australian traveller and diarist
Eliza was born in Paisley, Scotland. She was raised in Glasgow and refused to marry an older suitor selected for her by her mother. She later converted to the Baptist faith. Eliza visited Sydney in Australia with a group of friends (1838). She was then engaged as a nursemaid to the children of Charles Sturt whom she accompanied to Adelaide in South Australia aboard the John Pirie.
Mrs Sturt caused Eliza to marry a tinsmith named Davies but the marriage proved a disaster and she worked as nursewry governess in Sydney until she accompanied her employers back to England. Mrs Davies returned to Scotland where she was influenced by the American Baptist preacher Alexander Campbell.
Eliza Davies then travelled to Virginia in America and was then the assistant headmistress at an orphanage in Kentucky. Mrs Davies later returned to Australia to join her sister (1858) and ran a school at Kiama for several years. She later established a school in North Sydney (1862) which was eventually taken over by the National Board of Education. Eliza later returned to Adelaide where she established the Bowden Public School, and received financial support from George Fife Angas. She later resigned this position because of ill-health (1874) and returned to Lexington in the USA. Mrs Davies kept a narrative account of her adventures which she later published as The Story of an earnest life: a woman’s adventures in Australia, and in two voyages around the world (1881) in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Davies, Elizabeth – (c1743 – 1777)
British actress and vocalist
Elizabeth Davies was born into a poor middle class family, and took to the stage to support herself. Her husband was the noted harpsichordist, Jonathan Battishill. Elizabeth Davies performed at Covent Garden in London (1762 – 1765), and created the role of Margery in the first performance of Bickerstaffe’s, Love in a Village (1762). She also appeared as Lucy in, The Beggar’s Opera (1763). Davies retired from the stage after her marriage (1765), but a decade later became involved in a scandalous liasion with Anthony Webster, the former lawyer turned actor (1776). The couple lived openly together, and Davies accompanied him to Ireland, where she appeared in Dublin and Cork as ‘Mrs Webster.’ The romance proved short-lived, and Webster abandoned her in Cork. Elizabeth Davies died (Oct, 1777) in Cork.

Davies, Emily – (1830 – 1921) 
British feminist, reformer and educator
Sarah Emily Davies was born in Southampton, Hampshire (April 22, 1830), the daughter of the rector of Gateshead, and was educated at home by a governess. Under the influence of women like Elizabeth Garrett, Dorothea Beale, Frances Buss, and Barbara Bodichon, Davies became devoted to the campaign of educational emancipation for women. With Beale and Buss she gave evidence before the schools’s inquiry commission (1864 – 1868) with the aim of gaining entry for women to university examinations, insisting on equality of terms for both sexes. With her friends she established a school for girls at Hitchin (1869), which was later removed to Cambridge and was named Girton College (1873). Davies served on the London school board (1870 – 1873), and was later appointed mistress at Girton (1873 – 1875). Davies’ written works included, The Higher Education of Women (1866), and, Thoughts on Some Questions Relating to Women, 1860 – 1908 (1910). Emily Davies died aged ninety-one, at Hampstead, London (July 13, 1921).

Davies, Fanny – (1861 – 1934)
British pianist
Fanny Davies was born at Guernsey (July 27, 1861). Davies received her training under the noted German composer and theorist, Salomon Jadassohn (1831 – 1902), and Reinicke at the Leipzig Conservatory in Saxony. Davies studied further under the tuition of Bernhard Scholz (1835 – 1916) at the Royal School of Music in Munich, Bavaria, and under Clara Schumann in Frankfurt-am-Main. She made her public debut at the Crystal Palace in London (1885), before touring the counties, and then successfully performing abroad in Germany and Italy. Fanny Davies died in London (Sept 1, 1934), aged seventy-three.

Davies, Florence Mary – (1872 – 1966)
Australian welfare reformer and hospital activist
Florence Davies was born at Roseville, in New Town, Tasmania (July 7, 1872). Davies was a promient sponsor and supporter of public causes to benefit the blind and deaf. She later appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) in recognition of her valuable work. Florence Davies died in New Town, aged ninety-three (June 5, 1966).

Davies, Harriet Vaughn – (1879 – 1978)
American social reformer and author
Harriet Davies was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a sea captain. She trained as a social worker and was employed as the adult education adviser at Colombia University. There she was placed as academic adviser for women participating in the Columbia University adult education program (1926). Harriet Vaughn Davies died (July 1, 1978) aged ninety-nine, at Austin in Texas.

Davies, Ina Jane – (1874 – 1962)
Australian civic leader
Ina Deland was born in South Australia, and became the wife (1893) of Edward Harold Davies. Mrs Davies worked as a volunteer for the Red Cross during WW I, and was a member of the Sailors, Soldiers and Nurses Relatives’ Association and the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association). Ina Davis was awarded the coronation medal in recognition of her two dozen years of valuable civic service and the Order of Merit medal from the Returned Soldiers and Sailors Imperial League of Australia.

Davies, Janet – (1929 – 1986)
British stage, film, and television actress
Janet Davies was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire, and was the daughter of a solicitor. She attended boarding school and trained as a typist. Davies later worked for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) before becoming involved with theatre work. Davies worked with various acting companies before making appearances on television in such popular shows as, Z Cars and, Dixon of Dock Green. Her film credits included, Under Milk Wood (1971), with Richard Burton, and, In This House of Brede. Apart from these credits she was better known to the general public as Mavis Pike in the popular, Dad’s Army series (1968 – 1977) opposite John Le Mesurier (1912 – 1983) as Sergeant Wilson.

Davies, Louise – (1899 – 1998)
American philanthropist
Louise Davies was born on a cattle ranch in Plumas County, California. With the end of her parents’ marriage, she went to live in Oakland, where she attended a Catholic boarding school. Originally employed as a stenographer, Louise went to Los Angeles to try and find work in films. There she married (1925) Ralph K. Davies, later to become the vice-president of Standard Oil.
A generous supporter of various educational, medical, and cultural organizations, Louise paid five million dollars for the construction of the Van Ness Avenue concert hall, which bears her name and seated three thousand people (1980), and which is the home base of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. Louise Davies died in Portola Valley, California.

Davies, Lucy Clementina Drummond, Lady – (1795 – 1879)
British author
Lucy Drummond was born at the Chateau de St Germain, near Paris, (Nov 21, 1795), the younger daughter of Lord Leon Maurice Drummondm (1761 – 1828), and his French wife, Marie Elisabeth Luce de Longuemarre, and sister to George Drummond (1807 – 1892), sixth and last Duke of Melfort in Scotland.  Educated in Scotland, Lucy was married (1823) to Francis Henry Davies (1791 – Oct 23, 1863) at Coblentz in Germany, the registrar of the court of Chancery, to whom she bore three daughters, including Lucy Elizabeth Sale-Baker. When her brother George Drummond succeeded as Duke of Melfort (1853) Lucy was granted the preceedence of the daughter of an earl. Lady Davies published two volumes entitled, Recollections of Society in France and England (1872), memoirs which provided much detail concerning the Bourbon and Bonaparte regimes in France. Lady Davies died at Kensington, London, aged eighty-three (April 27, 1879).

Davies, Margaret Kennedy, Lady     see    Kennedy, Margaret

Davies, Marianne – (1744 – 1816)
British musician
Marianne Davies was the daughter of the composer and flutist, Richard Davies, and the elder sister to the soprano Cecilia Davies. She was well trained and could perform a Handel concerto in public at the age of seven years (1751), as well as sing, and performed flute concertos of her own composition. Her father published two of her works entitled, Ye Sacred Muses now attend.A New Song. The Words by a Gentleman on hearing a little Miss perform on the Harpsichord and German Flute (1753), and, Musick can charm the Human heart. An Extempore Thought, on hearing the Performances of Miss Davies, a Child of Eight Years of age, in the Great Room in Dean Street. Set ….For the German Flute (1753).
By 1762 she became proficient with a glass harmonica and performed publicly, giving numerous concerts over the next few years with her father. Davies later accompanied her family to Vienna in Austria (1768 – 1773), where they resided with the Mozart family, and she and her sister Cecilia performed before the Imperial family, even providing singing and music lessons for several of the young archduchesses, the daughters of Empress Maria Theresa. She returned to London, but did not perform again after 1784, and returned to Italy, residing with her sister in Florence. Her later years were plagued by financial concerns, but she and Cecilia were permitted to return to England due to the generosity of Lord Mount Edgecumbe. She remained unmarried.

Davies, Marion – (1897 – 1961)
American leading actress
Born Marion Cecilia Douras, in Brooklyn, New York (Jan 1, 1897), she was educated at the convent of the Sacred Heart, in Hastings. Her first stage appearance was as a dancer at the Forrest Theater, in Philadelphia (1914). She took the professional name ‘Marion Davies,’ and won a part in the Ziegfield Follies. Her first silent film, Runaway Romany (1917), achieved instant box-office success. Though she attained some acclaim for her performances, and Charlie Chaplin believed her to be a talented commedienne, Davies achieved more notoriety and fame as the protégé (from 1918) of newspaper magnate, William Randolph Hearst, than for any unique acting ability, though she was definitely of the blonde bombshell variety. Hearst was to remain her patron throughout his life and spent his money liberally in order to make Davies a film star.
Though Hearst arranged for Davies’ films to be released through Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Louis B. Mayer did not always agree with the roles that Hearst had in mind for Davies. He refused to allow her to play the heroine in The Barrets of Wimpole Street and the lead in Marie Antoinette (1934), both roles going instead to Norma Shearer. Silent movie credits, Cecilia of the Pink Roses (1918), The Belle of New York (1919), The Restless Sex (1920), Daughter of Luxury (1922), Adam and Eva (1923), Lights off Old Broadway (1925), and, Quality Street (1927). Other film credits included, Show People (1928), The Gay Nineties (1929), Blondie of the Follies (1932), Peg O’My Heart (1933), and, Page Miss Glory (1935).
Despite her relationship with Hearst, Davies conducted liasions with various famous actors, such as Charlie Chaplin, Leslie Howard, and Dick Powell, though Hearst shot and killed another of her lovers, the movie producer Thomas Ince (1924), mistaking him for Chaplin, but the scandal was hushed up. She retired in 1936, and her last film was, Ever Since Eve (1937). With Heart’s death (1951), she was married to Captain Horace Brown, a former suitor of her own sister. The marriage was not congenial, but despite Marion filing for divorce, they remained married until her death. Davies died of cancer in Hollywood, California, aged sixty-four (Sept 22, 1961). It is generally believed that Orson Welles had Davies in mind when he produced the film, Citizen Kane, which earned him the undying anatagonism of Randolph Hearst. She was portrayed by actress Kirstin Dunst in the biopic The Cat’s Meow (2001).

Davies-Colley, Eleanor – (1874 – 1934)
British surgeon
Eleanor Davies-Colley was born at Petworth, the daughter of the consultant surgeon of Guy’s Hospital, London. She attended Baker Street High School and Queen’s College in Harley Street.
An excellent pupil, though reserved by nature, Davies-Colley spent some years working amongst poor children in the East End, before deciding to take up medicine as a career. She was accepted at the London School of Medicine for Women (formerly the Royal Free Hospital), and became the first woman fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. She served at Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital (the New Hospital for Women and Children prior to 1917) and then served as anatomical demonstrator and Surgical Registrar at the Royal Free Hospital.
Davies-Colley assisted fellow physician Maud Chadburn to found the South London Hospital for Women, where she served as honorary consultant for over two decades. She later served as a member of the surgical staff at the Marie Curie Hospital and was a member of the Cancer Research Committee there.

D’Avigdor-Goldsmid, Rose Nicholl, Lady – (1908 – 1997)
British political wife and prominent diplomatic and society figure
Rose Nicholl was the daughter of Lt-Colonel Charles Rice Illtyd Nicholl. She was married firstly (1931) to Sir Peter James Cunliffe Horlick, third baronet (March 4, 1908 – Jan 29, 1958), from whom she was divorced (1934). The marriage remained childless. Lady Horlick remarried secondly (1940) to the noted politician, Sir Henry D’Avigdor-Goldsmid, second baronet (1909 – 1976), to whom she bore a daughter, Rosemary Chloe D’Avigdor-Goldsmid (born 1945), who married Anthony Moreton Teacher (born 1937), and left issue. With her husband’s death in London, she was the Dowager Lady D’Avigdor-Goldsmid for two decades (1976 – 1997).

Daviot, Gordon     see    Tey, Josephine

Davis, Adelle (1904 – 1974)
American nutritionist and writer
Daisie Adelle Davis was born in Lizton, Indiana (Feb 25, 1904), the daughter of a farmer. She learned to cook before she could read, and later studied at Purdue University (1923 – 1925) and at the University of California at Berkeley, before embarking upon dietetics training in New York hospitals. She was married twice and adopted two children. Davis worked in private practice as a nutritionist in California (1931 – 1958), before moving to the Los Angeles area.
Davis used the pseudonym ‘Jane Dunlap’ when she published her account of taking the drug LSD entitled Exploring Inner Space (1961), but using her own name she was the author of such health based pamphlets as Optimum Health (1935), You Can Stay Well (1939), Vitality Through Planned Nutrition (1942), Let’s Have Healthy Children (1951), Let’s Eat Right to Keep Fit (1954) and Let’s Get Well (1965), which were immensely popular and sold in their millions. Adelle Davis died of bone cancer (May 31, 1974), aged seventy.

Davis, Alice Maud   see   Temple, Hope

Davis, Beatrice Deloitte – (1909 – 1992) 
Australian editor
Beatrice Davis was born in Bendigo, Victoria (Jan 28, 1909), and attended Sydney University in New South Wales. She worked as an editor for Angus & Robinson for over thirty-five years (1937 – 1973), and then with Thomas Nelson (1973 – 1986). She was considered one of the most prominent of Australian editors. Granted an honorary doctorate of letters from Sydney University, an annual travelling scholarship for editors was established in her memory after her death. For thirty-five years (1957 – 1992) she judged the prestigious Miles Franklin literary award, from the year of its original inception. Beatrice Deloitte Davis died in Sydney, New South Wales, aged eighty-three (May 23, 1992).

Davis, Bette – (1908 – 1989) 
American actress and film star
Ruth Elizabeth Davis was born in Lowell, Massachusetts (April 5, 1908), the daughter of an attorney, Harlow Morell Davis, and his wife Ruth Elizabeth Favor. She studied drama and acting in New York, before beginning her famous career in bit parts (1926). Davis worked in Hollywood for the next five years, before achieving critical notice for her portrayal of the Cockney waitress Mildred in Of Human Bondage (1934).
Her powerful and moving portrayal of an ageing, alcoholic movie star in Dangerous (1935) won her an Academy Award. Many notable films followed including The Petrified Forest (1936), Jezebel (1938) where she played the wilful and capricious southern belle Julie Marsden, which role won her a second Academy Award, Dark Victory (1939) and The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939) opposite Errol Flynn. During this period of her career, Davis was involved in drawn out legal disputes with the Warner Brothers Studio, who refused to allow her to break her contract so that she could perform in films offerred by other studios.
Her film later film credits included The Letter (1940) with Gale Sondergaard, The Little Foxes (1941), written by Lillian Hellman, Now Voyager (1942) where she played reluctant socialite Charlotte Vale opposite Dame Gladys Cooper as her controlling mother, The Corn is Green (1941), All About Eve (1950) as actress Margo Channing, playing opposite her real life fourth husband actor Guy Merrill, and The Virgin Queen (1955). She also did stage work, most notable being her role as Apple Annie in Pocketful of Miracles (1961).
From the early 1960’s onwards, Davis appeared in several macabre films including Whatever Happened to Baby Jane ? (1962) opposite Joan Crawford, Dead Ringer (1965) with Estelle Winwood in which she played twin sisters, Hush, Hush …. Sweet Charlotte (1964) with Agnes Morehead, Joseph Cotton, Olivia de Havilland, Cecil Kellaway and Mary Astor, The Nanny (1965), a dark psychological drama with Wendy Craig and Honor Blackman, the hysterically wicked The Anniversary (1967) with Sheila Hancock and Watcher in the Woods (1980). For her television performance in Strangers – The Story of a Mother and a Daughter (1979) she received an Emmy Award, and her role as the family matriarch in Family Reunion (1981), won her critical acclaim.
Davis was married four times, secondly, to the buinessman Arthur Farnsworth, whose accidental death after a fall (1943) attained Davis some unwanted notoriety. The exact truth has never been uncovered. Her fourth and last husband was actor Gary Merrill (1950 – 1960) from whom she was ultimately divorced. Davis wrote her autobiography The Lonely Life (1962). Bette Davis died of cancer in Paris, France, aged eighty-one (Oct 6, 1989).

Davis, Chloe Marion – (1909 – 2000)
British volunteer activist
Chloe Pound was born (Feb 15, 1909) at Dartmouth in Devon, the daughter of Richard Pound and his wife Mary Jane Chapman, and received little in the way of formal education. She was married (1928 – 1983) to the printer and author, Edward Thomas Davis. Davis was raised in an atmosphere which promoted volunteer service and public involvement, and served with the Birth Control International Information Centre (1931 – 1938), and was greatly involved with braodcasting emergency services during WW II (1939 – 1945). Chloe Davis remained active in various social services until her retirement (1977), serving as the senior information officer for the National Citizens Advice Bureaux Council (1956 – 1969) and was a member of the executive committee of the Housewife’s Trust (1970 – 1977). She was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975), in recognition of her valuable voluntary work.  Chloe Davis died aged ninety (Jan 8, 2000).

Davis, Edith Prescott Luckett – (1888 – 1987)
American actress and socialite
Edith Prescott was born (July 16, 1888) in Washington, D.C. the third and youngest daughter of Charles Edward Luckett (1845 – 1923) of Maryland, and his wife Sarah Frances Whitlock (1854 – 1917), the daughter of Edward Whitlock of Virginia. As a young woman she was blonde-haired and blue-eyed and appeared on stage in romances and comedies at the Columbia Theater where she worked as understudy to various leading actresses. Edith worked with repertory companies in Minneapolis before returning to New York to appear in Drifting (1910) which proved unsuccessful.
Edith Luckett appeared in The Fortune Hunter (1911) in Washington, but she refused to play the role of Mary in If You’re Only Human, as she belived such a role would cause damage to her professional reputation. She then performed with George M. Cohan in Broadway Jones, and became known for her sense of fashion and outlandish bawdy humour. She retained her friendship with actress alla Nazimova until that lady’s death, and Nazimova later took her daughter Nancy under her wing when she began her acting career. Edith retired from acting after her marriage.
Her first marriage (1916) with Kenneth Seymour Robbins (1894 – 1972) produced an only child Anne Frances Robbins (born 1921) known as Nancy. This marriage ended in divorce (1928) and Mrs Robbins then became the second wife (1929) of the prominent surgeon Dr Loyal Davis (1896 – 1982). Dr Davis legally adopted his stepdaughter Nancy Robbins who thereafter was known as Nancy Davis and became an actress. Nancy later became the second wife of President Ronald Reagan (1911 – 2004). She spent the last years of her life in a nursing care in Scottsdale, Arizona. Mrs Davis died (Oct 26, 1987) aged ninety-nine, at Arizona.

Davis, Elizabeth – (1789 – 1860)
Welsh nurse, traveller, and author
Elizabeth Davis was born in Wales, and ran away from home to Chester whilst still only a teenager. After that she entered domestic service in Liverpool, and travelled abroad with her employers to Italy, France, and Spain, and was taken to see the famous battlefield of Waterloo, five days after the battle. Davis was then employed by the wife of a sea-captain, and travelled with her to the West Indies, before travelling on in other positions, visiting Australia, India, China, and South America, before settling in London. Later, however, financial needs precipitated her back into the workforce, and she volunteered to be sent to the Crimea as a war nurse (1854). Her manner was thought too common and she became an avowed enemy of Florence Nightingale. She died in England, having written The Autobiography of Elizabeth Davis, A Balaclava Nurse, Daughter of Dafydd Cadwaladyr (1857), which was published in London in two volumes.

Davis, Elizabeth Gould – (1910 – 1974)
American librarian and writer
Elizabeth Gould Davis was the author of The First Sex (1971).

Davis, Ellabelle – (1907 – 1960)
Black American vocalist
Ellabelle Davis made two highly successful tours of South America. She performed under the direction of the noted conductor Eugene Ormandy, and was accompanied by the symphony orchestras of Philadelphia and Indianapolis. The League of Composers voted Davis the Outstanding American Singer of the Year (1946). Composer Lukas Foss produced the cantata, The Song of Songs, which she performed publicly with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky.

Davis, Ellen Scripps – (1913 – 1998)
American horse breeder, socialite, and heiress
Ellen Scripps was the granddaughter of the famous newspaper publisher, Edward Wyllis Scripps (1854 – 1926), founder of United Press International, and great-niece to the publisher and author, James Edmund Scripps (1835 – 1906) and the noted newspaperwoman and philanthropist, Ellen Browning Scripps, for whom she was named. She was married to a lawyer, Everett Conley Davis (1913 – 1998) to whom she bore two daughters. Davis and her brother were involved with the running of the family business, and administered the Scripps League Newspapers, which supplied dozens of local newspapers across various states. This company was later sold (1996) to the Pulitzer Publishing Company. Mrs Davis and her elder daughter were well known in horse breeding and training circles, and she served as president of the California Saddle Horse Breeders Association. Ellen Davis and her husband died together (Feb 8, 1998) in a fire in their home in San Diego, California.

Davis, Frances Elliott – (1882 – 1965)
Black American nurse and civic leader
Frances Elliott was born (April 28, 1882) at Shelby in North Carolina, the daughter of a part black sharecropper and the daughter of a white plantation owner. She was raised indifferently by various relatives and guardians but attended school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She became a friend of Joseph Reed and his family, and with their help, Frances fled to Knoxville in Tennesee, where she was trained as a teacher (1907) her expenses being paid by the Reed family.
Despite her frail health and the concern of her friends, Elliott trained as a nurse at the Freedmen’s Hospital Training School for Nurses in Washington, D.C. (1913). Frances Elliott became the first black American nurse to be officially enrolled by the American National Red Cross (1918). She worked as a public nurse during the Spanish influenza outbreak (1918 – 1919) and though she contracted the disease and survived, her health was much weakened. Elliott then became the director of a nurses training hospital in Tuskagee in Alabama. Frances then married (1921) to William Davis, a pianist and musician. Their only child was stillborn (1922).
During the Depression she and her husband resided at Inkster, near Detroit in Michigan, where she successfully convinced Henry Ford to improve conditions for his employees by providing clothing and repairs to the homes of workers. After a stint with the Visiting Nurses’ Association (1935 – 1940) Frances Davis established a day school for children at Inkster which attracted the interest of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt who then arranged for funds to be directed to the school. Widowed in 1959 Frances Davis died (May 2, 1965) aged eighty-three, in Detroit.

Davis, Gertrude Emily – (1884 – 1964)
Australian nurse and matron
Gertrude Davis was born in Melbourne, Victoria and trained as a nurse at the Alfred Hospital (1908 – 1910). During WW I Nurse Davis served at the Victoria War Hospital and the G. Freeman Thomas Hospital at Bombay in India, where she served as deputy principal matron until 1920. She remained unmarried. Matron Davis was awarded the Royal Red Cross in recognition of her valuable war service and received the Kaiser-i-Hind medal. Gertrude Davis died (March, 1964) in Melbourne.

Davis, Gladys Rockmore – (1901 – 1967) 
American painter
Gladys Davis acted as artistic correspondent for Life magazine in France during WW II. She was married to the noted illustrator, Floyd Davis (1896 – 1966), and painted nearly seven hundred representational works, featuring children, female nudes and still-lifes, including such works as, Deborah and Nietzsche (1943), The Red Dress (c1945), and, Young Ballerina (1960).

Davis, Hallie Flanagan     see    Flanagan, Hallie Mae Ferguson

Davis, Joan – (1907 – 1961)
American film actress
Born Madonna Josephine Davis (June 29, 1907) at St Paul in Minnesota, she was the daughter of a railway official. She performed on stage in vaudeville from childhood and married the conedian Sy Wills with whom she worked in the comic act Wills and Davis. She was the mother of actress Beverly Wills. Joan came to Hollywood in California and made her successful film debut in Millions in the Air (1935). Joan Davis was best known for her leading appearances in comic roles during the mid 1930’s to the late 1940’s.
Her film credits included The Holy Terror (1935), You Can’t Have Everything (1937), Thin Ice (1937), Hold that Coed (1938), Hold that Ghost (1941), Show Business (1944), George White’s Scandals (1945) and If You Knew Susie (1948). Her later films included Love that Brute (1950), The Groom Wore Spurs (1951) and Harem Girl (1953). Davis also appeared in the comic television series I Married Joan (1952 – 1956) which was produced by her own company.

Davis, Katherine – (fl. 1681 – 1691) 
English actress
Reputedly a great beauty, her first recorded role was that of Julia in, The False Count, performed at the Dorset Garden Theatre (1681). From 1682 – 1691 she was a member of the United Company, and her two recorded roles were those of Silvia in, Madam Fickle (1690 – 1691), and, Miss Molly in Love for Money. Both these last were performed at Drury Lane Theatre. No other details of her career are recorded.

Davis, Katherine Bement – (1860 – 1935)
American prison governor and reformer
Katherine Bement Davis was born in Buffalo, New York, and was raised in Rochester. She was appointed as superintendent of a newly established reformatory for women at Bedford Hills in New York (1901 – 1914). Davis instituted there a newly modelled rehabilitative scheme, which became the model for many to follow. She was later employed by the Bureau of Social Hygiene at the Rockefeller Foundation (1917 – 1928).

Davis, Lavinia Riker – (1909 – 1961)
American novelist
Lavinia Riker Davis was born in New York (Dec 7, 1909). Davis kept a private journal covering the period (1950 – 1951) The Journals of Lavinia Riker Davis, which was printed privately printed in New York, after her death (1964). Her novels included, The Keys to the City (1936), Skyscraper Mystery (1937), Adventures in Steel (1938), Round Robin (1943), A Threat to Dragons (1948), Janey’s Fortune (1957), and, Island City (1961). Lavinia Riker Davis died aged fifty-one (Aug 14, 1961).

Davis, Mary (Moll) – (c1648 – after 1698)
English actress
Mary Davis is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of Colonel Thomas Howard, later Earl of Berkshire. She became a child actress under the supervision of Sir William Davenant, in whose home she was raised and educated. Her first recorded stage appearance was a Viola in Davenant’s own work The Law Against Lovers (1662). A talented and graceful dancer, and popular vocalist, Davis later appeared as Celania in, The Rivals (1667), and sang the song ‘My Lodging is on the Cold Ground’ in the production of, The Mad Shepherdess at Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre. The diarist Samuel Pepys considered her a finer actress than Nell Gwyn.
According to Samuel Pepys, Davis had become the mistress of Charles II (1660 – 1685) by Jan, 1668 and retired from the stage soon afterwards, returning to the stage for one sole performance a decade later (1675). Her liasion with King Charles lasted for several years, and he provided her with a residence in Suffolk Street. Mary bore him an illegitimate daughter, whom he recognized under the title of Lady Mary Tudor (1673 – 1725). Lady Mary was later married (1687) to Edward Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater. After the death of the King (1685), Davis was married (Dec, 1686) to the French composer and flautist, James Paisible, the union becoming the subject of popular satire for court wits and libellers alike. Mary Davis was still living (Jan 31, 1698), during the reign of King William III.

Davis, Mary Elizabeth Moragne – (1815 – 1903)
American rural journal writer
Mary Davis was raised on a small plantation in Abbeville County in South Carolina. She kept a diary of her early life prior to the Civil War. This was edited and published posthumously by Delle Mullen Craven as The Neglected Thread: A Journal from the Calhoun Community, 1836 – 1842 (1951).

Davis, Mildred – (1901 – 1969)
American silent film actress
Mildred Davis was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Feb 22, 1901), sister to actor Jack Davis, and was educated by the Quakers. Blonde and small, she first achieved attention when she appeared in, From Hand to Mouth (1919), the comedy by Harold Lloyd, who later became her husband (1923). Together with Lloyd Davis appeared in more than a dozen films such as Why Go Home?(1920), High and Dizzy (1920), Now, or Never (1921), Among Those Present (1921), Grandma’s Boy (1922), and, Temporary Marriage (1923). Davis appeared in only one sound film, The Devil’s Sleep (1949), after an absence from the screen of over two decades. A close friend to actresses Marion Davies and Colleen Moore, during her later life she suffered frrom depression and the affects of alcoholism. Mildred Davis died in Santa Monica, California, aged sixty-eight (Aug 18, 1969).

Davis, Mollie Moore – (1852 – 1909)
American poet and novelist
Born Mary Evelyn Moore (April 12, 1852), in Talladega, Alabama, she was raised on a southern plantation in Texas until the Civil War, being educated at home, but otherwise receiving the same rigorous outdoor education with her brothers. She was married (1874) to Thomas Edward Davis, a former Confederate officer, with whom she resided in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was editor of the Daily Picayune newspaper. In New Orleans, Mrs Davis established herself as a leader of society, and was a patron of the arts, herself presiding over several literary associations, including her own salon at her residence in Royal Street, where she received such famous literary figures as the author and translator Lafcadio Hearn (1850 – 1904), the artist and writer, Cecilia Viets Dakin Jamison (1837 – 1909), the novelist, George Washington Cable (1844 – 1925), and the author and poet, Eugene Field (1850 – 1895).
Davis wrote poems and sketches which were published in such popular periodicals as Harper’s, and two collection of stories entitled In War Time, at La Rose Blanche (1888) and, An Elephant’s Track, and Other Stories (1896).  Davis had written before her marriage, an account of her experiences during the Civil War, Minding the Gap, and Other Poems (1867), which proved so successful that it went through five editions, and her poems were published in two volumes, Poems (1872) and Selected Poems (1927), published posthumously. Her novels included, Under the Man-Fig (1895), The Queen’s Garden (1900), and, Jaconetta (1901). Mollie Davis died aged fifty-six (Jan 1, 1909).

Davis, Norma Lochlenah – (1905 – 1945)
Australian poet
Norma Davis was born (April 10, 1905) at Glenore in Tasmania, the daughter of a farmer. She attended school in Whitemore and from an early age touched by the natural wonders of nature. From 1914 she lived with her family at Glenarvon near Perth in Tasmania, where she painted water colours and contributed poems to the Australian Women’s Mirror and to the Bulletin under the pseusonyms of ‘Glenarvon’ or ‘Malda Norris.’ Miss Davis published the collection of verse entitled Earth Cry (1943) which included the poem ‘Awakening.’ She then published the devotional monologue entitled I, the Thief (1944) and died of cancer (Nov 5, 1945) aged forty, at Glenarvon.

Davis, Pauline Morton     see     Sabin, Pauline Morton

Davis, Rebecca Blaine Harding – (1831 – 1910) 
American novelist
Rebecca Harding Davis was born in Washington, Pennsylvania to an upper middle class family, and resided in Alabama until she accompanied her family to Wheeling, Virginia (1836). She was educated at home and then attended a seminary for girls in Pennsylvania, from where she graduated with honours (1848). Rebecca Harding contributed articles and reviews to the Wheeling newspaper, the Intelligencier, and then published her first novella, Life in the Iron-Mills (1861). She later became the wife (1863) of Lemuel Clarke Davis (1835 – 1904), editor of the Philadelphia Ledger (1893 – 1904) and became the mother of the journalist and newspaper correspondent, Richard Harding Davis (1864 – 1916).  Davis influenced the work of other contemporary authors, such as Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Willaim Dean Howells (1837 – 1920), and was the author of several well-known works including, Margaret Howth: A Story of To-Day (1862), Dallas Galbraith (1868), John Andross (1874), Kent Hampden (1892), Silhouettes of American Life (1892), and, Frances Waldeaux (1897). Rebecca Blaine Harding Davis died aged seventy-nine (Sept 29, 1910).

Davis, Varina Howell – (1826- 1906)
Southern American First Lady
Varina Howell was born at Natchez, Mississippi (May 7, 1826), the granddaughter of Richard Howell, governor of New Jersey, and was raised on the family plantation, The Briars, near Natchez. She was married (1845) to Jefferson Davis, to whom she bore six children, and took her place as a leader of antebellum society. From 1861 when her husband was appointed President of the provisional government of the Confederacy, she served as First Lady, and, apart from a short period, remained resident in the city of Richmond. She was later captured with her husband at Irwinville, Georgia (May, 1865), and was permitted to share the last months of his two year period of imprisonment in Fortress Monroe, tending him faithfully while he was ill. With his release, the couple travelled abroad to England and Canada. Upon their return they resided for a time at Memphis, Tennesseee, before finally retiring to an estate at Biloxi, Mississippi. Widowed in 1889, Mrs Davis composed the memoir Jefferson Davis: Ex-President of the Confederate States of America: A Memoir (1890). Mrs Davis died at New York (Oct 16, 1906), aged eighty, and was buried with her husband in Richmond. Her daughter Varina Anne Jefferson Davis was popularly known as ‘Winnie, the Daughter of the Confederacy.’

Davison, Arabella      see     Goddard, Arabella

Davison, Emily Wilding – (1872 – 1913) 
British militant suffragette
Emily Davison was born in Blackheath, London, the daughter of a businessman and a former housekeeper. She was educated at Kensington High School (11885 – 1891) and at Royal Holloway College, and worked as a teacher and governess. Attracted to the cause of female suffrage, Davison joined the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) and achieved great prominence within the organization, but her opposition to the promimence of the Pankhursts led to her removal (1911). Davison quickly adopted the militant approach and was imprisoned right times, and forcibly fed on innumerable other occasions. She tried to kill herself in Holloway Prison to end the mass torture of force feeding, and threw herself down some stairs. Though seriously injured, she survived. Davison planned a public display of her militancy, and threw herself under the king’s horse at the Derby (June 5, 1913) and died of head injuries five days later.

Davoux, Marie Therese    see   Maillard, Marie Therese

Davy, Sarah – (c1639 – 1670)
English devotional writer
Sarah Roane was born into a strict Baptist family. Her married name was Davy. She wrote a narrative account of her religious realization entitled Heaven Realized, or the holy pleasure of daily intimate communion with God (1670) which was published by her minister after her death.

Davys, Mary – (1674 – 1732)
Irish novelist and dramatist
Mary Davys was born in Dublin and became the wife of Reverend Peter Davys, master of the free school attached to St Patrick’s Cathedral. With her husband’s early death (1698), Mary Davys spent some time resident in London before retiring to York where she resided the next fifteen years (1700 – 1716). During this period of her life she was granted financial assistance from the satirist Jonathan Swift, friend to her late husband, and began writing plays to provide an income for herself. Her works included The Northern Heiress (1716), which appeared on the stage in London and, The Self Rival for which she could find no financial backing to be staged. She then removed to Cambridge where she became the proprietress of a coffee-house. Other of her works included the novels, The Merry Wanderer (1705), The Reform’s Coquet (1724), and, The False Friend (1732). She also produced the play, The Amours of Alcippus and Leucippe (1704).

Dawbin, Annie Maria Baxter – (1816 – 1905)
Australian diarist
Anna Maria Dawbin born in Exeter, Devon, in England, the daughter of an army officer named Hadden, and was educated in London. She married Andrew Baxter, a lieutenant responsible for convict transportation, whom she accompanied to Van Dieman’s Land (Tasmania) (1835). When her husband left the army the couple established a farm at Yesabba, but her flirtations and his frequent abscences strained their marriage, and Baxter ultimately committed suicide. Annie remarried to Robert Dawbin (1857), but this union remained as unsuccessful as her first. Her personal journals, which covered a period of almost thirty-five years, were published eighty-seven years after her death as, A Face in the Glass (1992), which chronicled life in the early Australian town and bush. She also wrote Memories of the Past, By a Lady in Australia (1873) which dealt with the early period of her life in Australia (1834 – 1848).

Dawe, Anne – (fl. c1750 – 1770)
British novelist
Dawe’s one recorded work was the novel The Younger Sister: or, History of Miss Somerset (1770). This was published in London in two volumes by the publisher T. Lowndes, who bought the rights for twenty guineas.

Dawes, Sophia – (1790 – 1840)
British adventuress
Sophia Dawes was born at St Helens on the Isle of Wight, the daughter of a fisherman. She later worked as a servant in a brothel before she rose to become the mistress to the Duc de Bourbon, who succeeded as the ninth and last Prince de Conde. He arranged her marriage (1818) with the military officer, Adrien Victor de Feucheres, who was later created Baron de Feucheres. When the Duc de Bourbon was found dead in his palace (Aug 27, 1830), Sophia was suspected, but not prosecuted for the crime. Released and now owning some of her later lover’s properties, she was publicly vilified by by the republicans and monarchists alike, and she retired to Hampshire, in England. She disposed of most of her French property and purchased a town residence in Hyde Park Square. Sophia Dawes died of dropsy in London, aged fifty (Dec, 1840).

Dawidowicz, Lucy – (1915 – 1990)
Jewish-American historian and international affairs specialist
Lucy Dawidowicz served as research assistant at the Yivo Institute for Jewish Research in New York (1940 – 1946). Dawidowicz was later reasearch analyst, then research director of the American Jewish Committee in New York (1949 – 1969). She was then appointed as an associate professor of history at the Yeshiva University in New York, and was a professor of the social history (1974 – 1978).  Dawidowicz was the holder of the Paul and Leah Lewis Chair in Holocaust Studies (1970 – 1975) and the Eli and Diana Z. Borowski Chair in Interdisciplinary Holocaust Studies (1976 – 1978). Dawidowicz was the author of For Max Weinrieich: Studies in Jewish Languages, Literature and Society (1964), The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and Thought in Eastern Europe (1967), The War Against the Jews, 1933 – 1945 (1975), The Jewish Prescence: Essays on Identity and History (1977), The Holocaust and the Historians (1981) and From That Time and Place (1989). Lucy Dawidowicz died in New York.

Daw Khan Myo Chit – (May, 1915 – 1999)
Burmese writer
Daw Khan Myo Chit was born (May, 1915) and became the wife of U Khin Maung Latt (1915 – 1996) to whom she bore a son. Her career as an author began with the publication of stories in various magazines, and she became an editorial staffer. During the war she supported the independence movement and was later able to study English at the University of Rangoon. She published her work in such publications as the Guardian Daily and the Working People’s Daily, and was the author of the historical novel Anawrahta of Burma (1970). Her best known story was probably ’13 carat Diamond’ (1956) which appeared in the anthology entitled 50 Great Oriental Ghost Stories (1965). Her later works included Colouful Burma (1976) a specialized tourist guide, A Pagoda Where Fairy Tale Characters Came to Life (1981) and Gift of Laughter (1995).

Dawkins, Bertha Bootle-Wilbraham, Lady – (1866 – 1943)
British courtier
Lady Bertha Bootle-Wilbraham was the fourth daughter of the first Earl of Lathom. She was married when aged well over thirty (1903) to Major Arthur Dawkins. His death soon afterwards (1905) left her with an only daughter. Lady Dawkins entered the household of the Princess of Wales (Mary of Teck) as Lady of the Bedchamber (1908 – 1910). She remained a friend to her royal mistress who wrote (1908) that ‘I am much pleased with my choice as she is well informed & agreeable & our tastes suit, such a blessing.’
With the death of Edward VII abd accession of George V (1910 – 1936) Lady Dawkins continued to serve as lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary, and participated in her charitable and philanthropic work such as the Royal Needlework Guild and the Relief Clothing Guild. Lady Dawkins accompanied the king and queen to India, and she attended Queen Mary at the famous Dehli Durbar (1912). Several of her letters have survived and were published by author James Pope-Hennessy is his biography Queen Mary 1867 – 1953 (1959).

Dawlitta      see       Julitta

Daw Mi Mi Khaing – (1916 – 1990)
Burmese writer
Daw Mi Mi Khaing was born in Minhla and was educated in a Catholic convent. She finished her education at the Rangoon University before traveling to Britain to study at King’s College in London. Upon her return to Burma she established a private school catering for both sexes, in the Shah state (1951 – 1953). She wrote a number of books in English of which her first Burmese Family (1946) was the best known. She became blind during later life.

Dawn, Gloria – (1929 – 1978)
Australian actress and entertainer
Gloria Dawn Evans was born (Feb 25, 1929) in Port Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of vaudeville performers, and was educated by Catholic nuns. She began her stage career during impressions of child actress Shirley Temple before taking chorus roles. She was married (1947) to fellow performer Frank Patrick Cleary, to whom she bore four children. Gloria later separated from her husband (1970) but they were never divorced.
Gloria Dawn had appeared in the pantomime Goody Two Shoes (1957 – 1958) and in the two comedies Once Upon a Mattress (1959) and The Sentimental Bloke (1962). She established her reputation as Australia’s foremost revue performer with her appearance in the satiric revue A Cup of Tea, A Bex and A Good Lie Down (1965) at the Phillip Theatre in Sydney. For her serious role of Oola in the play The Slaughter of St Teresa’s Day (1972) by Peter Kenna, Dawn was voted as best actress by the Sydney Theatre Critics’ Circle. Her performance in Bertolt Brecht’s Mother Courage and Kenna’s A Hard God were also well received. Gloria Dawn appeared in two films They’re a Weird Mob (1966) and The Mango Tree (1977). She died of cancer (April 2, 1978) aged forty-nine, at Camperdown in Sydney.

Dawson, Aimee Evelyn Pirie, Lady – (1867 – 1946)
British volunteer worker and hospital organizer
Aimee Pirie was born at the Chateau de Varennes in France. She was married to Lord Dawson, and during WWI she established hospitals for wounded soldiers in France. She was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1918), in recognition of her valuable work for the war effort. Lady Dawson died at Remenham Palace, Henley-on-Thames, London (Dec 24, 1946).

Dawson, Elizabeth – (fl. 1851 – 1876)
British still-life painter
Born Elizabeth Rumley, she specialized in paintings of fruit. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy, under both her maiden and married names, the British Institution, and at the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Dawson, Elizabeth Selina Georgiana Meade, Lady – (1869 – 1924)
British courtier
Lady Elizabeth Meade was the eldest daughter of Richard James Meade (1832 – 1907), fourth Earl of Clanwilliam, and his wife Elizabeth Henrietta Kennedy, the daughter of Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, the Governor of Queensland in Australia. She became the wife (1898) of Captain Hon. (Honourable) Edward Stanley Dawson (1843 – 1919) and became Lady Elizabeth Dawson. She bore her husband an only daughter and they resided at their estate of Cappon Hill in Maidenhead and their town house in Cadogan Square in London. With her husband’s death (1919) the Dowager Lady Dawson was appointed to serve at court as lady-in-waiting (1920 – 1924) to Queen Mary, the wife of George V. Lady Dawson died (Oct 13, 1924) aged fifty-five.

Dawson, Florence   see   Wedgwood, Julia

Dawson, Madge – (1908 – 2003)
Australian feminist and women’s pioneer
She was born Alice Madge Burton at Echunga in South Australia. She attended secondary school and then university in Adelaide, and trained as aschoolteacher. She was married (1934) to David Dawson the actor and they travelled extensively around the world. The Dawsons later returned to Sydney (1954) where Madge joined the Labour Party and Madge became a supporter of rights for the aborigines, and was against nuclear armament and the Vietnam War.
As an academic Dawson introduced and organized the Women’s Studies into the Department of Adult Education at the University of Sydney (1956). Dawson published several works such as Graduate and Married (1965), Why So Few? Women Academics in Australian Universities (1983) and, The Meagre Harvest (1996), which concerned the women’s movement in Australia. Together with Heather Radi Dawson was co-editor of Against the Odds: Fifteen Professional Women Reflect on Their Lives and Careers (1984). Madge Dawson died aged ninety-six.

Dawson, Margaret Mary Damer – (1875 – 1920)
British founder of the Women Police Volunteers (1914)
Margaret Damer Dawson was born in Sussex to a middleclass family and was educated at home by a governess. She attended the London Academy of Music, where she achieved some distinction. During WW I, Dawson was employed to take charge of the transport of refugees from Belgium to British homes, and was appalled at how they were treated, many much less than domestic servants, after their arrival in London. With the consent of Sie Edward Henry, the Chief Commissioner of Police, Dawson established the Women Police Volunteers to patrol the metropolitan area.
Dawson trained literally hundreds of women for munition work in factories and organized rescue work during air-raids. Although they did not possess the power of arrest, the WPV were recognized as members of the Police Force by Chief Commissioner Macready, Sir Edward Henry’s successor. She was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1918) by King George V in recognition of her public service. She was later successfully sued by the Metropolitan Police for impersonating a police officer, together with all her female associates. They were convicted in court and forced to pay a token fine. Margaret Damer Dawson died aged forty-four (May 18, 1920).

Dawson, Mary Elizabeth – (1833 – 1924)
New Zealand pioneer and nurse
Born Mary Prebble, in Mersham, Kent, England, she was the daughter of a carpenter, and arrived in Wellington, aboard the Aurora(1840). She worked as a servant for several years and then married Andrew Dawson, to whom she bore twelve children. The couple established a large herd of dairy cattle at Prebleton, and also ran sheep amd a stud farm for Clydesdale horses, with Mary earning significant sums from her own cheese and butter making business. They purchased the arable farm, Seaview, at Waterton, near Longbeach. Prominent in activities organized by the Anglican Church, Dawson was renowned locally as a capable nurse. Mary Elizabeth Dawson died at Waterton (Feb 22, 1924).

Dawson, Sarah Ida Fowler Morgan – (1842 – 1909)
American author and journalist
Sarah Dawson resided at Baton Rouge and New Orleans in Louisiana during the Civil War and kept a diary (1862 – 1865). This work was edited and published posthumously as A Confederate Girl’s Diary (1960).

Dax, Guiraude de (Gertrude) – (fl. c1100 – c1130)
French heiress
Guiraude de Dax was the daughter of Arnaud III Raymond, Vicomte de Dax in Gascony. She was married to a distant cousin, Arnaud Dat, seigneur de Mixe and Ostabarret, and with the death of Guiraude’s brother, vicomte Pierre Arnaud, without issue (c1120), she and her husband succeeded to the viscounty. This marriage reunited the two branches of descent from Arnaud Loup, first viomte of Dax, who had died sometime before 1020. Guiraude was the mother of Raymond II Arnaud, vicomte de Dax (c1100 – 1167), and through her great-granddaughter, Navarre de Dax, the wife of Raimond Arnaud, vicomte de Tartas, she was ancestress of that family, as well as of the seigneurs d’Albret.

Dax d’Axat, Eulalie Louise Camille Dufour, Marquise de – (1824 – 1886)
French salonniere and writer
The Marquise Dax d’Atat was the author of ‘Souvenirs sur Madame de Stael’ which was published posthumously in Revue de Paris (July, 1933).

Day, Alice – (1905 – 1995)
American actress
Alice Day was born Jacquiline Alice Newlin, in Colorado Springs, Colorado, and was the sister of actress Marceline Day. She began her acting career as a Mack Sennett Bathing Beauty as a teenager. Her first film appearance was as Peggy in the silent movie, The Temple of Venus (1923). Day appeared mainly in B-grade movies and shorts, and her career never achieved the recognition of her younger sister. She remained employed at various Hollywood studios throughout the 1930’s. In the nine-year period (1923 – 1932), Day made almost sixty films including, Romeo and Juliet (1924), The Beloved Bozo (1925), Tee for Two (1925), Cold Turkey (1925), The Waiter from the Ritz (1926), Alice Be Good (1926), See You In Jail (1927), Phyllis of the Follies (1928) as Phyllis Sherwood, The Smart Set (1928), Red Hot Speed (1929), Barbara in Viennese Nights (1930), Claudia Elliott in, Love Bound (1932), and Marion Sellers in, Gold (1932). Day survived her film career by over sixty years. Alice Day died in Orange, California, aged eighty-nine (May 25, 1995).

Day, Beatrice – (fl. c1890 – 1908)
Australian actress
Relatively obscure, but the first identifiable female actress to be portrayed in cinematography, she was born Beatrice Einsiedel in Melbourne, and adopted ‘Day’ as a professional name. She appeared in the role of empress Poppaea, the wife of Nero in Soldiers of the Cross (1900) a full-length film shown publicly at the Melbourne Town Hall in Victoria. She featured on popular postcards of the era and was still working in 1908.

Day, Dorothy – (1897 – 1980)
American Catholic founder and radical activist
Dorothy Day was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of a sportswriter. She attended the University of Illinois (1914) and joined the Socialist Party in Urbana, working as a journalist for Marxist papers like The Call and The Masses on the lower east side of Manhattan. She worked in the slums of New York as a probationary nurse and became a Roman Catholic convert (1927).

Day co-founded the Catholic Worker monthly periodical (1933) and, under the influence of French priest Peter Maurin (1877 – 1949), she founded the Catholic Worker Movement, which established hospices or ‘houses of hospitality’ for the unemployed of New York, and farm communities for people hit hardest by the Great Depression. Her experiences during these years are recalled in her, House of Hospitality (1939). Apart from her autobiography, The Long Loneliness (1952), Day was the author of an autobiographical novel, The Eleventh Virgin (1924), From Union Square to Rome (1938), which dealt with her religious conversion, and, On Pilgrimage: the Sixties (1972). She was awarded the prestigious Lastare Medal by University of Notre Dame for her services to humanity (1972). Dorothy Day died in Manhattan aged eighty-three (Nov 29, 1980). Her sanctification as a saint was proposed by Cardinal John O’Connor (1997).

Day, Edith – (1896 – 1971)
American-Anglo stage actress, she was born (April 10, 1896) in Minneapolis, USA, and made her first stage appearance during WW I. She first received public notice for her performance in the musical comedy Going Up (1917), which ran for well over three hundred performances. Day came to London where she worked at Drury Lane Theatre (1925 – 1930), performing the lead role in Rose Marie over eight hundred and fifty times, as well as lengthy spells in shows like The Desert Song and Showboat, with which she achieved particular success in the role of Magnolia Hawks. Later performances included roles in  the plays Rio Rita and Sunny River, and Waiting in the Wings (1960) written by Noel Coward. She died in London (May 1, 1971) aged seventy-five.

Day, Josette – (1914 – 1978)
French actress
Born Josette Dagory, she became a leading lady of French films during the 1930’s and 1940’s. Her film credits included Allo Berlin, Ici Paris (1932), La Fille du Puisatier (1940) but she was best known for her appearance in La Belle et la Bete (1946). Other credits included Les Parents Terrible (1948) and Four Day’s Leave (1950).

Day, Laraine – (1917 – 2007)
American film actress
Born La Raine Johnson (Oct 13, 1917) at Roosevelt in Utah into a Mormon family, she came to live in California as a child with her family. She worked on stage prior to adopting the professional name of Laraine Day. She made her film debut in Stella Dallas (1937) with Barbara Stanwyck which was followed by appearances in Scandal Street (1938) and the series of seven films beginning with Calling Dr Kildare (1939) in which she appeared as Nurse Mary Lamont with Lew Ayres in the title role.
Laraine Day became a leading lady during the 1940’s and was best known for her appearances in such movies as Foreign Correspondent (1940) directed by Alfred Hitchcock, The Trial of Mary Dugan (1941), The Bad Man (1941) with Lionel Barrymore and Ronald Reagan, Mr Lucky (1943) with Cary Grant, The Lockett (1946) a psychological mystery with Robert Mitchum, and Tycoon (1947) and The High and Mighty (1954) both with John Wayne. Day continued to appear in films throughout several decades and appeared was the host of the television program The Laraine Day Show (1951). She also appeared in several movies for television such as Murder on Flight 502 (1975) and Return to Fantasy Island (1978).
Her second husband (1947 – 1960) was the baseball manager Leo Durocher from whom she was later divorced and she published her autobiography entitled Day With the Giants (1952). Her third husband was the television producer Michael Grilikhes to whom she bore two daughters. Laraine Day died (Nov 19, 2007) aged ninety, at Ivins in Utah.

Day, Marceline – (1908 – 2000)
American actress, younger sister of Alice Day, she was born Marceline Newlin, in Colorado Springs, Colorado, she made her first appearance in a silent film, playing a bathing beauty in Picking Peaches (1924), and appeared as herself in Wampas Baby Stars of 1926 (1926). During her ten year career (1924 – 1933), Day appeared in over sixty films, and achieved film star status in the mid 1920’s, appearing with such comic actors as Buster Keaton, John Barrymore, Charley Chase, Harry Langdon, and Stan Laurel. Her last film roles as her career declined were in low budget action and thriller films. Day retired from films in the mid 1930’s and survived her years of fame and public acclamation by over six decades. She died in Cathedral City, California, aged ninety-one (Feb 16, 2000).
Her film credits include, The White Outlaw (1925), Hell’s 400 (1926), Tulip Hellier in Looking for Trouble (1926), Jane Miller in That Model from Paris (1926), Charlotte de Vauxcelles in The Beloved Rogue (1927), June Westcott in Freedom of the Press (1928), Sue Randall in The Jazz Age (1929), Faith Morgan in The Wild Party (1929),  Broadway to Cheyenne (1932), Damaged Lives (1933), and Suzan Larkin in The Fighting Parson (1933). Thirty years later she made a brief, uncredited appearance in The Big Parade of Comedy (1964).

Day, Suzanne Rouvier – (1890 – 1964)
Irish dramatist, suffragist, and novelist
Suzanne Day was born in Cork. She founded the Munster Women’s Franchise League with Geraldine Cummins, with whom she co-wrote the play, Broken Faith, which was performed at the Abbey Theatre (1913), and the popular comic farce, Fox and Geese. Day herself wrote two dramatic pieces, Out of a Deep Shadow (1912), and, Toilers (1913), which concentrated on the daily lives of female sweatshop workers. Both of these were produced on the stage in Dublin. She wrote the novel, The Amazing Philanthropist (1916) and left memoirs of her time working as a nurse in France during WW I in Round About Bar-le-Duc (1918). During WW II she served as a member of the Fire Service in London. Day also left an historical guide to the county of Provence in, Where the Mistral Blows (1933). Suzanne Rouvier Day died aged seventy-three, in London.

Dayrell-Browning, Vivian   see   Greene, Vivian

Deacon, Gladys Marie – (1881 – 1977)
American-Anglo beauty and literary figure
Gladys Deacon was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Edward Parker Deacon and his wife Florence Baldwin. Whilst she was visiting England with her family (1899), Crown Prince Wilhelm of Prussia fell in love with her. He asked his father Kaiser Wilhlem I, for permission to marry her, but his request was refused. Despite attempts by the Marquise de Clermont-Tonnerre to arrange her marriage with the widowed Prince Leon Radziwill, she was married instead (1921) to Charles Richard John Spencer-Churchill, the tenth Duke of Marlborough (1871 – 1934), and former husband of fellow American socialite, Consuelo Vanderbilt. Deacon was known to the French writer Marcel Proust, who admired her beauty, and used her as the original ‘Miss Forster’ in his A la Recherche. The marriage was unsuccessful, but she remained the duke’s wife until his death. Gladys was Dowager Duchess for over forty years, and never remarried, dying in a mental hospital. Her jewellery and art collection werelater sold at Christie’s for almost eight hundred thousand pounds.

De Acosta, Mercedes    see      Acosta, Mercedes de

De Acton, Eugenia – (fl. c1775 – 1794)
British novelist
De Acton, whose name is almost certainly a pseudonym, her real identity remains unknown. She produced the popular novel, Vicissitudes in Genteel Life (1794), which was published in four volumes by T.N. Longman of Stafford.

De Ahna, Eleonore – (1838 – 1865)
Austrian mezzo-soprano
Eleonore De Ahna was born in Vienna, the sister of the violinist and composer Heinrich Karl Hermann De Ahna (1835 – 1892). Her notable career was cut short at the age of twenty-seven, when she died in Berlin, Prussia.

Deamer, Dulcie – (1890 – 1972)
Australian journalist, poet, and novelist
Mary Elizabeth Kathleen Dulcie Deamer was born in Christchurch, New Zealand (Dec 13, 1890). At seventeen she wrote the prize-winning collection (1907), published as, In the Beginning: Six Studies of the Stone Age (1909), which was later reprinted under the title, As It Was in the Beginning  (1929) with illustrations by noted artist Norman Lindsay.
During her later years Deamer travelled throughout India, Burma, and China before settling in Sydney, Australia, being dubbed the ‘Queen of Bohemia,’ amongst Lindsay and their aritstic coterie. She was the author of the book of verse Messalina (1932) which was a collection of classical and historical female portraits. Her novels included, The Suttee of Safa; A Hindoo Romance (1913), The Street of the Gazelle (1922), and The Devil’s Saint (1924). Dulcie Deamer died in Sydney, aged eighty-one (Aug 16, 1972).

De Amicis, Anna Lucia – (c1733 – 1818)
Italian vocalist and dancer
Anna De Amicis was born in Naples, and became the wife of the performer, Domenico De Amicis prior to 1755. She and her husband managed a troupe of travelling opera performers. They were in Antwerp and Brussels (1759) and later performed in London (1761), and at Smock Alley in Dublin, Ireland. Anna Lucia and her husband later performed burlettas at the King’s Theatre in London, and Madame De Amicis’s grace, elegance, and vocal talents were delightfully recorded by the diarist Fanny Burney, who heard and saw her perform. De Amicis performed the role of Andriope in J.C. Bach’s opera Orione ossia Diana vendicata (1763) before George III and Queen Charlotte. Burney credited De Amicis with the introduction of staccato divisions on stage.
After leaving England, Anna Lucia became one of the foremost exponents of serious opera in Naples, and is mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian, Horace Walpole. She retired in 1789, and died three decades later, aged about eighty-five.

Dean, Frances Mary – (1904 – 1983)
British health care activist and educator
Frances Dean worked contiually to improve the living conditions and educational facilities for the mentally handicapped. She was for several decades closely associated with the National Association of Mental Health, and was the editor of, Teaching and Training periodical. Dean was awarded the MBE (Member of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II, in recognition of her valuable contributions in this field of work. Frances Mary Dean died in London.

Dean, Gertrude Mary – (1878 – 1962)
British civic leader
Gertrude Dean was born (Oct 26, 1878), the granddaughter of James Thompson, the Mayor of Blackburn. After attending secondary school in Blackburn, Gertrude went to Europe where she finished her education at Neuchatel in Switzerland. She never married and became greatly involved in various civic causes. Miss Dean served on the Blind Persons Act Committee and the Relief Committee for the Blind. In recognition of this valuable volunteer work she was appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1938).
Miss Dean served for nearly fifty years with the Blackburn Women’s Conservative Association, and was the president of that organization (1945 – 1956), as well as serving as a public magistrate. During WW II she became involved in volunteer work with the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Services) for the war effort, working variously as a telephonist and a driver for the ARP (Air Raid Precautions). Gertrude Dean died (July 10, 1962) aged eighty-three, at Blackburn.

Dean, Martha Ann – (1950 – 2000)
American psychologist
Born Martha Chappell in Texas, she was the daughter of a pathologist. She later attended the Christian Medical College at Vellore, in southern India (1960 – 1962), where her father worked as a medical missionary. She later attended college in Dallas, earning her master’s degree in psychology, and married fellow student David Dean (1971). With the end of the Vietnam War and her husband’s return from naval service, the couple pursued their academic careers at Syracuse University in New York. Dean achieved fame for her doctoral research into the history of experimental psychology for which she utilized the computer analysis of academic journals (1980) which was used to teach later courses on the history of psychology. Dean later moved to Sydney, Australia with her husband (1988) when he came to work at a branch office of international consultants. Dean was a prominent supporter and activist for the victims of child abuse, and co-founded Advocates for Survivors of Child Abuse (1990). She also edited the newsletter of the Australian Association of Trauma and Dissociation. Martha Anne Dean died of cancer, near Sydney, New South Wales.

Dean, Millvina – (1912 – 2009)
British disaster survivor
Elizabeth Gladys Millvina Dean was born (Feb 2, 1912) in London. She travelled with her parents aboard the cruise ship Titanic (1912) on her fateful voyage, at the age of nine weeks she was the youngest passenger aboard the ill-fated liner. They had boarded as third class passengers at Southampton and were moving to start a new life in Kansas, USA. Her father perished but with her mother and brother Millvina was saved aboard Lifeboat 10. Due to her extreme youth she remembered nothing of the events.
Millvina never married and was employed as a secretary and cartographer and worked for the British government during WW II. When during extreme old age she became in need of financial assistance the Millvina Dean Fund was established to assist her and donations were made by James Cameron the director of the film Titanic (1997) and by the actors Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet. She travelled to the USA to be present at the Titanic convention held at Springfield in Massachusetts (1998) ant econvention held the following year in Montreal, Canada (1999). Millvina Dean died (May 31, 2009) aged ninety-seven, at Ashurst, near Southampton in Hampshire. She became (Oct, 2007) the last survivor of the Titanic disaster.

Dean, Vera Micheles – (1903 – 1972)
Russian-American international affairs specialist
Vera Micheles was born in St Petersburg (March 29, 1903), the daughter of Alexander Micheles, a wealthy businessman. With the onset of the Revoution (1917) the family fled to Denmark, and Vera was sent to the USA to study at Radcliffe College and Yale University. She was married (1929) to William Dean, a lawyer from New York. Vera Dean was a research associate and editor for the Foreign Policy Organization (1931 – 1938), and later served as research director and editor (1936 – 1961) in an impressive career which spanned three decades. She wrote several works including Europe and the United States (1950), Foreign Policy Without Fear (1953) and New Patterns of Democracy in India (1959). Vera Micheles Dean died in New York (Oct 10, 1972), aged sixty-nine.

Deane, Edna – (1905 – 1995) 
British dancer
Born Edna Sewell in the Orange Free State, South Africa, she returned with her family to England (1907) where she was trained in ballet and ballroom dancing. Adopting the stage name of ‘Deane,’ she became a popular performer in London during the 1920’s. At a famous ball, the Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) asked her repeatedly to dance with him. This incident inspired the lyricist Herbert Farjeon to compose the popular song ‘I’ve Danced With a Man Who’s Danced With a Girl, Who’s Danced With the Prince of Wales.’ Her later dance career was impressive, and in 1933 she won the British and world ballroom championships with her partner Timothy Palmer. From 1935 she retired from professional dancing, becoming a choreographer and author on dance, retaining her popular celebrity status all of her long life. Edna Deane died at Rottingdean, London.

Deane, Helen Wendler – (1917 – 1966)
American histochemist
Helen Deane was born in Massachusetts and attended Wellesley College and Brown University. She married Dr George Markham (1947) and then joined the Department of Anatomy at Harvard University. Deane later joined the staff of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York as professor of anatomy (1957) though her tenure sufferred during the era of MacCarthy persecutions for her firm views concerning social justice and reform. Helen Deane died of cancer.

Deans, Jane Scott – (1823 – 1911)
Scottish-New Zealand pioneer and civic leader
Jane Deans was born (April 21, 1823) at Auchenflower in Ayrshire. She was particulalry known for her activities in connection with the Presbyterian Church in Ayrshire. Jane Scott Deans died (Jan 19, 1911) at Riccarton, aged eighty-seven.

Dearbhforgaill    see also   Devorguilla

Dearie, Blossom – (1924 – 2009)
American jazz vocalist and pianist
Margeurite Blossom was born (April 28, 1924) at East Durham in New York, and studied the classical piano from childhood. She later took up jazz and performed with such groups as the Blue Flames and the Blue Reys. She later went to Paris (1952) where she formed the jazz group the Blue Stars and enjoyed great success with the French song ‘Lullaby of Birdland.’ Blossom was married to the Belgian saxophonist Bobby Jaspar and one of her most famous songs was ‘The Riviera’ (1956).
With her return to the USA Dearie pursued her solo career with Verve Records as a singer and pianist. She also made recordings with Barclay Records and Capital/EMI Records with whom she recorded the album May I Come In? (1964). She established her own label Daffodil Records (1974), and her voice was used for the children’s educational television series Schoolhouse Rock?
The title song ‘I’m Shadowing You’ from her album My New Celebrity is You (1976) was written for her by lyricist Johnny Mercer. Her voice and songs appeared on the soundtracks of such films as My Life Without Me and The Adventures of Felix. Her other albums included Simply (1983), Songs of Chelsea (1987), and the compilation album I’m Hip (1998). Blossom Dearie died (Feb 7, 2009) aged eighty-four in Greenwich Village, New York.

Dearing, Judy – (1940 – 1995)
Black American dancer and costume designer
Dearing was born in Tuskagee, Alabama, and was raised in Manhattan, New York, where she studied mathematics and science at the City College. She later became a professor of design at Howard University. Dearing began her dancing career performing with Miriam Makeba, and acting with the Negro Ensemble Company. She married fellow actor John Parks, with whom she collaborated on several projects, and also performed with the Sun Ock Lee Dane Company.
Dearing produced the costumes for the stage show For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf (1976), written by Ntozake Shange, and she won an Obie Award (1985) for the World War II uniforms she designed for the play A Soldier’s Pay, written by Charles Fuller. She designed costumes for Broadway shows such as Swinging on a Star and Having Our Say, and her other credits included costumes for dramas produced by the New Shakespeare Festival including The Forbidden City, The Dance, and The Railroad. Costumes designed by her for the Alvin Ailey Dance Theater included Nubian Lady and I See the Moon. Judy Dearing died of pneumonia in New York (Sept 30, 1995).

DeArmand, Frances Ullmann – (1904 – 1984)
American educator and writer
Frances Ullmann was born in Springfield, MO, the daughter of a real estate agent, and was educated at Drury College and at Wellesley College. She married (1942) David DeArmand, the representative for British printing firms in the USA. DeArmand was editor of several New York periodicals such as the, National Parent-Teacher in New York (1931 – 1937), Calling All Girls (1941 – 1947) and, Child Study (1949 – 1951). She was later associated with Doubleday & Co. (1951 – 1954) as managing editor and was executive editor of the Junior Literary Guild (1961 – 1984). DeArmand wrote articles for various periodicals such as, Family Circle and Better Living, and wrote the family assistance pamphlets, Getting Along with Brothers and Sisters (1950), and, Life with Brothers and Sisters (1952). She compiled the anthology, When Mother Was a Girl: Stories She Read Then (1964). Frances DeArmand died in New York aged seventy-nine (April 14, 1984).

Dearmer, Mabel – (1872 – 1915)
British poet, author and children’s dramatist
Mabel White was educated privately and at the Herkomer School, at Bushey Park. She married (1892) Reverend Percy Dearmer. Mabel directed stageplays at the Morality Play Society, and she illustrated several colour works for children including, Wymps (1897), by Evelyn Sharp and, The Seven Young Goslings (1900), by Laurence Housman. She also wrote and illustrated in colour, Round about Rhymes (1898), The Book of Penny Toys (1899), and, The Noah’s Ark Geography (1900).
Her other popular works included The Playmate: a Christmas Mystery Play (1910), The Dreamer: a Poetic Drama (1912) and The Cockyolly Bird, a Play for Children (1913). During WW I Mabel Dearmer worked as a volunteer hospital orderly at the Stobart Field Hospital at Kragujevatz in Serbia, and died during the war. Her letters home from this period of her life were edited and published in London as Letters from a Field Hospital (1915).

Deavours, Ernestine Clayton – (1892 – 1966)
American poet
Ernestine Deavours was born (April 9, 1892) in Paulding, Mississippi, the daughter of Stone Deavours, a judge. Educated privately and at college she was successfully trained as a schoolteacher, and worked as such in Louisiana and then in her hometwon of Laurel, in Mississippi. Deavours produced an anthology of poetry written by various Mississippi authors entitled The Mississippi Poets (1922), some of which work had never before been published. She remained unmarried. Ernestine Clayton Deavours died at Meridian in Mississippi (Dec 12, 1966), aged seventy-four.

De Banzie, Brenda – (1915 – 1981)
British character actress
De Banzie was born in Manchester, Lancashire (July 28, 1915), and was the aunt of actress, Lois De Banzie. She was best remembered for her portrayal of Phoebe Rice in the stage play, The Entertainer, which was performed on Broadway in New York, for which she nominated for an Anoinette Perry Award (Tony) (1958) as best supporting actress. She recreated this role for the film version (1960).
De Banzie appeared in almost thirty films in two decades playing Maggie in Hobson’ s Choice (1954) and Angela Dunning in The Pink Panther (1963). Other film credits included, The Long Dark Hall (1951), What Every Woman Wants (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), Flame in the Streets (1961), and, Pretty Polly (1967). De Banzie also made appearances in various popular television shows such as, The Four Just Men (1959) and, Out of the Unknown (1966). She retired from the screen in 1969. Brenda De Banzie died in Sussex (March 5, 1981) aged sixty-five.

De Beauvoir, Simone      see     Beauvoir, Simone de

De Berdt, Esther   see    Reed, Esther De Berdt

Deborah (1)
Hebrew nurse
Deborah was nurse to Rebecca, the mother of Jacob in the Bible. Deborah accompanied Rebecca from Padanaram, and after her death, Deborah remained with Jacob’s family. She died at a great age, being buried under an oak tree known as the ‘oak of weeping.’

Deborah (2) – (1209 – 1169 BC)
Hebrew prophet and judge
Deborah was the wife of Lappidoth, a member of the tribe of Issachar. Respected as a lawgiver, she pronounced judgements under her own palm tree on Mount Ephraim. Consulted concerning inter-tribal disputes, when Jabin, King of Canaan was oppressing Israel, the Hebrew general Barak refused to do battle against the king unless Deborah accompanied his army to Mount Tabor. The enemy force of nine hundred iron chariots was disabled by a furious storm. The following battle and murder of the Canaanite general Sisera by Jael is recorded in the Biblical book of Judges, in prose, and in Deborah’s own ‘song’ of victory, a work considered to be one of the jewels of ancient Hebrew poetry. George Frederic Handel wrote the oratorio Deborah (1733).

De Brinvilliers, Marquise     see     Brinvilliers, Marquise de

De Burgos, Julia      see     Burgos, Julia de

De Camp, Adelaide – (1780 – 1834)
French actress and dancer
Adelaide De Camp was born (Dec, 1780), the younger daughter of the noted musician and flutist, George Louis De Camp (1752 – 1787) and his first wife, Jeanne Dufour. De Camp followed her siblings on the stage, but the family went to London to escape the dangers of the Revolution. There she danced at the Drury Lane Theatre under the direction of John Philip Kemble (1792 – 1793), and also performed with a rural troupe in Durham, Newcastle, and Sunderland. She appeared at Covent Garden and Brighton (1799), and toured Lancashire and parts of Scotland. Adelaide was the aunt of the famous actress and memoirist, Fanny Kemble, whom she accompanied on a tour of America (1832). She was badly injured in a carriage accident at Niagara Falls (1833) and never recovered. Adelaide De Camp died in her niece’s arms (April, 1834), aged fifty-three.

DeCamp, Rosemary – (1910 – 2001)
American character actress of film and telelvision
DeCamp was born (Nov 14, 1910) in Prescott, Arizona, and was trained for the theatre. As well as stage work she also worked in radio before appearing in her first movie Three Cheers for Miss Bishop (1941). She continued to make films, mainly with Warner Brothers Studios and was best known for roles in such films as Yankee Doodle Dandee (1942) in which she played Jimmy Cagney’s mother Mrs Cohan, The Merry Monahans (1944), Rhapsody in Blue (1945), The Story of Seabiscuit (1949), On Moonlight Bay (1951), By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953) and Many Rivers to Cross (1955).
DeCamp appeared in such popular television programs as The Life of Riley (1949 – 1950) in which she played Peg Riley, The Bob Cummings Show (1953 – 1959) and That Girl (1966 – 1970) in which she played the mother of Marlo Thomas, and also had a role in the telelvision film Blind Ambition (1979). Rosemary DeCamp died (Feb 20, 2001) aged ninety, at Newport Beach in California.

De Carlo, Yvonne – (1922 – 2007)
Canadian actress
De Carlo was born Peggy Middleton in Vancouver to a poor family. Dark-haired, vivacious, and stunningly beautiful, she won a beauty contestant which set on the path to her future acting career. Though she was originally signed on by Paramount Pictures as a warning to Dorothy Lamour, taking on her future stage name at the same time, De Carlo succeeded in becoming a leading lady in many Hollywood films of the 1940’s and 1950’s. Her two earliest film appearances were in, The Road to Morocco (1941) and, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943). Notable film appearances included the title role in, Salome, Where She Danced (1945), where she played a ballerina in the wild west, Slave-Girl (1947), Black Bart (1948), where she portrayed the infamous adventuress, Lola Montez, Criss Cross (1949), Sea Devils (1952), Cecil B. De Mille’s biblical classic, The Ten Commandments (1956), where she played Zipporah, the wife of Moses, played by Charlton Heston. She also appeared as Amantha Starr in, Band of Angels (1957), with Clark Gable and Sidney Poitier and in, The Law and the Lawless (1964).
Later film roles included appearances in The Seven Minutes (1971), The Man With Bogart’s Face (1980), American Gothic (1988) and The Naked Truth (1992). De Carlo is perhaps best remembered for her televison role as Lily Munster, wife to Fred Gwynne, and daughter of Al Lewis (Grandpa), in the popular comic series The Munsters (1964 – 1966). She also appeared in the film Munster Go Home (1966) with Terry Thomas. De Carlo had romantic liasions with such famous figures as Howard Hughes and Billy Wilder. Yvonne De Carlo died in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California, aged eighty-four (Jan 8, 2007).

Deceuininck, Margeurite Virginie Emma Clementine de   see   Heldy, Fanny

Decies, Elizabeth Drexel, Lady    see    Drexel, Elizabeth Wharton

Dedetamun – (fl. c1700 BC)
Egyptian princess of the XIIIth Dynasty (1781 – 1650 BC)
Dedetamun was probably the daughter of King Sobkhetep V or VI. She was married to Nebseret, the son of Fembu, who was an important official of the court as bearer of the royal seal. Princess Dedetamun is attested by a surviving stela from Abydos, now preserved in the Vatican Museum in Rome.

Dedetsobk – (fl. c1700 BC)
Egyptian princess
Dedetsobk was a member of an unknown family of the XIIIth Dynasty period (1781 – 1650 BC). Her father was the prince or nobleman Dedusobk, whilst her mother, Iuhetibu, was the daughter of Senwusret. Dedetsobk and her royal brother are attested by a surviving stela, originally from the temple of Osiris at Abydos, which styles her as ‘King’s Sister,’ and which is preserved in the Cairo Museum.

Dedichen, Ingeborg – (1900 – 1983)
Norwegian socialite and heiress
Ingeborge Dedichen was the youngest child of Martin Bryde, the prominent shipbuilder. Through her mother she was connected to the aristocracy. Her first marriage ended in divorce, as eventually did her second to Dedichen, whose name she retained. Madame Dedichen was best remembered for her romantic liasion with the Greek shipping magnate, Aristotle Onassis (1906 – 1975), whom she met in 1934, prior to her second divorce. The couple travelled together in Europe, where their public arguments were avidly recorded by the world’s press. When Onassis was away Ingeborg wrote to him daily, but he remained consumed with jealousy. He wished to marry her, but her divorce had not been finalized. A proud woman, she was humiliated if people referred to her as his mistress. Ingeborg remained in Paris, and refused to join Onassis in Athens, though she continued to provide him with valuable contacts within the Scandinavian shipping industry. However, with the onset of WW II, Madame Dedichen heeded Onassis’s requests, and joined him in the safety of New York (1939), where the resided at the Ritz Towers.  Onassis was repeatedly unfaithful and, and eventually domestic violence became a cycle of the couple’s relationship. After a failed suicide attempt (1943) Ingeborg ended the relationship permanently. Onassis paid her a lump sum and monthly allowance for life, but never answered any of her letters. She eventually retired to Denmark. Madame Dedichen died in Oslo, aged eighty-two.

Dedimia – (fl. c570 – c600)
Merovingian nun and letter writer
Dedimia was a correspondent of the nun Baudoniva, the hagiographer of St Radegonde of Poitiers.

Dediva   see   Editna

Dedyet – (fl. c1990 BC) 
Queen of Egypt
Dedyet was of common Nubian ancestry, and was the sister and wife of the usurper King Amenemhet I (1991 – 1962 BC), the first ruler of the XIIth Dynasty (1991 – 1873 BC). Though she received the queenly title, the real queen consort during Amenhemet’s reign was Queen Nefrutoten, who was of royal rank, this marriage being necessary for the king to consolidate his hold on the throne.

Dee, Frances – (1907 – 2004)
American actress
Born Frances Jean Marion Dee in Los Angeles, California (Nov 26, 1909), she was the daughter of an army officer, and graduated from the University of Chicago, Illinois. She began her Hollywood career as an extra during holidays (1929).  Frances became a prominent film star of the 1930’s and 1940’s. She played opposite Maurice Chevalier in, Playboy of Paris (1930) and appeared with Katharine Hepburn in, Little Women (1933). Dee also appeared with Leslie Howard and Bette Davis in, Of Human Bondage (1934), as well as performing with Gary Cooper, and in the western films of her husband, the actor Joel McCrea (1905 – 1990) to whom she was married (1933) nearly fifty years. She bore him three sons including Jody McCrea (born 1934) who was a youthful leading actor before retiring from the stage altogether in 1970. Her last role was in the film, Gypsy Colt (1954). Frances Dee died (March 6, 2004) aged ninety-four, at Norwalk, Connecticut.

Dee, Sandra – (1942 – 2005)
American actress
Sandra Dee was born Alexandra Zuck in Bayonne, New Jersey. Petite very popular with young audiences, her appearance in what was then considered an extremely daring bathing suit on camera created a furore. The suit itself was, after initial training as a model she entered movies, her first role in, Until They Sail (1957), being produced when she was fifteen. Other films included, Gidget (1959), Imitation of Life (1960), Tammy and the Doctor (1963), That Funny Feeling (1965), and, The Dunwich Horror (1970). Dee was for some time (1960 – 1967) the wife of teenage movie actor and songwriter Bobby Darin (1936 – 1973). Sandra also appeared in television later in her career in such productions as, The Daughters of Joshua Cabe (1972), Houston, We’ve Got a Problem (1974), Manhunter (1976), and episodes of, Phantasy Island (1977).

Deer, Olive Gertrude – (1897 – 1983)
British civil servant and government official
Deer was born at Grimsby (July 31, 1897), and was educated in Cleethorpe, Lincolnshire. She was married (1916) to George Deer, to whom she bore two children. Deer became involved in local government and was a member of the ministry of the Labour Exchange Committees for nearly twenty-five years (1921 – 1945). She also served as a member of the Bracebridge Mental Hopsital Committee (1933 – 1947), the Sheffield Regional Hospital Board (1948 – 1950) and the board of the National Hospital in Queen’s Square (1950). Deer was a chairman of the London County Council (1962 – 1963), and joined Grimsby Borough Council (1964 – 1967). Olive Deer died at Louth, Lincolnshire, aged eighty-five (April 20, 1983).

De Erauzo, Catalina    see     Erauzo, Catalina de

Deevy, Teresa – (1894 – 1963)
Irish dramatist
Teresa Deevy was born into a large family in Waterford City. She attended the University College, in Dublin, but her education was interrupted by illness, which left her deaf, and she completed her education at the University College in Cork. Deevy later studied lip-reading, and produced several well known plays, which were performed at the famous Abbey Theatre (1930 – 1936). These included works such as, In Search of Valour (1931), The King of Spain’s Daughter (1935), and, Katie Roche (1936). Her later work, Wife to James Whelan (1939) was rejected by the Abbey Theatre, but subsequently staged at the Studio Theatre Club and was braodcast over the radio. Deevy also produced radio plays for the BBC and for Radio Eireann. Her last work, the romance Light Falling (1948), was performed at the Peacock Theatre. Several years prior to her death, she returned to Waterford.

Deffand, Marquise du     see    Du Deffand, Marquise

Deffault, Marie Pierre – (c1755 – after 1793)
French revolutionary
Marie Pierre Deffaut was born in Charleville, and had a rudimentary education being able to sign her own name. She was married to a goldsmith and was a small merchant with a stall on the Quai de Louvre in Paris. A fervent revolutionary she wore portraits of Marat and Robespierre around her neck. She and her husband were arrested after being denounced by neighbours, who accused her of shrieking at the victims in tumbrels like a madwoman but both were subsequently released. She remained a supporter of the Jacobins and was later condemned to six years of detention.

De Filippo, Titina – (1898 – 1965)
Italian actress and dramatist
Annunziata De Filippo was born in Chaia, Naples (March 27, 1898), the daughter of the dramatist, Eduardo Scarpetta, and his mistress, Luisa De Filippo. She took her mother’s name, and studied music, making her first appearance on stage during her childhood (1905). De Filippo later moved to movies, and appeared in over thirty films, none of them silent, such as, Sono stato io (1937), Villa de vendere (1941), Cameriera bella presenza offresi (1951), Ragazze da Marito (1952), and, I vagabondi delle stelle (1956), amongst others. De Filippo retired after her last movie, the historical drama entitled, Ferdinando I re di Napoli (1959). Titina De Filippo died (Dec 26, 1965), aged sixty-seven.

DeGaetani, Jan – (1933 – 1989)
American mezzo-soprano
Born Jan Reutz in Massilon, Ohio (July 10, 1933), she was the daughter of a lawyer and a nurse, and was educated at the Juilliard School in New York. She was married firstly to Thomas DeGaetani, from whom she was later divorced, but whose surname she retained, and secondly to the noted oboitst, Philip West (1969). DeGaetani joined the Gramercy Chamber Ensemble (1955) and made her stage debut in opera (1958) and thereafter she became closely associated with the avant-garde set. DeGaetani performed in the premiere of, Ancient Voices of Children (1970), in Washington, D.C., which had been produced by George Crumb, and also appeared in the premiere performance of Stone Litany (1973), by Peter Maxwell Davies and, Syringa (1978) by Elliott Carter. She recorded and performed a large and varied repertoire, including works by Schubert and Schoenberg, and was the co-author of The Complete Sightsinger (1980). Jan DeGaetani died at Rochester in New York (Sept 15, 1989), aged fifty-six.

Degauqe, Muriel – (1967 – 2005)
Belgian Muslim convert and terrorist
Muriel Degauque was born in Charleroi, the daughter of a crane driver and a medical secretary. After teenage troubles which saw her estranged from her family Muriel worked as a waitress and a shop assistant. She went to Brussels where she was married to a Turkish man from whom she was later divorced. She then came into contact with Issam Goris, the leader of jihadist terrorist network in Belgium. She learned Arabic converted to Islam and became a fanatical supporter of her new religion after her marriage with Goris (2002) and work the chador. Her husband arranged for Muriel to become the first European born suicide bomber. She blew herself up in an attack on an American military convoy near Baghdad (Nov 9, 2005) aged thirty-eight

De Gaulle, Yvonne Charlotte Anne – (1900 – 1979) 
French First Lady (1958 – 1969)
Yvonne Vendroux was born in Calais, the daughter of Jacques Vendroux, an industrialist. She married (1921) Charles de Gaulle to whom she bore three children including Admiral Philippe de Gaulle. During the years of her husband’s presidential career, Madame de Gaulle resided quietly, out of the limelight, at their country estate of La Basserie, at Colombey-les-Deux Eglises.
Known and respected for her retiring nature and domestic interests, she nevertheless showed great courage and a humourous prescence of mind when the presidential car was ambushed in a hail of machine-gun fire near Paris (1962). Madame de Gaulle instituted the Anne de Gaulle Foundation, which provided practical assistance to families who were bringing up retarded daughters. This was in memory of her daughter Anne, born retarded, who had died in 1948. Madame de Gaulle died in a military hospital in Paris.

Degenfeld, Marie Louise von – (1634 – 1677)
German courtier
Marie Louise von Degenfeld was born (Nov 28, 1634) in Strasbourg, in Alsace, the daughter of Baron Christopher von Degenfeld. She became the morganatic and bigamous second wife (1658) of Karl I Louis (1617 – 1680), Elector Palatine of the Rhine at Schwetzingen, having formerly been lady-in-waiting to his first wife Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel. She was accorded the rank and title of Raurgravine as were her thirteen children. Raurgravine von Degenfeld died aged forty-two (March 18, 1677). Her daughter Raurgravine Caroline von Palatine (1659 – 1696) became the wife of Meinhard von Schomberg, first Duke of Leinster and left descendants.

De Genlis, Comtesse de     see    Genlis, Comtesse de

De Gouges, Olympe    see    Gouges, Olympe de

De Gournay, Marie le Jars     see    Gournay, Marie le Jars de

De Grey, Amabel Yorke, Countess – (1750 – 1833)
British peeress
Lady Amabel Yorke was born (Jan 22, 1750), the elder daughter of Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720 – 1796) and his wife Jemima Campbell, Marchioness Grey. Amabel was married (1772) to Alexander Hume, viscount Polwarth, eldest son of Hugh Hume, third and last Earl of Marchmont. He was created Lord Hume (1776) and died young (1781), leaving her a childless widow. Lady Amabel never remarried, and succeeded her mother as fourth Baroness Lucas of Crudwell (1797), and was later created Countess De Grey (1816) by the Prince Regent (George IV), with her sister, Mary Jemima, Baroness Grantham and then her male children as her direct heirs. Her nephew, Thomas Robinson (1781 – 1859), third Lord Grantham, eventually inherited both the earldom of De Grey and the barony of Lucas. Lady de Grey died (May 4, 1833), aged eighty-three.

De Grey, Gladys Herbert, Lady – (1859 – 1917)
British opera patron and society figure
Born Contance Gladys Herbert (April 24, 1859), she was the third daughter of Sidney, Lord Herbert of Lea (1810 – 1861), and his wife Mary Elizabeth, the daughter of Lt-General Charles Ashe A’Court-Repington. When her brother, Sidney Herbert (1853 – 1913), succeeded as fourteenth Earl of Pembroke (1862), Gladys and her sisters were raised to the rank of daughters of an earl. Lady Gladys was married firstly (1880) in London, to St George Henry Lowther, fourth Earl of Lonsdale (1855 – 1882), by whom she left a daughter, Lady Juliet Lowther (1881 – 1965), who married three times and was known as Lady Juliet Duff. A dark, statuesque beauty, Lady Lonsdale spent a year in the south of France with her infant daughter, before returning to London, where she later remarried to Frederick Robinson, Earl De Grey (1852 – 1923), who later succeeded as second marquess of Ripon (1909). Her second marriage remained childless.
Lady De Grey remained a prominent social figure, and fell in love with Henry Cust, who was also the lover of Theresa, Lady Londonderry. Out of spite, Lady De Grey sent Theresa’s love letters to Cust to Lord Londonderry, with the result that husband and wife remained forever seperated. For this act Lady Londonderry would never forgive her, even when she was dying. Lady Augusta Fane wrote of Gladys in her memoir, Chit-Chat, “Gladys had a character and a broad outlook on life. She had, however, an overwhelming curiosity to know everything, and experience every sensation, and this inquisitiveness led her into dark places, and amongst undesirable people, but, fortunately it never altered nor debased her mind.”
Lady De Grey was a prominent patron of the arts in London, most notably of music and the ballet, and she was a generous patron of the Covent Garden Opera. She entertained the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso, and was a great friend to the Australian soprano, Nellie Melba. After she became Lady Ripon, Gladys encouraged the success of Serge Diaghilev’s Russian ballet in London. Sir Osbert Sitwell described her in her later years, “Alas, I never knew her well, but I met her sufficiently often to be able to admire her unusual beauty, personal dignity and intelligence. She carried herself with the supreme grace of her generation, and, with her grey hair and distinguished features of so pure a cut, she remained though no longer a young woman, the most striking individual to look at in any room she entered.” Lady De Grey died in London (May 27, 1917), aged fifty-seven, and was buried in St Mary’s Cathedral.

De Groot, Myra – (1936 – 1988)
Anglo-Australian actress
De Groot was born in Westminster, London. She made her first appearance on American television in popular series such as Bewitched with Elizabeth Montgomery and Dick York, and Toys in Bableand (botn 1967). De Groot also made appearances in several films such as, Angel Mine (1978) and, Norman Loves Rose (1982), but was best remembered for her appearances in the long running Australian televison drama series such as, The Sullivans (1976) and, Prisoner (Cell Block H in Britain) (1980 and 1984), as well as her last role as the overbearing and interfering mother, Eileen Clarke in the popular, Neighbours series (1985 – 1988). Myra De Groot died of cancer in Melbourne, Victoria (April 4, 1988), aged fifty-one.

D’Egville, Sophia – (fl. c1780 – 1795) 
British dancer
Sophia D’Egeville was the daughter of Peter d’Egville (formerly Dagueville), the dancer. Her sister and two brothers were all in the same profession. Sophia became a member of the Drury Lane Company as a child dancer, and performed with her brother Lewis, dancing gavottes and minuets, or comic dances devised by her brother James. She danced in James’s production of, The Pirates (1794 – 1795), and was a lady attendant in his pantomime spectacle Alexander the Great. No further details of her career are recorded.

Dehan, Richard   see   Graves, Clotilde Mary

DeHaven, Gloria – (1924 – 1993)
American dancer and film actress
Gloria DeHaven was born (July 23, 1924) in Los Angeles, California, the daughter of the noted actor and director Carter DeHaven (1896 – 1977) and his wife Flora Parker. Gloria worked as aband vocalist before she became a minor actress remembered mainly for her appearance in light-hearted musicals. She made her film debut in Modern Times (1936) with Charlie Chaplin, and made many films but was best known for her roles in Susan and God (1940), Best Foot Forward (1943), Two Girls and a Sailor (1944), Yes Sir That’s My Baby (1949) and Three Little Words (1950) in which she portrayed her mother Flora Parker DeHaven.
Although her film career declined she continued to appear on stage and in films sporadically until the last decade of her life. De Haven appeared in television movies such as Call Her Mom (1972), Who Is the Black Dahlia ? (1975), Banjo Hackett (1976) and Evening in Byzantium (1979). Her later film credits included Bog (1984), The Legend of O.B. Taggart (1994) and Out to Sea (1997). Gloria DeHaven also appeared in the television program Ryan’s Hope (1975).

DeHuff, Nicole – (1974 – 2005)
American film actress
DeHuff was born (Jan 6, 1974) in Antlers, Oklahoma, and studied drama at the Cronegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her movie credits included Meet the Parents (2000) with Ben Stiller, Suspect Zero, and Unbeatable Harold (2005) in which had the female lead, and which was directed by her husband the producer Ari Palitz. DeHuff appeared on television in such popular series as CSI: Miami, The Practice, Monk, and The Court (2002). Nicole DeHuff died (Feb 16, 2005) aged thirty-one.

De Ibanez, Sara    see    Ibanez, Sara de

Deidameia of Epirus (1) – (c320 – 298 BC)
Macedonian queen
Princess Deidameia was the daughter of Aeakides, king of Epirus (357 – 314 BC), and his wife Phthia of Pharsalus, and sister to King Pyrrhus I. As a child she was chosen by the Macedonian queen mother, Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, as the future bride for her grandson, Alexander IV, but his assasination (310 BC) put an end to that plan. Deidameia returned to the court of Epirus, where she was later married (303 BC) to Demetrius I ‘Poliocertes,’ of Macedonia (337 – 283 BC), as his third wife. When Demetrius was defeated at the battle of Ipsus (301 BC), he fled to Ephesus, leaving the queen at Athens with part of his fleet and his treasure. However, Demetrius’s friends in Athens were overthrown after Ipsus, and the new government restored Deidameia to her husband, but explained that the city was closed to him. The royal couple then travelled to Korinth. Deidameia died young, leaving a son Alexander, probably born in 302 BC, of whom nothing is known, save that he was later in the care of his paternal grandmother, Queen Stratonike of Macedonia, in Cilica, Asia Minor (301 BC).

Deidameia of Epirus (2) – (c251 – 232 BC)
Greek princess
Princess Deidameia was the younger daughter of King Pyrrhus II, and great-niece to King Alexander II and his sister-wife Olympias, who adopted her after the death of her father.
Her elder sister Nereis was the wife of Gelon of Syrakuse, the son and heir of King Hiero II, by whom she left children. With the deaths of both her father and Alexander II (c240 BC), her brother Ptolemaeus became king. Under his rule the constitution broke down and civil war was rife in the kingdom. Ptolemaeus was killed, and Deidameia, renounced her claim to the Epirote throne. The historian Polyaenus recorded that the mob at Ambracia sent one of King Alexander’s gentleman-at-arms to kill the princess, which he did, murdering her barbarously before the altar of the temple of Artemis, where she had fled seeking sanctuary. She was barely twenty years old.

Deinomache – (fl. c450 BC)
Greek patrician
Deinomache was a member of the prominent Alkmaeonid family, being the daughter of Megakles (living 486 BC), and was a descendant of the archon Megakles (631 BC) and of Kleosthenes the tyrant of Sikyon. She became the wife of the Greek nobleman Kleinias who was killed at the battle of Koronea against the Boetians, and was the mother of the Athenian general and statesman Alkibiades (c450 – 404 BC).

Dejanovica, Draga – (1843 – 1870)
Serbian poet and feminist
Dejanovica was variously employed as a stage actress, a poet and a translator. She was active within the United Serbian Youth Movement and was the author of the article ‘Are Women Capable of Being Equal with Men?’ (1870). She produced the volume of nationalistic poems entitled Collection (1869).

Dejazet, Virginie – (1798 – 1875)
French actress
Pauline Virginie Dejazet was born in Paris, she was on the stage from the age of five and achieved fame for playing popular ‘breeches’ parts such as the young Napoleon in Bonaparte a Brienne, ou Le Petit Caporal (Bonaparte at Brienne, or the Little Corporal) (1830). She established herself as the leading actress of the Palais Royal, and with her son, she later managed the Folies-Nouvelles (1859 – 1868), which was renamed the Theatre Dejazet in her honour.

De Jongh, Comtesse Andree – (1916 – 2007)
Belgian war heroine
Andree De Jongh was born (Nov 30, 1916) at Schaerbeek, the daughter of a schoolmaster, Frederic De Jongh. Her family strongly supported the Resistance movement after occupation by the German Nazi forces. Known as ‘Dedee,’ during WW II she worked as a nurse at Malmedy before Brussels and then became a member of the resistance in Brussels. She established (1940) the escape route known as the Comet Line through Belgium, France and the Basque region of Spain, which led to the rescue of hundreds of British airmen dropped behind enemy lines. De Jongh was later arrested by the Germans (1943) after having successfully guided over thirty separate groups to safety, and was sent to the concentration camps at Mauthausen and Ravensbruck but managed to survive the horrors of that experience. Her father carried on her work briefly before being shot and killed by a German agent in Paris.
After the war De Jongh visited England where she was awarded the George Medal (1946) by King George VI, the highest award for bravery that could be given to a foreigner. During her later years Andree De Jongh travelled to Africa where she worked as a nurse in the leper hospitals in the Belgian Congo, now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia. When her health began to decline De Jongh retired to live in Brussels. She was created a comtesse (1985) by King Baudouin I (1951 – 1993) in recognition of her bravery and courage during the war.
Comtesse Andree De Jongh died (Oct 15, 2007) aged ninety, in Brussels.

Deken, Agatha (Aajie) – (1741 – 1804)
Dutch writer and novelist
Deken was born at Amstelveen (Dec 10, 1741), and was raised in an orphanage, and was later employed as a domestic servant. She published a small volume of devotional poetry, before she met Elizabeth (Betje) Wolff in 1776. With the death of Betje’s husband (1777), the two women set up house together, and collaborated with theit novels. Their use of the espistolary style of writing introduced by Samuel Richardson on England ensured the success of their third novel, De historie van mejuffrouw Sara Burgerhart (The History of Miss Sara Burgerhart) (1782) which appeared in two volumes, and was considered the ‘first’ Dutch novel. With Betje she also produced, De historie van den heer Willem Leevend (The History of Mr William Leevend) (1784 – 1785) which was published in eight volumes, and, Die historie van mejuffrouw Cornelia Wildschut (The History of Miss Cornelia Wilschut) (1793 – 1794), which appeared in six volumes. Incursions by the Prussians forced the two women to remove to the safety of Trevoux, in France, where they remained for a decade, and was the impetus for their Wandelingen door Bourgogne (Strolling Through Burgundy) (1789). Deken wrote four other volumes of verse, but is chiefly remembered because of her association with Betje Wolff. Agatha Deken died at The Hague (Nov 14, 1804), aged sixty-three.

Delacroix, Blanche Zelie Josephine – (1883 – 1948) 
Belgian courtier and memoirist
Blanche Delacroix was born in Bucharest, Romania (May 13, 1883), the daughter of Jules Delacroix and his wife Catherine Josephine Sebille. Pretty, but vulgar, Blanche met the notorious, but elderly King Leopold II of the Belgians in Paris (1900), and he became infatuated with her. With the death of Queen Marie Henriette (1902), Leopold established Blanche in his Villa von der Borght, close to the royal chateau of Laeken, and she bore him two sons who bore their mother’s surname. Later created Baroness de Vaughan, she resided with her children at the Chateau de Balincourt, near Paris. During the king’s last illness, he secretly married Blanche morganatically (Dec 12, 1909) just before his death. However, the king’s outraged daughters forced Blanche to retire to Balincourt with her children. Blanche remarried (1910) to Antoine Durieux, who adopted her sons. She left two volumes of rather inaccurate memoirs entitled Quelques Souvenirs de ma Vie and Presque Reine. The Baronne de Vaughan died at Cambo, Pyrenee-Atlantique, aged sixty-four (Feb 12, 1948).

Delafield, Clelia Benjamin – (1903 – 1995)
American philanthropist
Clelia Benjamin was married to the banker Edward C. Delafield, to whom she bore three children. Clelia Delafield was the founding president of the Society of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, in New York, and she remained a member of the Board of Overseers Emeriti until her death. Mrs Delafield donated her family’s estate in Riverdale, the Bronx to Columbia University. She died in Baltimore, Maryland.

Delafield, E.M. – (1890 – 1943)
British novelist and writer
Born Edmee Elizabeth Monica de la Pasture in Llandogo, Monmouthshire, in Wales, she was the daughter of popular novelist, Mrs Henry de la Pasture. She worked with the VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) in Exeter during WW I (1914 – 1917), and these experiences formed the basis of her novel, The War Workers (1918). Her married name was Dashwood and she achieved notoriety as the author of Messalina of the Suburbs (1924) which was an account of the famous murder case involving Thompson and Bywaters. She was best remembered as the author of The Diary of a Provincial Lady (1930) and The Provincial Lady in America (1934).

Delahante, Alexandrine Charlotte Sophie – (1788 – 1860)
French aristocrat and memoirist
Born Alexandrine Brossin de Saint-Didier into a family of the provincial aristocracy, several relatives and friends perished under the guillotine during the Revolution, and Alexandrine and her family fled to Normandy for greater safety. She later married Adrien Delahante, and their daughter Sophie Delahante was married to the Baron de Gravier. Alexandrine left memoirs of her childhood during the Revolutionary upheavals entitled Souvenirs de Madame Delahante, nee Alexandrine Charlotte Sophie Brossin de Saint-Didier, continues par sa fille, Sophie Delahante, baronne de Gravier (1906 – 1907), which were completed by her daughter, and published forty-five years after death.

Delahay, Eileen Avril – (1915 – 1982)
British educator and author
Eileen Delahay was born in Newport, Monmouthshire, the daughter of a dress designer, George David Delahay, and was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge. Till 1958 Delahay served as director of the family business, as well as a designer but then decided to turn to teaching, working at a girls’ school in Wales before being appointed as head of the classics department at the Sittingbourne Girls’ Grammar School in Kent (1960 – 1963). Delahay headed the classics department of the Purley County Grammar School for Girls in Surrey and was later headmistress of the Girls’ Grammar School at Thetford in Norfolk (1969 – 1975).  She was appointed joint organizer of the London Headquarters and Information Centre for Classical Studies (1967). She travelled extensively throughout her career, including classical sites in Rome, Sicily, Greece, and Austria. She remained unmarried following injuries sustained in a car accident, and was the author of, Dawn of the West (1967).

De la Hay, Nicola     see    Hay, Nicola de la

De La Hunty, Shirley Barbara – (1925 – 2002)
Australian athlete
Born Shirley Strickland in Guildford, Western Australia, she was the daughter of a professional runner, and was raised on the family farm. Over the course of three separate Olympic Games (1948), (1952), and (1956), Strickland won seven Olympic medals, becoming the first Australian woman to ever win an Olympic track and field medal. Her particular specialities were the eighty metres hurdle, and the two hundred metres and the one hundred metres sprint. During the Helsinki Olympics (1952) she set world record times on successive days during the eighty metres hurdle. After her retirement and remarriage, De La Hunty, as she became known, was a prominent supporter of athletic competitions for young people. She was one of the torch bearers for the Australian Olympics (2000).

Delamere, Diana Caldwell, Lady – (1911 – 1987)
British colonial society figure
Diana Caldwell was the daughter of Seymour Caldwell, of The Red House, Hove, Sussex. She was married firstly, and briefly, to the playboy pianist, Vernon Motion, during which time she ran a popular cocktail club in Mayfair. After their divorce she remarried secondly (1940) to Sir Jack Delves-Broughton (1883 – 1942), as his second wife, in Durban, Africa. There she became the mistress of the Scottish peer, Josslyn Hay, Earl of Erroll (1901 – 1941), whilst she and Broughton were members of the expatriate British community in Kenya during WW II. Lady Broughton was at the centre of the scandal surrounding Lord Erroll’s murder (May, 1941). The story was recorded in the book by James Fox entitled, White Mischief (1984), which was made into a film (1987) with Greta Scacchi as Broughton and Charles Dance as Lord Erroll. Lady Broughton remarried thirdly (1943 – 1955) to Gilbert de Preville Colville a prosperous cattle rancher from Naivasha, Kenya, from whom she was later divorced. She then remarried (1955) to her fourth and final husband, Thomas Pitt Hamilton  Cholmondeley, fourth Baron Delamere (1900 – 1979), whose first wife, Gwladys, who had died in 1943, had been Diana’s rival and also the one-time mistress of Lord Erroll. The Dowager Lady Delamere died at Soysambu, Elmenteita, in Kenya, aged seventy-six (Sept 3, 1987).

Delamere, Gwladys Helen Beckett, Lady – (1897 – 1943)
British colonial society figure and administrator
Gwladys Beckett was the eldest daughter of Rupert Beckett and his wife Muriel, the daughter of Major Lord Charles Sydney Paget. Gwladys was married firstly (1920) to Sir Charles Markham (1899 – 1952), second baronet, as his first wife. Lady Markham bore her husband three children, including Sir Charles John Markham, third baronet (born 1924). After her divorce, Lady Markham was remarried (1928) to Hugh Cholmondeley (1870 – 1931), third Baron Delamere, as his second wife. Lady Delamere was an influential member of the British colony resident in Kenya, and entertained the Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) at the infamous Muthaiga Club there (1928). Lady Delamere later served as Mayor of Nairobi (1938 – 1939), but was later implicated in the scandalous murder trial of Lord Erroll (1941), being herself one of the main witnesses. She herself had been Erroll’s mistress over a period of years, and his subsequent attachment to Lady Diana Broughton, caused her great jealousy. Lady Delamere never really lived down her involvement in this affair. Lady Delamere died (Feb 22, 1943) at Soysambu, aged forty-five, after suffering a stroke.

De Lancey, Magdalene Hall, Lady – (1793 – 1822)
British author
Magdalene Hall was the daughter of Sir James Hall, Baronet, of Dunglass. She was married firstly to Colonel Sir William Howe De Lancey (1777 – 1815), and, secondly Captain Henry Harvey. 
Having been married only a few weeks she accompanied her first husband to Brussels (1814). He was mortally wounded at the Battle of Waterloo, and Magdalene nursed him devotedly till he died ten days later. Copies of Lady De Lancey’s Narrative were avidly read by the Duke of Wellington and Sir Walter Scott, who admired the literary merit of her style, as later, did Charles Dickens. Published in an abridged form in London in 1888, the work was republished in America and London in 1906.

Deland, Margaretta Campbell Wade – (1857 – 1945)
American novelist
Better known simply as ‘Margaret Deland,’ she was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Her first published work was a collection of poems, The Old Garden and Other Verse (1886). This first literary effort was followed by nearly two dozen novels, penned over a career of forty years such as, John Ward, Preacher (1888), Old Chester Tales (1899), The Awakening of Helena Ritchie (1906), and, Captain Archer’s Daughter (1932). Margaret also left two volumes of autobiography If This Be I As I Suppose It Be (1935), and, Golden Yesterdays (1941).

Delaney, Geraldine Owen – (1907 – 1998)
American nutritionist and writer
Geraldine Owen was born in Stonington, Illinois and educated at Knox College and at the University of Illinois. She was married (1949) to a builder, Thomas Delaney. Her own private struggle, and eventual victory over alcoholism, due to assistance from Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), led to the establishment, together with the assistance of her husband, of the Little Hill Foundation (1957), at Little Hill-Alina Lodge, at Blairstown in New Jersey, for people recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Delaney worked for almost four decades of chief executive of the foundation (1957 – 1994), and her work was warmly praised by the First Lady, Betty Ford. Geraldine Owen died at Newton, New Jersey, aged ninety (July 9, 1998).

Delaney, Mary – (1700 – 1788)
British painter, mosaicist, courtier and letter writer
Born Mary Granville (May 14, 1700) in Coulston, Wiltshire, the daughter of Bernard Granville, of Bickland, Gloucester, and his wife Mary Westcombe, the daughter of Sir Martin Westcombe, baronet. She was sister to Bernard Granville (1699 – 1776), the second Duke of Albemarle in the Jacobite peerage, and was the niece of George Granville, Lord Lansdowne. Her younger sister, Anne Granville (1707 – 1761), became the wife of Joihn D’Ewes (1694 – 1780), of Wellesbourne, and left children. Mary Granville She studied painting under Bernard Lens, and was best known for her paintings of flowers and animals, and her portraits. She married firstly (1717) to Alexander Pendarves (1659 – 1724) of Roscrow, Cornwall, forty years her senior, and secondly (1743), to the Irish divine and author Patrick Delaney (1685 – 1768), Dean of Down, a friend to Jonathan Swift.
With the death of her second husband (1768) she became the friend and companion to Margaret, Duchess of Portland, who introduced her to the royal family. Mrs Delaney produced two hundred and fifty paper mosaics and flowers, which are recorded in the five volumes of Greenhouse, Stove and Hardy Plants. This task was begun after the age of seventy, and completed when she was eighty-five (1785). During her old age she was highly regarded by George III and Queen Charlotte, who furnished a house for her and saw to her needs during the last years of her life. It was due to her influence with the royal family that the novelist and memoirist Fanny Burney received a place at court in the household of Queen Charlotte. Her writings and letters were later published in six volumes by Lady Llanover, under the title Autobiography and Correspondence (1861 – 1862). Mary Delany died (April 15, 1788) aged eighty-seven, in London.

Delano, Jane Arminda – (1862 – 1919)
American nurse and educator
Delano was born in Montour Falls, New York (March 12, 1862), and graduated from the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing in New York City (1886). Whilst serving as superintendent nurse in Jacksonville, Florida (1887 – 1888), Delano insisted upon the use of mosquito nets as a preventive measure against the spread of the dreaded disease. She then established a hospital in Bisbee, Arizona which cared for miners stricken with scarlet fever. Attached to the Red Cross and superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps (1909 – 1912), Delano made the Red Cross Nursing Service the reserve for the corps, which enabled the enlistment of more than twenty thousand American nurses for European duty during World War I. Delano served several terms as director of the American Nurses Association (1900 – 1912), and was the co-author of the, American Red Cross Textbook on Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick (1913), with Isabel McIsaac. Jane Arminda Delano died at Savernay, in France (April 15, 1919), aged fifty-seven.

de la Pasture, Elizabeth Lydia Rosabelle – (1866 – 1945)
British novelist and dramatist
Born Elizabeth Bonham in Naples, Italy, she was the daughter of the British consul for Calais. She was married firstly to Henry de la Pasture, of Llandago Priory, Monmouthshire, in Wales, and secondly (1910), to Sir Hugh Clifford, the noted colonial civil servant. She was, by her first husband, mother to the popular novelist, E.M. Delafield. Her earlier works, which established her reputation as an author, included, The Little Squire (1893), The Toy Tragedy (1894), and the extremely popular, Adam Grigson (1899), which dealt skilfully with the themes of wealth and rank within contemporary society. These were followed by, The Man from America (1905), and several plays including, The Lonely Lady of Grosvenor Square, and, Peter’s Mother, which was performed at Sandringham, in Norfolk by especial command of King Edward VII. Her second marriage with Clifford, which necessitated extensive travel in Africa, prevented de la Pasture from writing much more, though she did produce the travel journal, Our Days on the Gold Coast (1918).

de Lara, Adelina – (1872 – 1961)
British pianist and composer
Born Lottie Adelina de Lara Tilbury (Jan 23, 1872), she was the daughter of George Matthew Tilbury and his wife Anna de Lara, whose name she took as her professional one. She was educated at Frankfurt-am-Main in Germany, and first appeared on stage in Liverpool, England (1878) as a child. She later studied under Fanny Davies and Clara Schumann (1886 – 1891) before marrying (1896) Thomas Johnson Shipwright, to whom she bore two sons.
De Lara played the Schumann Concerto at the Halle concert in Manchester, Lancashire (1897) and performed at the National Gallery with Dame Myra Hess. She organized concerts for the troops during WW I and WW II. She wrote ballads, piano concertos and string suites, and recorded Schumann’s Piano Concerto for a world broadcast with the Scottish Orchestra in Glasgow (1951). Her last piano broadcast was from Wigmore Hall (1954). De Lara was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1951), in recognition of her contributions to music during her long and impressive career. She published her autobiography Finale (1955). Adelina de Lara died at Woking in Surrey (Nov 25, 1961) aged eighty-nine.

de la Renta, Francoise – (1919 – 1983)
French salonniere and fashion editor
Born Francoise Langiade in Paris, she began her career in fashion under the guidance of Elsa Schiaparelli. Early in her career she was employed by Harper’s Bazaar and French Vogue. Later married (1967) to the noted fashion designer, Oscar de la Renta, Francoise was particularly noted for her sense of style, decorating expertise, and social prominence.  Madame de la Renta became the fashion editor of Vogue magazine, having moved to New York after her marriage. She was later appointed to be the editor of, House and Garden (1982). Francoise de la Renta died in New York, USA, aged sixty-three (June 17, 1983).

de la Roche, Mazo – (1879 – 1961)
Canadian novelist
Mazo was born at Newmarket, Ontario (Jan 15, 1879), and based her later literary success on the popularity of her work Jalna (1927), the first novel which dealt with the Whiteoak family on their estate of Jalna, and but particularly with the centenarian matriarch, Adeline Whiteoak. The character of Adeline was the subject of a film, Jalna (1935), and the long running stage play, Whiteoaks (1936). The chronicles of the Whiteoak family ran to fifteen novels, not all written in chronological order, over a twenty-five year period (1925 – 1950). The romantic account of the family did not really appeal to Canadian taste, and the series was much more popular in Europe and the USA. She left an autobiography Ringing the Changes (1957). Mazo de la Roche died in Toronto (July 12, 1961).

De la Sabliere, Margeurite     see    La Sabliere, Margeurite de

de la Torre, Lillian – (1902 – 1993)
American crime and mystery writer and dramatist
Lillian de la Torre was born in Manhattan, New York and attended Ne Rochelle College, and later trained as an English teacher, working as such in New York (1923 – 1934), later becoming an instructor at the Colorado College in Colorado Springs (1937 – 1941). She was married (1932 – 1984) to George Mccue, an English academic. De la Torre was later employed as a technical adviser to the Twentieth-Century Fox movie studio in Hollywood, California (1945). Her suspense works included the two collections of stories, Dr Sam Johnson, Detector (1946) and, The Return of Dr Sam Johnson, Detector (1985), and she served as president of the Mystery Writers of America. She was a founding member of the Colorado Springs Choral Society and wrote several plays including, Elizabeth Is Missing, or Truth Triumphant (1945), an account of the famous Elizabeth Canning mystery, Goodbye, Miss Lizzie Bordern (1948), and, Remember Constance Kent (1949), concerning two famous murderesses, and, The Queen’s Choristers (1961). De la Torre’s works for children included, The White Rose of Stuart (1954) and The Actress (1957). Lillian de la Torre died in Colrado Springs (Sept 13, 1993), aged ninety-one.

De La Warr, Sylvia Mary Harrison, Countess – (1904 – 1992)
British civil servant
Sylvia Harrison was the second daughter of William Reginald Harrison, of Liverpool, and was sister to the noted actor, Sir Rex Harrison (1908 – 1990). Sylvia Harrison was married twice, firstly (1925) to Sir David Maxwell Fyfe, first Earl of Kilmuir, to whom she bore two daughters. With his death (1967), she remarried secondly (1968 – 1976) to Herbrand Sackville, ninth Earl De La Warr. With the death of Lord De La Warr (Jan 28, 1976), she was Dowager Countess De La Warr (1976 – 1992). Lady De La Warr had been actively involved in politics with the Conservative Party, and served as vice-chairman of the Conservative Party (1951 – 1954). She was later appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1957) by Queen Elizabeth II, in acknowledgement of her services to public and political life. Lady De La Warr died aged eighty-seven (June 10, 1992), at Ludshott Manor, at Bramshott in Hampshire.

Delaunay, Margeurite   see   Staal, Baronne de

Delaunay, Sonia – (1885 – 1979) 
Russian-French artist
Born Sonia Stern at Gradizhsk, in the Ukraine, she was the daughter of a factory owner. Later adopted by her maternal uncle, Henri Terk, she was raised and educated in St Petersburg. She studied art at Karlsruhe and the Academie de la Palette in Paris (1905). She contracted a marriage of convenience with the art critic Wilhelm Ude (1909) from whom she was quickly divorced, and remarried secondly (1910) to the French painter and theorist, Robert Delaunay.
Delaunay and her husband founded the artistic movement known as Orphism, and they designed the sets and costumes for the Ballet Russe of Sergei Diaghilev (1918). Best known for her fantastic use of colur and abstract motifs, her textile designs featured in the Exposition des Arts Decoratifs (1925) and received commissions from the Paris Exhibition (1937). With the advance of World War II, the couple left Paris for the south, and Robert died at Montpellier, in Languedoc (1941).  Sonia Delaunay founded the Salon des Realites Nouvelles (1946) and her career spanned seven decades. She never stopped working, designing tapestries, carpets, scenery, costumes, and other fabrics, and gave major exhibitions at the Musee National d’Art Moderne, in Paris, in 1975 and 1977. Sonia Delaunay died in Paris (Dec 5, 1979).

Del Bene, Signora   see   Ferrarese, Adriana

Delbo, Charlotte – (1913 – 1985)
French Resistance figure and memoirist
Delbo was born in Vigneux-sur-Seine, near Paris (Aug 10, 1913). With an active interest in politics, she joined the Young Communist Women’s League (1932) and married (1934) Georges Dudach. Charlotte Delbo was later employed by the noted producer Louis Jouvet, and was working with him in Buenos Aires, Argentina, when the Nazis invaded and occupied France (1940). She became determined to return to France in order to fight the Vichy regime instigated by the infamous collaborator, Philippe Petain. Her husband worked as courier for the famous poet, Louis Aragon, whilst she became involved with the printing and distribution of anti-Nazi pamphlets. They joined with the communist philosopher Georges Politzer, to produce the underground journal, Lettres Francaises.
Husband and wife were arrested by the Nazis (March 2, 1942) and Georges was shot three months later (May 23). Delbo was kept in various female prisons until she was finally shipped, with other women, to the notorious Auschwitz internment camp (Jan, 1943). Of the two hundred and thirty non-Jewish women in her group, which included Mai Politzer, wife to the philosopher, less than fifty survived the horros of the concentration camp. Delbo was later sent to Ravensbruck, where she was released into the care of the Swedish Red Cross towards the end of the war (1945). After her recovery and return to France, she worked for the United Nations, and then for the noted philosopher, Henri Lefebvre. Charlotte later published the famous account of her experiences in, Auschwitz and After, which appeared in three installments (1965), (1970) and (1971). A full English translation was later published in America (1995). Charlotte Delbo died in Paris, of lung cancer, aged seventy-one (March 1, 1985).

Delectorskaya, Lydia – (1910 – 1998)
Russian artist’s model and private secretary
Lydia Delectorskaya was born at Tomsk in Siberia (June 23, 1910), the daughter of a pediatrician. With the death of her mother (1922) during a typhus epidemic, Lydia resided with a relative in Harbin, Manchuria, until they were able to leave Russia for Paris, where Lydia attended the Sorbonne. Blonde haired and blue eyed, Delectorskaya became Matisse’s artistic muse of the French painter Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954). Lydia became his confidante from 1932 until his death, and served as the model for his famous paintings The Blue Eyes, and, The Romanian Blouse.
With his death, Delectorskaya devoted herself to his memory, donating his two large works, L’Oceanie la terre and L’Oceanie le ciel, to the Matisse Museum at Chateau-Cambrensis. She wrote the volume L’Apparente facilite (With Apparent Ease) (1986), and, Contre vents et Marees (Against Wind and Tides) (1996), both of which dealt with Matisse’s work. Lydia Delectorskaya died in Paris (March 16, 1998), aged eighty-seven.

Deledda, Grazia – (1875 – 1936)
Italian novelist
Deledda was born in Nuoro, Sardinia (Sept 27, 1875), and had little formal schooling. She was married in her youth before moving to reside in Rome, and made frequent return trips to her native Sardinia, which was the setting for most of her novels, which centred round sentimental folk-lorist themes. Her first stories appeared in 1892, but first achieved acclaim with her Il vecchio della montagna (The Old Man of the Mountain) (1902). Her most important works were, Dopo il divorzio (after the Divorce) (1902), Elias Portolu (1903), the story of a convice in love with his brother’s wife, and the tragic Cenere (Ashes) (1904), in which an illegitimate son causes the suicide of his mother. This work was made into a silent film (1916) with Eleonora Duse. Deledda wrote nearly fifty other novels, many of which deal with the tragedy that unfolds when human being succumb to temptation such as La Madre (The Woman and the Priest) (1920) and her autobiographical novel Cosima published posthumously (1937). Grazia Deledda died in Rome (Aug 15, 1936) aged sixty.

DeLeeuw, Adele Louise – (1899 – 1988)
American poet, children’s author and biographer
Adelaide DeLeeuw was born in Hamilton, Ohio (Aug 12, 1899), the daughter of a consulting engineer, and graduated from the local high school. DeLeeuw joined the staff of the public library at Plainfield, New Jersey, where she became assistant librarian (1919) and acted as private secretary to her father for several years until 1926. After this she established herself as a prolific author and a lecturer. She became a member of the Rutgers University advisory council on children’s literature and was a member of the literature panel for the New Jersey Council on the Arts. She was the author of a weekly column for the Courier-News, in Somerville, New Jersey, and contributed an extremely large variety of poems and articles to American and foreign magazines over an enormouly long literary career.
DeLeeuw’s best known poetic works were, Berries of the Bittersweet (1924), and, Life Invited Me (1936), for which she was awarded prestigious poetry awards. Her children’s works included, Rika (1932), Island Adventure (1935), Doll Cottage (1938), Dina and Betsy (1940), Nobody’s Doll (1946), Blue Ribbons for Meg (1950), Breakneck Betty (1957), and, The Goat Who Ate Flowers (1958). Her biographies included, The Story of Amelia Earhart (1955), James Cook (1963), Edith Cavell: Nurse, Spy, Heroine (1968), Marie Curie: Woman of Genius (1969), Peter Stuyvesant: A Colony Leader (1970), Maria Tallchief: American Ballerina (1971), Civil War Nurse: Mary Ann Bickerdyke (1973), and, Carlos P. Romulo: The Barefoot Boy of Diplomacy (1976). DeLeeuw also wrote several volumes of folk-lore such as, Indonesian Legends and Folk Tales (1961), and, Legends and Folk Tales from Holland (1963). Adele DeLeeuw died (June 12, 1988) aged eighty-eight, at Plainfield, New Jersey.

De Lenclos, Ninon       see    Lenclos, Ninon de

De L’Epine, Francesca Margherita – (c1680 – 1746)
Italian vocalist and harpsichordist
Francesca De L’Epine was born in Italy of common parentage. She came to England with her German music teacher, Jacob Greber (1692), and performed in London for nearly three decades (1692 – 1718), achieving brilliant success, and becoming extremely popular with English audiences. Francesca also performed throughout Europe, notably in Rome and Venice in her homeland. She made her debut at Drury Lane Theatre in London singing music composed by Greber (1704) and also performed works by the English composer, Henry Purcell.
Madame De L’Epine became famously popular, performing both operatic works and singing in public recitals, appearing at the Haymarket Theatre, and Lincoln’s Inn Fields, in works such as, Love’s Triumph, Camilla, and, Calypso and Telemachus, as well as performing with Catherine Tofts. She later performed at Kensington before the Duchess of Shrewsbury, a favoured courtier of George I (1720). De L’Epine was briefly the mistress of Daniel Finch, earl of Nottingham, and later married (1718) the composer, John Christopher Pepusch, to whom she bore a son, and retired from the stage, though she later performed at a benefit (1733). Her husband nicknamed her ‘Hecate’ because of her dark complexion. Madame De L’Epine died in London (Aug 9 or 10, 1746), aged about sixty-five.

Delilah (Dalila) – (fl. c1080 BC) 
Philistine temptress
Deliliah is mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Old Testament as the last love attachment of the hero Samson. Delilah was bribed to attract and entrap Samson, and managed to convince him to reveal to her the secret of his great strength, his long hair, which secret she betrayed to his enemies, thus ensuring his death. Her name has become historically synonymous with a beautiful, enchanting, but ultimately treacherous woman.

Delille, Henriette – (1813 – 1862)
American nun
Henriette Delille was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the daughter of a white father and a freed slave mother. She was raised as a Catholic, and established the order of black nuns, known as the Sisters of the Holy Family, to care for and educate poor black children. She was later canonized.

De Lima, Sigrid – (1921 – 1999)
American novelist
Sigrid De Lima was the daughter of educator Agnes de Lima, and was employed in New York as a financial writer for the Unites Press (1944 – 1946) and then as a freelance journalist (1946 – 1948) whilst her own literary career began to take shape. De Lima’s first novel, Captain’s Beach (1950), was penned whilst she was attending a writing workshop at the New School University, run by the editor Hiram Haydn. Her second novel, The Swift Cloud (The Mask of Guilt) (1952), centred round the tragic tale of a Californian man who is falsely accused of murdering his mentally retarded son. Her third, Carnival by the Sea (1954) was set in a Californian amusement park that was anything but amusing, was followed by two other novels Praise a Fine Day (1959) and Oriane (1968). Sigrid De Lima died in Nyack, New York (Sept 19, 1999).

De L’Isle, Marie    see   Galli-Marie, Celestine Laurence

De L’Isle, Sophia Fitzclarence, Lady – (1796 – 1837)
British Hanoverian royal and peeress
Sophia Fitzclarence was born (Aug, 1796) the eldest illegitimate daughter of Prince William Henry, Duke of Clarence the third son of King George III (1760 – 1820). Her mother was the duke’s mistress the actress Dorothea Jordan (1761 – 1816) and she was named in honour of her father’s younger sister the Princess Sophia. Court wits dubbed her ‘Princess Sophia of Jordan’ during her youth. With the final separation of her parents (1811) Sophia remained resident at Bushey Park with her father and numerous Fitzclarence siblings, the eldest of whom was Goerge Fitzclarence, the first Earl of Munster.
Sophia and her elder sisters Elizabeth and Mary were later established in a suitable house of their own that the Duke acquired for them in Audley Sqaure in London, after his marriage with Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1818). Sophia became engaged to Sir Philip Charles Sidney (1800 – 1857) and they were married (1825) at her father’s house in Charkes Street in Berkeley Square, Sophia’s stepmother the Duchess of Clarence being present at the ceremony. When her father succeeded his brother as King William IV (1830) Lady Sidney was raised to the rank of a daughter of a marquess by her father’s own warrant (May 24, 1831) whilst her husband became the first Baron De L’Isle and Dudley (1835) and Sophia became a baroness.
During Queen Adelaide’s visit to her mother the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen at Thuringia in Germany (1834), Lady De L’Isle and her aunt the Princess Augusta cared for the ailing king at Windsor Castle in Berkshire. Father and daughter were exceptionally close and Sophia is ‘said to have been the favourite daughter of her royal father and occasionally acted as his amanuensis.’ King William later appointed Lady De L’Isle as the Housekeeper of Kensington Palace (1836). Lady De L’Isle’s death in childbirth (April 10, 1837) aged forty, at Kensington Palace, was the cause of severe grief and distress to her seriously ill father who did not long survive her. She was buried at Penshurst. Her six children were,

Delitz, Anna Louise Sophie von der Schulenburg, Countess von – (1692 – 1773)
Hanoverian royal
Anna von der Schulenburg was the illegitimate daughter of George I, King of England (1714 – 1727) by his longtime mistress, the Duchess of Kendal, but she was registered as the child of Friedrich Achaz von der Schulenburg (1647 – 1701) and his wife Margaret Gertrude (1659 – 1697) elder sister to the duchess of Kendal, and her own maternal aunt. Anna was married (1707) to Ernst Augustus Philip von dem Bussche-Ippenburg (1681 – 1761), an officer in the army at Zelle in Brunswick. The marriage remained childless and the couple were divorced (1714). Her father later created her Countess von Delitz (1722) by which title she was known the last five decades of her life.

Delkash – (1925 – 2004)
Iranian vocalist
Born Esmat Bagherpour Panbehzan in Babol (Feb 26, 1925), she was the daughter of a cotton merchant. She studied in Tehran and became associated with the noted musicans, Ruhollah Khaleghi and Abdolali Vaziri, who gave her the nickname ‘Delkash’ which she adopted as her professional name. Delkash began her singing career at the age of eighteen (1943) and was employed by Radio Iran (1945), where she worked in collaboration with the composer Mehdi Khaledi, which partnership helped greatly to establish both their careers. Most of her popular songs, usually composed in either the Guilaki or Mazandrani dialects, were written by the noted composers, Rahim Moeini Kermanshahi and Ali Tajvidi. Using the pen name ‘Nilofar’ she wrote several songs herself, and appeared in several Iranian films, such as, Sharmsar (Ashamed) (1950), Madar (Mother) (1951), Arouse farari (The Runaway Bride) (1958) and Farda rowshan ast (Tomorrow is Bright) (1960). Delkash died in Tehran (Sept 2, 2004) aged seventy-nine.

Dell, Claudia – (1910 – 1977)
American stage and minor film actress
Born Claudia Dell Smith in San Antonio, Texas (Jan 10, 1910), she was partly educated in Mexico. Blonde and attractive, she studied acting in New York and singing at the Julliard Academy. She worked on the stage in London, and went to Hollywood upon her return to the USA. Dell appeared in several important films such as, Sonny Boy (1929), opposite Al Jolson, and the Regency romance, Sweet Kitty Belairs (1930). She appeared in, Destry Rides Again (1932) with Tom Mix, Algiers (1938), and one of the Charlie Chan films, Black Magic (1944), but her film career faltered after the end of WW II. Dell was married (1934) to the theatrical agent, Edward Stilton from whom she was later divorced, and obtained work as a receptionist before becoming director of several prestigious modelling schools. She later hosted a syndicated radio program, The Claudia Dell Show. Claudia Dell died in Los Angeles, California, aged sixty-six.

Dell, Dorothy – (1915 – 1934)
American film actress
Born Dorothy Goff, she began her career as a successful beauty queen. She appeared in several films such as, Wharf Angel (1934), Little Miss Marker (1934), and, Shoot the Works (1934). Her promising career was cut tragically short after she was killed in a car accident.

Dell, Ethel Mary – (1881 – 1939)
British novelist
Dell was born in Streatham, London, the daughter of an insurance agent, and attended a private school. She began her literary career during childhood, and later settled at Guildford in Surrey.
Her first and perhaps best remembered popular novel, The Way of an Eagle (1912), was only published after considerable difficulty, and several manuscript rejections. She was immensely popular during WW I, publishing such works as, The Rocks of Valpre (1914), The Keeper of the Door (1915), and, Great Heart (1918). With strongly identifiable romantic and adventurous themes, Dell’s novels achieved her great financial success, though she herself shunned the limelight created by her own success.

Delle Grazie, Marie Eugenie – (1864 – 1931)
Austrian poet
Marie Eugenie Delle Grazie was the daughter of mixed German-Venetian parentage. She published a collection of poems at the early age of seventeen (1871) and won a literary grant which enabled her to continue her writing career. Delle Grazie was particularly remembered for her epic poem ‘Robespierre’ (1894) set during the French Revolution, and her dramatic account of a famous mining disaster Schlagende Wetter (Firedamp) (1899), which was performed for the stage, and received great popular acclaim.

Delmare, Bella   see   Lloyd, Marie

Del Monte, Helen – (1930 – 1992)
American magazine editor
Helen Del Monte was born in Los Angeles, California and attended Reed College, in Portland, Oregon. After graduating she removed to New York where she was employed as a secretary at McCall’s. Del Monte remained with the magazine almost forty years (1952 – 1990), rising to become editorial assistant, and then editor to the fiction editor (1969 – 1990). She worked with such well known literary figures as Ben Hecht, John Steinbeck, Irwin Shaw, Alice Adams, Margery Finn Brown and Nora Johnson. Helen Del Monte died of cancer in Manhattan, New York, aged sixty-two (Aug 21, 1992).

Delna, Marie – (1875 – 1932)
French contralto
Marie Delna was born at Meudon, near Paris, and made her debut at the Opera Comique (1892) in the role of Dido in Berlioz’s Les Troyens, remaining there until 1898. Marie performed a three year stint at the Paris Opera (1898 – 1901) before returning to the Opera Comique. Delna retired briefly after her marriage (1903), but upon her return to the Opera Comique in 1908 she was greeted with enthusiastic acclaim, and remained a firm favourite with the audiences there. Marie visited American and performed Gluck’s, Orfeo, at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, and the role of Marcelline in Alfred Bruneau’s L’Attaque du moulin in the New Theater. Returning to Paris, Marie continued to perform at the Opera Comique until her eventual retirement in 1922. Marie Delna died in Paris.

De Long, Emma Walton – (1851 – 1940)
American traveller and editor
Emma Walton was born in New York, and married the arctic explorer George Washington De Long (1844 – 1881), whom she survived forty years. Emma edited her husband’s memoirs in 1883 as, The Voyage of the Jeannette, and was the author of, Explorer’s Wife (1938).

Deloraine, Mary Howard, Countess of – (1702 – 1744)
British Hanoverian courtier and royal mistress
Mary Howard was the only surviving daughter of Colonel Hon. (Honourable) Philip Howard (1629 – 1717) and his wife Mary Jennings. Mary was the granddaughter of Sir Thomas Howard (1588 – 1669) the first Earl of Berkshire, and was the much younger sister of Captain James Howard of Broughton (1679 – 1722). Mary Howard was married (1726) to Henry Scott (1676 – 1730), Earl of Deloraine as his second wife. Lord Deloraine was the third son of James Scott, Duke of Monmouth the illegitimate son of King Charles II. She bore Lord Deloraine two daughters before his early death. She survived him as the Dowager Countess of Deloraine (1730 – 1744) and later remarried (1734) to William Wyndham of Earsham in Norfolk.
The countess had been appointed to serve at the court as governess to the princesses Anne, Amelia, Caroline, Mary and Louisa, the daughters of George II (1727 – 1760) and his wife Caroline of Ansbach. Lady Deloraine became a favourite of the king but according to Sir Robert Walpole she was a dangerous person for she possessed ‘a weak head, a pretty face, a lying tongue and a false heart.’ Lord Hervey in his Court Ballad (1742) sarcastically referred to her as ‘virtuous and sober, and wise Deloraine.’ In his memoirs Hervey went on to describe the Countess of Deloraine as ‘one of the vainest as well as one of the simplest women that ever lived but to this wretched head there was certainly joined one of the prettiest faces that ever was formed, which though she was now five and thirty, had a bloom upon it, too, that not one woman in ten thousand has at fifteen.’
The story in the passage of Alexander Pope’s poem The Rape of the Lock in which he alludes to Lady Deloraine as ‘Delia,’ was a common rumour at the time, the alleged victim being a Miss Mackenzie, a beauty who died suddenly, and was said to have been poisoned by Lady Deloraine in a fit of jealousy. It was probably a mere piece of scandal at the expense of a worthless and no doubt envied court favourite. No proceedings appear to have followed up the report and it did not affect the countess’s position at court. Horace Walpole recorded that her fall from grace dated from 1742 when in a prank at Kensington Palace one evening, one of the king’s daughters pulled the chair from out behind Lady Deloraine, who fell to the floor, much to the great humour of the king. Lady Deloraine retaliated by pushing George II who fell in a most undignied manner and was outraged. Lady Deloraine was exiled from court and her position fully usurped by the king’s German favourtie Madame von Wallmoden.
The Countess of Deloraine died (Nov 12, 1744) aged forty-two, in London. She was buried at Windsor in Berkshire. Her will which she signed as Mary de Loraine was dated (Nov 6, 1744). her daughters were Lady Georgina Caroline Scott (1727 – 1809) the wife of Sir James Peachey (1722 – 1808), baronet and first Baron Selsey (1794) and left issue, and Lady Henrietta Scott (born 1728) the wife of Nicholas Boyce.

Deloria, Ella Cara – (1888 – 1971)
Native American linguist and ethnologist
Deloria was born (Jan 30, 1888) at White Swan on the Standing Rock Sioux reservation in South Dakota. She was raised amidst a mixture of traditional Sioux cultures interspersed with Episcopal Protestantism. Deloria attended Columbia University, and then worked for many years with the noted anthropologist, Franz Boas. During this time she assisduously gathered materials concerning the Dakota language and culture, being determined to preserve as much of her heritage as possible for posterity. She produced a bilingual collection of traditional stories in, Dakota Texts (1932), which was followed by, Dakota Grammar (1941).  Her description of Dakota daily life found form in the popular novel, Speaking of Indians (1944). Deloria translated several narratives and autobiographies, and her novel, Waterlily (1988), was published posthumously. Ella Deloria died (Feb 12, 1971) aged eighty-three.

Delorme, Marion – (1613 – 1650)
French courtesan
Marion Delorme was born in Paris (Oct 3, 1613), the daughter of Jean de Lion, Sieur de Lorme. She early became the mistress of the poet Jacques Vallee, sieur des Barreaux, but left him after she had transferred her affections to Henri Coffier Ruze d’Effiat, Marquis de Cinq-Mars, the favourite of Louis XIII, whom she almost married. Delorme established herself as the leader of a fashionable salon in the Place Royale (now the Place des Vosges) in Paris, which attracted many literary and political figures of the era. Cinq-Mars was executed for treason (1642) and Delorme then became the mistress of several prominent figures, including the Great Conde, Charles Saint-Evremond, and Michel Particelli d’Emery, the superintendent of finances, though rumour also claimed her as the mistress of the powerful Cardinal de Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII. During the wars of the Fronde (1648 – 1653) her salon became suspect as a haven for seditious persons, and Delorme was forced to close her house and leave the Place Royale. Marion Delorme died in poverty in Paris, aged thirty-six (July 2, 1650). The nineteenth century author Alfred de Vigny included Delorme as a character in novel Cinq-Mars (1826) and Victor Hugo made her the heroine of one of his famous dramas.

Delort, Catherine – (c1300 – 1335)

French witchtrial victim
Catherine Delort was arrested and tried for her involvement with witchcraft in Toulouse. Catherine confessed to illicit relations with the Devil, attending orgies associated with witchcraft, and eating children. She was tortured and burnt at the stake.

De Los Angeles, Victoria      see     Los Angeles, Victoria de

Delphine of Languedoc, St      see     Sabran, Delphine de

Del Po, Teresa – (c1665 – 1716)
Italian minaturist painer and copper plate engraver
Teresa Del Po trained her daughter Vittoria del Po to be skilled in the same craft, and was mother-in-law of the engraver Patin.

del Riego, Teresa – (1876 – 1968)
British composer
Teresa del Riego was born in London (April 7, 1876), the daughter of Miguel del Riego. She was educated at the convent of the Sacred Heart at Highgate, London and at the Central College of Music. Her first song was composed at the age of twelve (1888), and she remained a prolific worker throughout her career. Some three hundred of her songs were published, being performed by famous figures such as Dame Nellie Melba, Gervase Elwes, Dame Maggie Teyte, and Eva Turner, and Clara Butt, amongst others. Most notable of her songs were, ‘O Dry Those Tears’, ‘Les Larmes,’ ‘La Vie est Vaine,’ and ‘Homing,’ which achieved immense popularity during WW I. Del Riego composed several orchestral works, such as, ‘Lead Kindly Light,’ The Unknown Soldier,’ which was featured at the Armistice Day celebrations (Nov 11), and, ‘The King’s Song,’ which was performed to commemorate the coronation of Edward VII (1902). Madame del Riego was a member of the Society of Women Musicians and of the Incorporated Society of Musicians. She served at the front entertaining the troops during WW I, and her husband was killed in battle in France. Teresa del Riego died (Jan 23, 1968), at Cromer, in Norfolk, aged ninety-one.

Delta, Penelope – (1871 – 1941)
Greek novelist and children’s author
Delta was born at Alexandria, in Egypt, the daughter of the noted public benefactor, Emanuel Benaki. Her interest in literature was fostered by classical and mythological Greek traditions, and her first work, published when she was almost forty, was For the Motherland (1909). Delta was possessed of a beautifully simplistic style of writing which greatly appealed, and was admired by the Greek critics, other works followed, such as the historical novel set in the time of the Byzantine empire In the Time of Vulgaroktonos (1911) and the novel The Secrets of the Swamp (1937) which dealt with the Macedonian struggle for national independence against the Turks (1821 – 1829).

De Maintenon, Marquise de     see    Maintenon, Marquise de

Demar, Claire – (c1799 – 1833)
French feminist writer
Of married status, Demar became attached to the literary circle of the socialist Saint-Simon in Paris. Opposed to the traditional family values advocated for French women, her views were clearly expressed in her, Appel d’un femme au peuple sur l’affranchement de la femme (A Woman’s Appeal to the People on the Question of Emancipation of Women) (1833). Claire Demar and her lover, Perret Desessarts, committed suicide together (Aug 3, 1833).

Demarete (Damareta) – (fl. c500 – 478 BC) 
Greek heroine
Demarete was the daughter of Theron, tyrant of Akragas, in southwest Sicily, and granddaughter of Aenesidemus of the Emmenid family. She became the wife of Gelon, tyrant of Gela and Syrakuse. Her husband and father joined military forces to defeat the invading force of the Carthaginian leader, Himilcar Barca at the Battle of Himera (479 BC). The victory was celebrated throughout the Greek world, and because she had led the women of Syrakuse in sacrificing their jewellery to finance the necessary mercenary soldiers, Gelon minted coins, large silver decadrachms, which were commonly referred to as ‘Demareteia’ because they bore the bust of Demarete on the reverse. Her tomb was later destroyed by the Carthaginians (396 BC).

De Marillac, Louise     see    Marillac, Louise de

Demariste – (c435 – c375 BC)
Greek patrician
Demariste was the wife of Timodemus of Korinth, and was mother to the famous Greek general and statesman Timoleon (c411 – 337 BC). Plutarch stated that demariste and Tomodemus ‘were illustrious in the city’ meaning of high birth and family. Demariste was the mother of an elder son named Timophanes who made himself tyrant of Korinth, and was killed by his brother Timoleon for this reason. Plutarch recorded that ‘And now he (Timoleon) learned that his mother was angry with him and uttered dreadful reproaches and fearful imprecations against him, and went to plead his cause with her, but she could not endure to see his face, and closed her house against him.’ Demariste’s treatment of her son caused him to refrain from a political career for twenty years.

De Martelaere, Patricia – (1957 – 2009)
Dutch writer and educator
De Martelaere was born (April 16, 1957) at Zottegem and studied philosophy at Louvain (Leuven) in Brabant. Patricia lectured in language and philosophy and the Catholic iniversities in Brussels and Louvain. Her published works included Nachtboek van een slapeloze (1988), Littekens (1990), De voorbeeldige schrijver (1996) Iets binnenin (1999) and Wereldvreemdheid (2000). She was the recipient of several prestigious literary awards (1993) and (1997). Patricia De Martelaere died (March 4, 2009) aged fifty-one.

De Mauley, Barbara Ashley-Cooper, Lady – (1788 – 1844)
British heiress
Lady Barbara Ashley-Cooper was born (Oct 19, 1788) the daughter of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, the fifth Earl of Shaftesbury, and his wife Barbara Webb. Through the families of Ashley-Cooper, Webb, Salvaine and Mauley, she was the coheiress of the barony of the ancient feudal barony of De Mauley, created by King Edward I (1295). Her husband William Francis Spencer Ponsonby (1787 – 1855), whom she married in1814, was created Lord De Mauley of Canford in her right by Queen Victoria (1838). The second Lord Alvanley called her ‘as stupid as a post’ but her husband appears to have been devoted to her. Lady De Mauley died at her home in Albemarle Street, London, aged fifty-five (June 5, 1844). Her surviving monument at Hatherop Church, Canford, was executed by Raffaele Monti (1848). It portrays Lady Barbara lying dead upon the tomb with angels at her feet and head. Both this church and Hatherop Castle were rebuilt by her grieving husband (1850 – 1856). Her children were,

Dembo, Tamara – (1902 – 1993) 
Russian-American psychologist and academic
Dembo was born in Baku, Russia. Brought up in St Petersburg, her family immigrated to Prussia and she ultimately earned her doctorate at the University of Berlin (1930). Tamara immigrated to America prior to 1939, to continue research at various universities including Smith College, Cornell and Mount Holyoke College. Appointed associate professor at the New York School for Social Research (1948) she was made research fellow at Harvard (1951) before finally joining the faculty of Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts (1953). Dr Dembo was primarily concerned with research into rehabilitative psychology, and developed methods to provoke anger, which produced the theory that anger responded more to situation than personality. Dembo was also extensively involved in research to benefit injured war veterans and children stricken with cerebral palsy. She was head of the Rehabilitation Psychology Training Program (1962 – 1972) at Clark University, and her work was recognized by the American Personnel and Guidance Association. Tamara Dembo died at Worcester.

De Medici, Catherine     see    Catherine Marie Romola

Demergothia – (d. c252 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Demergothia was executed at Tomis, in Lower Moesia during one of the persecutions instigated during the reign of the Emperor Decius (249 – 251 AD). The early church honoured her as a saint (Oct 1).

De Mericourt, Theroigne     see   Mericourt, Theroigne de

Demeter, Christine – (1940 – 1973)
Canadian murder victim
Christine Demeter had a successful career as a model, before she was found murdered in the garage of her home in Mississauga, Ontario, at the age of thirty-three (July 18, 1973). Her husband, Peter Demeter was later convicted of hiring a person to kill her to that he could benefit from a million dollar life insurance policy. The murder formed the basis for the book, By Persons Unknown: The strange death of Christine Demeter (1976), co-written by the Canadian journalist George Jonas (born 1935), and his (then) wife Barbara Amiel (born 1940, later Lady Black, as wife to Conrad, Lord Black of Crossharbour).

Demetria – (c347 – 364 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Demetria was the daughter of Flavian and his wife Dafrosa, and the sister of St Viviana. The family was condemned as Christians during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Julian the Apostate (360 – 363 AD). Her parents were killed (363 AD) and Demetria and Viviana were imprisoned in their home, where efforts were made to pervert their faith. This having no effect Demetria publicly confessed her Christianity then fell dead before the executioners could touch her. The church honoured Demetria as a saint (June 21) and her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Demetrias (1) – (fl. c330 BC)
Roman Imperial progenatrix
Demetrias is attested as the wife of either Petronius Probianus, consul (322 AD) or of Anicius Paulinus, consul (334 AD). She was the great-grandmother of Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius, consul (395 AD), and was probably the the mother of Faltonia Betitia Proba, the wife of Clodius Celsinus Adelphius. Demetrias was ancestress of the Emperor Olybrius (472 AD).

Demetrias (2) – (c395 – after 440 AD)
Roman Christian nun
Demetrias was the daughter of the wealthy patrician, Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius, and his wife Anicia Juliana. Though it had been originally planed that Demetrias should marry, she decided instead to pursue the kife of a consecrated virgin (414 AD), and St Jerome wrote her a letter in which he praised her decision to embrace virginity. Demetrias owned estates on the Via Latina near Rome, and there she built the church of St Stephen, where she presumably retired to live as a nun. She died there sometime after Leo I became pope (440 AD).

Demetrio, Anna – (1892 – 1959) 
Italian actress
Demetrio was born in Rome (Nov 8, 1892), and she appeared on the stage before moving to the USA, where she portrayed character roles in films. Her movie career beginning with her uncredited appearances in such early  movies as, Hell Below (1933), Come on Marines (1934), The Crusades (1935), and, Arizona Mahoney (1936), where she played an Indian squaw.
Demetrio, whose name was sometimes written as Anna De Metrio, appeared in almost fifty films, usually portraying large, swarthy, foreign women. She appeared as the elderly Chinese widow Wu Sao in the film, Dragon Seed (1944), with Katharine Hepburn and as the café proprietress in, Kismet (1944). She retired from films after appearing as Mamma Mia in, Force of Arms (1951), but continued to make guest appearances in various popular television series such as, International Detective (1951) and, The Cisco Kid (1951). Anna Demetrio died in San Mateo, California (Nov 8, 1959), on her sixty-seventh birthday.

Demidova, Anna Stefanovna – (1878 – 1918)
Russian Imperial courtier
Anna Demidova served as chamber maid to Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna and her four daughters. Held captive with Tsar Nicholas II and his family, Anna was murdered with them by Bolsheviks at Ekaterinburg, in Siberia (July, 1918).

De Mille, Agnes – (1905 – 1993)
American dancer and choreographer
Agnes De Mille was born in New York City, the daughter of film producer, William C. De Mille, and niece of the famous film maker Cecil B. De Mille (1881 – 1959). She attended California University in Los Angeles, before going to London to dance and study under Dame Marie Rambert. She was married (1943) and bore a son, Jonathon Prude. De Mille made her first stage appearance in MacKlin Marrow’s production of Mozart’s, La Finta Giardiniera in New York (1927), before touring parts of the USA, England, Denmark, and France. She later joined the Ballet Theatre in New York as a choreographer (1939), and then dance and directed in her own compositions. She toured with the American Ballet Theatre, performing in some of her own creations, such as, Three Virgins and the Devil (1956), amongst others.
De Mille choreographed dance routines for over a dozen popular Hollywood musical films, such as, Oklahoma (1943), Carousel (1945), Brigadoon (1947), Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1949), and Paint Your Wagon (1951). De mille directed two musicals herself, Rape of Lucrecia (1949), and, Out of this World (1950). She twice received the Antoinette Perry Award (1947) and (1962), and produced a psychological study of the famous American murderess, Lizzie Bordern, with the ballet entitled, Fall River Legend. Particularly known for her personal wit and charm, and admired for her eloquent powers of public oratory, De Mille was the author of several books, Dance to the Piper (1952), The Book of Dance (1963), and, American Dances (1980). Agnes De Mille died of a stroke in Greenwich Village, New York, aged eighty-eight (Oct 7, 1993).

Deming, Barbara – (1917 – 1984)
American author and political activist
Deming was born in New York (July 23, 1917) the daughter of a lawyer, and was educated at Bennington College and the Western Reserve University. She became involved in the theatre and was co-director of the Bennington Stock Theatre (1938 – 1939) before teaching at the local school of arts, and working as a film analyst for the Library of Congress (1942 – 1944). Deming only became involved in politics in her forties, and firmly believed that paicifism, as taught by the Indian leader, Mahatma Gandhi, was the key to effecting change with civil rights and the anti-Vietnam war movement in the USA.
Deming suffered a period of imprisonment in Georgia, after being arrested during a protest march, and this served as the basis of her first book, Prison Notes (1966). She was a feminist and a lesbian, and remained unmarried. She oined the gay rights movement, and was appointed editor of the left wing magazine, Liberation. Deming’s later works included, Revolution, Violent and Nonviolent (1968), co-written with Regis Debray, Revolution and Equilibrium (1971), Remembering Who We Are (1982), and, A Humming under My Feet: A Book of Travail (1985), which was published posthumously. Also published after her death was a collection of Deming’s poetic verse entitled, I Change, I Change: Poems (1996). Barbara Deming died at Sugarloaf Key in Florida (Aug 2, 1984) aged sixty-seven.

Deming, Sarah Winslow – (1722 – 1788)
American colonist and journal writer
Mrs Deming made a two week trip from Boston in Massachusetts to Providence in Rhode Island (April, 1775). She wrote a narrative account of her journey written in the form of a letter to her niece which was published as the Journal of Sarah Winslow Deming in the American Monthly Magazine (1894).

Demjanovich, Miriam Teresa – (1901 – 1927)
Slovak-American nun
Demjanovich was born in New Jersey, the daughter of Slovakian immigrants. She was educated at public schools and the College of St Elizabeth in Jersey, and later joined the Sisters of Charity (1925). Despite her youth, she received mystic revelations which she kept between herself and her confessor, and she was the author of Greater Perfection, which was published posthumously. She died suddenly, after what appeared to be a minor illness. The cause for her canonization was introduced in 1980.

Demo – (fl. c120 – c140 AD)

Greek lyric poet and writer
Claudia Demo travelled to the Colossus of Memnon near Thebes, Egypt, where, in an epigram etched on one of the legs of the statue, Demo proclaims herself a poet. She wrote an allegorical commentary on the poet Homer, though this work retains an Aeolic style. This work was used by the historian Eustathius, amongst others. She is thought by modern scholars to have been influenced by the work of Damophyle of Pamphylia, whose works have not survived.

De Montespan, Marquise     see     Montespan, Marquise de

De Montpensier, Duchesse     see    Montpensier, Duchesse de

Demorest, Ellen – (1824 – 1898)
American fashion designer
Demorest was the first woman to mass-produce dress patterns which were distributed through her own quarterly magazine Mme Demorest’s Mirror of Fashions, which was established and organized by her husband. Ellen Demorest established her own fashion house on Broadway in New York, and quickly gained a reputation for herself as a successful fashion designer. By 1876 her company distributed three million patterns, but they had neglected to patent their invention, and were eventually overtaken by a competitor, Ebenezer Butterick.

De Morgan, Evelyn – (1855 – 1919)
British painter
Born Evelyn Pickering, she was the daughter of a wealthy lawyer, and niece to the noted artist Roddam Spencer-Stanhope. She received an excellent education at home prior to her attendance at the Slade School of Art in London, which was followed by a period of study in Rome, Italy (1875 – 1877). Her earlier works bore distinct traces of the Italian influence, but as she matured as an artist, she adopted the Pre-Raphaelite style. After her marriage (1887) with the noted potter and author, William De Morgan, the sale of Evelyn’s works provided them with an income. The couple later resided in Florence for fifteen years (1893 – 1908), during which time her husband concentrated more on his writing career. Evelyn did not long survive her husband.

Demudis of Bechtolsteim – (c1315 – 1348)
German patrician heiress
Demudis appears to have inherited Bechtolsteim in her own right, which fief she took to her husband Count Wiriand (c1305 – 1365), a nobleman from Waldeck who survived her. Her death (May 29, 1348) was probably the result of the Black Death. Demudis left three children, and Bechtolsteim passed to her eldest son. She left three children,

Demudis’ granddaughter, the likenamed Demudis (died after 1455), the daughter of her youngest son Johannes, became the wife of Count Nikolas VI of Hunolstein.

Denbigh, Susan Villiers, Countess of – (1591 – 1655)
English Stuart courtier
Susan Villiers was the daughter of Sir George Villiers, and his second wife, Mary Beaumont, Countess of Buckingham, and was sister to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the celebrated favourite of Charles I. She was married (1607) to William Feilding (1582 – 1643), later created Earl of Denbigh (1622). Lady Denbigh was a prominent figure at the court, and accompanied Queen Henrietta Maria in to exile at St Germain-en-Laye, where she served her as a lady-in-waiting. Her husband was killed near Birmingham during the Civil War (1643), and the countess remained a member of the exiled court in France, eventually converting to Roman Catholicism. She died at Cologne, Germany (before June 8, 1655). The countess was the mother of Basil Feilding, second Earl of Denbigh (1608 – 1675), whose wife Isabella was sister to Maria Catharina Cornelia, Marchioness of Blandford, granddaughter-in-law to the redoubtable Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. Crashaw dedicated religious verse to her.

Denby, Elizabeth Marian – (c1883 – 1965)
British sociologist and public housing expert
Elizabeth Denby was born in Bradford, Yorkshire, daughter of Walter Denby. She was educated at home with a governess before attending the Bradford Girls Grammar School. Denby opined for a career in public service, and was particularly concerned with the growing need for public housing. She appointed as the first organising secretary for the Kensington Housing Trust in London. She later collaborated on the design of low-cost housing estates includingh those built at Sassoon House and Kensal House. She was a member of the Technical Committee of the National Housing and Town Planning Council, and was governor of the Chelsea College of Science and Technology, and founder of The Watergate Theatre. Denby never married. She was the author of several works including, Europe Re-Housed (1937), A Close-up (1943), and, Counter-Attack (1957). Elizabeth Denby died (Nov 3, 1965) aged about eighty-two, at Hythe in Kent.

Denecutia – (d. c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Denecutia perished for her faith in Africa, probably during the persecutions of the emperors Diocletian and Maximian Daia. Her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 14).

Deneke, Margaret Clara Adele – (1882 – 1969)
British educator and lecturer
Deneke was born (Dec 26, 1882), the daughter of Philip Maurice Deneke, and was educately privately under the supervision of a governess. Deneke never married and lectured publicly on music related subjects both at home, and abroad in the USA, in order to provide financial funds to benefit Lady Margaret Hall at Oxford, St Hilda’s College, and Oxford University. Having also trained as a nurse, Deneke later went to West Africa where she worked for a period (1931 – 1932) at the Schweitzer Hospital. She was author of the memorial Ernest Walker (1950). Margaret Deneke died in Oxford (March 3, 1969) aged eighty-six.

Dengel, Anna Marie – (1891 – 1980)
Austrian-American Catholic physician
Dengel was born in Tyrol, and went to study medicine at the University of Cork in Ireland. She eventually qualified as a surgeon and desired to help the Muslim women of north western India, who was dying of simple diseases, simply because male doctors were forbidden to treat them. Dengel took holy orders, and with three other women formed the Society of Catholic Medical Missionaries (1925), more commonly known as the Medical Mission Sisters, of which order she later became superior-general (1925 – 1967). The order instituted hospital nursing and medical training programs in Indonesia, Africa, India, and parts of Europe, and also provided some help with laboratory technology. Dengel later became an American citizen (1941) and was appointed as an honorary fellow of the International College of Surgeons (1959). She resided in Rome, Italy, from 1957. Anna Marie Dengel died aged eighty-eight (April 17, 1980), in Rome.

Deng Mengnu – (c140 – 165 AD)
Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty
Deng Mengu was the daughter of a minor Imperial official, Deng Xiang and his wife Xuan, and was related to the famous statesman, Deng Yu. With the early death of her father, she was raised in the household of her stepfather, the powerful courtier Liang Ji, who adopted her, and she was then known as Liang Mengnu. Beautiful and accomplished, her stepfather offered her to the emperor Huandi (132 – 168 AD), who ruled (146 – 168 AD) and took her as his second wife (159 AD). She created Imperial consort and she assumed the names of Bo Mengnu, and later Deng Mengnu, her original family name was restored. Some relatives were given positions at court, but none ever achieved the power assumed by her late stepfather. Huandi later divorced Deng Mengnu, officially on account of her drunkenness and involvement with black magic, but more probably because of her childlessness, and her antipathy to the emperor’s favoured concubines, Guo and Tian. The two women engaged in an ongoing battle for control of the emperor’s affections, which led to the empress’s downfall. Deng Mengnu was deposed, her Imperial titles removed, and imprisoned. She died there, after which her two uncles were also executed.

Deng Sui – (81 – 121 AD)
Chinese empress
Deng Sui was the daughter of Deng Xun, and his wife Yin, and was cousin of the empress Yin Lihua, wife to emperor Guangwudi. She was sent to the Imperial palace to become consort to the emperor He (95 AD). Her predecessor was deposed from her Imperial titles for endangering Deng and her family, and Deng Sui was then accorded the Imperial titles and prerogatives (102 AD). With her husband’s death (106 AD), Deng Sui ruled as regent for his son, the emperor Shang. Her brother Deng Zhi quickly became the most powerful figure at the Imperial court. With Shang’s death the Empress Dowager appointed An as his successor, but retained the Imperial power in her own possession. As empress dowager, Deng Sui instituted reforms to criminal laws, stamped out corruption, even amongst members of her own clan, and extended the period allowed for appeals against the death penalty. She also organized effective disaster relief during periods of floods and drought. The empress refused to hand over power to An and retained full control of the state until her death, aged barely forty, when many of her relatives were then forced by the emperor to commit suicide.

Deng Yingchao (Teng Ying-Cha’ao)(1904 – 1992)
Chinese political leader
Deng Yingchao was the wife of Chinese Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai (1966 – 1976). She was born in Henan province, the daughter of a small landlord and a schoolteacher. Deng joined the liberal group led by Zhou, the Awakening Society (1919) and she soon became immersed in the radical student movement. They were married on Zhou’s return from France (1925). Deng took part in the Communist struggle against the Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, and during the Long March she had to be carried on a stretcher because she was suffering from tuberculosis. During the Japanese occupation, she was smuggled out of Beijing disguised as a maid (1937). Based at Yanan in north-central China after the war, Deng became increasingly involved with issues concerning women, which remained one of her priorities after the Communists proved ultimately victorious (1949). Later appointed a member of the Central Committee (1969) and of the Politburo (1978), she resigned both positions at the request of Deng Xiaoping (1985), and supported the Party decision to order tanks and troops to fire upon democracy protestors in Tianamen Square (1989). She resigned as honorary president of the Chinese nursing association because of ill-health (1990). Deng Yingchao died in Beijing (July 11, 1992).

Denham, Margaret Brooke, Lady – (1647 – 1667)
English Stuart courtier
Margaret Brooke was the daughter if Sir William Brooke, Lord Cobham, of Stereborough, Surrey, and his wife Penelope, the daughter of Sir Moyses Hill, of Hillsborough, Down, Ireland, and widow of Arthur Wilmot. She was married at Westminster Abbey, London (1665) to the much older, Sir John Denham (1610 – 1669), the famous poet, and land surveyor to Charles II.
According to Sameul Pepys, when James, Duke of York made romantic advances to her, Lady Denham accepted his offer, but only on condition that she was recognized ‘officially’ as his mistress. Lady Castlemaine (Barbara Villiers) and her supporters believed that Lady Denham’s true plan was to capture the attentions of the king instead. She was publicly acknowledged by the duke as his mistress (Sept-Oct, 1666), and he visited her openly at her husband’s house in Scotland Yard, attended by his gentleman-in-waiting, and also paid her marked attentions at court. During this time, the mental health of her husband began to deteriorate.
Lady Denham died childless, aged nineteen (Jan 6, 1667), Lord Conway recording that she believed on her deathbed that she had been poisoned with a cup of chocolate. The common belief was that her husband had arranged for her to be murdered, and such was the anger of the mob that Sir John feared to leave his own house. Lady Denham was interred in the church of St Margaret, at Westminster. In other contemporary satires, notably by Andrew Marvell, Lady Denham’s name is constantly associated with ‘mortal chocolate,’ though he accuses the Duke and Duchess of York of the crime instead of her husband. The scandalous accusations however, seem to have been quite unjustified, for a post-mortem examination revealed absolutely no trace of poison.

Denis, Michaela – (1914 – 2003)
British film producer
Born Michaela Holdsworth in London, she was the daughter of a Yorkshire archaeologist, and a Russian mother. She attended art school in London, and was later employed as a fashion model in New York. Michaela became the second wife (1948) of Armand Denis, the noted photographer and inventor, in Bolivia, South America. With his death (1971) she became briefly (1975) the second wife of Sir William O’Brien Lindsay, chief justice of the Sudan, in Africa, who died three months after their marriage. Madame Denis was understudy to actress Deborah Kerr in the film, King Solomon’s Mines (1950), but made a career for herself with her first husband, producing nature films in Africa for television such as, Filming Wild Animals (1954), On Safari (1957 – 1959) and (1961 – 1965), and, Michaela and Armand Denis (1955 – 1958). With Armand she also made several films set in Australia such as Armand and Michaela Denis Under the Southern Cross, and she wrote several books such as Leopard in My Lap (1957) and Ride on a Rhino (1960). With the death of her second husband, Denis retired to live in Kenya, where she established a reputation for herself as a faith healer. Michaela Denis died in Africa, aged eighty-eight.

Denis de Rusinyol, Lluisa – (1867 – 1946)
Spanish dramatist and writer
Denis de Rusinyol was born in Barcelona, and became the wife of the successful painter and author, Santiago Rusinol. A talented poet and author, Denis de Rusinyol published a collection of poems, Versos per a cancons (Poems for songs), which were set to music, and produced several one-act plays, including the tragedy, Una venjanca com n’hi ha poques (An outstanding revenge (1911), which had been partly influenced by the work of Norwegian author, Henrik Ibsen, and the comic, Trompetes i timbals (Trumpets and kettledrums) (1911), and, Els cacadors furtius (The poachers) (1931). Her romantic, Contes d’amour (Love tales) (1924), were dedicated to her grandchildren, with each story being accompanied by a song written and composed by the author. During her later years Denis de Rusinyol devoted some time to painting, though without significant financial success. Lluisa Denis de Rusinyol died in Barcelona, aged seventy-nine.

Denise – (fl. 1200 – 1215)
Norman litigant
Denise lived during the reign of King John. Her husband Anthony was murdered, and before a judicial court in Launceston, Denise accused one Nicholas Kam of being her husband’s murderer. The jurors and the couple’s neighbours all believed in Kam’s guilt, but the judge decided that the case remained unproveable, as Denise herself had not witnessed the crime. Eventually Kam was forced to undergo a trial by ordeal to prove his innocence, because despite the lack of actual witnesses, his guilt was firmly believed.

Denison, Lady Zinnia Rosemary – (1937 – 1997)
British aristocrat and heiress
Lady Zinnia was born (Nov 25, 1937) the only child and heiress of Hugo William Cecil Denison, the fourth and last Earl of Londesborough and his wife Marigold Rosemary Joyce Lubbock (later the wife of Zygmunt de Lubiez-Bakonowski), the daughter of Edgar Lubbock, the High Sheriff of Lincolnshire. Her father had died seven months before her birth, and Zinnia was his sole heiress, though she did not inherit the londesborough title which had been granted to male heirs only.
Lady Zinnia was married five times firstly (1957) to Peter Crawford Melhuish Comins to whom she bore a son. This marriage ended in divorce (1961) and she remarried to John David Leslie-Melville (1933 – 1984), the grandson of Ronald, thirteenth Earl of Leven and Melville. There were no children and the union quickly ended in divorce. Zinnia remarried thirdly (1964) to Major Hugh Cantlie, an officer of the Scots Guards. This marriage produced a son but also ended in divorce. Lady Zinnia then remarried fourthly and became the third wife (1968) of Major Ralph John Hamilton Pollock (1921 – 1980), a connection of the Pollock family, baronets of Hatton in Middlesex. Pollock formally adopted Zinnia’s son Timothy Comins (born 1958) who then took his stepfather’s surname of Pollock. With Pollock’s death the Dowager Lady Zinnia took a fifth and final husband (1982) in James Hubert Judd, the great-great grandson of John Crichton (1802 – 1885), third Earl of Erne. Her last marriage remained childless and Judd survived her. Lady Zinnia Denison died (July 13, 1997) aged fifty-nine.

Deniuenkhons – (fl. c800 BC)
Egyptian priestess
Deniuenkhons was a chantress to the god Amun-Re, probably at Thebes during the Third Intermediate Period, and was the wife of Ankhkhons, who himself held an important religious office. Her surviving funerary steale, which is now preserved in the British Museum, London, portrays Deniuenkhons raising her arms in adoration to the solar deity Re-Harakhti-Atum.

Denman, Gertrude Mary Pearson, Lady – (1884 – 1954) 
British voluntary organizer
The Hon. (Honourable) Gertrude Pearson was born in London, the only daughter of Weetman Pearson, first Viscount Cowdray, and his wife Annie, the daughter of Sir John Cass, of Bradbury, Yorkshire. She married (1903) Thomas, third Baron Denman (1874 – 1954) to whom she bore two children. Lady Denman served on the executive committee of the Women’s National Liberal Federation (1909), but resigned (1910) so that she could accompany her husband to Australia to take up his appointment as Governor-General (1911 – 1914). Upon their return to England (1916), Lady Denman became chairman of the Agricultural Organization Society, which began the establishment of the Women’s Institutes, of which there were eight thousand, with a membership of nearly a quarter of a million women by the 1950’s. She served as chairman for almost thirty years (1917 – 1946). The Women’s Institute residential centre in Berkshire was renamed Denman College in her honour (1948).
Also active in National Birth Control Association and the Land Settlement association, she was also an organizer of the Women’s Land Army (1939 – 1946), but resigned when these women were denied pension rights, which had been granted to other civil defence and service women. She died in London, three weeks before her husband. Her portrait was painted by Sir William Nicholson (1909), E. Hodgkin (1933), and Anthony Deras (1951). She was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by George V (1933) and GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) by George VI (1950) in recognition of her lifelong work.

Dennie, Abigail Colman – (1715 – 1745)
American colonial poet
Abigail Dennie was the younger sister of poet Jane Turell (1708 – 1735). She adopted the literary pseudonym of ‘Celia’ and wrote verses to her sister, whom she addressed as ‘Delia.’

Dennis, Peggy – (1909 – 1993)
American Communist activist and journalist
Born Peggy Karasick in Brooklyn, New York, she was the daughter of a trades worker, and attended the University of California, in Los Angeles.Dennis became internally involved with the Communist party from 1925, and she served for a number of years as a courier of messages between pary leaders in the USA and those in European countries, such as Poland, Germany, and France. She married (1928) Eugene Dennis, who was later appointed General Secretary of the American Communist Party (1946 – 1959), and was later imprisoned by the US government on a charge of conspiracy. Peggy edited the book he wrote about his experiences, Letters from Prison (1956). During this time Peggy embarked upon her journalistic career, and had her own newspaper column, “Comradely Yours, Peggy Dennis,” as well as editing the women’s page in the Sunday Worker. She contributed articles to, The Progressive and, Socialist Revolution publications and was the foreign editor for, The People’s World (1961 – 1968). Her own radical views were expressed on her, Autobiography of an American Communist: A Personal View of a Political Life, 1925 – 1975 (1977). Peggy Denis died in San Francisco (Sept 25, 1993).

Dennis, Sandy – (1937 – 1992)
American actress
Born Sandra Dale Dennis, in Hastings, Nebraska, she came to New York at the age of eighteen (1955). She made her film debut in a supporting role in Splendor in the Grass (1961), and then appeared opposite Jason Robards, in the role of social worker in, A Thousand Clowns (1963), for which she received a Tony Award, as she did for her role as mistress of Gene Hackman in, Any Wednesday (1964). Famous of her fragile looks, she was best known for her role of Honey, the quiet, young faculty wife in, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1965), opposite Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor, for which she received an Academy Award as best supporting actress (1966). Receiving critical acclaim for her performance as the schoolteacher in Up the Down Staircase (1967), she won the New York Film Critics’ Award and the Moscow Film Festival prize for best actress. Her later career never matched the success of her earlier years. Sandy Dennis died of cancer at Westport, Connecticut (March 2, 1992).

Denny, Arabella Fitzmaurice, Lady – (1708 – 1792)
Irish philanthropist
Lady Arabella Fitzmaurice was the daughter of Thomas Fitzmaurice, first Earl of Kerry, and his wife Anne Petty. She was married to Colonel Arthur Denny (c1701 – 1742), the Irish Member of Parliament for County Kerry. A well educated woman, Lady Denny became famous in Irish social and literary circles for her intelligence and learning. Possessed of a deep interest in social reform, Lady Denny founded the Magdalen Asylum for Fallen Women, and the Foundling Hospital in Dublin, during her long widowhood. Princess Dashkova, the friend of Catharine II of Russia, met Lady Arabella in Dublin (1779) and recorded in her memoirs that parliament had sent Lady Denny a public deputation to thank her for her public services and the useful establishments she had founded, and revealed that she still insisted on superintending the details of their daily operation, despite her encroaching age.

Denny, Margaret Bertha Alice – (1907 – 1999)
British civil servant
Margaret Churchard was born (Sept 30, 1907) and attended secondary school at Dover before going on to study at Bedford College and the University of London. She entered the civil service and appointed as the Principal at the Ministry of Shipping (1940 – 1946), for which she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1946) in recognition of her work during the war. Miss Churchard then served as the assistant secretary to the Governor of Bedford College and was the under secretary to the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation (1957 – 1958). She was married (1957) to the shipbuilding chairman Edward Denny. Mrs Denny then served on the Western Region Hospital Board of Scotland (1960 – 1974). Margaret Denny died (Dec 29, 1999) aged ninety-two.

Dennys, Elisabeth – (1914 – 1999)
British literary figure
Elisabeth Dennys was sister to the novelist, Graham Greene (1904 – 1991), and to Sir Hugh Carleton Greene (1910 – 1987), director of the BBC (British Broadcasting Commission) (1960 – 1969). She was educated at Downe House, and joined the intelligence agency MI6 at Bletchley, just prior to WW II (1938). She served under Captain Cuthbert Bowlby in the Middle East. Elisabeth later married another intelligence agent, Rodney Dennys, to whom she bore three children. Her brother dedicated his work, The Human Factor (1978) to Elisabeth, and her correspondence with her mother was used by Michael Ondaatje as the backdrop for the film, The English Patient. With the retirement of her brother’s secretary (1975), Elisabeth became his amanuensis. Her husband died in1993.

De Noronha, Joana Paula Manso   see    Noronha, Joana Paula Manso de

Densen-Gerber, Judianne – (1934 – 2003)
American lawyer and organization founder
Judianne Densen-Gerber was born in Manhattan, New York, the daughter of the chemical engineer Gustave Gerber and the heiress Beatrice Densen. She studied at the Columbia Law School and the New York University Medical School, and became a promoter and leading advocate for using therapeutic programs to help people free from drug addiction, rather using further drugs to combat the problem, and founded Odyssey House in Manhattan for drug rehabilitation and served as executive director for almost two decades (1966 – 1983).
A flamboyant, eccentric and determined woman with close conncections to high society, she used these and the media to bring attention of the public and the medical authorities to the plight of prostitutes and addicted mothers. She also worked as a psychiatrist and her unorthodox approaches led to clashes with the legal system. Branches of Odyssey House were established in varios other US states such as New Hampshire and Texas, as well as in New South Wales and Victoria in Australia, and in Auckland and Christchurch in New Zealand. Judianne Densen-Gerber died of cancer aged sixty-eight.

Densmore, Frances Theresa – (1867 – 1957)
American ethnologist
Densmore was born (May 21, 1867) and studied music at the Oberlin College, after which she joined the Bureau of American ethnology. She was later employed by the Smithsonian Institute. Frances Densmore was particularly interested in the cultural differences which existed in Native American music. In recognition of her work Densmore was voted the National Association for American Composers and Conductors Award (1941). Her private collection of Native American music recordings numbering over three thousand, were bequeathed to the Library of Congress. Frances Densmore died (June 5, 1957) aged ninety.

Denston, Katherine – (fl. c1440 – c1447)
English literary patron
The religious scholar Osbern Bokenham dedicated some of his lives of the saints to Katherine Denston. This work is now known as the, Legendys of Hooly Wummen.

Dent, Aileen Rose – (1890 – 1979)
Australian painter
Dent was born at Echuca in New South Wales, and studied art at the National Gallery School in Melbourne under Frederick McCubbin and William McInnes (1915 – 1920). Dent painted portraits on commission and produced realistic still-lifes. Her work was exhibited at the Melbourne Society of Women Painters and Sculptors, and the Victorian Artists’ Society. Examples of her work are preserved in the Australian National Gallery and the National Gallery of Victoria.

Denton, Eva Ethel – (1887 – 1968)
Southern American memoirist
Eva Tucker was born in Tunica County, Mississippi (Oct 29, 1887), the daughter of James Madison Tucker. She was educated at the Industrial Institue and College (later the University of Mississippi), and at the Pennsylvania Conservatory of Music. She was married (1913) to Elchue Denton. Mrs Denton resided for over five decades at her husband’s plantation in Tunica County, and left a written account of plantation life in the reminiscences, Each Day a Bonus: Life on a Delta Plantation in Mississippi (1966). Eva Denton died (Feb 6, 1968), aged eighty.

Denuelle de La Plaigne, Eleonore – (1787 – 1868)
French royal mistress
Louise Catherine Eleonore Denuelle de La Plaigne was born (Sept 13, 1787) and was married firstly (1805) to Jean Francois Revel, an army captain from whom she was quickly divorced (1806). Eleonore was then secured to be the mistress of the emperor Napoleon I and became the mother of his illegitimate son, the Comte Leon Charles (b. Dec 13, 1806), whose birth reaffirmed the emperor’s faith that the childlessness of his marriage with the Empress Josephine was not his fault. The couple seperated immediately after the child’s birth, but the emperor provided for Eleonore’s needs and the education of their child which he included in his will.
The emperor arranged for a suitable marriage for Eleonore (1808) with Pierre Philippe Augier, an infantry lieutenant, who was later made a captain. She accompanied him to Spain, where he died (1812). She later remarried for a third time, at Seckenheim in Baden (1814) to Comte Emil de Luxburg, with whom she resided in Germany for two and a half decades. The comtesse returned to Paris with her husband (1840) when he was appointed official amabassador for the court of Baden. Her relationship with her son Leon was strained due to his continued financial difficulties and legal litigation. Madame de Luxburg died in Paris, aged eighty (Jan 30, 1868).

Deotbrica – (c730 – 768)
Carolingian aristocrat
Deotbrica was the daughter of Boso I, the Frankish count of Turin, and was married to Count Lambert of Hornbach (c720 – c783), a relative of St Lieutwinus, Bishop of Treves. The couple left three sons including Guy (Wido) (c760 – 814) who was appointed as Marquis of the Breton Mark and Count Rodoald (Hrodoald) of Hornbach (c762 – c798), who was killed in battle and left issue. Rodoald is possibly to be identified as the ‘Roland’ of the popular legend. Her daughter Willigarta was living in 828.

Deoteria (Deuteria) – (c503 – c548)
Merovingian queen
Deoteria was perhaps of Gallo-Roman antecedents. Already married, and with a daughter, she was residing at Cabrieres, during the absence of her husband, when she became the mistress of Theudebert I, King of Austrasia, a decade her junior. Theudebert married her when he became king (533), but Gregory of Tours records that she later arranged the murder of her own daughter, whom she feared, might replace her in the king’s affections. Theudebert repudiated her (c540) in order to make a dynastic marriage with the Lombard princess Visigarda. She was the mother of his heir, King Theodovald (548 – 555).

Deotila – (c678 – c740)
Merovingian abbess and saint
Deotila was the second daughter of Siegfried, count of Pontivy and his wife Bertha, the daughter of Count Rigobert. She never married and succeeded her mother as abbess of her foundation of Blangy, in Artois (725 – c740). Venerated as a saint her feast (July 14) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

De Pisan, Christine de     see    Pisan, Christine de

De Poitiers, Diane de    see    Poitiers, Diane de

De Pompadour, Marquise    see    Pompadour, Marquise de

Deporter, Susan Johanna – (1840 ? – 1954)
Dutch-South African centenarian
Susan Deporter was a native of Port Elizabeth. She was said to have bee 114 years old at the time of her death (Aug 4, 1954), though official documentary proof of this claim remains lacking. She was listed in the Guiness Book of Records (1980).

Dera – (d. after 1258)
English mediaeval nun
Dera was the head of the community of nuns of the Priory of St Radegonde in Cambridge. She is attested by survving charter evidence as having held the position of prioress in 1248. She was probably the successor of prioress Millicent, who disappers from the record in 1250. Dera’s successor in office was one Agnes de Burgeylun who had succeeded or been elected by 1274.

Deraismes, Maria – (1828 – 1894)
French feminist and journalist
Deraismes was born into an upper class family of financial means. She was originally employed as a theatrical critic and writer, but became interested in politics and the place of women in contemporary society. Deraismes contributed to the popular women’s newspaper, Le droit des femmes from the 1860’s onwards. With Paule Mink and Louise Michel she co-founded the first but short-lived French women’s rights organisation, the Societe pour la Revendication des Droits de la Femme (1866). Deraismes herself went on to found the radical society (1870) which would evolve into the Societe pour l’Amelioration du sort de la femme et la Revendication de ses droits (1881). She was also the co-founder with Leon Richier of the more conservative organization the Ligue francais pour les Droits des Femmes (1870). Her particular feminist viewpoint is given in her, Eve dans l’humanite (1891).

Derbez, Silvia – (1932 – 2002)
Mexican film and television actress
Born Lucille Silvia Derbiz Amezquita (March 8, 1932) in San Luis Potosi, she was the daughter of a French born businessman. She appeared in the classic film, Alla en el Rancho Grande (Out on the Big Ranch (1948), and went on to make fifteen more films, becoming a national celebrity. She competed in the Miss Mexico beauty pageant and achieved second place (1953), and also worked in television, most notably appearing as Nora in the popular soap opera, Senda Prohibida (Prohibited way) (1958). She became a prominent television actress during the 1960’s, appearing in the title role of the popular program, Maria Isabel I. She later returned to make several more films (1969 – 1970), and also appeared in the television movie, El Andariego (The Walker) (1975). During the later part of her career, she appeared with actress Victoria Ruffo in, the television movie, Simplemente Maria (1989), which was very popular with audiences in Venezuela and Puerto-Rico. She was the wife of the publicisit, Eugenio Gonzalez (died 1986), whilst their son was the comedian Eugenio Derbez. Her last three films were, Zapatos Viejos (Old Shoes) (1992), Prisonera de Amor (Prisoner of Love) (1994), and, Lazos de Amor (1995). Silvia Derbez died (April 6, 2002) aged eighty.

Derbhfraich   see   Derfrochea

Derbhiledeh    see    Dervilla

Derby, Alicia Spencer, Countess of – (1555 – 1637)
English literary patron
Lady Alicia Spencer was the youngest daughter of Sir John Spencer, of Althorp, Northants, and his wife, Katherine Kitson. She was sister to Elizabeth Spencer, Lady Hunsdon, and was married firstly (1580) to Ferdinando Stanley (1559 – 1594), fifth Earl of Derby, to whom she bore several sons and three daughters. The countess remarried secondly (1600) to Thomas Egerton, Lord Ellesmere and first Viscount Brackley (1540 – 1617). Lady Derby, who survived her first husband over forty years, was patron of the poet Edmund Spenser, who dedicated his, Tears of the Muses to her (1591). She also patronised John Milton, who wrote the masque Arcadia (1635) for her granddaughters. Lady Derby endowed almshouses which survived at Harefield, Middlesex, into the twentieth century, she having originally purchased the estate from Sir Edmund Anderson (1601), and where she entertained Queen Elizabeth I (1602). She survived her second husband two decades. Lady Derby died aged eighty-one (Jan 23, 1637). She was buried at Harefield, where her monument survives.

Derby, Charlotte de La Tremoille, Countess of – (1599 – 1664)
French-Anglo royalist heroine
Charlotte de La Tremoille was born at Thouars, France, the daughter of Claude de La Tremoille, Duc de Thouars, and his wife Charlotte Brabantina, daughter of William I the Silent, Prince of Orange. She came to England in the train of Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I and married (1626) James Stanley (1606 – 1651), seventh earl of Derby, to whom she bore a large family of nine children. Until 1642, the countess lived almost in retirement with her husband and family at Knowsley and Lathom House.
Her husband joined the king’s forces, but Lancashire quickly succumbed to the Parliamentarian forces, and by May, 1643, Lathom House was the only place still held by the Royalist forces. The countess scorned all proposals to surrender, declaring that she and her children would rather set fire to the castle, and die in the flames, father than surrender. Two messengers managed to break through the enemy lines to reach the forces of Prince Rupert. New mortar used by the Roundhead forces threatened to demolish the castle, but the countess’s garrison managed to capture it. On receiving news of Prince Rupert’s approach, the besiegers withdrew to Bolton. There they were routed by Rupert, who sent the countess twenty-two banners which had waved over the heads of her beseigers. Lathom House eventually was forced to surrender (Dec, 1643) but the countess and her children had by then removed to the safety of the Isle of Man. Lord Derby was later captured and executed by the Roundheads (1651), and the countess remained at Knowsley, where she resided until the Restoration (1660), making occasional visits to London, and petitioned Charles II that her husband’s murderers should be brought to justice. Lady Derby died at Knowsley (March 21, 1664). She was interred in Ormskirk Church. Her letters survive.

Derby, Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of (Alianore) – (c1254 – 1313)
English mediaeval litigant
Eleanor de Bohun was the daughter of Sir Humphrey de Bohun and his first wife, Alianore de Braose. She was married (1269) as his second wife, Robert de Ferrers (1239 – 1279), sixth Earl of Derby. After her husband’s death Lady Derby claimed estates in Stafford, Derby and Lancaster from Prince Edmund, the younger brother of Edward I, who denied her rights to these properties. The matter was finally resolved in 1281 and the countess withdrew her legal suit in exchange for the grant of the manor of Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire for life from Prince Edmund. Her son Sir John de Ferrers (1271 – 1312) never succeeded in regaining his father’s lands or titles but was created the first Baron Ferrers. Lady Derby died (Feb 20, 1313). She was buried in Walden Abbey.

Derby, Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of – (1575 – 1627)
English literary patron and courtier
Lady Elizabeth de Vere was born at Theobalds Park (July 2, 1575), the daughter of the Earl of Oxford, and his wife Anne Cecil, the daughter of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, the chief minister of Elizabeth I. Her marriage to William Stanley (1561 – 1642), sixth Earl of Derby (1594 – 1642) which took place before the court at Greenwich Palace (1594), is thought to be the occasion of the first ever performance of William Shakespeare’s famous play A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Lady Derby died at Richmond, Surrey, aged fifty-one (March 10, 1627). Her children included,

Derby, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of    see   Beaufort, Lady Margaret

Derby, Mary de Bohun, Countess of   see    Bohun, Mary de

Derby, Mary Catherine Sackville-West, Countess of – (1824 – 1900)
British society figure
Lady Mary Sackville-West was born (July 23, 1824) at Bourn, the second daughter of George Sackville-West, fifth Earl De La Warr, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Sackville. Lady Mary Catherine was married firstly (1847) at the famous Knole House in Kent, to James Gascoyne-Cecil (1791 – 1868), second marquess of Salisbury, as his second wife. Lady Salisbury attended the court of Queen Victoria and was a particular friend and supporter of Prime Minister Disraeli. She bore Salisbuty five children,

With the death of her husband she was Dowager Marchioness of Salisbury (1868 – 1870) until she remarried (1870), at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London, to Edward Henry Stanley (1826 – 1893), the fifteenth Earl of Derby. She became Countess of Derby, but took a lower rank at court. She survived her second husband as Dowager Countess of Derby (1893 – 1900).
Lady Derby died (Dec 6, 1900) at Holwood Park, Keston, in Kent after a long illness, aged seventy-six.

Derbyshire, Delia – (1937 – 2001)
British composer
Delia Derbyshire was born in Coventry, and was educated at the Coventry Grammar School and at Girton College, Cambridge, where she studied music and mathematics. She was briefly employed by the United Nations in Geneva, before finally joining the staff of the BBC in London (1960). Her talent attracted the attention of Desmond Briscoe, the managing director of the Radiophonic Workshop in Maida Vale, London. Particularly noted for her analytical approach to synthesise complex sounds from electronic sources, Derbyshire achieved fame for producing the first electronic tune ever used on television, for the score written by Ron Grainer for the popular science fiction series, Dr Who (1963). She later collaborated with poet and dramatist, Barry Bermange, and composed the electronic sound used as the background for his work, The Dreams (1964). Derbyshire later worked with the pioneer composer Peter Zinovieff, through whom she met the singer Paul McCartney, and produced Guy Woolfenden’s electronic score for the production of Macbeth by the Royal Shakespeare Company under the direction of Peter Hall (1967), and also collaborated on the score of Hall’s film, Work is a Four Letter Word (1967). She eventually left the Radiophonic Workshop (1973) and joined Brian Hodgson, founder of electrophon, an electonic music studio in Covent Garden.

Derchairthinn – (c580 – c640)
Irish virgin saint
Derchairthinn was born into a family of royal descent, and was related to St Maedhof. She never married and became a nun, and was particularly venerated in the region of Oughterard in county Kildare. St Derchairthinn was mentioned in the Dictionary of Christian Biography (1877 – 1887) of Sir William Smith and Dr Henry Wace.

Deren, Maya – (1917 – 1961)
Russian-American film producer
Born Eleanora Derenkowsky (April 29, 1917) at Kiev, in the Ukraine, during the Russian revolution, as a small child she was taken with her parents when they fled Russia to settle in New York, in the USA (1922), where they anglicized their family name to Deren. Deren attended Syracuse University, where she became involved with left-wing politics, becoming a regional organiser of the Syracuse Young People’s Socialist League. She was later employed by the noted choreographer, Katherine Dunham, which led to the development of her interest in film making. This increased after her second marriage (1942) to the famous Czech film producer, Alexander Hammid (born 1907), with whom she collaborated on several films such as, Meshes of the Afternoon (1943) and, At the Land (1944). A devoted supporter on behalf of experimental cinema, Deren produced such noted dance films as, A Study in Choroegraphy for Camera (1945), Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946), and, The Very Eye of Night (1958). She wrote the pamphlet, An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form and Film (1946) and established the Creative Film Foundation (1954). Maya Deren died (Oct 13, 1961) aged forty-four.

Derethain, Dorothea – (fl. c1480 – c1500)
German painter
Dorothea became a nun and produced the famous Medlingen Gradual, now preserved in the Munich Staatsbibliothek, in Bavaria.

Derfrochea – (fl. c600 – c700)
Irish saint
Sometimes called Darerca or Derbhfraich, she was a native of Druim Dunbhain. She was married to a member of a princely family, and became the mother of Tighernach, Bishop of Clonmacnoise, in Monoghan. The Acta Sanctorum records her feast (July 6), but other sources provided the alternate date (April 4).

Derham, Enid – (1882 – 1941)
Australian poet
Derham was born in Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, the daughter of a solicitor, and was educated at the Presbyterian Ladies College and the University of Melbourne, with subsequent studies at Oxford University in England. Appointed the senior lecturer in English at the University of Melbourne (1922) she remained in this employ for the next twenty years. She was the author of two poetic volumes, The Mountain Road and Other Verses (1912), and, Empire: A Morality Play for Children (1912). Enid Derham died aged fifty-nine (Nov 13, 1941).

Derickson, Uli – (1944 – 2005)
German-American airline stewardess and heroine
Ulrike Deriskson was born in the Czech Republic (Aug 8, 1944). She later escaped to West Germany with her family and eventually immigrated to the USA, where she became a flight attendant (1967). Derickson was remembered as being the flight attendany on the TWA Flight 847, from Athens to Rome, when it was hijacked by Hezbollah terrorists (June 14, 1985). It was her calm and efficient manner during this crisis which was credited with assisting to save the lives of the one hundred and fifty passengers and crew onboard. Able to speak German, for two and a half days she acted as translator between the crew and the terrorists, and successfully persuaded them to release seventeen children and elderly women in Beirut, and hid the passports of Jewish passengers. Derickson later acted as a consultant on the film which portrayed these events The Taking of Flight 847: The Uli Derickson Story (1988), in which she was played by Lindsay Wagner. She later worked for Delta Airlines. Uli Derickson died of cancer (Feb 18, 2005), aged sixty.

Dering, Anne    see   Locke, Anne

Dering, Mary Harvey, Lady – (1629 – 1704)
English composer and patron
Mary Harvey was born in Croydon, London, the daughter of Daniel Harvey, a prosperous merchant, and niece to the noted physician, William Harvey. She was educated in Hackney, where she was a childhood friend of the noted poet, Katherine Philips, better known as ‘the matchless Orinda.’ Mary was married (c1645) to her cousin, William Hawke, who was apprenticed to her father, but the match was quickly dissolved, and she remarried (1648) to Sir Edward Dering, of Kent, to whom she bore an enormous family of seventeen children. Her husband wrote poems, using the pseudonym ‘the noble Sylvander,’ whilst Lady Mary was referred too as ‘Ardelia.’ Throughout this period, she continued to indulge her own love of music, and received music lessons from the noted composer, Henry Lawes, who dedicated to her his, Second Book of Select Ayres and Dialogues (1655), in which he included three songs written by Lady Dering, which are amongst the first surviving musical compositions penned by an Englishwoman.

D’Erlanger, Maria Carola Blennerhassett, Baronne    see   Galway, Marie Carola Franciska Roselyne Blennerhassett, Lady

Der Ling (Te –Ling) – (1886 – 1944)
Chinese Manchu princess and courtier, diplomatic figure and memoirist
Der Ling was the daughter of an important courtier, the reformer Lord Yu Keng, who served as ambassador to the French Third Republic (1899 – 1903). Raised with a western education and outlook, Der Ling served as first lady-in-waiting (1905 – 1907) to the last Dowager empress, Ci-xi and left extremely interesting memoirs entitled, Two Years in the Forbidden City (1911). Der Ling retired from the Imperial court after her marriage with an American diplomat, Thaddeus White.

Dermout, Maria – (1888 – 1962)
Dutch author
Born Helena Antonia Maria Elisabeth Ingerman, she was married in1907. She resided in Indonesia until it achieved independence (1949). She did not write her first work, Nog pas gisteren (Yesterday) (1951) until aged over sixty. Dermout produced a total of seven volumes, two of which were published posthumously. Her collected works appeared in, Verzameld Werk (1970 – 1974).

Deroin, Jeanne Francoise – (1805 – 1894)
French journalist and feminist
Deroin was born in Paris and received only a basic education. She became a journalist and became involved with the Saint-Simonian movement, and was appointed as editor of the women’s newspaper, La femme libre. Though married (1832) she always refused to adopt her husband’s name as her own. Deroin suffered periods of imprisonment because of her radical political activities and was closely involved with the prominent revolutionary societies (1848). She wrote articles for the newspaper, La Voix des Femmes and founded the journal, L’Opinion des femmes (1849), but her views concerning female equality and participation in political life was rejected by the National Assembly (1848). Later sentenced to exile, Deroin took upresidence in London where she published the, Alamanack des femmes (1854).

De Ros, Eleanor – (c1456 – 1487)
English Plantagenet heiress and peeress
Eleanor De Ros was the daughter and coheiress of the ninth Baron De Ros, and was the eldest sister of the tenth Baron De Ros (died 1508). Eleanor was married (1469) to Sir Robert Manners, of Etal, Northumberland, to whom she bore five children. Lady Eleanor succeeded to the barony of De Ros of Hamlake, Triesbut, and Belvoir, together with their considerable possessions, which passed to her husband, including Belvoir Castle, which had been built by the Norman noble, Robert de Todenei. With Eleanor’s early death, her eldest son succeeded as twelfth Baron De Ros, and also held the feudal baronies of Vaux, Triesbut, and Belvoir. Her children were,

De Ros, Georgiana Angela Maxwell, Baroness – (1933 – 1983)
British peeress (1958 – 1983)
Angela Ross was born (May 2, 1933), the elder daughter of Lieutenant-Commander Peter Ross (1906 – 1940), on the Royal Navy, who was killed on active service during WW II. Her mother was the daughter of Una Mary Dixon, the twenty-sixth Baroness De Ros of Halmlake. She was educated at Wycombe Abbey School in Buckinghamshire and at the Studley Agricultural College in Warwickshire. Her grandmother died in 1956, and two years afterwards, upon the termination of the abeyance of that ancient title (granted by Henry III in 1264) in her favour, Georgiana succeeded as Baroness De Ros. She was married (1954) to Commander John David Maxwell, of the Royal Navy. Lady De Ros died aged forty-nine (April 21, 1983), and her son, Peter Trevor Maxwell (born 1958) succeeded her as twenty-eighth Baron De Ros.

Derphuta – (d. c303 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Derphuta and her sister were arrested as Christians at Amisus in Paphlagonia, Asia Minor, during the persecutions organized by the emperor Maximian Daia. They were brutally executed immediately after another group of seven Christian women, led by a lady called Alexandra. All were revered as saints together (March 20) and are listed in the Roman Martyrology.

Dertford, Katherine – (fl. 1415)
English Lollard heretic
Katherine Dertford was arrested and tried in a Lincolnshire ecclesiastical court because of her heretical religious views concerning the nature of the Eucharist.

Dervilla (Darbile, Derbhiledeh, Derbiled) – (c540 – c600)
Irish recluse and saint
Dervilla was the daughter of Cormac of Erris, in Connaught, a great-grandson of Fiach, ancestor of the chiefs of Ui Fiachrain, in county Mayo. She was also a descendant of the famous Daithi, high-king of Ireland. Dervilla refused to consider marriage and established herself as an anchorite in the remote region of the Mullet peninsular in Erris. She participated in the Synod of Ballysodare (585), which was presided over by St Columcille. Her feast was observed annually (Aug 3).

Derzhinskaia, Ksenia Georgievna – (1889 – 1951)
Russian soprano
Derzhinskaia was born in Kiev, Ukraine, and received her vocal training under Elisaveta Terian-Korganova. She spent over thirty years as a soloist with the Bolshoi Theatre (1915 – 1948) and was appointed a professor at the Moscow Conservatory (1947). Ksenia Derzhinskaia died in Moscow, aged sixty-two (June 9, 1951).

Desailly, Jemima Frances Esme – (c1879 – 1950)
Australian civic leader
Jemima Tangye was born in Camperdown, Victoria, and attended Toorak College. She became the wife (1904) of Julian Gilbert Desailly. Mrs Desailly became a prominent philanthropic figure being elected as president of the Melbourne Ladies’ Benevolent Society and of the Camperdown Benevolent Society. She became actively involved in programs to educate young girls and prepare them for suitable employment. Mrs Desailly served on the councils of the Victoria League and the Camperdown Red Cross and was the first special magistrate to be appointed to rural regions by the children’s court in Victoria. Jemima Desailly died (Sept 25, 1950) aged about seventy-one, in Melbourne.

Desbordes-Valmore, Marceline Felicite Josephe – (1786 – 1859)
French poet
Born at Douai in Flanders, she resided in Brussels during her early years and later performed as a vocalist with the Opera Comique in Paris. Desbordes-Valmore frequented the literary coteries of the day, and was much admired by the poet Paul Verlaine (1844 – 1896). Her poetic collections were concerned mainly with domestic issues, children, and the theme of romantic love. These included Contes et scenes de la vie de famille (Tales and Scenes of Family Life) and, Petits Flamands (Flemish Children). She was the author of a short novella Domenica, which was published with a collection of verse entitled Scenes Intimes (1885). Her letters were published posthumously by C.A. Sainte-Beuve in Paris as Madame Desbordes-Valmore: sa vie et sa Correspondance (1870).

Desborough, Ettie Anne Priscilla Fane, Lady (Ethel Anne Priscilla) – (1867 – 1952)
British salon figure, society hostess, and memoirist
Ettie Fane was born (June 27, 1867), the only surviving child of Julian Fane (1827 – 1870), co-heir to the barony of Butler, and his wife Lady Adine Eliza Anne Clavering-Cowper, daughter to George Augustus, sixth Earl Cowper. She was married (1887) to William Grenfell (1855 – 1945), who was later created Baron Desborough (1905). Famous for her beauty and elegance, Lady Desborough became one of the most famous hostesses of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras. She had been raised by her uncle and aunt at their famous estate at Panshanger, which she later inherited (1913). She entertained at the Grenfell family estate of Taplow Court in Buckinghamshire, well into the 1920’s and 1930’s, and presided over meetings of the famous literary ‘Souls’ society in London. She later served at court as an extra lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary, the wife of George V from 1911, and accompanied the king and queen on their state visit to Paris (1924). With her husband’s death, she retired to Panshanger.
Her two elder sons, Julian (1888 – 1915) and William (Billie) Grenfell (1890 – 1915), were killed in action during WW I, whilst the third, Ivo Grenfell (1898 – 1926), predeceased his father also, being killed in a car crash, and the Desborough title became extinct. She left two daughters, Monica, who became the wife of Sir John Maitland Salmond, and Imogen (1905 – 1969), who married Sir Henry, sixth Viscount Gage (1895 – 1982). Lady Desborough was the author of two books of reminiscences, Pages from a Family Journal, 1888 – 1915 (1916), and, Flotsam and Jetsam (1949), both privately printed. Ettie survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Desborough (1945 – 1952). Lady Desborough died aged seventy-five (May 28, 1952).

Descard, Maria – (1847 – 1927)
French novelist
Maria was born in Brest, the daughter of a sea captain. She herself also married a seafarer and travelled extensively. Madame Descard produced several novels such as Mlle de Kervallez (1877) which she published using the pseudonym ‘Maryan.’ Other works included En Poitou (In Poitiers) (1878), Les Chemins de la vie (The Paths of Life) (1882) and Annie (1890) which gained the title of laureate by the Academie Francaise.

De Sevigne, Marquise    see    Sevigne, Marquise de

Des Geneys, Beatrice Christine Helene – (1851 – 1888)
French noblewoman
Comtesse Beatrice Des Geneys was born (Jan 14, 1851) at Nice, the second daughter of George, Comte and Baron Des Geneys (1828 – 1864) and his wife Emily Eleanor Baillie-Hamilton, the daughter of Charles John Baillie-Hamilton, a British Member of Parliament. Beatrice was the great-granddaughter of the British peer Montagu Bertie (1740 – 1799), fourth Earl of Abingdon, through whom she was a descendant of Anne Plantagenet, Duchess of Exeter, sister to the Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III, through whom she was descended from King Edward III (1327 – 1377) through his second son Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence. Beatrice was also a descendant of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties of France. She was married (1885) in Paris to Antoine De La Barre Duparcq but their marriage remained childless. Comtesse Beatrice died (Dec 7, 1888) aged thirty-seven, at Passy, near Paris.

Deshayes, Therese    see   La Popeliniere, Therese

Deshoulieres, Antoinette – (1637 – 1694)
French poet and author
Born Antoinette Du Ligier de la Garde into a wealthy family in Paris, she received an excellent linguistic education, becoming fluent in Latin and several European languages, her tutor being the philosopher Pierre Gassendi. Her husband, whom she married at fourteen (1651), was a supporter of the cause of La Grande Conde, and accompanied him to reside in exile in the Spanish Netherlands, and was later a prominent figure at the Imperial court in Vienna. Popularly referred to as ‘the Tenth Muse’or ‘The French Calliope’ her verses included the famous Reflections. Her correspondence between herself, her daughter and the priest Esprit Flechier was published during her lifetime (1671).

Desiderata    see    Gepurga

Desideria Eugenia – (1777 – 1860)
Queen consort of Sweden (1818 – 1844)
Born Bernhardine Eugenie Desiree at St Ferreol, Marseilles, France (Nov 8, 1777), she was the younger daughter of the wealthy merchant, Francois Clary (1725 – 1794), and his wife Francoise Rose Somis (1737 – 1815). Her elder sister was Julie Clary, who became the wife of Joseph Bonaparte, later created king of Naples and Spain. Desiree was engaged for two years (1794 – 1796) to the Corsican general, Napoleon Bonaparte. However, due the concern felt by her parents over Bonaparte’s future prospects and finances, the engagement was ended. She was married instead (1798) at Sceaux, near Paris to one of Bonaparte’s adherents, Marshal Jean Baptise Bernadotte (1763 – 1844).
Her husband was adopted as the heir to the Swedish throne (1810), and later, after his own military exploits, he gained the Norwegian throne as well (1814). With the death of King Charles XIII (1818), Bernadotte succeeded to the Swedish throne as King Charles XIV, and Desiree’s name was translated by her subjects as Desideria. The queen never accustomed herself to the Scandinavian climate and before 1823 she resided apart from her family in Paris, where she found life and society more congenial to her tastes, and indulged in a romantic liasion with Armand, Duc de Richelieu. This led to criticism from Stockholm society, who regarded the queen as neglecting and negating her official duties at home. During her abscences her place was sometimes taken by the queen mother, Charlotte of Oldenburg, widow of Charles XIII. They were the parents of an only child and heir, King Oskar I (1799 – 1859), who succeeded his father (1844). He married to Josephine of Leuchtenburg, a granddaughter of the Empress Josephine, Napoleon I’s first wife, and left issue. Desideria was Queen Dowager for sixteen years (1844 – 1860).
Queen Desideria died in Stockholm, aged eighty-three (Dec 17, 1860). She was portrayed on the screen by actress Jean Simmons in the American film Desiree (1954).

Desidiena Cincia – (fl. c270 – c300 AD)
Roman patrician
Desidiena Cincia was the wife of Appius Alexander, the Imperial procurator and ducenarion. Husband and wife were attested by a surviving inscription at Ephesus. Desidiena was the mother of Appia Alexandria, the wife of Pompeius Appius Faustinus the urban prefect (300 AD). She was probably the grandmother of Pompeia Appia Cincia Agathoclia who was attested by inscription at Thuggiensis with Appia Alexandria.

Deslandes, Madeleine Vivier – (1866 – 1929)
French society hostess
Born at Montlucon (April 16, 1866), she was married briefly (1901 – 1902) to Prince Robert de Broglie (1880 – 1966), fifteen years her junior, as his first wife, but the union ended in divorce. Known for own glittering salon in Paris, the baroness entertained the novelist Marcel Proust and others in her home, and she is mentioned in his correspondence. Madeleine Deslandes died in Paris, aged sixty-two (March 2, 1929).

Deslys, Gaby – (1884 – 1920)
French actress and music hall performer
Deslys was born in Marseilles, and made her debut on the Paris stage (1902). Possessed of blonde hair and an ample figure, she later made her debut in London in The New Aladdin (1906) at the Gaiety Theatre and appeared in the title role in Les Caprices de Suzette (1910) at the Alhambra Theatre. Deslys also appeared at the Palace and Wintergarden Theatres in London where she enjoyed popular success. She later worked in New York where she also enjoyed success in Stop, Look and Listen (1915) by Irving Berlin. Deslys also appeared at the Folies Bergere in Paris, always remaining a firm favourite with French audiences. She was credited with introducing American rag-time music to the Parisians.

Desmaisieres, Maria Micaela – (1809 – 1865)
Spanish religious founder
Desmaisieres was born into a patrician family in Madrid, and was educated by the Ursuline nuns prior to her society marriage with the Viconde de Sorbalan. Madame de Sorbalan founded the Institute of Handmaids, Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity (1848), which order devoted itself to the care of fallen women, and received papal recognition by Pope Gregory XVI (1859). She died at Valencia during a cholera epidemic, aged fifty-five (Aug 24, 1865), whilst tending the sick. Madame de Sorbalan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV (1934).

Desmares, Charlotte – (1682 – 1753)
French actress
Born Christine Charlotte Antoinette in Copenhagen, in Denmark, she was the daughter of actor Nicolas Desmares (c1650 – 1714), and his wife, fellow actress, Anne d’Ennebault. She was sister to actress Catherine Dangeville, and was niece to the famous actress, Marie Champmesle. Her sponsors at her christening were King Christian V and his wife Charlotte Amalia of Hesse. Charlotte was trained for the stage and made a name for herself as a fine tragedy actress and excelled in soubrette performances. She made her stage debut at the Comedie Francaise (1699), performing the role of Pylade in La Grange Chancel’s opera Oreste et Pylade. She also appeared in light comedies produced by Regnard and Detouches.
Desmares, sometimes nicknamed ‘Lolotte,’ also became the mistress of the French Regent, Philippe II d’Orleans (1715 – 1723), and bore him an illegitimate daughter Philippa Angelique Desmares known as Madamoiselle de Froissy, who was acknowledged by her father. Mlle de Froissy later became the wife of Henri Francois, Comte de Segur (1689 – 1751). Charlotte eventually retired from the stage (1721), and spent her later years as the wife of the Swiss banker, Antoine Hogguer. Charlotte Desmares died at St Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, three decades later, aged seventy-one (Sept 12, 1753).

Desmond, Anna Maria – (1839 – 1921) 
Irish-Australian Catholic nun
Anna Desmond was born in Bantry, County Cork, the daughter of Patrick Desmond and his wife Esther Jagoe. She entered the convent of the Sisters of Mercy at Cappoquin, and was veiled as Sister Benigna. Benigna was sent to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (1872) and opened a boarding school for country girls in Townsville. She did much to promote the education of girls and establish adequate schooling facilities for them in the Townsville area.

Desmond, Astra – (1893 – 1973)
British contralto vocalist
Born Gwendolyn Mary Thomson (April 10, 1893), in Torquay, Devon, she was educated at Notting Hill High School and at Westfield College in London. She received vocal training under Blanche Marchesi and later, in Berlin, Prussia. She adopted the stage name of ‘Astra Desmond,’ and was especially associated with the popular works of Sir Edward Elgar. She was married (1920) to Sir Thomas Neame, to whom she bore three sons.
Originally an opera vocalist, Desmond had performed with the Carl Rosa Company, and performed the roles of Carmen and Delilah at Sadler’s Wells Theatre and Fricka and Ortrud and Covent Garden in London. Desmond performed the first radio broadcast of Stravinsky’s Oedipus Rex (1928), and performed at Sadler’s Wells and at Covent Garden in London. Desmond taught singing at the Royal Academy (1947 – 1963), and also served as president of the Incorporated Society of Musicians (1957 – 1960). She was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1949) in recognition of her contribution to music. Astra Desmond died (Aug 16, 1973), aged eighty.

Desmond, Catherine Fitzgerald, Countess – (c1500 – 1604)
Irish centenarian
Catherine Fitzgerald was the daughter of John Fitzgerald of Dromana, Lord of the Decies, and his wife Ellen, daughter of John FitzGibbon, ‘the White Knight.’ Catherine became the second wife (c1515 – c1520) of Thomas Fitzgerald, eleventh Earl of Desmond (1454 – 1534) to whom she bore an only daughter, Lady Katherine Fitzgerald (c1520 – after 1578), wife of Philip Barry Oge. The countess survived her husband almost seventy years, dying at the age of about 104 years. The popular rhyme sung by Tom Moore in, Fudge Letters, celebrates her as the ‘Old Countess of Desmond,’ and states that she fell out of a cherry tree, giving her the impossible age of 140 years, which would place her birth in the early years of the reign of Edward IV. This belief was encouraged by none other than Sir Walter Raleigh himself in his History of the World (1614).

Desmond, Eleanor Butler, Countess of – (1546 – 1636)
Irish peeress
Eleanor Butler was the daughter of Edmund Butler (c1515 – 1567), first baron Dunboyne and his wife Cecily MacCarthy. Her stepfather was Richard de Burgh (died 1582), third Earl of Clanricarde. Eleanor became the second wife (1566) of Gerald Fitzjames (1533 – 1583), the fourteenth Earl of Desmond, and was the mother of his son James Fitzjames (1571 – 1601), the fifteenth Earl of Desmond. The countess joined her husband in England (1570) and remained there with him untl they returned together to Ireland (1573). Lady Desmond was later given permission to have interviews with the Irish government and endeavoured to make terms for her husband who had been involved in a rebellion against Elizabeth I. According to the official account the countess, ‘wanted no imprudency to defend her husband, but in the end confessed her troubles following away.’ Lord Desmond was executed and Eleanor survived him for over five decades as the Dowager Countess of Desmond (1583 – 1636).
Queen Elizabeth granted the countess a pension (1586) but by 1589 she and her children were described as being ‘in want of meat, drink and clothes.’ A decade later she remarried a second husband in Sir Donogh O’Connor of Sligo (died 1602). Her later years were spent in financial need and the Lords of the Council wrote to Lord Chichester (1613) that, ‘the countess of Desmond … is grown aged and has not long to live’ and requested him ‘to give her such favour as he may because she was a lady of her years and quality.’ Lady Desmond died aged ninety, and was interred within the Abbey of St Dominick in Sligo with her second husband.

Desni, Tamara – (1911 – 2008)
German-Anglo film actress
Tamara Brodsky was born (Oct 22, 1911) in Berlin, Prussia, the daughter of the Ukrainian actress Xenia Desni and a German father. She had already been married and divorced when she made her first stage appearances in the musicals White Horse Inn (1931) and Casanova. A dark haired beauty Desni soon worked in films and her credits included Falling for You (1933), Forbidden Territory (1934), Dark World (1935), Love in Exile (1936), Fire Over England (1937) starring Flora Robson as Queen Elizabeth I, in which she appeared as the Spanish countess Elena, the alternate love interest of Laurence Olivier, His Brother’s Keeper (1940), The Hills of Donegal (1947) and Dick Baron at Bay (1950) which was her last film. Desni married a second time in her later forties and then moves to France, where she raised two daughters. Tamara Desni died (Feb 7, 2008) aged ninety-four, at Valence d’Agen.

Desni, Xenia – (1894 – 1954)
Ukrainian silent film star
Xenia Desni was born (Jan 19, 1894) in Kiev, and was trained for the stage. From an early age she resided in Berlin, Prussia, and where her daughter the actress Tamar Desni was born (1911). Xenia began appearing in German silent films such as Weib und Palette (1921), the title role in Die Prinzessin Suwarin (1923), Wilhelm Tell (1923), Lady Teodora in Decameron Nights (1924), Ein Walzertraum (A Waltz Dream) (1925), as Frau Claire in Madame wagt einen Seitensprung (1927), La Danseuse Orchidee (1928) (The Orchid Dancer) and as the historical figure Anna Plochl, Countess von Meran in the film Erzherzog Johann (Archduke John) (1929). Her career declined with advent of sound. Xenia Desni died in France aged sixty.

Despard, Charlotte – (1844 – 1939)
British feminist and social reformer
Despard was born at Ripple Vale in Kent (June 15, 1844), the daughter of the Irish captain, John French, and younger sister to the noted military figure, John French, first Earl of Ypres (1852 – 1925), who served as viceroy of Ireland (1918 – 1921). Due to illness within the family, Charlotte was raised by relatives and sufferred an unhappy childhood. Her marriage (1870) with Colonel Maximilien Despard remained childless. With her husband’s death (1890) she established facilities at Nine Elms in Vauxhall, the poor quarter of London, to provide meals and free medical clinics for young mothers.
Known for her strident advocacy for female suffrage, and her criticism of Poor Law abuses, Despard joined the Independent Labour Party (1902), and she later founded the Women’s Freedom League (1907), adopting a policy of non-violent resistance as advocated by Mahatma Gandhi in India. With the end of the war in 1918, Despard became increasingly associated with the cause of Irish nationhood, and she settled in Dublin (1930) where she became a friend of Maud Gonne, and a supporter of Sinn Fein. Her visit abroad to Russia (1930) was condemened at home, as was her establishment there of a Worker’s College. She became bankrupt during old age. Charlotte Despard died aged ninety-five (Nov 10, 1939), in Belfast.

Despres, Francoise – (1746 – after 1817)
French memoirist
Francoise Despres was born into a poor rural family and her brothers were left orphans early in her childhood, and were raised togther by a local priest. Francoise never married, and when aged almost thirty, she entered the famous school at Saint-Cyr, established by Madame de Maintenon. At Saint-Cyr, Francoise worked as a nurse attending the sick in the infirmary. With the suppression and closure of Saint-Cyr by the Revolutionary government, Despres joined the royalist forces in the Vendee, where she was variously employed as a courier, and even occasionally, as a military leader. She survived these events and lived to the see the Restoration of the Bourbons (1814 – 1815), leaving an account of her adventures entitled, Details historiques sur les services de Francoise Despres, employee dans les armees royales de la Vendee depuis 1793 jusqu-en 1815, ecrits par elle-meme (1817), which were published in Paris.

Desroy, Annie – (1893 – 1948)
Haitian novelist, dramatist, and educator
Also known by her married name of Madame Bourand, she was born Anne Marie Lerebours (May 4, 1893) at Port-au-Prince. She was married to Etienne Bourand, and was a teacher at the Centre d’Etudes Universitaires. Desroy was a militant supporter of the movement for female suffrage, and joined the Ligue Feminine d’Action Sociale. She was the author of, La cendre du passe (1931) and, Le Joug (1934). Annie Desroy died at Port-au-Prince, aged fifty-five (Oct 2, 1948).

Dessoff, Margarethe – (1874 – 1944)
German choir conductor
Margarethe Dessoff took her choir to perform in New York, USA, where they achieved much popular public acclaim (1912). Dessoff later conducted the Adesdi Choir in New York (1925 – 1935) which comprised of fifty women who performed specially composed music.

De Stael, Madame    see    Stael, Anne Louise Germaine de

Destasia – (fl. c560)
Gallo-Roman patrician
Destasia was the wife of the nobleman Vulfarius who was perhaps a native of Alise-Sainte-Reine at Lyons in Burgundy. The poet Venanantius Fortunatus referred to her as coniunx inlustris viri Vulfarius Destasia nominee in his Vita Sancti Germani and recorded that she was miraculously cured by Bishop Germanus, and that she then made an annual payment to the church out of gratitude.

D’Este, Beatrice     see     Este, Beatrice d’

D’Este, Isabella      see     Este, Isabella d’

Desticia Plotina – (fl. c160 – c180 AD)
Roman patrician
Desticia Plotina was the wife of Publius Cominius Clemens the Imperial procurator of Dacia Apulensis and Lusitania during the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Husband and wife were attested by a surviving inscription from Apulensis which styles her clarissima femina. Desticia was probably the daughter of T. Desticius Iuba who was honoured by an inscription at Concordiensis, and was related to T. Desticius Severus, the Imperial procurator of Dacia, Pontus, Raetia and Belgica. She was most probably identical with Desticia Sallustia Plotina who was attested as the daughter of Desticius Iuba and referred to prior to her marriage as clarissima puella.

Destinn, Emmy – (1878 – 1930) 
Bohemian soprano
Born Emmy Kittlova in Prague, she received some violin training before she was given vocal training from Madame Loewe-Destinn, and chose her surname for her own stage name. Her first public performance was at the age of thirteen when she sang at Bayreuth (1891). She made her operatic debut in the role of Santuzza at the Kroll Opera House in Berlin (1898). Possessing a voice of rare purity, Emmy was engaged to perform with the Berlin Royal Opera until 1908, and specialized in Wagnerian roles.
Richard Wagner himself chose her to perform the role of Salome at his premieres of this piece in Berlin and Paris, because of her extraordinary ability to cope with extremely difficult vocal roles. Once established, Emmy moved comfortably between the Berlin Royal Opera, the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, where she made her debut performing Aida (1908), and Covent Garden in London, where she made her original debut (1904) as Donna Anna. She created the role of Minnie in Puccini’s Fanciulla del West (The Girl of the Golden West) (1910). During World War I, Emmy was kept interned on her estate of Budweis, in Bohemia, on the grounds that her sympathies were suspect, but with the end of hostilities she again toured the United States (1919), and performed for one more season at the Metropolitan in the role of, Aida. She retired from the stage (1926) but continued to give concerts. Emmy Destinn died at Budweis (Jan 28, 1930).

De Suarez, Ines     see     Suarez, Ines de

Desvergiers, Aglae – (1777 – 1830)
French actress and comedienne
Famous during the reign of Emperor Napoleon I, as the leading star of the Comedie Francaise, she was popularly known as Madamoiselle Aglae, she left reminiscences entitled Memoires de Madamoiselle Aglae, comedienne courtisane et femme de bien, 1777 – 1830.Precedes d’une introd. Et d’une notice sur le chavalier Palasne de Champeaux (1924) which was printed in Paris almost one hundred years after her death.

De Tencin, Marquise      see    Tencin, Marquise de

Deterding, Lydia Pavlovna Donskaia, Lady – (1895 – 1980)
Russian benefactor and patron
Princess Lydia Donskaia was the daughter of Prince Pavel Donsky, and emigrated after the Revolution (1917). She married firstly to the Georgian prince Bagratuni, and secondly to the oil millionaire, Sir Henry Deterding. Residing with her second husband in England and France, the princess devoted herself to proved funds for the restoration of the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, and the Museum of the Legio d’Honneur, amongst other famous public buildings. As well as this, Lady Deterding also provided much needed financial aid to the Russian émigré community, which resulted in the restoration of the Russian cathedral in Paris, and the construction and maintenance of a Russian high school in Paris. Lady Deterding died in Paris, aged eighty-four (June 30, 1980).

Detourbay, Jeanne de     see     Loynes, Comtesse de

Detzliffen, Anna Sophia von – (fl. c1750 – 1761)
German soldier
Anna Detzliffen disguised herself as a man and joined Frederick the Great’s regiment during the Seven Years’ War. Though wounded several times, both in duels as well as activer service, she fought heroically, and even escaped from the Austrians to rejoin her Prussian regiment. She fought at Kundersdorf (1759), at Strehelen and Torgau, and with the volunteer regiment of Colonel Colignon in 1761.

Deutsch, Babette – (1895 – 1982) 
Jewish-American poet, translator and editor
Deutsch was born in New York (Sept 22, 1895), and graduated from Barnard College (1917). She was married (1921) to the translator and poet Avrahm Yarmolinsky (1890 – 1975). Babette published ten books of poetry including, Banners (1919), and, Collected Poems, 1919 – 1962 (1962). With her husband she produced, Modern Russian Poetry (1921), and, Two Centuries of Russian Verse (1966). She also wrote biographies for children, the best known of these being, Walt Whitman: Builder for America (1941), for which she won the Julia Ellsworth Ford foundation Award for children’s literature. In addition to five books of poetic criticism, Deutsch’s own, Poetry in Our Time (1952), and, Poetry Handbook (1957), were critically acclaimed in academic and teaching circles. In 1958 she was elected to the National Academy of Arts and Letters. Babette Deutsch died in Manhattan aged eighty-seven (Nov 13, 1982).

Deutsch, Helene – (1907 – 1992)
American writer and screenwriter
Helene Deutsch was born in Manhattan, New York, and attended Barnard College. After this and a stint with a theatrical troupe, she took up freelance writing, and published stories in Ladies’Home Journal, Redbook, and the Saturday Evening Post, amongst other magazines and periodicals. From 1946 she resided in Hollywood, California, where she established herself as a successful screenwriter when she co-wrote the spectacular hit National Velvet (1944), which starred Elizabeth Taylor, and for films such as, Lili (1953), winner of the Cannes Film Festival award and of a Golden Globe, The Seventh Cross (1945), with Spencer Tracy, Kim (1950), I’ll Cry Tomorrow (1956), and, The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964), which received six Oscar nominations. She wrote the script for the film version of the steamy novel by Jacqueline Susann, Valley of the Dolls (1967). It was a box-office success, but was panned by the critics, and Deutsch was so greatly embarassed by this reaction that she accused Susann of altering the script. After this, Deutsch returned to New York. Her book concerning her early acting career, in and after college, The Provincetown (1931), was republished fifty years later (1972). Helene Deutsch died in Manhattan (March 15, 1992), aged eighty-five.

Deux-Ponts, Adelaide Francoise Leontine de Bethune, Marquise de – (1761 – 1823)
French-German aristocrat
Adelaide de Bethune was born (March 4, 1761), the daughter of Joachim Casimir Leon de Bethune (1724 – 1769), Comte de Bethune-Pologne and his wife Antoinette Marie Louise de Crozat de Thiers, the daughter of Louis Antoine de Crozat, Baron de Thiers. Adelaide was niece to the Duchesse de Choiseul and attended her famous salon prior to her marriage (1783) with the German prince Christian von Zweibrucken, Marquis de Deux-Ponts (1752 – 1817), the eldest son of Duke Christian IV of Zweibrucken by his morganatic wife Maria Johanna camasse, Countess von Forbach, to whom she bore three daughters. Adelaide survived him as Dowager Marquise de Deux-Ponts (1817 – 1823). Madame de Deux-Ponts died (April 30, 1823), aged sixty-two. She left three daughters,

De Valera, Sinead – (1879 – 1975)
Irish First Lady and children’s author
Born Sinead Ni Fhlannagan at Balbriggan, near Dublin, she worked as a teacher in Dublin, and it was at this time that she began her long association with the Gaelic League. It was whilst she was teaching at the Leinster College that she met her future husband, Eamon De Valera (1882 – 1975), whom she later married (1910). Sinead did not have a political or public profile, and whilst Eamon sufferred imprisonment for involvement in the 1916 rising, and worked for the Republican cause in the USA, she devoted her energies to the upbringing of their children and domestic matters.  After her own children had grown up, De Valera began writing plays for children, such as, Buaidhirt agus Brod (1934), but was best remembered for her versions of Irish folk and fairy tales, which she wrote in English, such as, Fairy Tales of Ireland (1967), and, More Irish Fairy Tales (1979), which was published posthumously. She was First Lady of Ireland (1959 – 1973) when her husband served as president. Sinead De Valera died in Dublin (Jan 7, 1975), aged ninety-five.

Devalet, Germaine – (1898 – 1945)
Belgian Resistance figure and war heroine
Germaine Devalet provided places of safety for those being hunted by the Nazis. She was finally caught and arrested (1943) and placed in the notorious concentration camp at Ravensbruck, where she died before the end of the war.

De Valois, Dame Ninette de – (1898 – 2001) 
Irish ballerina and choreographer
Born Edris Stannus at Baltiboys, Blessington, Wicklow (June 6, 1898), she studied dance with Enrico Cechetti and Edouard Espinosa, and performed variously in opera, revue, and pantomime, before joining the Ballets Ruses of Sergei Diaghilev as a soloist (1923). Later a guest artist for Diaghilev, de Valois soon founded her own dancing school, the Academy of Choreographic Art in London (1926). She produced dances for Lennox Robinson at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin, and for Terence Gray at the Festival Theatre in Cambridge.
The success of her ballet Job for the Camargo Society (1931) and her association with Lilian Baylis, director of the Old Vic Theatre led to the founding of the Vic-Wells Ballet Company, which later became the Royal Ballet (1956), when it received its royal charter, and the Sadler’s Wells Theatre Ballet (1931), which evolved into the Birmingham Royal Ballet. De Valois also worked overseas and established the Turkish National School of Ballet (1947).
De Valois wrote Invitation to the Ballet (1937) and the autobiographical Come Dance with Me (1957), and choreographed numerous ballets including Checkmate (1937) and Don Quixote (1950), The Rake’s Progress (1935) was inspired by the engravings by William Hogarth and The Prospect Before Us (1940) was inspired by the work of the same name by Thomas Rowlandson. De Valois also wrote a book on dance Step by Step (1997) and a volume of poetry, The Cycle (1985).  Created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1951) by King George VI in recognition for her vital work in establishing and nurturing the British classical ballet tradition over a period of seven decades, Dame Ninette retired as director of the Royal Ballet in 1963, though she continued to head the school until 1970. Dame Ninette De Valois died (March 8, 2001) aged one hundred and two, at Barnes in London. .

Devaney, Margaret – (1892 – 1974)
Irish disaster survivor
Devaney was born at Kilmacowen, in County Sligo. She boarded the ill-fated cruise ship, the Titanic in Queenstown, with two female friends, all travelling to join relatives in New York. On the night of the fatal iceberg collision (April 14, 1912), Devaney was resuced in a collapsible boat, providing her own pocket knife to cut through entangled cables. She was later married (1919) to John Joseph O’Neill, and resided in Jersey City, New Jersey, where she raised six children. In later years she frequently gave interviews concerning her experiences during the famous sinking, and attended the premiere of the film, A Night to Remember (1956). Margaret Devanney died at Clifton, New Jersey, aged eighty-two (June 12, 1974).

Devanney, Jean – (1894 – 1962)
New Zealand novelist and political activist
Born Jane Crook in Ferntown, South Island (Jan 7, 1894), she published four novels including The Butcher Shop (1926), which was banned in Australia, New Zealand and in Germany, Lenore Divine (1926), and a collection of short stories before coming to reside in Australia (1929). Devanney held radical social beleifs and became a member of the Communist Party. However, her disruptive influence caused her to be finally expelled. She was later re-admitted (1944), but eventually resigned (1950). She was best known for her novel, Sugar Heaven (1936), which recorded the industrial action which took place in the canefields of Queensland during the Depression (1935). Jean Devanney died in Townsville, aged sixty-eight (March 8, 1962).

Devas, Nicolette – (1912 – 1987)
Irish novelist and memoirist
Born Nicolette McNamara in County Clare, into a landowning family, her parents separated, and she was raised with the family of the painter, Augustus John (1878 – 1961) in England. Her sister Caitlin became the wife of the Welsh Dylan Thomas (1914 – 1953). Nicolette was married to two noted painters, firstly (1931) to Anthony Devas, and secondly (1965) to Rupert Shepard. She herself studied art at the Slade School in London, and produced two successful novels, Bonfire (1958), and Pegeen Cry-baby (1986), but was best remembered for the two volumes of memoirs which dealt with her relationships with her father, Frank McNamara, and that with Augustus John in, Two Flamboyant Fathers (1966), and, Susannah’s Nightingales (1978).

Devi – (fl. c250 BC)
Indian queen consort
Devi was the daughter of a merchant from Bedisa. She was noticed by her future husband the famous Emperor Asoka (c300 – 232 BC) when stopped at Bedisa en route to become the viceroy of southern India. Queen Devi bore her husband two children, a son Mahinda and a daughter Sanghmitta. Her children later went to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in order to spread the Buddhist religion.

Devi, Basanti – (1880 – 1974)
Indian patron of the arts and social reformer
Basanti Devi was born (March 23, 1880) in Calcutta where she was educated, and became the wife (1897) of Chittarajan Das. She assisted her husband with his social welfare work, and when he shifted to ative participation in politics she joined him and played a significant role in the Non-Cooperation movement against the British. Devi was arrested but was released by order of Lord Reading, and returned to her former activities. Basanti survived her husband by five decades and remained a prominent figure at the social welfare centres that he had established. Basanti Devi died (May 7, 1974) aged ninety-four.

Devi, Gayatri – (1907 – 1995)
Indian-American religious leader
Gayatri Devi was born in Bengal, one of the many children of a civil lawyer. Forced to marry by her parents, when she was widowed (1926) she was not forced to remarry, and was permitted to travel to the USA with her uncle, Swami Paramananda. Devi attended the religious center founded by her uncle in Cohasset, Massachusetts (1909), which used the teachings of Swami Vivekananda, who first introduced the Hindu religion to America, as its spritual platform. Ordained there as a teacher, Devi became the first Indian woman to teach Vedanta in the USA, a philosophy that accepts and honours all other religions. With the death of her uncle (1940), Devi succeeded as leader of the order, and later succeeded as leader of a second community which had been established at La Crescenta, in California. The mostly female order was popularly known as Ramakrishna Brahma-Vadin, and was disavowed by the all-male parent order in India. It supported two other religious centres (ashrams) which provided assistance for underprivileged women in Calcutta. Gayatri Devi died in Los Angeles, California (Sept 8, 1995).

Devi, Indra – (1899 – 2002)
Latvian film actress and yoga instructor
Born Eugenie Peterson (May 12, 1899) in Riga, Livonia, she was the daughter of a Swedish bank manager, and a Russian aristocrat. Eugenie attended acting school in Russia, and escaped to Berlin in Prussia with her mother after the Communist takeover (1917). She trained as a dancer and actress in Berlin until 1927, when she became fascinated by the works of the Indian poet and philosopher, Rabindrath Tagore, and travelled to India. There she adopted the Indian stage name of ‘Indra Devi,’ and appeared on several Indian films. She was a disciple of Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, and became famous as a teacher of yoga. She was elected as the president of the International Yoga Federation and of the Latin American Union of Yoga (1987). Indra Devi died (April 25, 2002) aged 102, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Devi, Phoolan – (1963 – 2001)
Indian politician and reformer
Phoolan Devi was born to a low caste Hindu family in Gorha Ka Purwa, in Uttar Pradesh. Married off at eleven and treated brutally, Devi eventually left her husband and spent this part of her life on the run with a gang of bandits (dacoits) in central India. She became a figure of folk-lore, inspiring numerous books and films, most notably, the movie Bandit Queen (1994), produced by director and actor, Shekhar Kapur. Devi’s life on the run had been the result of being pack-raped by over twenty high caste Hindus, whom she gunned down in retribution for their crime at Behmai (1981). She eventually surrendered to police (1983) and was imprisoned, but was eventually released without having been tried (1994) and converted to Buddhism. Devi decided to enter politics and successfully contested the low caste Mirzapur constituency in the 1996 national elections, and represented that region in the parliament for five years. Devi campaigned to abolish child labour in factories, the region being famous for the production of carpets, and the British Labour MP, Mildred Gordon, nominated her for the Nobel Peace Prize (1997). Phoolan Devi was assasinated in New Delhi at the age of thirty-seven (July 25, 2001) as part of an ongoing feud.

Devi, Ragini – (1894 – 1982)
American dancer
Born Esther Sherman in Petoskey, Michigan (Aug 18, 1894), she became an expert on styles of Indian classical dance, and adopted an Indian name. Devi has been largely credited with the revival of classical Indian dance within its native country, and during the decade of the 1930’s she was a solo performer there herself. She studied the ancient Kathakali dances and dramas at Kerala, and then formed a dance troupe with the noted Indian dancer, Gopindath, with whom she performed at various Indian universities. Devi later established the India Dance Theatre in New York, and was granted financial aid to continue her research in India by the Rockefeller Foundation. She wrote several works including, Nritanjali: An Introduction to Hindu Dancing. Ragini Devi died in Englewood, New Jersey, aged eighty-seven (Jan 23, 1982).

Devi, Satyawati – (1906 – 1945) 
Indian politician and labour leader
Devi was born at Talwan, Jullundur, and was a prominent advocate of rights for women, for which she actively campaigned. She was also an agnostic, and also actively and publicly campaigned agains the evils of religion. Satyawati Devi died at Delhi.

Device, Janet – (1602 – 1612)
English witchtrial victim
Janet Device was granddaughter ot the infamous withc Elizabeth Southern, popularly knonw as ‘Old Demdike.’ She was initiated into the witch cult by her mother and grandmother. Complaints from neighbours led to Janet being imprisoned with her grandmother at Lancaster (April, 1612). It was chiefly because of evidence supplied by Janet, that her grandmother and others were convicted for an abortive attempt to blow up the prison. Her grandmother died in prison, but Janet, her mother, and others, were found guilty and publicly executed.

Devine, Tilly – (1900 – 1970)
Australian madam
Born Matilda Mary Twiss in London, England (Sept 8, 1900), she was married (1917) to an Australian soldier, Jim Devine, with whom she came to Sydney in New South Wales (1920). Tilly worked as a prostitute whilst her husband was involved in nefarious activities. By the early age of twenty-five she had managed to accumulate over seventy convictions for prostitution and disorderly behaviour. By WW II she had established several profitable brothels in Palmer Street, in Woolloomooloo, her main rival being fellow madam, Kate Leigh, who died in 1964. Despite this however, she was well known for her generosity to the war effort. She appeared several times in court for prostitution related offences, and attracted much media and newspaper attention. Tilly Devine died in Sydney aged seventy (Nov 24, 1970).

De Vito, Gioconda    see   Vito, Gioconda de

Devlin, Margaret      see     Ashford, Daisy

Devonshire, Christian Bruce, Countess of – (1595 – 1675)
English literary patron
Christian Bruce was born (Dec 28, 1595), the only daughter of Sir Edward Bruce, first Baron Kinloss (1548 – 1610), and his wife Magdalena (later Lady Fullerton), daughter of Alexander Clerk, of Balbirnie, Fife, Scotland. Christian was married (1608) to Willaim Cavendish (1590 – 1628), second earl of Devonshire (1626 – 1628), and was mother to William Cavendish, third earl of Devonshire (1617 – 1684). Red-haired and attractive, Countess Christian brought her husband a large dowry of seven thousand pounds annually. A zealous Royalist and patron of men of letters, Lady Devonshire was noted for her hospitality, and her safe management of her sons’ financial affairs, he being only ten years of age when his father died. She was Dowager Countess for forty-seven years, and never remarried. John Evelyn referred to her as ‘that excellent, worthy person,’ and the poet Waller dedicated his Epistles to her. Lady Devonshire is said to have been celebrated in verse by the poet John Donne, and Lord Pembroke addressed verses to her, whilst Pomfret wrote a biographical account of her. The countess purchased the property of Rochampton House in Putney, surrey from Sir Thomas Dawes (c1650), and it was here that she frequently entertained Charles II and his court. Lady Devonshire died in St Giles-in-the Fields, London, aged seventy-nine (Jan 16, 1675), and was interred in All Saints Church, Derby.

Devonshire, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of   see   Grey, Elizabeth

Devonshire, Elizabeth Hervey, Duchess of – (1758 – 1824)
British society figure and traveller
Lady Elizabeth Hervey was the daughter of Frederick Hervey, fourth Earl of Bristol, and his wife Elizabeth Davers. Her first marriage (1776), to John Thomas Foster, of Dunleer, Louth, Ireland, MP for Dunleer (1776 – 1783) and Ennis, Clare (1783 – 1790), which was arranged by her parents, proved disastrous, and after the birth of their children, they ceased to reside together as husband and wife.  The couple left two sons, Frederick Thomas Foster (b. 1777), who served as Member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds (1812 – 1818, and Sir Augustus John Foster (1780 – 1848), who was created first baronet, of Glyde Court, Louth (1831) by King William IV. He served as royal envoy and minister to the courts of Sweden, Denmark, and Sardinia. Her husband died in 1796.
A great beauty, Lady Foster was much admired by contemporaries such as the Duke of Richmond and Edmund Gibbon, and became a close friend to Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, though ultimately she became the mistress of her friend’s husband, William Cavendish, fifth Duke of Devonshire (1748 – 1811). Both the duchess and mistress gave birth to a child by the duke (July, 1785), Lady Foster giving birth to her ilegitimate child, Caroline St Jules (1785 – 1862), in Italy. With her return to London, mother and child resided at Devonshire House, where Caroline was passed off as the daughter of a French nobleman, whom the Duchess Georgiana had agreed to care for. This daughter was later married to George Lamb (1784 – 1834). Her second son by the Duke, Augustus Clifford, was born at Rouen in Normandy (1788), but the births of these children did not detract from her friendship with Duchess Georgiana.
With Georgiana’s death (1806), the duke eventually married Elizabeth as his second wife (1809), at Chiswick, Middlesex. However, her stepchildren eventually turned against her, and with her husband’s death (1811), she was ordered to leave Devonshire House a week later. Elizabeth spent the last years of her life in exile in Rome, where she gathered about her a coterie of eminent and cultured people. Duchess Elizabeth died in Rome (March 20, 1824), aged sixty-five. Her stepson, the sixth Duke, had by this date, become reconciled with her, and he had the Dowager’s body conveyed back to England, where it lay in state at Devonshire House, before being interred in the Cavendish vault at Derby, alongside her former husband and his first wife.

Devonshire, Evelyn Mary Petty-FitzMaurice, Duchess of – (1870 – 1960)
British courtier and embroiderer
Lady Evelyn Fitzmaurice was born at Dovreen (Aug 27, 1870), the elder daughter of Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, fifth marquess of Lansdowne, and his wife, Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton, the daughter of James, first Duke of Abercorn. She was married (1892) to Victor Christian Cavendish, ninth Duke of Devonshire (1868 – 1938). The duchess was known for her skill at tapestry and embroidery, and examples of her work are preserved at Chatsworth House. She was involved with ambulance work during WW I and was a D.J.ST.J (Daughter St John of Jerusalem). The duchess also served at court as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Mary, the wife of George V (1910 – 1936), for over four decades (1910 – 1953). For her service to the royal family she was appointed a Grand Commander of the Victorian Order (GCVO). She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire for over two decades (1938 – 1960). The duchess died aged eighty-nine (April 2, 1960).

Devonshire, Georgiana Spencer, Duchess of – (1757 – 1806)
British society figure and novelist
Lady Georgiana Spencer was the eldest daughter of John, first Earl Spencer, and his wife Margaret Georgiana Poyntz. Her younger sister Henrietta, Countess of Bessborough was the mother of Lady Caroline Lamb. Georgiana was married (1774) to William Cavendish, fifth Duke of Devonshire (1748 – 1811), bearing him a son William Cavendish (1790 – 1858), later the sixth duke, and two daughters, Georgiana Dorothy, Countess of Carlisle, and Harriet Elizabeth, Countess of Granville. Her portrait was painted by Thomas Gainsborough, Joshua Reynolds and Angelica Kauffman.
Her great beauty and refined manners were admired all, she being mentioned in the letters of Horace Walpole and Nathaniel Wraxall, and she was set as a leader of fashionable society. When she piled her hair high on her head, and then set in ostrich plumes, all London society ladies followed suit. Also known and admired in literary circles, the duchess received Samuel Johnson and Richard Sheridan at Chatsworth House, and she was friend to the politician Charles James Fox, and other fashionable wits. At the Westminster election (1784) the duchess canvassed for Fox, and is said to have bartered kisses in exchange for promises of votes. Her great fault was her weakness for gambling, and she and her sister Lady Bessborough were arrested and fined for gaming at Lady Buckingham’s house (1797).
The duchess wrote verses, and anonymously published the novel, The Sylph (1779), though she never bothered to deny the attribution of the work as her own. She gave birth to an illegitimate daughter by Charles Grey (second earl), and was banished from the court by Queen Charlotte (1793), but her estranged husband welcomed her back into his household, where her menage-a-trois residence with their friend (and his future second wife), Lady Elizabeth Foster, caused no end of gossip and speculation. Her daughter, Eliza Courtney (born 1792) was formally adopted by her paternal grandfather, the first earl Grey. The duchess died aged forty-eight, and was interred in the Church of All Saints, Derby.

Devonshire, Katharine Hoskins, Duchess of – (1699 – 1777)
British Hanoverian heiress
Katharine Hoskins was the daughter of John Hoskins (c1665 – 1717) of Hoxted, Surrey, a rich tradesman, and his wife Catharine Hale (1673 – 1703), the daughter of William Hale of King’s Walden, Hertfordshire. Her first cousin on her mother’s side was Anne Plumer, the wife of James Hamilton (1685 – 1744), the seventh Earl of Abercorn. She was married to William Cavendish, third Duke of Devonshire (1698 – 1755), and left issue.
The couple had seven children including, William Cavendish, fourth Duke of Devonshire (1720 – 1764), her favourite son, whose marriage (1748) with Charlotte Boyle, she bitterly opposed, on the grounds of the Boyle family’s known eccentricities. Such was the heatedness of the family argument, that the duchess angrily left Chatsworth House, and took up residence at the Cavendish rectory at Eyam. Eventually, her friend, the Bishop of Kildare managed to induce her to return to her husband, who was forced to give in to her demands that he resign his court post as Lord Steward of the Royal Household, in order to reside at home with her. Eventually, the duchess made her peace with her husband over the matter, and many years afterwards she also made her peace with her son. Her attitude to her son’s marriage caused much amusement in society quarters. She appears in the letters of the antiquarian Horace Walpole, who refers to her as the ‘ugly mad’ duchess. She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire for over two decades (1755 – 1777). The duchess died at Chatsworth House, aged seventy-seven (May 8, 1777). She was an ancestress of Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York, the granddaughters of Queen Elizabeth II.

Devonshire, Louisa Frederica Augusta von Alten, Duchess of – (1832 – 1911)
British political hostess and letter writer
Countess Louisa van Alten was born in Hanover, Germany, the daughter of Karl Victor, Count von Alten, and his wife Hermine von Schminke. She was married (1852) to the British peer, William Drogo Montagu, seventh Duke of Devonshire (1823 – 1890) in the Palace Chapel and at the British Embassy in Hanover. Her children included George Montagu, eighth Duke of Manchester (1853 – 1892), and, Lady Mary Louisa Montagu (1854 – 1934) the wife of William, twelfth duke of Hamilton and Brandon. An extraordinarily famous beauty, the Prince of Wales once said that no man could imagine how beautiful a woman could possibly be unless he had seen the duchess of Manchester at the age of thirty.
The leader of fashionable London society, she bore her husband five children, but remained romantically attached to Spencer Compton, Marquess of Hartington for the rest of her life. The affair was managed with decorum and created no scandal. The duchess desperately wanted Hartington to become the prime minister, and she worked indefatigably, though unsuccessfully, to bring this about. Lord Derby fell in love with her, and is said to have signed a written promise that if he became prime minister he would recommend Louisa for the office of Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria’s anger on hearing this rumour was said to account for the duchess not receiving an invitation to the wedding of the Prince of Wales (1863). The duchess entertained the leading political figures of the day at Kimbolton Castle and Manchester House. The duke of Manchester died at Naples (1890), and, now aged almost sixty, Louisa finally married the duke of Devonshire (1892) which gave her the popular epithet of the ‘Double Duchess.’ Their marriage lasted until the duke’s death sixteen years later (1908). Three years later the duchess suffered a stroke whilst attending Sandown Races, and died at Esher Place in London, four months afterwards (July 15, 1911).

Devonshire, Margaret de Bohun, Countess of – (1311 – 1391)
English Plantagenet royal
Lady Margaret de Bohun was born (April 3, 1311), the third daughter and eighth child of Humphrey de Bohun (1276 – 1321), the fourth Earl of Hereford and his wife Elizabeth Plantagenet, Princess of England, the daughter of King Edward I (1272 – 1307) and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. She was a descendant of the Merovingian kings of France and of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814).
Lady Margaret was married (Aug 11, 1325) to Hugh de Courtenay (1303 – 1377) and became Lady de Courtenay (1325 – 1340). Her dowry included the castle of Powderham in Devon, which to the twenty-first century remains the seat of the Earls of Devon. Lady Margaret became the Countess of Devonshire (1340 – 1377) when Hugh succeeded as the second Earl of Devonshire (1340). She survived him for fourteen years (1377 – 1391) as the Dowager Countess of Devonshire. Margaret died (Dec 16, 1391) aged eighty, and was interred next to her husband within the south transept of Exeter Cathedral. Margaret had borne Lord Devonshire seventeen children, eight sons and nine daughters including,

Devonshire, Mary Alice Gascoyne-Cecil, Duchess of – (1895 – 1988)
British courtier
Lady Mary Gascoyne-Cecil was born (July 29, 1895) the younger daughter of James Gascoyne-Cecil, fourth Marquess of Salisbury (1861 – 1947) and his wife Lady Cicely Alice Gore, daughter of Sir Arthur Gore, fifth Earl of Arran. She was married (1917) to Edward Spencer Cavendish, tenth Duke of Devonshire (1895 – 1950) and was the mother of four children, including Andrew Cavendish, eleventh Duke of Devonshire (1920 – 2004), who was married to the stylish Deborah Mitford (‘Debo’). As Dowager Duchess (1950 – 1988) she was appointed Mistress of the Robes (1953 – 1966) to Queen Elizabeth II. For her loyal service she was made GCVO (Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order) (1955). The duchess received an honorary law degree from Leeds University, York (1954) and was later appointed as chancellor of Exeter University (1956 – 1970). With her retirement in 1970, the duchess retired to her estate at Edensor, near Bakewell in Derbyshire. The duchess died aged ninety-three (Dec 24, 1988).

Devorguilla of Galloway     see    Baliol, Devorguilla de

Devorguilla O’Ruairc (Dearbhforgaill) – (1108 – 1193)
Irish queen
Devorguilla O’Lochlainn was the daughter of Domhnall O’Lochlainn, King of Ailech, head of the Cenel Eoghain clan, and his wife Bebhinn, the daughter of Cennedeigh O’Brien. Devorguilla was married firstly to Tiernan O’Ruairc (O’Rourke), Prince of Brefni, and secondly to Turlough O’Connor, High king of Ireland (1088 – 1156), as his second wife. She bore Turlough four sons, including Cathal O’Connor (1150 – 1224) (‘Crobhdhearg’), later High king of Ireland. When aged forty (1152), Devorguilla was abducted, perhaps with her own connivance, by Dermot MacMurrough, king of Leinster. She remained at his court for a year as his mistress, before Dermot restored Devorguilla to her husband. This episode led to a resulting dynastic feud, which formed part of the reason that Dermot invited the Norman forces of Henry II into Ireland. Devorguilla eventually retired to the abbey of Mellifont. Queen Devorguilla died aged eighty-four.

Devote – (c281 – c303 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Devote was a member of the household of a senator from Corsica named Eutychius. She was later brought before an invading chief named Barbarus, who was intrigued by her refusal to worship the Roman gods, and had the senator poisoned when he initially refused to hand her over. Devote refused to recant her faith and was then subjected to the most frightful tortures, which included being stretched on the equuleus. She died during this ordeal, and her fellow Christians took her remains by ship to preserve them. Bad weather forced the party to land in Monaco, where Devote was interred within the Church of St George. The church honoured her as a saint (Jan 27) and she is considered the patron saint of Monaco.

Dew, Doreen Lorna Beatrice Lawrance, Lady – (1902 – 1993)
Australian university lecturer
Doreen Lawrance was born in Melbourne, Victoria. She was raised in the Anglican Church and was married (1925) in South Yarra in Melbourne to the noted surgeon Harold Robert Dew (1891 – 1962) to whom she bore two daughters. Mrs Dew accompanied her husband to live in Sydney, New South Wales when he was appointed to the chair of surgery at Sydney University (1930). Her husband was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1953) and Doreen became Lady Dew (1953 – 1962).
Lady Dew was a prominent supporter and patron of the Royal Alexanda Hospital for Children in Sydney, and a new lecture theatre was built there and named in her honour. She was also active with the Sydney University Settlement. With Sir Harold’s retirement (1956) the couple retired to their home at Wheeler’s Hill, outside the city of Melbourne, where they entertained extensively, their wide circle of friends including Sir Thomas Bavin and Sir John Harvey. However this home was destroyed by fire (1957) and much of their valuable collection of paintings and their library were destroyed. Doreen survived her husband for three decades as the Dowager Lady Dew (1962 – 1993).

Dewal Devi – (fl. 1297 – 1320)
Indian princess
Dewal Devi was the daughter of Karnadeva, the last king of Gujurat, and his wife Kamala Devi. When her mother was captured by Sultan Ala-ud-Din Khilji, Dewal Devi and her father sought refuge in exile at the court of Ramachandra, king of Devagiri. Despite this, she was later abducted through the intrigues of her mother (1307), who had become the sultan’s favourite during the interim decade. She was then married to her stepbrother Khizr Khan, who was later killed (1316). She was compelled to marry his murderer, Khusru Shah, who was himself killed after a short reign, and whom Dewal Devi survived. The story of her life formed the basis of the, Ashiqa of the poet Amir Khusru.

Dewhurst, Colleen – (1924 – 1991)
American character actress
Dewhurst was born (June 3, 1924) in Montreal, Canada, the daughter of a football player. Her family moved to Milwaukee whilst she was a child and she was educated at the Milwaukee-Downer College, before attending the Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York. After working at various jobs waiting for her break in stage work, Dewhurst appeared in Joseph Papp’s presentation of Shakespeare’s classic, playing Kate in, The Taming of the Shrew (1956). After this she appeared with her future husband in several stage productions, in Edwin Justus Mayer’s, Children of Darkness (1958), and played Cleopatra to his Antony in another Shakespearean classic. She became well known for her stage appearances, most notably in the works of Eugene O’Neill such as, Mourning Becomes Electra (1972). Dewhurst was married firstly (1947) to actor James Vickery, to whom she bore two sons and from whom she was later divorced. She remarried secondly (1960), divorced (1965), and remarried (1967 – 1972) to actor George C. Scott (1926 – 1999), from whom she was divorced finally a second time.
Her film roles included appearances in, The Nun’s Story (1959), The Last Run (1971), Annie Hall (1977), Ice Castles (1978), When a Stranger Calls (1979), The Dead Zone (1983), Bed and Breakfast (1990), and, Dying Young (1991), in which she appeared with her son, actor Campbell Scott (born 1962), and Julia Roberts. Dewhurst also appeared in several television films such as, Silent Victory (1974), Studs Lonigan (1979), Guyana Tragedy (1980), A Perfect Match (1981), and The Blue and The Gray (1982), with Gregory Peck as Abraham Lincoln. Other television roles included appearances as Candice Bergen’s mother in the popular series, Murphy Brown, for which she won an Emmy Award (1989), and, The Women’s Room. Miss Dewhurst died (Aug 22, 1991) at South Salem, New York, aged sixty-seven.

deWit, Jacqueline – (1912 – 1998)
American minor film and television actress
DeWit was born in Los Angeles, California (Sept 26, 1912). Her earliest film appearances included roles in, The Leopard Man (1943), and in, Dragon Seed (1944) with Katharine Hepburn.
deWit appeared in over two dozen films, including classics such as, Saratoga Trunk (1945) and, The Snake Pit (1948), as Celia Sommerville. From the early 1950’s she appeared in several popular television series such as, State Trooper (1956), The Loretta Young Show (1956 – 1958), Surfside 6 (1960), and, The Monkees (1967), as Mike Nesxmith’s aunt. She also made further appearances in Pocketful of Miracles (1961) and Harper (1966) before her eventual retirement. Jacqueline deWit died in Los Angeles (Jan 7, 1998), aged eighty-five.

Dexter, Caroline – (1819 – 1884)
Anglo-Australian feminist and writer
Born Caroline Harper in Nottingham, and was educated in England and abroad in Paris. She was married (1843) to the painter William Dexter, who immigrated to Sydney, Australia (1852). Three years later Caroline sailed to join him (1855). At first the couple established an art school which they ran together. When this venture failed, they removed to Gippsland. Finally the marriage collapsed and Caroline Dexter travelled to Melbourne, where she resided apart from her husband. She co-founded the first Australian women’s journal, The Interpreter (1861), with Harriet Clisby. She made a successful remarriage with the wealthy William Lynch (1861) which established her as a person of some social consequence, and was said to have been a friend of the French novelist, George Sand.

Dey, Helen – (1888 – 1968)
Scottish nurse and matron
Dey was born in Aberdeen (April 17, 1888), the daughter of Robert Alexander Dey. Educated at home and abroad in Berlin, Prussia, Dey then trained successfully as a nurse at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London. Dey served with nursing units at the front during WW I, for which she received the RRC (Royal Red Cross) medal (1918), and after a stint in the USA, where she served as assistant superintendent of nurses at The Receiving Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, she returned to Britain, and was appointed as assistant matron at the General Infirmary at Leeds, Yorkshire. Helen Dey served as vice-president for life of the Association of Hospital Matrons and League of St Bartholomew’s Hospital Nurses. She appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1937) and then CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1946) by King George VI, in recognition of her public service. Helen Dey died at Bognor Regis, Suffolk (June 5, 1968) aged eighty.

Deyntee, Agnes – (fl. c1465) 
English provisioner
Agnes Deyntee was a resident of the city of London. Agnes was accused before a London court of selling rancid butter. Convicted on this charge, she was sentenced to be restrained for several hours in the public pillory with her unsatisfactory produce left hanging about her neck, and was then banished from the city.

De Zayas y Sotomayor, Maria     see   Zayas y Sotomayor, Maria de

Dhamma – (fl. c520 – c480 BC)
Indian Buddhist poet
Dhamma came from a middle class family and was a married woman when she first heard the Buddhist message. She wanted to become a nun and devote herself to meditation but her husband would not permit her to leave him. Instead she showed wifely devotion and remained with her husband until he died. Dhamma then took vows as a nun. Her poem ‘I wandered for alms’ is preserved in the Therigatha.

D’Hericourt, Jenny    see     Hericourt, Jenny d’

Dhien, Tjoet Nja’ – (c1855 – 1908) 
Sumatran nationalist rebel
The wife of Teuku Umar, she was a native of Acteh, and was the daughter of Teuku Natia Seuk. Her first husband Ibrahim Nja was a Sumatran military commander. Tjoet Nja’ supported her husband in his revolt against the Dutch Colonial government (1896), and when he was killed by the Dutch (1897), she placed herself at the head of the rebel forces, continuing guerilla warfare from the jungle regions. Tjoet Nja also organized the assasination of the Dutch collaborator Teuku Leubeh, whilst he was travelling to Kutaraja. She maintained jungle warfare for several years, but many of her supporters were massacred in a Dutch raid (1902).  Due to treachery within her own ranks, she was forced to flee to Bheubang, a remote mountain area of Acteh. There, sufferring continued ill-health, she was finally betrayed to the Dutch by her own general, and the Dutch finally captured her (Dec, 1907). Exiled, she died in 1908, though her daughter Gambang continued guerilla warfare against the Dutch till 1910.

D’Houville, Gerard   see   Heredia, Marie Louise Antoinette de

Dhruvadevi – (fl. c370 – c420 AD)
Indian queen consort
Dhruvadevi was the wife of Candragupta II (c350 – c415 AD), King of India and was the mother of his successor King Kumaragupta (c380 – 454 AD). According to the Indian drama Devicandragupta by Visakhadatta Dhruvadevi was married firstly to Ramagupta, the son of Samuragupta. During a war with the neighbouring Sakas ramagupta was besieged and was forced to hand Druvadevi over to the Saka king as a hostage. His younger brother Candragupta protested and offered to go to the enemy camp disguised as the queen and kill the Saka king, which he apparently accomplished.
However Candragupta’s success caused the brothers to fall out and Ramagupta was ultimately murdered by his brother who then ascended the throne and married Dhruvadevi. It remains uncertain however whether or not Ramagupta was an actual historical personage and the Devicandragupta is preserved only in fragments.

Dhuoda – (c808 – after 843) 
Carolingian author
Dhuoda was the niece of Bertrand, Count of Agen, she was married (824) to Bernard, Duke of Spetimania (c785 – 844). Not long after the birth of her eldest son William (Nov, 826), her husband, perhaps because of his rumoured scandalous involvement with the empress Judith, wife of Louis the Pious, sent Dhuoda to reside at Uzes, where she appears to have resided many years, apart from Bernard. Bernard returned to her briefly in 840, and a second son Bernard Hairyfoot (841 – 884) was born, but he was immediately removed from her care, whilst their elder son was sent to the court of Charles the Bald, to be educated. Apart this time Dhuoda composed a, Manual, which laid out the religious framework and secular ideals for her elder son’s education and instruction. Still living in 843, there are references to her increasing ill-health. Duke Bernard was executed for treason against Charles the Bald (844), as was her elder son (849) after joining the Aquitainian rebels. Her daughter Reginlinda, heiress of her mother’s fief of Agen, married Vulgrin I, Count of Angouleme and Perigord.

Diacumakos, Elaine – (1931 – 1984)
American microsurgeon
Diacumakos was born in Chester, Pennsylvania, and attended the University of Maryland and New York University. She then spent three years at Rockefeller University before becoming associated with the Sloan-Kettering Institute of Cancer Research, and the Cornell University Medical College (1965 – 1971). Diacumakos worked (1971 – 1975) with the famous Nobel Prize winning geneticist, Edward Tatum, developing and refining cell transplant techniques, and researching drug resistance in cells. She was head of the cytobiology laboratory at Rockefeller University (1976 – 1984) and collaborated with W. French Anderson of the National Institutes of Science, to be the first to successfully insert a functioning gene into the defective cell of a live mouse (1979) in order to correct a genetic defect. Elaine Diacumakos died in Manhattan, New York (June 11, 1984), aged fifty-three.

Diagileva, Anna    see   Filosovna, Anna Pavlova

Diana Frances – (1961 – 1997)
Princess of Wales
Born Lady Diana Spencer at Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk (July 1, 1961), the daughter of Edward John, eighth Earl Spencer, and his first wife Hon. Frances Ruth Roche (later Mrs Peter Shand Kydd), the daughter of Edmund Roche, fourth Baron Fermoy. She was educated at Riddlesworth Hall at West Heath, which shooling was completed abroad at the Institute Alpen Videmanette in Switzerland. At the time her association with Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, became public knowledge Diana was employed in London as a kindergarten teacher. Having been associated with the royal family from her earliest years, her marriage to Prince Charles (1981) at St Paul’s Cathedral, London,  was wlcomed both by the royal family and the public, and the ceremony was televised around the world. The couple had two sons, the eldest and eventual heir, William (born 1982) and Harry (Henry) (born 1984), who later joined the military (2007).
However, despite her continued popularity with the public, the strain of constant media attention, and the unhappiness of her marriage, due to Charles continued attachment with his former mistress, Camilla Parker Bowles (who would later become his second wife (2004), led to increasing personal problems. Her own battle with bulimia, and especially the public knowledge of her affair with James Hewitt (sometimes said incorrectly to be the father of her second son), led to the publication by Andrew Morton of, Diana: Her True Story (1992), which laid the blame for her unhappiness with everyone else. The palace announced the couple would live apart and they were later divorced (1996) amidst great media activity. Diana later formed a romantic liasion with Dodi el-Fayed, son of the Arab owner of Harrod’s department store in Knightsbridge. They were tragically killed in a Paris tunnel whilst attempting to escape the media by car. An inquest found the driver to be under the influence of alcohol, which combined with excessive speed and the fact that the princess was not wearing a seatbelt, resulted in both their deaths. The driver survived.
After her official seperation from Prince Charles, Diana continued to keep up her public profile and kept her public engagements concerning the sick, notably AIDS sufferrers and causes connected with children, such as the campaign to eradicate landmines, which resulted in a large number of deaths and horrific injuries of children world wide. She later accepted an advistory role with the International Red Cross (1994) and was noted for her firendships with colourful celebrities such as the Italian fashion designer, Gianni Versace and the Albanian nun, Sister Teresa.

Diane de Dompmartin – (1552 – 1625)
French-German princess
Diane de Dompmartin was the daughter of Louis de Dompmartin, Baron de Frontenoy d’Ogevillier de Thicourt de Fenetrage. Diane became heiress of the fiefs of Fontenoy –Le Chateau in France and the Flemish fief of Finstingen (Fenetrage). Diane was married firstly to the German ruler, Johann Philip II, Wildgrave and Rheingrave of Salm-Neuville, who was killed in battle (Oct 3, 1569). She bore him an only daughter Diane Claudia of Salm-Neuville (1569 – 1632) who became the wife of Robert de Ligne, Prince d’Arenberg and Barbancon. Princess Diane remarried (1570) to the Flemish peer, Charles Philip de Croy, Prince d’Havre, who died in 1613. She was then Princess Dowager d’Havre (1613 – 1625). By her second marriage she also produced an only daughter, Christine de Croy d’Havre (c1585 – 1664) who was married to Philip Otto, Prince of Salm-Neuville (1576 – 1634). Princesse Diane died (after Oct 14, in 1625) aged seventy-three.

Diane de Valois – (1538 – 1619)
French princess
Diane de Valois was the illegitimate daughter of Henry II and his Piedmontese mistress, Philippa Duc. Recognized by her father, she was legitimized (1547) and granted the duchy of Chatellerault and royal rank. Her education was supervised by her father’s mistress, Diane de Poitiers, and she later joined the household of the royal children at st Germain-en-Laye (1552).
Her first short-lived marriage (1552 – 1553) with Orazio Farnese, Duca di Castro was arranged by her father, but his death at the battle of Hesdin left her childess. She was remarried (1559) to Francois, son and heir of Anne, Duc de Montmorency, the Constable of France. Francois had already been secretly married, but that marriage was dissolved so that he could marry Diane, a much more prestigious bride. A highly cultured and sensitive woman, she was especially concerned to promote religious peace. A constant supporter of Charles IX, as was her husband Francois, she retained her influence into the reign of Henry III (1574 – 1589), who granted her the duchy of Angouleme in appanage (1582), influencing him to the extent of reconciling him with Henry of Navarre. Treated with great honour and respect at the court of Henry IV, after his assassination (1610) the duchesse formally accompanied the bodies of Henry III and Catherine de Medici to the abbey of St Denis, at Rheims for reinternment. Diane de Valois died at the Hotel d’Angouleme in Paris (Jan 11, 1619) aged eighty.

Diane de Poitiers     see      Poitiers, Diane de

Diane of France    see     Diane de Valois

Dias – (fl. c1120 – c1140)
French countess
Dias was the daughter of Godofredo de Samatan, Seigneur de Muret, in Gascony, and became the wife of Comte Bernard I of Comminges (c1095 – 1145). It remains uncertain whether Dias survived her husband, to whom she bore at least eight children including,

Diasfronisa – (fl. c925 – c940)
French medieval matriarch
Diasfronisa was the daughter of Matfred and his wife Airude, and was sister to Frothaire, Bishop of Cahors (c905 – 990). She became the wife of Aton II (c900 – after 942), Vicomte of Albi, near Nimes, in Toulouse, to whom she bore two sons, Vicomte Seguin (died after 972), and, Vicomte Bernard Aton II (956 – 972), who ruled jointly for a time.  She was referred too in surviving family charters as, Diasfronisa vicecomitissa (Oct, 1146). Her grandson Frothaire, who was appointed as Bishop of Nimes (986 – 1014), was the youngest son of Bernard II Aton.

Diateria – (d. c303 AD?)
Roman virgin martyr
Diateria perished at Milan in Lombardy, probably during the persecutions initiated by the emperor Diocletian, though this dating remains speculative. She may have been a nun, in which case she may belong to the fifth of sixth centuries instead. Diatoria’s feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (Oct 2).

Diaz, Abby Morton – (1821 – 1904)
American educator, reformer and children’s writer
Diaz was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the daughter of a wealthy shipbuilder. Her father later removed the entire family to live in a utopian community organized by the Transcendentalist sect at Brook Farm, and Abby worked as a schoolteacher there. She was married (1845) to Manuel Diaz, to whom she bore two sons. With the failure of her marriage, Diaz needed to support her young children, and turned to writing, publishing her first story with the Atlantic Monthly (1861). This was followed by educational stories written to instruct children, such as, Our Young Folks (1867), and her best remembered work, The William Henry Letters (1870). She assisted with the establishment of the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston (1877), and wrote two novels, The Schoolmaster’s Trunk (1874), and, A Domestic Problem (1875), as well as the famous children’s story King Grimalkins and Pussyanite; or , The Cat’s Arabian Nights (1881). Abby Morton Diaz died aged eighty-two (April 1, 1904).

Diaz, Gloria Cestero – (1910 – 1997)
Puerto-Rican-American civic leader
Gloria Cestero was born in San Juan, into a prominent legal family. She was married to a Mexican bullfighter, Jose Ramirez ‘Gaonita,’ and the couple travelled throughout South America and the Caribbean in connection with his career. After divorcing Ramirez she remarried to Frank Diaz, a chief engineer. Diaz served as a campaign worker for President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1936) and later served on the board of directors of the Caribe Club. She campaigned for President J.F. Kennedy (1960) and was a member of the Women’s Division of the Democratic State Committee, and a member of the Puerto-Rican Association of Women Voters. Concerned by the plight of poor Puerto-Rican immigrants arrving in New York City, Diaz worked consistently for five decades with private groups and public agencies for decades, in order to try and improve their social condition. She was a member of the board of the Puerto-Rican Institute. Gloria Diaz died (Oct 24, 1997) in Manhattan, New York, aged eighty-seven.

Diaz de Lamarque, Antonia – (1827 – 1892)
Spanish writer and poet
Diaz de Lamarque was born in Marchena, in Seville, Andalusia, and became the wife of fellow Seville born poet, Jose Lamarque de Novoa. Diaz de Lamarque wrote articles for various magazines and newspapers, and priduced the popular collection of verse, Poesias de Antonia Diaz de Lamarque (Poems of Antonia Diaz de Lamarque) (1867). Three more works followed, Flores marchitas (Withered Flowers) (1877), a collection of verse, Poesias religiosas (Religion Poems) (1889), and a collection of moral fables entitled, Aves y flores (Birds and Flowers) (1890). Antonia Diaz de Lamarque died at Dos Hermanas, near Seville, aged sixty-five.

Dibamona – (d. c303 AD)
Egyptian Christian martyr
Dibamona was killed in Egypt, together with her mother, Sophia, and her sister, Bistamona, during the persecution organized by the emperors Diocletian and Maximin Daia. Her feast is recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (June 4).

Dibble, Vadna Davis – (1902 – 1983)
American magazine editor and critic
Dibble was born in Brooklyn, New York. During the 1930’s she joined the staff of Cue magazine in New York, and developed the periodicals entertainment and popular restaurant listings.
Dibble served as the magazine’s official restautrant critic (1960 – 1967). With her retirement from Cue, Dibble worked as a free-lance writer and literary consultant. Vadna Davis died in New York, aged eighty-two (July 14, 1983).

Dibdin, Mary – (1782 – 1816)
British actress and vocalist
Born Mary Bates at Holyhead, she was the daughter of a hotel keeper. She became an actress at the Sadler’s Wells Theatre by the age of fourteen (1796), specializing in comic roles. Soon afterwards (1797) she was married to actor, Charles Isaac Mungo Dibdin. When she expected her salary to be raised after her marriage, Dibdin received no further work at Sadler’s Wells, and became the principal singer and commedienne at the Royal Ampitheatre. Her career then followed that of her husband, and she accompanied him to Dublin and Liverpool, as well as appearing together in circuses throughout the country until Charles Dibdin obtained the post of manager at Sadler’s Wells (1800). Mary Dibdin bore her husband almost a dozen childrern, but continued to act and sing to help with the family finances. Having sufferred from epilepsy from childhood, Dibdin was finally forced to retire from the stage due to ill-health (1815). Mary Dibdin died in London, aged thirty-five (Aug 16, 1816).

Dick, Anne Mackenzie, Lady – (c1701 – 1741)
Scottish verse writer
Anne Mackenzie was the daughter of Sir James Mackenzie, Lord Royston, and granddaughter of George Mackenzie, first Earl of Cromarty. She was married (c1715 – c1720) to William Cunyngham (1701 – 1746), who later adopted the surname of Dick when he succeeded as Sir William Dick, of Prestonfield, baronet (1728). The couple left no children. Famous for her sense of humour and practical jokes, Lady Dick wrote racy lampoons and epigrammatic verse, three of which are preserved in C. Kirkpatrick Sharpe’s Book of Ballads.

Dick, Gladys Rowena – (1881 – 1963)
American physician and microbiologist
Born Gladys Henry (Dec 18, 1881) in Pawnee City, Nebraska, she attended the University of Nebraska. She had to overcome the objections of her parents in order to study at the John Hopkins School of Medicine. After joining the faculty of the University of Chicago she married fellow physician George Dick. With her husband she joined the faculty of the Mc Cormick Memorial Institute for Infectious Diseases, and she remained there over four decades (1914 – 1953). Her research, in conjunction and collaboration with her husband, resulted in the establishment of the procedure known as the ‘Dick test’ which predicted the susceptibility of a person’s skin to the disease scarlet fever. Gladys Dick died (Aug 21, 1963) aged eighty-one.

Dick, Jane Warner – (1906 – 1997)
American social worker and reformer
Jane Warner was born in Illinois, and was married to the Chicago industrialist Edison Dick to whom she bore two children. A friend of Jane Addams, her social work career began at Hull House (1926), where she worked in the Immigrants Protection League, which provided legal serves for new immigrants to the USA. Later, Dick served with the Illinois Social Welfare Foundation, and with the Illinois Board of Public Welfare, and she succeeded in establishing volunteer services to help care for the mentally ill. Long active in Democratic politics, Dick supported Adlai Stevenson during his presidential campaigns of 1952 and 1956. Dick was later appointed the US representative to the Social Commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (1961), instituted by President J.F. Kennedy, on the recommendation of Stevenson, then serving as ambassador to the United Nations. During this time she supported the proposed resolution which condemned racial discrimination, despite the fact that America considered the resolution too sweeping, and abstained from the vote. Dick was the author of, Volunteers and the Making of Presidents, concerning the career of Adlai Stevenson. Jane Warner Dick died at Lake Forrest, Illinois (Sept 29, 1997).

Dickens, Mary Angela – (1863 – 1948)
British novelist
Mary Angela Dickens was born in London, the daughter of Charles Dickens and granddaughter of the elder Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870), the famous novelist, and was niece to the noted barrister and judge, Sir Henry Fielding Dickens (1849 – 1933). With the death of her paternal grdfather, her father inherited the All Year Round periodical, and Mary published some of her earliest work in this publication. She produced several popular sentimental and melodramatic novels during the decade of the 1890’s such as, Cross Currents (1891), probably her best regarded, A Mere Cypher (1893), A Valiant Ignorance (1894), and Prisoners of Silence (1895). Dicken’s later worked included, Against the Tide (1897), and, On the Edge of a Precipice (1899), but she ended her writing career before the age of forty.

Dickens, Monica Enid – (1915 – 1992)
British novelist and children’s writer
Monica Dickens was born in London, a great-granddaughter of the famous Victorian novelist, Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870). She received an indifferent education and was presented at court to George V and Queen Mary. Dickens was first employed as a journalist and then served during WW II with the nursing corps, and wrote several semi-autobiographical novels including, One Pair of Feet (1942), and, My Turn to Make the Tea (1951). Some of her works explored sensitive social issues as in The Heart of London (1961) which dealt with alcoholism and, Kate and Emma (1964) which dealt with child abuse. She was perhaps best known for her stories for children concerning horses and rural life, such as the popular, Follyfoot series. Her later works included Miracles of Courage (1985), Dear Doctor Lily (1988), Closed at Dusk (1990), and Scarred (1991). Monica Dickens died (Dec 25, 1992) aged seventy-seven.

Dickins, Aileen Marian – (1917 – 1987)
British gynaecological surgeon
Aileen Dickins was born (Nov 17, 1917), the daughter of Arthur George Dickins. She trained as a gynaecological and obsteric surgeon and became a fellow of the Royal College of Obstericians and Gynaecologists (1958). Dickins practised at the Windsor Group of Hospitals (1952 – 1964), and also at Ealing Hospital and the Perivale Maternity Hospital for over three decades (1951 – 1982). She was appointed (1967) as consultant gynaecological and obsteric surgeon at the University College Hospital in London, and remained in that capacity until her retirement (1983). Dickins died unmarried. Aileen Dickins died (July 24, 1987), at Broughton, near Stockbridge, Hants, aged sixty-nine.

Dickenson, Mary   see   Hamilton, Mary

Dickinson, Emily Elizabeth – (1830 – 1886) 
American poet
Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts (Dec 10, 1830), the granddaughter of the founder of Amherst College. She was educated at Amherst Academy (1847 – 1848) and at Mount Holyoke Seminary in South Hadley. Apart from brief visits to Philadelphia and Washington (1854) with her autocratic father, and a trip to Boston for medical reasons, Emily never left Amherst for the rest of her life. Her reclusive life and eccentric habits, and the intensity of her verse led to lively speculation concerning her possible unrequited passions, but the surviving evidence remains controversial.
Emily is best known for her short, ecstatic lyrics, often concerning death and the life hereafter. Her poems are notable of their simple, startling language, fresh imagery, and occasional, whimsical humour. She was stricken with Bright’s disease, and became an invalid. Before her death Emily asked her sister Lavinia to destroy her manuscripts. Lavinia however, could not bring herself to do so, and Emily’s seventeen hundred poems, have survived. They were edited in two volumes by Mabel Loomis Todd (1894). Collections of her verse were published as, The Single Hound (1914), and, Bolts of Melody (1945). Emily Dickinson died (May 15, 1886) aged fifty-five, at Amherst.

Dickinson, Gladys – (1895 – 1964)
British linguist and scholar
Gladys Dickinson was born (Nov 1, 1895) the daughter of a clergyman. She attended school in Reading and then abroad in Paris where she studied the French language, history and culture. She was appointed the assistant lecturer in French at the University of St Andrews in Scotland (1929 – 1942) and then the acting head of the French Department at the University College of Dundee (1942 – 1944). Dickinson then became the reader in French at Westfield College at the University of London (1944 – 1960) before being made a full professor (1963).
Professor Dickinson published various articles in the Scottish Historical Review and and volumes of the Edinburgh Bibliographical Society. Her published works included Missions of De La Brosse (1942) and Du Bellay in Rome (1960). She remained unmarried and died (Aug 6, 1964) aged sixty-eight, in London.

Dickinson, Helena Adell Snyder – (1875 – 1957)
Canadian author and translator
Helen Snyder was born in Port Elmsley, Ontario, and was married to Clarence Dickinson. Besides being well known as a translator of medieval Christmas carols, Helena was the author of, A Study of Henry D. Thoreau (1902), the naturalist, poet and philosopher, and produced a critical study the, German Masters of Art (1914), and, The Troubadours and Their Songs (1919). She co-wrote with her husband, Excursions in Musical History (1917).

Dickinson, Violet – (1885 – 1948)
British literary figure
Dickinson was a member of the famous Bloomsbury literary circle. She was born at Chapmanslade, near Frome, and was the great-niece to Emily Eden, whose letters and correspondence she edited and published.

Dickson, Mary Bernard – (c1810 – 1895)
Anglo-New Zealand Catholic nun, nurse and educator
Julia Diana Dickson was born at Ipswich in Suffolk. She remained unmarried and converted to Roman Catholicism (1845) after which she entered the Order of the Sisters of Mercy at Bermondsey in London (1847) and became Sister Mary Bernard. She acquired nursing experience at St George’s Hospital in London prior to serving in a nursing hospital in the Crimea (1854 – 1855). Dickson then accompanied several other sisters to Auckland in New Zealand aboard the Dinapore (1857).
In Auckland Sister Mary Bernard became a teacher and worked for several years before being sent to Wellington where she became the superior of the first convent of the Order of Mercy to be established outside of Auckland (1861). She taught at the convent school until 1874 when she was chosen to found a teaching community at Ahaura on the goldfields, but the venture proved unsuccessful. Sister Mary Bernard died (Aug 5, 1895) in Auckland.

Dickson, Dame Violet Penelope – (1896 – 1991)
British traveller, author, botanist, and diplomatic figure
Violet Lucas-Craft was born (Sept 3, 1896) at Gautby in Lincolsnhire, the daughter of Neville Lucas-Calcraft, a land agent. Educated at Woodhall Spa and abroad at Vevey in Switzerland, she was married at Marseilles in France (1920) to Captain Harold Dickson (1881 – 1959), a British political agent, to whom she bore two children. Violet accompanied her husband on his foreign postings, visiting Mesopotamia (1921 – 1922), Baluchistan (1923 – 1924), Iran (1928 – 1929), and Kuwait in the Middle East, and Rajputana in India (1924 – 1928). A fervent amateur botanist, she was the author of, Wild Flowers of Kuwait and Bahrain (1955), and sent many specimens home to Kew Gardens in London. The desert plant that she discovered the Horwoodia dicksoniae, was named in her honour, and called by the Arabs khuzama. Dame Violet wrote the volume of memoirs entitled, Forty Years in Kuwait (1971), and was granted the honorific title Hajjiyah, a term of respect for a female who has completed the Haj pilgrimmage to Mecca, and non-Muslims are not permitted to participate. She was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1976) in recognition of her contributions to botany and cultural affairs. Lady Dickson died (Jan 4, 1991), aged ninety-four.

Dida – (fl. c750 – c790)
Carolingian nun and abbess
Dida was appointed as superior of the abbey of St Peter at Lyon. She is mentioned in the Vitae of St Bonitus, Bishop of Auvergne (Jan 15), where it is recorded that one of her nuns was cured of paralysis by touching the saint’s body. She was venerated as a saint (Jan 25) in the Gallican Martyrology.

Didda – (c930 – 1004)
Indian queen and ruler
Didda was the wife (945) of Kshemagupta, King of Kashmir of the Parvagupta dynasty. Widowed in 960, Didda ruled till 973 as regent for her eldest son Abhimanyu.  With the death of her son, the queen mother again took the reigns of government, acting as regent for his sons, her grandsons Nandigupta (973 – 975) and Tribhuvana (975 – 976). With the death of her remaining grandson Bhimagupta (981), Didda ruled for nearly twenty-five years until her death, when she was succeeded by her nephew Samgramaraja (died 1029), who was the first king of the Lohara Dynasty.

Diddear, Harriet Elizabeth – (1789 – 1857)
British actress
Harriet Diddear was born at Penzance in Cornwall (July 31, 1789), the eldest daughterof a merchant who became a theatrical manager. She appeared on the stage during childhood, and was married (1805) to fellow actor, John Saville Faucit. Diddear appeared as Bertha in, The Point of Honour (1806), and spent several years with her husband at the Norwich Theatre (1806 – 1813). Having impressed patrons with her performance as Lady Macbeth, Diddear was then brought to London, where she appeared at Covent Garden in other Shakespearean roles such as Desdemona and Juliet. With the death of Faucit (1853), Diddear remarried (1856) to the famous actor, William Farren the younger, but died soon afterwards (June 16, 1857), aged sixty-seven. By her first husband she left six children, several of whom became famous in theatrical circles, including the actors, John (1807 – 1855) and Edmund Faucit Saville (1811 – 1857), and their equally famous sister, Helena Saville Faucit (1817 – 1898), later Lady Martin.

Didelot, Marie Rose – (c1765 – 1803)
French dancer
Born Marie Rose Paul, she became the first wife (before 1791) of the noted dancer, Charles Louis Didelot. She appeared at the Pantheon, where she dances as the Muse of Tragedy in, Amphion et Thalie. Madame Didelot performed in London with her husband (1796 – 1801) at the Drury Lane and King’s Theatres, where she appeared in such plays as, The Caravan of Rest, L’Heureux naufrage, Acis et Galathee, and, Telemaque, where she danced the role of the nymph Calypso. Marie Rose Didelot was very popular with English audiences, and died in the spring of 1803, whilst on a visit to Russia.

Didia Clara – (fl. 193 AD)
Roman Augusta
Didia Clara was born in Rome, the daughter of the Emperor Didius Julianus and his wife Manlia Scantilla. Her father bought the Imperial throne after the assassination of the emperor Pertinax (March 28, 193 AD). Didia Clara and her mother were granted the Imperial title by Julianus the following day (March 29). She had been betrothed to a paternal relative during her youth, but with her father’s elevation Didia Clara was married to Sextus Cornelius Repentinus, consul (193 AD) who was perhaps the son of Sextus Cornelius Repentinus (living 163 AD), praetorian prefect during the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Her husband served as praetorian prefect during her father’s principate. Apparently reputed to be quite beautiful she appeared on the coinage with the deity Hilaritas, the symbol of religious joy. With the assassination of her father three months later, Didia Clara and her mother retired to private life. The Empress Manlia Scantilla died within a few weeks of their deposition but nothing further is recorded of Didia Clara’s subsequent life.

Didia Cornelia Ingenua – (fl. c150 – c180 AD)
Roman patrician
Didia Cornelia Ingenua was attested as the daughter of Gaius Julius Crescens Didius Crescentianus, a high-ranking civil official of the colony of Cirta in Africa, and of his wife Naevia, the daughter of Publius Naevius. She had two siblings Gaius Didius Maximus and Didia Cornelia. Their father was honoured with an inscription from the citizens of Cuiculitana in Africa. Didia Ingenua is believed to have been a familial connection of Marcus Cornelius Fronto, the friend and correspondent of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). She became the wife of an unidentified senator and was attested by a surviving inscription from Cuiculitana which styled her clarissima memoriae femina.

Didia Iucunda – (fl. c70 – c100 AD)
Roman Imperial progenatrix
Didia Iucunda was the wife of Quintus Petronius Severus, and was the mother of two sons, Quintus Petronius Severus and Petronius Didius Severus. Didia Iucunda was the great-grandmother of Didius Julianus (133 – 193 AD) who briefly succeeded Pertinax as emperor (193 AD).

Didia Quinta – (fl. c100 AD)
Roman patrician
Didia Quinta was the wife of Lucius Vetinius Priscus the Imperial legate and proconsul of Asia. She was attested by a surviving inscription from Volaterrae. She was perhaps a connection of the family of Emperor Didius Julianus (193 AD).

Didier, Margaret – (1741 – 1829)
British actress and vocalist
Born Margaret Smith, she was sister to the noted actor and singer, Charles Clementine Dubellamy, who was born plain John Evans. She adopted the same stage name as her brother. She was married (1767) to fellow actor, Abraham Didier, and appeared in Edinburgh, Scotland as Patch in The Busybody and performing the role of Lucy in, The Beggar’s Opera (1770 – 1771).
Husband and wife were brought to the Haymarket Theatre in London by the theatrical entrepeneur, Samuel Foote, and Mrs Didier appeared in many popular comedy productions such as, A Bold Stroke for a Wife and Love in a Village, amongst many others. Popular with audiences because of her vivacious manner and excellent figure, she and her husband later performed several seasons in Bath prior to her husband’s retirement from the stage (1781), where she was a rival of the famous Sarah Siddons. Didier continued with her own career for another two decades, progressing form her ususal comic roles and portraying eccentric elderly ladies, being particulalry noted for her appearances as Mrs Hardcastle in the perennial favourite, She Stoops to Conquer, and for renditions of her ‘Old Maid’s Song.’ Margaret Didier retired at the end of the 1807 season, and went to live in Bristol with her husband. His death (1823) left her well porvided for financially. Margaret Didier died in Bristol, aged eighty-eight.

Dido (Elissa) – (fl. c850 BC)
Queen and reputed foundress of the city of Carthage in Africa
Her name means ‘fugitive.’ She was the daughter of Methen I, King of Tyria and her existence is basically, quite factual, but her life has become so intertwined with legend, that the facts have been obscured. Dido was the wife of a nobleman named Acharbas, her uncle, and priest of Melqart, who was murdered by her brother, King Pygmalion (died 814 BC). Fleeing his tyranny, she escaped firstly to Cyprus, where she and her companions were joined by the high priest of Astarte, whose office Dido granted him as hereditary. Soon afterwards she succeeded in founding Carthage with her fellow colonists, on land theuy pruchased from local peoples. The original name was ‘Karthadshat,’ from whence is derived the Greek and Roman forms of the name.
Later legend has her contructing a funeral pyre, on which she stabbed herself, to escape the unwanted attentions of a neighbouring king, Iarbas (Hierbas). Her subjects then caused Dido to be deified, and she is to be identified with Virgo Caelestris, or Tanit, the tutelary goddess of Carthage, which cult continued until the destruction of the city by the Romans (146 BC). The Roman historian Virgil in his, Aeneiad, mentions her connection with the Roman hero Aeneas, with whom she supposedly fell in love, after her landing in Africa, and attributes her suicide to her abandonment by him, at the command of Jupiter.

Didrikson, Babe – (1914 – 1956)
American athlete
Born Mildred Ella Didrikson, after her marriage she was sometimes known professionally as Babe Zaharias. Didrikson excelled at basket-ball, baseball, and javelin throwing. The winner of Olympic gold medals for both hurdles and the javelin (1932), she was the first American to win the British Women’s Championship (1947). Babe Didrikson was posthumously inducted into the National Women’s Sports Hall of Fame (1980).

Die, Beatrice de Vienne, Comtesse de – (c1140 – c1189)
French trobairitz
Beatrice de Vienne was one of the twin daughters of Guigues VII, Dauphin of Vienne and Comte d’Albon, and his wife Margeurite of Burgundy. Her father was killed in battle during her infancy (1142), and she was married (c1154) to Gillaume de Poitiers, Comte de Valentinois, the grandson of the troubadour duke, William IX of Aquitaine (1086 – 1127), in the bastard line. Beatrice appears to have held the county of Die, nort-east of Montelimar in Provence, in her own right, and it passed through her to her son Aymar I de Poitiers (c1173 – c1250). It seems reasonable that Beatrice died around the same time that Aymar assumed the Valentinois title (1189).

This Beatrice is believed to be identical with the troubadour countess of Dia (Die), whose correct identity long baffled researchers, for no duke of Aquitaine (who were also styled counts of Poitiers) had a wife named Beatrice, though popular tradition had named her thus. The comtesse fell in love with Raimbaut III of Orange, and she wrote many chansons in his honour. Four of her poems survive, Ab joi et ab joven m’apais ( I thrive on youth and joy), A chantar m’er de so qu’ieu non volria (Of things I’d rather keep in silence I must sing), Estat ai en greu cossirier (I’ve lately been in great distress), and, Fin ioi me don’ alegranssa (Fine joy brings me great happiness).

Die, Roais de – (c1152 – 1198)
French medieval matriarch and heiress
Roais de Die was the daughter of Isoard III, Comte de Die, and the granddaughter of Comte Josserand de Die. She became the wife (before 1176) of Hughes, seigneur d’Aix in Provence (c1145 – 1211). Roais was heiress of the barony of Chatillon in Diois, and confirmed by charter the donations made by her father to the abbey of Durbon (1176), which refers to her as, Roais uxor Hugonis d’Ais filia Isoardi comitis. After her death, her husband became a Benedictine monk at the priory of Saint-Marcel de Die. Roais bore Hughes two sons, Guillaume Artaud d’Aix (c1175 – 1239), who inherited Chatillon, and Guigues Artaud d’Aix (1178 – before 1205), both of whom married and left descendants.

Diehl, Alice Mangold – (c1837 – 1912)
British pianist, novelist, and writer
Alice Mangold was born at Aveley, Essex, the daughter of Carl Mangold, of Darmstadt, Hesse, the German conductor and composer, and maternal granddaughter of Dr Charles Lewis Vidal, of Jamaica and Aveley. Privately educated in London she later studied music professionally with Adolphe Henselt in Silesia, Poland. Alice appeared in Paris as a pianist in 1861, and attracted the attention of Berlioz. Alice performed in London at intervals and married (1863) the composer Louis Diehl (d. 1910).  Alice also turned her attention to writing, and her novels included, The Garden of Eden (1882), Miss Strangeways (1910), Isola (1911), and, A Mysterious Lover (1911), amongst other works of fiction. Other works included, The Story of Philosophy (1881), and, The Life of Beethoven (1908). She left an autobiography The True Story of My Life (1907).

Diemudis (1) (Diemud, Diemoth, Diemuth) – (c1057 – 1130)
German illuminator
Diemudis was born into a noble family in either Swabia or Bavaria. She became a nun at the convent of Wessonbrun, in Bavaria, and a surviving missal she produced, decorated with her initials, is preserved in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich. Diemudis worked in the scriptorium at Wessonbrun as a copyist and illuminator, and translated the great works of the church fathers. Over forty of her manuscripts have survived and been identified including the Moralia of St Gregory the Great (c540 – 604) and other works by St Augustine, St Jerome and the theologian Origen. She corresponded with abbess Herluka from the abbey of Epfach over some considerable period of time, but these letters were eventually destroyed during the Thirty Years War. However, there remains some consfusion between this Diemudis and Abbess Diemudis of Nonnberg. Diemudis died at Wessonbrunn (March 30, 1130) aged around seventy.

Diemudis (2) (Diemud, Diemoth, Diemuth) – (c1070 – 1136)
German nun and illuminator
Diemudis was abbess of Nonnberg, in Salzburg. This abbess also collected sermons, using her nuns as copysists. She is a distinct person from her slightly elder contemporary the nun Diemudis of Wessonbrun.

Dienes, Sari – (1898 – 1992)
Hungarian-American artist
Born Chylinska von Daivitz in Hungary, she studied music, dance, and philosophy prior to her marriage with the French mathematician, Paul Dienes (1917). She did not begin her career as an artist until almost thirty, when she and her husband were residing in Wales in Britain. Dienes studied painting abroad in Paris under Andre Lhote and Ferdinand Leger, but was unable to leave New York in the USA when the war broke out (1939). She taught to support herself, but as an artist attracted notice for her experimental approach with techniques and materials, often using whatever came to hand at the time or something she had scrounged from somewhere. She made rubbings of New York man-hole covers, styrofoam prints and, painted Abstract Expressionist drip paintings, though her own particular style was closer to neo-Dada.Some of her work was exhibited at the Betty Parsons Gallery during the 1950’s. When her studio in New York was destroyed by fire (1957), Dienes spent two years learning ceramics in Japan. Sari Dienes died of cancer (May 25, 1992) in Stony Point, New York, aged ninety-three.

Dietrich, Amalie – (1821 – 1891)
German botanist and entomologist
Born Amalie Nelle at Siebenlehn, Saxony, she was the daughter of a pursemaker. She was married to the botanist, Wilhelm Dietrich, to whom she bore a daughter, and with whom she received basic botanical training. Her husband neglected his family, in order to remain immersed in his own studies and research, so Madame Dietrich seperated from him, taking their daughter with her. She survived precariously by working as a botanical collector, but then, after receiving financial assistance from the rich Hamburg merchant, J.C. Godeffroy, Madame Dietrich travelled to Australia (1863). In Australia Dietrich worked in Queensland, returning over a dozen cases of specimens in less than a year, and was elected a Fellow of the Entomological Society of Stettin (1867). She spent an entire years at Lake Elphinstone (1868) and visited Melbourne in Victoria (1871) before returning to Germany, via Tonga and Cape Horn. Dietrich was later appointed to a position at the botanical museum in Hamburg (1885). Two varieties of wasp were named in her honour, the Nortonia Amaliae, and the, Odynerius Dietrichianus. Amalie Dietrich died aged sixty-nine (March 9, 1891).

Dietrich, Marlene – (1901 – 1992)
German-American actress and cabaret performer
Born Maria Magdalena von Losch in Berlin, Prussia (Dec 27, 1901), she made her German film debut in the role of a maid in, Der Kleiner Napoleon (1922), and later went to Hollywood in the USA after making her famous film, The Blue Angel (1930), in which she played the temptress Lola, and which established her reputation at home and abroad. Dietrich made glamorous and exotic films under the direction of Josef Von Sternberg (1894 – 1969), appearing in such classics as, Morocco (1930), Blond Venus (1932), Shanghai Express (1932), The Scarlet Empress (1934), about Catharine II of Russia, The Devil Is a Woman (1935), and The Garden of Allah (1936). She despised Nazism, and refused to be used by them for propganda purposes, becoming an American citizen (1937).
Dietrich was best known for playing the part of colourful adventuresses in such films as, The Flame of New Orleans (1941), which was directed by the distinguished French director, Rene Clair (1898 – 1981), Destry Rides Again (1939), as the saloon singer, Frenchie, Foreign Affair (1948), Rancho Notorious (1952), Witness For the Prosecution (1957) with Charles Laughton, and Judgement at Nuremburg (1961). During WW II she worked tirelessly to entertain the troops in Europe, remembered for such songs as, Lilli Marlene, Go‘ Way From My Window, The Boys in the Backroom, The Laziest Gal in Town, I Wish You Love, La Vie En Rose, and her classic trademark song, Falling In Love Again. During the last years of her life she lived as a recluse in Paris, and refused to be photographed for the documentary, Marlene (1984). Marlene Dietrich died in Paris (May 6, 1992) aged ninety-one. She left her own memoirs entitled Marlene (1989) and in the German produced biopic Marlene (1999) she was portrayed by actress Katja Flint. Her daughter Maria Riva wrote her mother’s biography Marlene Dietrich (1993).

Dietz, Diana – (fl. 1775 – 1798)
British still-life and flower painter
Dietz was perhaps the sister, or other close relative of the minor painter, Amelia Mary Dietz. Her work was exhibited in London, at the Society of Artists and at the Royal Academy for over two decades.

Digby, Charlotte – (1767 – 1794)
British Hanoverian courtier
Charlotte Gunning was the daughter of Sir Robert Gunning, baronet (1816), of Horton, Northants, ambassador to the courts of Berlin and St Petersburg, and his second wife Anne, the daughter of Robert Sutton, of Scrofton, Nottinghamshire. Charlotte was sent to court in her youth where she served as maid-of-honour to Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III (1760 – 1820). She was later married (1790) to fellow courtier, Colonel Stephen Digby, and later died from the effects of childbirth. Her two children were Colonel Robert Henry Digby, of the Scots Guards, who married and left issue, and Isabella Digby (born 1794), the wife of Colonel William Chester Master, of Knole Park, Gloucestershire.

Digby, Lettice (Letitia) – (1580 – 1658)
Irish-Anglo Civil War heroine and heiress
Lettice Fitzgerald was the only child of Gerald Fitzgerald, Baron Offaley (1559 – 1580), and his wife Catherine Knollys, a maternal relative of Queen Elizabeth I, and later the wife of Sir Philip Boteler. Through her father she was granddaughter to Gerald FitzGerald, eleventh Earl of Kildare (1525 – 1585). With her father’s death Lettice became the heiress general to the Irish earls of Kildare. She was married (1598) to Sir Robert Digby, of Coleshill, Warwickshire, in England, to whom she bore many children before his early death (1614).
Lettice succeeded to the property of Geashill in King’s County, Ireland (1619), which included the castle and an estate of three thousand acres, and was created Baroness Offaley by King James I (VI) (1620), with special remainder to the Fitzgerald family. After this, Lettice resided at Geashill Castle, which was besieged by Irish rebels during the Civil War (1642). She resisted the intruders with enormous courage, despite the fact that the enemy sent her four messages to remind her that the castle was defended only by women and young boys. Eventually however, the rebels’ gun burst upon themselves, and Lettice and her family were rescued by the forces of Sir Richard Grenville (Oct, 1642). Lady Lettice then returned to England to reside at Coleshill, where she died (Dec 1, 1658), aged seventy-eight.
Her portrait remained at Sherborne Castle, in which she was portrayed holding open a book on which was inscribed the biblical verse from Job XIX : 20, “ I am escaped by the skin of my teeth,” referring to her earlier narrow escape from the Irish rebels. Her children included Robert Digby (c1600 – 1642), created first Baron Digby by James I (1620), who married and left descendants, and Essex Digby, Bishop of Dromore (c1601 – 1683). The barony of Offaley had been granted to Lettice for her life only, and with her death it reverted to the earls of Kildare.

Digby, Venetia Stanley, Lady – (1600 – 1633) 
English beauty
Venetia Stanley was the daughter of Sir Edward Stanley of Tong Castle, Shropshire and his wife Lady Lucy Percy, the daughter of Thomas, seventh earl of Northumberland. She married Sir Kenelm Digby (1603 – 1665). Venetia was brought up much in the company of her future husband, and his mother opposed their marriage. They were not finally able to marry until 1625, after many obstacles, including the blackening of Venetia’s reputation with a liasion with Sir Edward Sackville, which Digby pardones in his, Private Memoires. Worthless tradition states that Venetia died after drinking viper wine, which her husband believed would help preserve her beauty. Ben Jonson’s poem, Eupheme, was written in her honour, and her death was also comemorated by Joseph Rutter, Thomas May, Owen Felltham and Aurelian Townshend. Her portrait was painted by Antony Van Dyck and Cornelius Janssen.

Digby el Mezrab, Jane – (1807 – 1881) 
British adventuress and traveller
Jane Digby was the daughter of Admiral Sir Henry Digby, and his wife Lady Jane Elizabeth Coke, the widow of Charles Nevinson Howard, Lord Andover, and the daughter of Thomas, first earl of Leicester. Brought up at Holkham Hall, Norfolk, her family arranged her first marriage (1824) with Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough (1790 – 1871) as his second wife. The marriage proved unhappy, their only child dying in infancy. Jane now took the first of several lovers, the Austrian ambassador, Prince Felix von Schwarzenberg. Ellenborough fought a duel for her honour, but the relationship was doomed, and they were divorced by Act of Parliament (1830). She then remarried to Charles Theodore Herbert, Baron de Venningen the Prime Minister of Bavaria, who committed suicide when she ultimately deserted him. Her third marriage with the Greek Count Spiridion Theotoky also ended in divorce, though Jane was grief-stricken when their six year old son died tragically in an accident. Her other romantic liasions were conducted with King Ludwig I of Bavaria, and then with his son King Otho of Greece.
A witty and cultivated woman, possessed of stately beauty, after residing in Paris, Munich, and Greece, Jane travelled to Syria (1853) where she met Sheikh Medjwal el Mezrab, who acted as guide to her camel train, when she made a nine day journaey across the desert in order to view the archaelogical remains of the ancient city of Palmyra. The sheikh was a highly educated man, who served as an Arab general in the Greek army. They were married, and Jane remained with him for thirty years, respected as the queen of his tribe and sometimes accompanying his troops into battle. She retained sufficient of her former British independence to defend the Christians during the Turkish massacres (1859). Lady Jane attired herself in the traditional blue robes and yashmak worn by Syrian women, went about barefoot, and smoked the hookah pipe. She was much revered amongst the Arabs for her excellent horsemanship and adventurous spirit. Jane Digby el Mezrab died of dysentery at Damascus (Aug 11, 1881) aged seventy-four, whilst apparently planning to elope with her dragoman.

Digges, Mary Kempe, Lady – (c1590 – c1637)
English heiress
Mary Kempe was the daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Kempe, of Ollantligh, Kent, and his wife Dorothy Thompson. She was married to Sir Dudley Digges (1583 – 1639), of Chilham Castle, Kent. Lady Digges caused Chilham to be fully rebuilt and restored, and was buried there at her death. She was the mother of Dudley Digges (1614 – 1643), the Royalist political writer, and of Edmund Digges (1621 – 1676), governor of Virginia in America.

Diggory, Elizabeth Mary – (1945 – 2007)
British educator
Diggory was born (Dec 22, 1945), and was educated at Shrewsbury. Despite an uninspiring academic career, Diggory became a history reader at Westfield College, in London University, and her first teaching position was at the King Edward VI High School for Girls in Birmingham, Lancashire (1968). Diggory was later appointed as headmistress of the St Albans High School for Girls (1983 – 1994), of the Manchester School for Girls (1994 – 1998), and high mistress of St Paul’s Girls School (1998 – 2006), all posts which she filled with great success. She remained unmarried, and was a fervent campaigner for unisex education, had a definite aversion to what she perceived as the unfair national curriculum system, and increased school bursaries to assist students from less privileged backgrounds. She retired in 2006. Elizabeth Diggory died of breast cancer (April 1, 2007), aged sixty-one.

Digna Merita (Degnamerita) – (c275 – c304 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Digna Merita is said to have belonged to the patrician Lavelunga family of Brescia. She died there under torture, during the persecutions instituted of the emperor Diocletian, together with her two young sons, who were thrown to their deaths from a window. The church honoured her as a saint (June 17).

Dignilla – (fl. c150 – c170 AD)
Roman patrician
Dignilla was the wife of A. Junius Pastor L. Caesennius Sospes, consul ord. (163 AD) and Imperial legate in the province of Belgica. Dignilla was attested by a surviving inscription from Mogontiacensis, and she may have been related to an attested Cominia Vipsania Dignitas from Alifanus, who was possibly the daughter of Lucius Cominius Vipsanius Salutarius the Imperial procurator of Sicily and Baetica.

Dikaiosyne – (fl. c370 BC)
Syrakusan princess
Dikaiosyne was the daughter of King Dionysius I and his second wife Aristomache, the daughter of Hipparinus. She was sister to King Dionysius II. Her father caused her to be married to her maternal uncle Leptines, and Dikaiosyne became the mother of the historian Phillistus. Her great-great-grandson, the wealthy nobleman Leptines became the father of Philistis the wife and consort of Hiero II (307 – 215 BC), King of Syrakuse.

Dildar Begum – (fl. 1511 – 1527)
Indian Mughal princess
Dildar Begum was one of the wives of the amperor Babar, to whom she bore five children, including the emperor Humayun. Contemporary historians referred to her with great respect, as did her daughter, Gulbadam Begum in her work, Humayun Nama (The History of Humayun) (c1580).

Dilke, Emilia Frances Strong, Lady – (1840 – 1904)
British trade unionist and French art historian
Emilia Strong was born at Ilfracombe, the daughter of Major Henry Strong, of the Indian army and his wife Emily Weedon, and the granddaughter of Samuel Strong of Augusta, Georgia, USA. She married firstly (1862), Mark Pattison (1819 – 1884), rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, and secondly (1885), Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke (1843 – 1911), the radical and Liberal MP.
Educated in Oxfordshire, she grew up in radical intellectual circles. She attended the South Kensington Art School (1859 – 1861), and deeply influenced by the artistic ansocial theories of John Ruskin. Her innate religious mysticism developed under the impact of Auguste Comte. George Eliot modelled her characters Dorothea and Casaubon from her novel, Middlemarch, on Emilia and her first husband Mark Pattison. She was active in the promotion of the improvement of the social and industrial conditions of working women, and was eventually president of the Women’s Trade Union League (1902).
After her second marriage, Lady Dilke closely identified herself with her husband’s career, working with him in his campaigns for shop assistants and against sweated trades. A passionate crusader for unionization, she remained a liberal, joining the Labour Pary just prior to her death, at Pyrford Rough, Woking, after a brief illness. Lady Dilke also became a critic of French art, and published several works including, The Renaissance of Art in France (1879), Art in the Modern State (1888), French Architects and Sculptors of the XVIIIth Century (1900), and, French Furniture and Decoration in the XVIIIth Century (1901).

Diller, Angela – (1877 – 1968)
American pianist, teacher and music editor
Diller was born (Aug 1, 1877) in Brooklyn, New York and studied music under Percy Goetschius (1853 – 1943) and Edward MacDowell (1860 – 1908), at Columbia University. With Margarethe Dessoff she founded the Adesdi Chorus and the A Cappella Singers of New York, and received the Guggenhein fellowship award (1953). Diller was author of, First Theory Book (1921) and The Splendor of Music (1957). Angela Diller died at Stamford, Connecticut, aged ninety (May 1, 1968).

Dilling, Mildred – (1894 – 1982) 
American harpist
Dilling was born in Marion, Indiana, and studied the harp, firstly with Louise Scehhschmidt-Koehne, and later with Henriette Renie in Paris, where she made her original public debut.
Mildred performed with the Madrigal Singers of the MacDowell Chorus in New York in 1913, and also toured with Yvette Guilbert and the de Reskes in Europe, and with Frances Alda. She made several tours in America, England, South America, the Middle East and Asia, and gave performances at the White House. A teacher as well as performer, Dilling’s most famous student was the comedian Harpo Marx (1888 – 1964). She was the author of, Old Tunes for New Harps (1934) and 30 Little Classics for the Harp (1938). Mildred Dilling died in New York, aged eighty-eight (Dec 30, 1982).

Dillingen von Koest, Katharina Margareta von Ludwigsburg, Duchess von – (1757 – 1829)
German courtier and royal
Katharina von Ludwigsburg was born (Oct 9, 1757). She attracted the attention of Prince Ludwig of Nassau-Saarsbrucken (1745 – 1794) and became his mistress (1774). She bore him several children during the lifetime of his first wife, and was created Baroness and Countess von Ottweiler (1784). As soon as his wife died Prince Ludwig married Katharina as his second wife (1787). The royal family did not accept the marriage and it was regarded as morganatic. Ludwig then caused her to be created Duchess von Dillingen von Koest (1789). Their surviving children were legitimated by their marriage. The duchess survived her royal consort for thirty-five years (1794 – 1829). Duchess Katharina died (Dec 12, 1829) aged seventy-two. Her children were,

Dillingham, Susan Jane    see   Lewes, Samantha

Dillon, Charlotte Lee, Countess – (1707 – 1794)
British heiress
Lady Charlotte Lee was the granddaughter of King Charles II (1660 – 1685), being daughter to Sir Edward Lee, first Earl of Lichfield, and his wife Lady Charlotte Fitzroy (1664 – 1718), the natural daughter of King Charles and his mistress Barbara Villiers. Lady Charlotte was married (1744) to Henry, eleventh Viscount and then third Earl Dillon (1705 – 1784), to whom she bore eleven children. She survived him for a decade as Dowager Countess (1784 – 1794). With the death of her uncle, Robert Henry Lee, fourth Earl of Lichfield (1776), Lady Dillon inherited the extensive Lichfield estates, including the family seat of Ditchley Park, which remains in the hands of her descendants, the Dillon-Lee family, in the twenty-first century.
Several of her children and descendants were notable, apart form her eldest son, Charles Dillon-Lee, fourth Earl Dillon (1745 – 1813), who married twice and left issue, her daughter Frances Dillon was married to Sir William Jerningham, and was famous for her letters and personal journal. Her younger son was General Arthur Richard Dillon (1750 – 1794), commander of the famous Dillon Regiment (1772 – 1794), who perished under the guillotine in France during the Terror, and his daughters, Fanny Dillon, Comtesse de Bertrand, and Henriette Lucy Dillon, Marquise de La Tour du Pin, the famous émigré and memoirist. Countess Dillon died (June 11, 1794) aged eighy-six.

Dillon, Christina Sheldon, Countess – (1680 – 1757)
Scottish Jacobite courtier
Christina Sheldon was the daughter of Ralph Sheldon. Raised at the Stuart court in exile at St Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, Christina became the wife (c1700) of the famous general, Lord Arthur Dillon (1670 – 1733), who was created first Earl Dillon. Most important of her children were Charles, second Earl Dillon (1701 – 1744) and Arthur Richard Dillon, Archbishop of Narbonne (1721 – 1806). Lady Dillon served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary Beatrice, the wife of the exiled James II. With her husband’s death, the countess placed his private papers papers in the archives of the Scotch College, in Paris. The countess then retired to the English Augustinian nunnery in Paris, where she became a nun. Countess Dillon died aged seventy-seven (Aug 5, 1757).

Dillwyn, Amy – (1845 – 1935)
British feminist, wrier and businesswoman
Elizabeth Amy Dillwyn was born at Parkwern, Swansea (May 16, 1845), the daughter of the Liberal politician, Louis Llewellyn Dillwyn, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of the famous geologist, Sir Henry de la Beche. Amy was educated privately at home, the death by smallpox of her intended bridegroom on the eve of their wedding (1864), caused her to remain unmarried. Sufferring from indifferent health, Dillwyn wrote over fifty articles for the periodical, the Spectator. With her father’s death (1892) she inherited the family pottery industry in Cambria, which was encumbered with debt. With sheer determination and hard work, Dillwyn eventually succeeded in turning the bankrupt business around by 1904, and sold her shares for considerable profit to the German industrial giant, Metallgesellschaft, in Frankfurt-am-Main. Dillwyn campaigned for suffrage for women, and was one of the first women to stand for elelction to a local council after the passing of the Qualification of Women Act (1907). Hard-headed, she was famous for her habit of smoking cigars in public. Amy Dillwyn died at West Cross, Swansea (Dec 13, 1935), aged ninety.

Dilras Banu – (c1622 – 1657)
Mughal princess
Dilras Banu was the eldest daughter of the Persian prince Badi-uz-zaman Mirza (Shah Nawaz Khan) and his wife Nawras Begum. She was married at Agra (1637) to the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb (1618 – 1707) as his first wife, but died in childbirth (Oct 8, 1657) at Aurangabad before he succeeded to the throne.  A woman of haughty and imperious temperament, her husband remained attached to her until her death. Her eldest son Azan built her a beautiful and imposing monument at Aurangabad, which survives to the present day. She bore Aurangzeb two sons and five daughters, of whom,

Dilshad Khatun – (fl. 1333 – 1335)
Ilkhanid queen
She became the last chief queen of Sultan Abu Sa’id (c1275 – 1335). Dilshad was the niece of his previous wife Baghdad Khatun.

Dimitriadi, Maria – (1951 – 2009)
Greek vocalist
Maria was born at Tavros in Athens, and was the elder sister of the famous singer Aphrodite Manou. She performed works written by Stavros Xarhakos and was well known as a lyrical performer. She was associated with other composers such as Mikis Theodrakis and Manos Hadjidakis, and retired rather early in her career. Maria Dimitriadi died (Jan 6, 2009) aged fifty-seven.

Dimitrova, Ghena – (1941 – 2005)
Bulgarian lyric soprano
Dmitrova was born in Sofia (May 6, 1941). Despite accusations that she lacked dramatic flair, Dimitrova was a favourite amongst Italian theatre fans. She also appeared in several films made for television such as, Turandot (1983), in which she played the title role, I Lombardi alla prima crociata (1984), Nabucco (1985) and Aida (1985), in which she played Amneris. Ghena Dmitrova died (June 11, 2005) aged sixty-four, in Milan, Lombardy.

Dimock, Susan – (1847 – 1875)
American surgeon
Dimock was probably the first accredited female surgeon in American history, and was attached to the New England Hospital for Women and Children. Susan Dimock died tragically young, being drowned at sea, aged only twenty-eight.

Dinak – (c410 – c475 AD)
Persian queen and ruler
Her parentage remains unknown. Dinak became the wife (c424 AD) of the Persian prince Yazdigird. She bore him two sons Hormisdas (c425 – 459 AD) and Peroz (Firuz) (c430 – 484 AD). Her husband succeeded to the throne as King Yazdigird II (438 AD) and she became queen consort for two decades. With Yazdigird’s death (457 AD) Queen Dinak ruled in Ctesiphon as regent, whilst her sons fought between themselves for sole power. Peroz eventually defeated and killed his brother and became sole ruler. Dinak died before the end of his reign.

Dinan, Emma de – (c1125 – c1170)
French medieval heiress
Emma de Dinan was the daughter of Roland de Dinan, seigneur de Bechevel, and was married (c1140) to Robert III, Seigneur de Vitre (c1110 – c1173). Emma inherited the seigneurie of Dinan from her father, which was in turn inherited by her second son, Alain II de Vitre (c1150 – c1199), and his descendents. Her five other children included Andre II, seigneur de Vitre (c1145 – c1211), and Eleanor de Vitre (c1162 – 1233), whose four husbands included the Norman lord, William, Earl of Salisbury.

Dinan, Francoise de – (1436 – 1499)
French medieval heiress
Francoise de Dinan was born (Dec 20, 1436) the daughter of Jacques de Dinan, a descendant of Seigneur Haimon, the first holder of Dinan, and his wife Roianteline, the sister of Archbishop Wicohen. She was married to Prince Gilles of Brittany, younger son of Duke Jean VI, and brother to Duke Francois I, whom she survived almost fifty years (1450 – 1499). Princess Francoise remained childless. Francoise de Dinan died (Jan 3, 1499) aged sixty-two.

Dinesen, Izak      see      Blixen, Karen Christence

Dingley, Etheldreda    see   Malte, Audrey

Ding Ling – (Ting Ling) – (1902 – 1986)
Chinese novelist
Born Jiang Bingzhi in Hunan province to a minor patrician family, her first published work, for which she adopted the pseudonym ‘Ding Ling,’ was the romantic, Sha-fei nu-shih te jih-chi (Diary of Miss Sophie) (1927). Ding Ling later joined the Communist party (1933) and was captured and imprisoned by the Kuomintang agents (1933 – 1936), though she eventually managed to escape disguised as a Manchurian soldier. She was best known for her work, Sang-Kan-ho-shang (The sunshines over the Sangkan River), which dealt with the struggles of the peasant class to survived the depredations of the rich farmers, which was awarded the Stalin Prize (1957). Soon after this however, she was condemned by the Communist authorities as a reactionary, forbidden to write, and exiled to northeast China, where she was forced to work as a peasant farmer. She later spent five years in solitary confinement (1970 – 1975) in Beijing, and sufferred further exile to Shanxi province before she and her work were publicly rehabilitated by the Communist leaders.

Dingo, Bessie Elizabeth – (1932 – 2003)
Australian aboriginal civic leader
Bessie was born (Dec 21, 1932) along the Gascoyne River in Western Australia, and received the name Bubaweedarra at birth. She originally was employed as a domestic servant from the age of eleven (1943) and became the mother to the television presenter and actor Ernie Dingo. Bessie became a determined preserver of the Wudjarri Yamitji language and culture and was greatly revered by the aboriginal community as a whole. Bessie Dingo died (Oct 30, 2003) aged seventy.

Dinh, Nguyen Thi – (1920 – 1992)
Vietnamese political figure and patriot
Born in South Vietnam in French Indochina, into a family known for its politically active reformers, she was raised to follow these precepts, being imprisoned in her youth (1940 – 1943) because of involvement with the Vietnamese Communist Party. She was later imprisoned during the period of French rule because of her own political activities (1951 – 1954), and later opposed the dictator Diem and the United States. With the formation of the new provisional government Dinh was appointed as Foreign minister (1969). Several years later, as the official representative of the National Liberation Front, the political form of the Vietcong, she signed the treaty that ended the Vietnam War (1973). She was appointed as minister of Education in the United Government (1979) and later served as one of the six nominated vice-presidents of Vietnam’s Council of State (1987). Nguyen Thi Dinh died in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) (Aug 26, 1992), aged seventy-two.

Dinham, Elizabeth Fitzwalter, Lady    see   Fitzwalter, Elizabeth

Dino, Dorothea Biron de Kurland, Duchesse de – (1793 – 1862)
Russian-French salonniere and political intriguer
Dorothea Biron de Kurland was born (Aug 21, 1793) at Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, in Prussia, the daughter of Peter Biron, Duke of Kurland and count of Semgallen, and his third wife, Countess Anna Dorothea von Medem, the daughter of Count Johann Friedrich von Medem. Dorothea was married at Frankfurt-am-Main (1809), as his first wife, to the French émigré peer, Alexandre Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord, Duc de Dino (1787 – 1872) to whom she bore several children, including, Napoleon Louis, Duc de Talleyrand-Perigord (1811 – 1898). A famous beauty and influential political figure, she attended the Imperial court in St Petersburg, Russia and the Bonaparte court in Paris. She was known for her liasions, sexual and otherwise, with leading power players of the day, such as Prince Metternich and Lord Aberdeen, and attended the salon of the Princesse de Lieven. She inherited the duchy of Sagan from her eldest sister Wilhelmina (1839), and died at Sagan, aged sixty-nine (Sept 19, 1862). The duchesse left memoirs entitled Souvenirs de la duchesse de Dino, publies par sa petite-fille, la comtesse Jean de Castellane (1901) which were published posthumously in Paris.

Dinqinesh Mercha – (c1836 – 1907)
Ethiopian empress consort (1868 – 1872)
Dinqinesh Mercha was the daughter of Shum Mercha, ruler of Tembien, and his wife Woizero Silas of Enderta, in the Tigray region, and claimed descent from the famous King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba. She was married firstly (c1852) to Ras Bitwoded Gebre Kidan, to whom she bore a son Dejazmatch Seyum Abba Gobez, and several daughters. This marriage was dissoved by divorce and Diniqinesh remarried at Tigre (1866) to the Emperor Takle Giyorgis II (c1836 – 1872), as his second wife.
With the death of the emperor Tewdoros (1868), her husband seized the throne and was crowned emperor (Aug, 1868). However, the empress’s brother, Dejazmatch Kassai, also claimed the Imperial throne and ultimately her husband was defeated in battle (July, 1871), and Dinqinesh’s brother was crowned emperor as Yohannes IV (Jan, 1872). The empress accompanied her husband into captivity, and resided with him at the monastery of Abune Gerima, near Adwa. With Takle’s death (1873), the empress was permitted to leave exile, and join her brother’s court at Mekele. There she remarried to Ras Wolde Kiros, but was permitted to retain all her Imperial titles and prerogatives. Her brother being a widower, Dinqinesh acted as first lady of the kingdom throughout his reign. She survived into the reign of emperor Menelik II. Empress Dinqinesh Mercha died at Axum, aged about seventy.

Dioclia – (d. c304 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Dioclia was the mother of Kalliopus. Both were arrested as Christians at Pompeiopolus in Cilicia, Asia Minor, during the persecutions instigated by the Emperor Diocletian. Kalliopus refused to abjure the Christian faith, and was put to death. Dioclia was then killed by soldiers as she embraced her son’s dead body. Her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (April 7).

Diophila – (fl. c300 BC)
Greek poet
Diophila was a native of Alexandria in Egypt, and was the author of a poet on astronomy which was consulted by the poet Kallimachus whilst writing his own Aetia. Her work no longer survives. Modern writers have speculated that she may also have written educational treatises that have not survived.

Diorchild – (fl. c650 – c700)
Merovingian saint
Diorchild was a Benedictine nun near Meaux in France, who attained a reputation for great religious sanctity. The Bollandists recorded her feast day (Oct 20).

Diotima – (fl. c440 – c420 BC)
Greek philosopher
Diotima is said to have been a priestess of Mantinea. The philosopher Socrates pretended to have learnt the theory of love from Diotima, according to Plato in his, Symposium.

Diplosynadena, Irene – (c1128 – c1154)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Irene Diplosynadena was daughter to the patrician Diplosynadenos of Constantinople. She became the second wife (1145) of Prince Isaak Komnenus (1115 – before 1174), a younger son of the emperor Johannes II (1118 – 1143). Irene was amongst those Imperial ladies who welcomed Bertha of Sulzbach to Constantinople for her marriage with Emperor Manuel II (1143 – 1180). Princess Irene was the mother of Princess Theodora Kalusina Komnena, who was married firstly to Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem, and was then mistress to Emperor Andronikos I Komnenus (1183 – 1185). Irene’s great-great-granddaughter, Beatrice of Swabia (1203 – 1235) was the first wife of Ferdinando III, King of Castile. Through this marriage Irene was the ancestress of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and all of his subsequent descendants, which made her ancestress of all of the six wives of Henry VIII of England (1509 – 1547).

Disciola – (c530 – 582)
Merovingian nun and saint
Disciola was the niece of Salvius, Bishop of Albi in Languedoc (d. Sept 10, 585). She took her vows as a nun under Agnes, the first abbess of Sainte-Croix (Holy Cross), at Poitiers in Aquitaine, which had been founded by Queen Radegonde (c550), and is mentioned in the vitae of both saints. Her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 13).

Disney, Doris Miles – (1907 – 1976)
American mystery novelist
Doria Miles was born (Dec 22, 1907) in Glastonbury, Connecticut, and became the wife of George Disney. The noted mystery author, Dorothy Cameron Disney was no relation to Doris or her husband. Disney wrote nearly fifty books over three decades, her first, A Compound for Death (1943), appeared after the birth of her daughter. Other novels included Dark Road, No Next of Kin, and, Family Skeleton, which was adapted for the screen as Stella (1950), and starred Ann Sheridan and Victor Mature. Her last book Winifred (1976) was published posthumously. Doris Miles Disney died of cancer in Vicksburg, Virginia (March 8, 1976), aged sixty-eight.

Disney, Lillian – (1899 – 1997)
American philanthropist
Disney was born in Lapwai, Idaho, on the Nez Perce Indian reservation, the daughter of a Federal marshal. She came to Hollywood in California, in the wake of an elder sibling, and worked as an inker of film frames at the new studio established by Walt Disney (1923), and became the wife of the film producer himself soon afterwards (1925). The couple had two daughters.
Lillian Disney assisted her husband with the creation of the character Snow White and is said to have named Mickey Mouse, but she remained out of the public eye, only emerging after the death of her husband (1966) as a leading charitable organizer and patron of the arts. She co-founded the avant-garde California Institute of the Arts (1966), which trained film animators and made a fifty million dollar donation in support of the Music Center in Los Angeles County (1987). Disney also made a substantial donation in support of the Nez Perce Indians (1996). Lillian Disney died in Hollywood (Dec 16, 1997), aged ninety-eight.

Disraeli, Mary Anne – (1792 – 1872)
British political wife
Born Mary Anne Evans at Exeter (Nov 11, 1792), she was the daughter of a naval officer. She married firstly (1815) to Colonel Wyndham Lewis, a member of parliament, and secondly (1839) the noted politician Benjamin Disraeli (1804 – 1881), later Earl of Beaconsfield, the favourite of Queen Victoria, and former colleague of her first husband. Mrs Disraeli was twelve years her husband’s senior, and possessed a large income and expensive properties. Despite this, the couple remained devoted to each other, and even Queen Victoria remarked upon their compatability, despite the disparity in their ages. Disraeli’s novel, Sybil (1846), was dedicated to her. Mary Anne supported her husband in all his political campaigns and was his chief stay and support during the years climbing to the top, and was delighted when he was elected as prime minister. She was raised to the peerage as Viscountess Beaconsfield (1868), during the first year her husband’s appointment, at his won request to Queen Victoria, as a reward for her years of devotion. Mrs Disraeli died (Dec, 1872) at their manor of Hughenden, aged eighty.

d’Istria, Dora    see    Ghika, Elena

Ditizele – (c300 – c265 BC)
Greek queen consort
A high-born native of Phrygia, Ditizele became the first wife and queen if Nikomedes I, King of Bithynia in Asia Minor. She was the mother of his two elder sons Prusias and Ziaelas, and of a daughter named Lysandra. The chronicler Arrianus recorded in his Bithynica that the queen was joking with her husband in a familiar manner, and was mauled by his dog who mistakenly though she was killing his master. Badly wounded by the animal Ditizele died in her husband’s arms. The king caused her to be interred at Nikomedeia with great honour in a gilded stone tomb.
Nikomedes later took a second wife Etazeta who also bore him sons. She persuaded the elderly king to disinherit Ditizele’s sons in favour of her own much younger sons. However, with the king’s death Ziaelas succeeded in becoming king (254 – 229 BC) despite the opposition led by the supporters of his stepmother and half-brothers who were forced into exile in Macedonia.

Ditlevsen, Tove – (1918 – 1976)
Danish poet and author
Tove Ditlevsen was born and raised in Copenhagen. Her works included Pigesind (A Young Girl’s Mind) (1939) and Kvinesend (A Woman’s mind) (1955). She wrote the painfully candid autobiographical work Gift (1971).

Diver, Maud – (1867 – 1945)
British novelist, journalist and historian
Born Katharine Maud Helen Marshall in India, she was the daughter of an army officer stationed there. She returned to England for her education, and was later married to an officer herself (1890), returning to India. Diver returned to England permanently with her husband (1896), but for the rest of her life strove to maintain her connections with India. She was particularly remembered for her extremely popular romantic novel, Captain Desmond VC (1907), and touched on difficult subjects such as racial intolerance in works like, Candles in the Wind (1909), and, Lilamani (1911). She defended the often decried role of the British memsahib in India in her, The Englishwoman in India (1909). Her last work, The Unsung (1944), was written to celebrate the British railway engineers who worked in India.

Divion, Jeanne de – (c1295 – 1331)
French forger
Jeanne de Divion resided in Arras, where she was the mistress of a cleric attached to the household of Mahaut d’Artois, Comtesse of Burgundy, the mother-in-law of Philip V, King of France. When her lover died, the comtesse compelled Jeanne to leave Arras. Divion then joined the household of Jeanne de Valois, the wife of Robert III, Comte d’Artois, nephew to Comtesse Mahaut. She inveigled her way into the confidence of her mistress, and became involved in a dangerous intrigue, which aimed at removing the control of the county of Artois from Comtesse Maude. When Countess Jeanne was arrested for her activities and put on trial in Paris, de Divion was also arrested and imprisoned. She confessed to forging documents and was then publicly executed.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde (Dorothy) – (1802 – 1887)
American humanitarian and social reformer
Dorothea Dix was born in Hampden, Massachusetts, and was raised from the age of twelve by her grandmother in Boston. She devoted her life to promoting improved care and conditions in the care of the insane and mentally deranged. Ill-health hampered her teaching career, and she began to write, publishing the popular science textbook, Conversations on Common Things (1824), which went through sixty-five editions.
Whilst working as a Sunday school teacher, she visited an asylum for the mentally deranged in East Cambridge, and was appalled by the conditions sufferred by the inmates. She travlled, published newspaper articles, and lectured around America, constantly working to improve and ameliorate conditions for the mentally afflicted. Her work led to a correspondence and friendship with with President Millard Fillmore which was lated edited and published as The Lady and The President: The Letters of Dorothea Dix and Millard Fillmore (1975). She also wrote poetry and didactic works such as, Hymns for Children (1825), The Garland of Flora (1829), and, American Moral Tales for Young Persons (1832). Dorothea Lynde Dix died aged eighty-five (July 18, 1887). She was posthumously inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1980).

Dix, Dorothy – (1870 – 1951)
American journalist and writer, she was born Elizabeth Meriwether in Montgomery County, Tennessee, and was married to George Gilmer. She decided on a career in journalism at an early age, and served as editor of the women’s department of the New Orleans neswpaper, Picayune in Louisana (1896 – 1901). Adopting the pseudonym of Dorothy Dix, she later joined the staff of the New York Journal (1901 – 1917) and ended her career on the staff of the Bell Syndicate. Her works included, Fables of the Elite (1902), Mirandy (1912), and, Dorothy Dix: Her Book (1926), amongst other publications. Dorothy Dix died aged eighty-one (Dec 16, 1951).

Dixie, Barbara Beaumont, Lady – (1603 – 1666)
English heiress
Barbara Beaumont was the only child of Sir Henry Beaumont, of Gracedieu, Leicestershire, and his wife Barbara Faunt, later the wife of Sir Henry Harpur, baronet. Her father died in 1605, having settled his property of Gracedieu on his male heirs. With her mother’s remarriage, Barbara became a ward of King James I (1603 – 1625). During her childhood an important lawsuit was brought to try and recover the family property from her uncle, Sir John Beaumont (1582 – 1627), the heir male, in her own favour. This lawsuit proved unsuccessful, though it proved to clarify the law on this point of inheritance. Barbara Beaumont was married firstly to her stepbrother, Sir John Harpur, of Swarkeston, Derby. With his early death she remarried (1629) to Sir Wolstan Dixie (c1600 – 1682), first baronet. She bore her second husband, two sons and six daughters, including Sir Beaymont Dixie, the second baronet. Lady Dixie died (Dec, 1666), aged sixty-three.

Dixie, Florence Caroline Douglas, Lady – (1857 – 1905)
British traveller, writer, and poet
Lady Florence Douglas was born in London, the youngest child of Archibald William Douglas, seventh Marquess of Queensberry, and his wife Caroline Margaret, daughter of General Sir William Robert Clayton. She was married (1875) to Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, eleventh Baronet (1851 – 1924) and was the mother of Sir George Douglas Dixie, twelfth Baronet (1876 – 1948). Her younger son Albert Edward (1878 – 1920) had the Prince of Wales (Edward VII) as his godfather. With her husband, Lady Dixie hunted big game in Africa, Arabia, and the Rocky Mountains in America. She explored Patagonia in 1878 – 1879, and corresponded with the Morning Post concerning the Zulu War (1879 – 1881). It was largely owing to her influence that the captive Zulu king Cetshwayo was permitted to return to his homeland, and she wrote, A Defence of Zululand and its King. She also denounced Irish land league agitation (1880 – 1883), and alleged, though without proof, that she had been the victim of a Fenian outrage near Windsor in 1883. Lady Dixie also advocated sexual equality. Though herself and excellent rider and swimmer, Lady Dixie later came to abhor shooting as a sport or amusement, and published several books providing her views on the subject, notably, The Horrors of Sport (1891), The Mercilessness of Sport (1901), and, Rambles in Hell, amongst others. Her collection of poems, The Songs of a Child (1902 – 1903) had been written during her youth, under the pseudonym of ‘Darling’.  Her travel books included, Across Patagonia (1880), and, In the Land of Misfortune (1882). Lady Dixie died at Glen Stuart, Annan, Scotland, and was interred at Kinmount.

Dixon, Adele – (1908 – 1992)
British theatre and film actress
Adele Dixon was born (June 3, 1908) in London, and worked in the theatre there before appearing on Broadway in New York, where she starred in the musical, Nikki (1931) and the musical comedy, Between the Devil (1937 – 1938). Dixon appeared as Hope Harcourt in the London production of Cole Porter’s Broadway hit, Anything Goes (1935) and in several others such as Youth at the Helm (1935) and Hubert Follies (1948). She appeared in several films such as Uneasy Virtue (1931), Calling the Tune (1936), Banana Ridge (1941), and Woman to Woman (1946). Dixon is also remembered for her rendition of the song ‘Television’ which she sang at the opening of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) television broadcast in London (1936). Adele Dixon died (April 11, 1992) in Manchester, in Lancashire, aged eighty-three.

Dixon, Anne Campbell – (1946 – 2005)
British journalist
Anne Campbell Dixon was the daughter of film critic Campbell Dixon and the broadcaster Lilian Duff, and the godchild of film producer, Alexander Korda. She was educated at the South Hampstead School for Girls and the Slade School in London. Dixon worked as a freelance journalist with the lifestyle magazine, Intro, and with the, Travel Trade Gazette, where she met her husband, American journalist, Hugh McLean, whom she married. The couple purchased and attempted to restore Beckington Castle, Somerset, but finances dwindled and an acrimonious divorce followed. Dixon remarried to British journalist Don Vear, and the couple had two children. Dixon went on to write television reviews and feature articles for, The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph, and interviewed prominent people such as author Kingsley Amis, the poet C. Day Lewis, actress Sheila Hancock, and tennis champion Godfrey Winn.

Dixon, Ella Nora Hepworth – (1855 – 1932)
British novelist and travel writer
Ella Dixon was born in London, the daughter of William Hepworth Dixon, editor of the, Athenaeum. She wrote short stories and travel-logues for various magazines such as the, Pall Mall Gazette and the, Ladies’ Pictorial, before becoming editor of the popular journal, the, Englishwoman (1895).  Dixon published a series of comic sketches My Flirtations (1892), using the pseudonym ‘Margaret Wynman,’ but was best remembered for the novel, The Story of a Modern Woman (1894), which dealt with the account of a spinster’s survival in the world after the death of her father. She remained unmarried.

Dixon, Gertrude Caroline – (1886 – 1966)
British civil servant
Gertrude Dixon was the daughter of a Weslyan minister, Seth Dixon. She remained unmarried and during WW I was appointed as secretary of the Wheat Executive. She later served as a secretary to the League of Nations for two decades (1919 – 1939), and for the United Nations (1945 – 1954). Dixon was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1918) and CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1920) by King George V in recognition of her work for the war effort. Gertrude Dixon died in London (March 21, 1966), aged seventy-nine.

Dixon, Jean – (1896 – 1981)
American stage and film actress
Jean Dixon was born (July 14, 1896), in Waterbury, Connecticut, and was privately educated at home, and then went aborad to study in Paris. Whilst in France Dixon made her debut stage appearance in the role of the legendary Franch actress, Sarah Bernhardt. Returning to the USA, Dixon made her successful home stage debut on Broadway in New York (1921). She toured throughout the country, and returned to work on Broadway, before making her first film, The Lady Lies (1929). Dixon made less than a dozen films after the advent of sound, the most notable being, She Married Her Boss (1935), My Man Godfrey (1936) and Holiday(1938) with Katharine Hepburn.

Dixon, Jeane Pinckert – (1918 – 1997)
American psychic and astrologer
Jeane Pinckert was born in Medford, Wisconsin (Jan 5, 1918), the daughter of Frank Pinckert, a wealthy German-born lumber businessman, and his wife Emma Von Graffee. Raised a devout Roman Catholic in California, where she attended college in Los Angeles, California. She became aware of her psychic gift for telling fortunes from early childhood, and this talent was encouraged by her mother. Pinckert married (1939) a real estate dealer from Washington, James L. Dixon, and acquired a local reputation for the accuracy of her advice. Mrs Dixon achieved fame for predicting the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1963), whom she had repeatedly tried to warn of his impending fate, and became popularly known as the ‘Seeress of Washington.’ Other successes included predicting the communist take-over of China, the partition of India, and the death of Mahatma Gandhi. She wrote a volume of memoirs, Yesterday, Today and Forever (1976), and during the Reagan administration (1980 – 1988) her services were discreetly used by First Lady, Nancy Reagan. Despite this however, she made several unsuccessful predictions, namely that World War III would begin over a disagreement of the Chinese islands of Quemoy and Matsu (1958), that the president of the United Auto Workers, Walter Reuther, would run for presidential office (1964), and that the Russians would put the first man on the moon.  Later she also incorrectly predicted that President George Bush would be re-elected (1992). Jeane Dixon died in Washington (Jan 25, 1997).

Dixon, Joan – (1930 – 1995)
American film actress
Joan Dixon was born in Norfolk, Virginia (June 6, 1930). Her early career at RKO Pictures was controlled by the wealthy magnate Howard Hughes, but her career did not attain stardom. Dixon later married the noted camera manufacturer, Ted Briskin in Chicago, Illinois (1952), as his second wife, but the union lasted only a few weeks, and they were later divorced (1954). She was later married to the writer, William Dixon, but this marriage also ended in divorce (1959). Dixon made less than a dozen films in her short career, but also made appearances on several popular television series such as, Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1956), and, The Ford Television Theater (1957). Joan Dixon died aged sixty-four (Feb 20, 1995).

Dixon, Pat – (1943 – 2001)
Australian aboriginal leader and activist
Born Patricia Anne Quinlan near Kempsey, New South Wales, she was a member of the Dunghutti people. Removed from her family by the Aboriginal Welfare Board (1959), she worked in Sydney as a domestic servant. She married Douglas Dixon (1964) to whom she bore two sons. The family settled in Armidale, where Pat worked as a cleaner whilst studying for her diploma in Aboriginal studies at the Armidale College of Advanced Education, and where she became increasingly involved with community issues. Elected to the Armidale City Council (1983), Dixon was believed to be the first Aboriginal woman in Australia to enter local government. She later served as deputy mayor under the succeeding Armidale Dumaresq Council for two five year terms. Dixon was also appointed to the Local Government Grants Commission and was chairwoman of the New England and North Coast State Housing Commission and the New England Health Board. Appointed chief executive officer of the Armidale District Services (1995), which organized an Aboriginal medical centre, she became the first Aboriginal woman to be elected to the Local Government Association (2000). One of her main aims was to gain proper legal representation for indigenous Australians, and to that end Dixon worked significantly, and successfully, to persuade Aborginal Australians to register on commonwealth and local government electoral roles. Pat Dixon died of a heart attack in Armidale (Sept 30, 2001), her funeral being attended by many important dignitaries including Marie Bashir, the governor of NSW.

Dixon, Sarah – (fl. 1740)
British poet
Sarah Dixon was related to the De l’Angles family, and was the aunt to John Bunce, vicar of St Stephen’s, near Canterbury, and was an ardent adherent of the Stuart cause. She is remembered for one printed work, Poems on Several Occasions (1740), which were published in Canterbury. She was a member of the literary circle of Alexander Pope and Elizabeth Carter, and one of her poems for this collection, ‘The Ruins of St Austin,’ were later published in the, Kentish Gazette (1774).

Dixson, Zella Allen – (1858 – 1924)
American librarian and author
Dixon was born in Zanesville, Ohio. She became head librarian at the University of Chicago Library (1891), and held the position till her death over thirty years later. Dixson was the author of, The Comprehensive Subject Index to Universal Prose Fiction (1897), and, Concerning Book Plates: A Hand-Book for Collectors (1903). Zella Allen Dixon died aged sixty-five (Jan 12, 1924).

Djaparidze, Agrafena Konstantinovna – (1855 – 1929)
Russian Imperial mistress
Agrafena Djaparidze was born (Nov 6, 1855) of noble Georgian ancestry, the daughter of Konstantin Djaparidze. Her first marriage with Prince Daniel Alexandrovitch Dadiani ended in divorce, and Agrafena became involved in a laision with Duke Constantine Frederick of Oldenburg (1850 – 1906) who married her morganatically (1882) at Kutais. She was denied the royal rank, but was created Countess von Zarnekau (Oct 20, 1882) by Peter II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg, which title was permitted to descend to their children, who were considered legitimate, but not in the line of succession to the grand dukedom of Oldenburg. Widowed at Nice in France (March 18, 1906), the countess later returned to Russia. She remained there during the Revolution, and later died (Oct 18, 1929) at Kislovdosk, aged seventy-three, having born six children,

Djaparidze, Medea – (1923 – 1994)
Georgian actress
Djaparidze was born at Tbilisi (Feb 20, 1923) and began her career by appearing in the roles of Nazime in the film, Qalishvili gagmidan (The Girl from the Other Side) (1941), and as Dzabuli in, Kolkhetis chiraqdnebi (Lights of Kolkheti) (1941). Djaparidze appeared in over fifteen films in a career that spanned five decades, and also worked in theatre. She appeared as the historical Georgian princess Tinatin, who became queen of Iran in Girogi Saakadze (1942), and as Eiliko in, Tsarsuli zapkhuli (1959), which was released in Great Britain as, Last Summer. She played herself in the film, Tsisperi mtebi anu daujerebeli ambavi (Blue Mountains, or Unbelievable Story) (1984), and retired after her last film, Bati Tasiko (1984), in which she was the voice of the title character. Medea Djaparidze died (March 31, 1994) aged seventy-one.

Djefatsen – (fl. c2460 BC)
Egyptian princess of the IVth Dynasty (2520 – 2392 BC)
Princess Djefatsen was the daughter of Prince Nefermaat and his wife, Princess Itet. She was the paternal granddaughter of King Seneferu (Snofru), the first pharoah of that dynasty, and was niece to Pharoah Khufu. The princess was portrayed as an adult on a surviving relief found in her father’s tomb at Meidum. No husband or children are attested for her.

Djeneina – (c1883 – 1960)
Tunisian princess consort (1943 – 1957)
Djeneina was born into a mud nut, the daughter of a black Sudanese slave. She became a laundress in the household of Ahmad bin Ali, the Bey of Tunis (1862 – 1942). There Djeneina attracted the attention of the Bey’s son and successor, Lamine, who later became Bey of Tunis as Muhammad Al-Amin bin Muhammad Al-Habib (1943). Lamine married her at Monastir (1902) despite parental opposition, and she became popularly known as ‘La Beza,’ an allusion to her former profession. The couple had twelve children, three sons and nine daughters, who, though considered royal, were not in the line of succession to the throne of Tunis. Her eldest son, Prince Chedly (1910 – 1972), died unmarried and childless, whilst her two younger sons both married and produced issue. Her daughter, Zakia (born 1921), became the wife of Dr Muhammmad bin Salem, the Tunisian minister of Health (1950 – 1952). Princess Djeneina died in Tunis, aged in her late seventies (Oct, 1960).

Djordjadze, Princess Audrey    see    Emery, Audrey

Dmitrieva, Elisaveta Ivanovna    see    Gabriak, Cherubina de

Doamna, Elena    see   Cuza, Elena

Doane, Didama Kelley – (fl. 1866 – 1877)
American traveller and diarist
Mrs Doane was the wife of sea merchant, and she kept a diary of her travels with her husband which included a two year voyage aboard his ship Rival (1866 – 1868). This was published posthumously in Syracuse, New York as The Cap’n’s Wife: The Diary of Didama Kelley Doane of West Harwich Massachusetts, Wife of Cap’n’ Uriel Doane (1877).

Doble, Frances(1905 – 1969)
Canadian-Anglo actress
Born Frances Mary Hyde Doble in Canada, she was the daughter of Arthur Doble, and was raised and educated there. She came to England where she joined the theatrical company of Seymour Hicks in London, and also worked with the Birmingham Repertory. Beautiful, though not particularly talented, and unambitious, Doble was best remembered for her celebrated calamitous appearance in Noel Coward’s play Sirocco (1927) in Leicester Square. She lived to stare down this disaster, and became a successful performer in the West End, appearing in productions such as the young wife in, Young Woodley and the composer’s wife in, The Constant Nymph. She performed in plays written by John Van Druten, Edgar Wallace, and Margaret Kennedy.
Doble was also remembered for her (then) daring disrobing scene in Anthony Kimmin’s successful production of, While Parents Sleep. She was a friend to the novelist, Lady Eleanor Smith, and appeared in the title role of the play, Ballerina, which was adapted from one of her friend’s novels. Doble was married (1929) to Sir Anthony Henry Lindsay-Hogg (1908 – 1968), second baronet (1923 – 1968), of Rotherfield Hall, Rotherfield, Essex, and was the mother of his successor, Sir William (1930 – 1988), the third baronet. Doble finally retired from the stage in 1934. Frances Doble survived her husband barely a year, and died aged sixty-five (Dec, 1969).

Dobrodejda – (c1107 – c1136)
Byzantine Augusta (1122 – c1136)
Originally named Zoe Mstislavovna, she was the daughter of Mstislav I Vladimirovitch, Grand Prince of Kiev, and his Swedish wife Kristina. She became the first wife (1122) of Alexius Komnenus, the eldest son and joint-emperor (1119 – 1142) with his father Johannes II Komnenus, and adopted the Greek name of Eupraxia. She left two daughters, the elder of whom, Maria Komnena (c1124 – 1167) became the wife of Alexius Auch, duke of Cilicia in Asia Minor. Her scholarly education and command of the Greek classics was commented upon by her contemporaries. These pursuits were encouraged at the Byzantine court, and the Greek writer Balsamon also noted the empress’s skill in developing herbal medicianl remedies. She translated some of the works of the Greek physician Galen into Russian, and was the author of the treatise, Alimma (Ointments), a fragmentary copy of which survives in the collection of the Medici Library in Florence.

Dobrawa    see    Dubravka

Dobronega Maria – (1021 – 1087)
Queen consort of Poland (1040 – 1058)
Born in Kiev, Ukraine, she was the eldest daughter of Jaroslav Vladimirovitch, Grand Prince of Kiev and his second wife Ingegarde, the daughter of Olaf III Skotkonnung, King of Sweden. She was married (1040) to King Kasimir I of Poland who ruled (1034 – 1058) whose subjects gave her the additional name of Maria. She was queen dowager for almost thirty years (1058 – 1087).  Dobronega Maria is soemtimes incorrectly identified as the illegitimate daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir I, who was actually her paternal grandfather. She bore Kasimir four children,

Dobson, Emily – (1842 – 1934)
Australian philanthropist
Born Emily Lempriere in Tasmania (then Van Dieman’s Land) (Oct 10, 1842), she was educated privately, and married (1868) to Henry Dobson, who later served as premier of Tasmania. Dobson was a co-founder of the Women’s Sanitary Association, and was prominent with work connected with housing for the working class during the severe depression prior to 1900. A firm supporter of female suffrage, she was federal president of the National Council of Women (1906 – 1921), and founded the Girl Guides’ Association of Tasmania. Emily Dobson died in Hobart (June 5, 1934), aged ninety-one.

Dobson, Tamara – (1947 – 2006)
Black American actress and fashion model
Born in Baltimore, Maryland (May 14, 1947), she studied at the Maryland Institute College of Art. Dobson became a model for Vogue magazine, which career paved the way for her appearance in eight films. She was best remembered for her roles in, Cleopatra Jones (1973) and, Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold (1975). Her first film role in Come Back, Charleston Blue (1972) was uncredited and her last was in the television movie Amazons (1984). Tamara Dobson died in Baltimore (Oct 2, 2006), aged fifty-nine.

Doche, Marie Charlotte Eugenie – (1821 – 1900)
French stage actress
Marie de Plunkett was born in Brussels, Belgium, the daughter of an patrician Irish family that had settled there. The early death of her father prompted her to begin a career on the stage (1835).
Possessed of a graceful, willowy figure, and a beautiful swan-like neck, she proved extremely successful in this endeavour, and was soon married (1838) to the noted composer, Alexandre Pierre Joseph Doche (1799 – 1849), as his second wife. However, the marriage proved a disaster due to her romantic liasions, and Doche abandoned her, travelling to work in St Petersburg in Russia. They never divorced and she survived him over five decades.
Madame Doche provided generously for less prominent actors and, collected an impressive library and portraits by the old masters, with which to decorate her Paris Home. She was engaged by Alexandre Dumas pere for the part of the courtesan Marie Duplessis, opposite Charles Fechter, in the first public production of his play, La Dame aux Camellias (1850), which she performed to resounding success, after personally pleading with the Duc de Persigny and Napoleon III to remove proposed censorship of the play. The poet and novelist, Theophile Gautier much admired her performance though the moralists accused Dumas of glorifying the role of a courtesan. Madame Doche died in Paris.

Dock, Lavinia Lloyd – (1858 – 1956)
American nursing reformer, suffragist and social activist
Dock was born (Feb 26, 1858) and graduated from the Bellevue hospital Nursing School (1886), and four years later produced, Materia Medica for Nurses (1890), the first drug manual available for nurses. Appointed the assistant superintendent of nurses at John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland (1890), she co-wrote A History of Nursing (1907) with Adelaide Nutting, a fellow nurse at John Hopkins. Lavinia herself wrote two further volumes of this series, which were added to the later reprint (1912). Remembered as being the only nurse to support a doctor’s campaign against the spread of veneral disease, Lavinia wrote about their efforts in this field in the, American Journal of Nursing (1905). She was also the author of, Hygiene and Morality (1910). Later sufferring imprisonment for her activities in support of female suffrage, Lavinia assisted with the organization of the first nursing association for black women. She was honoured by the International Council of Nurses (1947). Lavinia Lloyd Dock died in Pennsylvania, aged ninety-eight (April 17, 1956).

Docker, Betty Bristow – (1920 – 2001)
Australian nurse and air force matron
Betty Docker was born (March 26, 1920) in St Kilda in Melbourne, Victoria. After her mother’s death she was raised by her father in Wagga Wagga. She trained as a nurse at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne and joined the RAAFNS (Royal Australian Air Force Nursing Service) (1944) and assisted with the repatriation of prisoners of war and wounded servicemen from New Guinea and south-east Asia.
Docker served with the occupying force at Iwakuni in Japan (1949 – 1950) and then served in Korea (1953 – 1954) as a section officer. Betty Docker later served as matron of the Butterworth Hospital in Malaysia (1967 – 1969) and was awarded the Royal Red Cross and was appointed as Queen’s Honorary Nursing Sister (1969) as well as being the recipient of the Florence Nightingale medal for distinguished service (1971). She assisted with the publication of Story of the RAAF Nursing Service 1940 – 1990 (1990). Betty Docker died (July 18, 2001) in Canberra, ACT (Australian Capital Territory).

Docker, Norah Turner, Lady – (1906 – 1983)
British socialite
Norah Turner was born in Derby, the daughter of a car salesman. She was trained as a milliner and employed as such at Southport, but threw in her career to become a dancing partner at the Café de Paris in London. Blonde and extremely attractive, she hoped this would be the stepping stone to the glamorous life she had always admired. In London she met her first husband, the wealthy wine merchant, Clement Callingham, whom she lived with and bore a son too, being later cited in Callingham’s divorce from his first wife. Callingham then married her. With his death (1945), Norah remarried secondly (1946) to Sir William Collins, head of Fortnum and Mason. This marriage, which lasted barely two years, was acrimonious. Finally, she married her third and last husband, Sir Bernard Docker, head of the Daimler car firm, who later presented her with a gold-covered Daimler as a gift (1951). Lady Docker entertained at the family estate of Stockbridge in Hampshire, and visited the casino at Monte Carlo, in Monaco, where she attended the marriage of Prince Rainier with the American actress, Grace Kelly (1953). She was famous alike for her beauty and expensive jewellery, as well as her difficult temperament and fondness for pink champagne. However, her husband’s financial situation deteriorated throughout the late 1950’s and 1960’s, and the couple eventually retired to live in Palma, Majorca for tax reasons, though Sir Bernard later returned to England for health reasons, and resided in a Bournemouth nursing home. She was widowed in 1978, and left memoirs. Lady Docker died at Palma, five years later (Dec, 1983), aged seventy-seven.

Dod, Lottie – (1871 – 1960)
British sportswoman
Charlotte Dod was born at Lower Bebington in Cheshire, daughter of a cotton broker. Educated at home she was taught to play tennis by her two brothers, and played in the Waterloo tournament (1885) at the age of thirteen, being billed as the ‘Little Wonder.’ She won her first Wimbledon title at the age of fifteen (1887) against Blanche Bingley, thus becoming the youngest ever tennis champion. Dod won another four singles titles, and defeated the Wimbledon champion Ernest Renshaw in a handicapped exhibition match (1885) and then defeating six-times winner, William Renshaw later in the same year. Also interested in hockey Dod represented Britain against Ireland in 1899, and 1900, then took up golf, where she won the British Ladies Open Golf championships at Troon (1904). She became an expert skater at St Moritz, passing both the men’s and women’s tests, and then won a silver medal for archery at the London Games (1908) establishing a reputation as the greatest all-rounder sportswoman Britain had ever produced. During World War I, she became a home nurse and was awarded the Red Cross gold medal. An accomplished pianist she performed with the London Oriana Madrigal Society. She remained unmarried. Lottie Dod died (June 27, 1960) at Sway, Hampshire.

Doda of Metz – (c590 – after 629)
Carolingian nun
Sometimes called Oda, she was of noble Saxon ancestry. She was married (c600) to Arnulf (582 – 640), Mayor of the Palace and Bishop of Metz, tutor to the Merovingian ruler, Dagobert I. They became the direct ancestors of the Carolingian royal house (751 – 911). Doda and Arnulf had several children, including Anisegal, Duke of Austrasia (602 – c662) who married Bega, elder daughter and heiress of Pepin I of Landen, Walchigise, Count of Verdun, ancestor of the dukes of Aquitaine, and St Cloud (Clodulf), Bishop of Metz (c616 – 694).
With the birth of her last child, Doda and Arnulf seperated by mutual consent, and she took the veil as a nun at Treves (Trier) where she took the religious name of Clothilda. Arnulf also wished to retire from the world, but the needs of the king and the performance of his public duties prevented him from carrying out his wish for some years. Many years after their separation Doda and Arnulf were required to meet again in order to settle some family business (629). Doda was so afraid that her prescence might unwittingly revive her husband’s former conjugal affections, that she shaved her head. Arnulf was horrified by the sight, and Doda quietly returned to Treves, where she later died.
Doda was venerated as a saint in the early medieval world, though the date of her feast is now lost. She is usually commemorated with her son St Cloud. Doda was the paternal grandmother of St Wandrille (Wandregisel) (c630 – 668) the Abbot of Fontenelle.

Doda of Rethel – (c1015 – c1050)
Flemish duchess
Sometimes called Guota or Uoda, Doda was the daughter of Count Manasses I of Rethel and his wife Dada. She became the second wife (c1030 – 1035) of Godfrey II the Bearded of Louvain (997 – 1069), Duke of Lower Lorraine and became his duchess consort. Doda was the mother of Godfrey III the Hunchback (1037 – 1076), Duke of Lower Lorraine and of Ida of Louvain, Countess of Boulogne, through whom Doda was the maternal grandmother of the Crusader hero Godfrey de Bouillon (1059 – 1100). Doda died (Dec 10, 1050) and was interred within the Abbey of Munsterbilsen.

Dodas i Noguer, Anna – (1963 – 1986)
Spanish composer and poet
Anna Dodas was born at Folgueroles, near Barcelona. Dodas studied Catalan philology at university whilst continuing her studies in music simultaneously. Having already won several prizes for her poetry, she was awarded the Amadeu Oller prize for her collection of verse, Paisatge amb hivern (Winterscape) (1986). She was brutally murdered near Montpellier, in Languedoc, France, whilst travelling with a female companion.

Dodd, Anne – (fl. c1710 – 1730)
British publisher and pamphlet seller
Anne Dodd had established her business as a book vendor in three different addresses in London, Without Temple Bar, Peacock, near Temple Bar, and near Essex Street in the Strand, which would indicate a rather lengthy business career. Dodd’s is recorded as being frequently prosecuted for libel by the courts. A surviving petition, conducted to justify her actions, reveals that she was a widow with a large family to support.

Dodd, Beatrice Olive Victoria – (1897 – 1968)
Australian social reformer
Dodd was born in Kew, Melbourne, Victoria (June 10, 1897), and was educated at the Methodist Ladies’ College there, and at Queen’s College at the University of Melbourne. She remained unmarried. Beatrice Dodd later travelled to Britain and Europe and was appointed as their first social worker by the Free Kindergarten Union of Melbourne (1936). She was later attached to the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, and enlisted with the AWAS (Australian Women’s Army Service) during WW II (1942). After the war Dodd continued her involvement with the Free Kindergarten Union, and served as president (1955 – 1959). Beatrice Dodd died at Kew (May 2, 1968), aged seventy.

Dodds, Jane – (1788 – 1844)
Anglo-Australian settler and diarist
Jane Cole was born in Shorne, near Gravesend in Kent (May 16, 1788), the daughter of William Cole, who may have been a clergyman. Having been employed in a noble household as housekeeper to the Edmeades family, for whose children she penned verses which have survived. Jane became the wife of James Dodds (1813), to whom she bore five children. She and her family were members of the Swan River colony in Western Australia from 1830 onwards. Jane resided in the colony for almost two decades. Her surviving letters and manuscripts provided a unique view into the life in colonial times, and were compiled and published in Sydney, New South Wales, one hundred and fifty years after her death by Lilian Heal entitled, Jane Dodds 1788 – 1844: A Swan River Colony Pioneer (1988). Jane Dodds died at West Guildford, aged fifty-six (July 16, 1844).

Dodge, Grace Hoadley – (1865 – 1914)
American educator and social reformer
Grace Dodge eschewed the pleasures and comforts of middle-class life to devote her time to philanthropic projects. She founded the Kitchen Garden Association (1880), which evolved into the Industrial Education Association. Dodge also founded the Girls’ Public School Athletic League (1905) and was appointed as president (1906) of the National Board of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association). At her death she left endowments of one and a half million dollars, which were to be distributed to various philanthropic organisations.

Dodge, Mabel   see    Luhan, Mabel Dodge

Dodge, Mary Elizabeth Mapes – (1831 – 1905)
American writer and children’s editor
Mary Elizabeth Mapes was born in New York (Jan 26, 1831), the daughter of a scientist, and was married (1851) to lawyer, William Dodge. With the early death of her husband (1858) she began writing books for children in order to provide financially for herself and her two sons. Dodge’s works include the classic story, Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates (1865), A Few Friends and How They Amused Themselves (1869), and, When Life is Young (1894).
Appointed as the juvenile editor of the, Hearth and Home periodical (1870), Dodge later became editor of the most prestigious children’s magazine of them all the, St Nicholas, retaining that position for over thirty years (1873 – 1905) until her death. Other works included, Theophilus and Others (1876), Donald and Dorothy (1883), The Land of Pluck (1894), and, The Golden Gate (1903). Mary Elizabeth Mapes Dodge died (Aug 21, 1905) aged seventy-four.

Dodgson, Catharine – (1883 – 1954)
British painter
Frances Catharine Dodgson was born at Oxford, the daughter of a academic and received her artisitc training at the Ruskin School at Oxford, and at the Royal Academy and the Slade School in London. She was married (1913) to Campbell Dodgson, who was Keeper of the Prints and Drawings at the British Museum. During the lifetime of her husband, Dodgson devoted herself to domestic concerns, and only exhibited at the Royal Academy once (1923), when she produced an oil portrait of one of her husband’s relations.
However, with her husband’s death (1932), she emerged from her retirement, and was especially noted for her use of red chalk and bistre, and for her portrait drawings. Dodgson’s work was twice exhibited at Colnaghi’s, prior to WW II, (1936) and (1939), though she remained virtually unknown during her lifetime.

Dods, Mary Diana – (c1791 – c1830)
Scottish author
Mary Diana Dos was the illegitimate daughter of a peer. To make her own financial way in the world, the distinctly unattractive Mary assumed the male pseudonym of ‘David Lyndsay,’ in order to have her work published in Blackwoods Magazine and other such popular annuals. Her works included Dramas of the Ancient World (1821), which brought her to the attention of Mary Shelley and her circle. Shelley later helped Dods secretly remove to Paris, dressed in male attire, where she resided with her companion, Isabella Robinson, the couple assuming the names of ‘Mr and Mrs Sholto Douglas.’ Other works included a collection of Germanic fairy tales entitled Tales of the Wild and the Wonderful (1825). Her real identity was shrouded in mystery for well over a hundred and fifty years, and the noted traveller, linguist, and author, George Borrow (1803 – 1881), was long mistakenly thought to be identical to ‘David Lyndsay.’

Doenges, Paula – (1874 – 1931)
Saxon operatic soprano
Doenges was born in Leipzig, the daughter of a school principal. She received vocal training under Friedrich Rebling at the Leipzig Conservatory, and made her debut in the role of Agathe in, Der Freischutz (1801). After a period attached to the Dresden Court Theatre, Paula was engaged by the opera house in Frankfurt-am-Main. She was best remembered for her performances of Wagnerian roles such as Brunnhilde in, Der Ring des Nibelungen, and that of Leonore in Beethoven’s, Fidelio. She performed the title role of Richard Strauss’s Elektra (1908). Paula Doenges died at Langenbruck, near Dresden (June 15, 1931).

Doering, Angela Mathilde Agathe von – (1940 – 1991)
German aristocrat
Angela von Doering was born at Goslar, near Gandersheim (Aug 12, 1940), the daughter of Major General Bernd von Doering, and his wife, Eleonore Wrede. She was divorced from her first husband, Hans Peter Schmeidler, when she met Prince Otto Adolf of Hesse-Kassel (1937 – 1998). Angela was married to the prince (1965), as his first wife. They married firstly in a civil ceremony in Munich, Bavaria, and then the following day, in a religious ceremony at Trostberg. The marriage was contracted morganatically, and Angela did not assume the royal titles and privileges. The marriage remained childless and ended in divorce several years later (1969). She never remarried. Madame von Doering died in Hannover, in the Rhineland (April 11, 1991), aged fifty.

Dohm, Hedwig – (1833 – 1919)
German feminist and dramatist
Hedwig Dohm was born in Berlin, Prussia. Forced to leave school against her will (1848), Dohm began to develop an interest in politics. She later married (1852) the editor of the satirical newspaper, Kladderadatsch (Hoo-ha, Hot Air). Dohm was associated with many prominent contemporary intellecutal figures, such as Lassalle Ferdinand, Rahel Varnhagen, and Fanny Lewald. She was the author of the fiercely feminist work, Was die Pastoren von den Frauen denken (What Pastors Think of Women) (1872), and later produced the short story, Wie Frauen werden-werde, die Du bist (How Women are Made – Become the Woman You Are) (1894). Dohm continued to be involved in politics until her death, and wrote articles concerning militarism in Europe.

Dohrenwend, Barbara Snell – (1926 – 1982)
American epidemiologist and social psychologist
Dohrenwend pioneered the analysis of the relations between the stress in daily life and the development of mental and psychiatric disorders. Dohrenwend also began research into the development of schizophrenia and severe depression. A professor at the Columbia University School of Public Health, she collaborated with her husband, Dr Bruce P. Dohrenwend, and between them they produced and edited several analytical works such as Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects, and, Stressful Life Events and Their Contests. Barbara Snell Dohrenwend died of cancer (June 28, 1982), in Manhattan, New York.

Dohring, Clara – (1899 – 1987) 
German politician and trade unionist
Born Clara Wohlfart at Saalfeld, Thuringia, she trained as a clerk. From 1920 – 1930 she was employed by the main committee of the Association of Metalworkers in Stuttgart, Wurttemburg. Appointed women’s secretary (1948) of the Trade Union Federation, she was also chairwoman of the trade union’s Regional Women’s Committee of Wurttemburg-Baden. She became a member of the German Council of the European Movement (1949) and of the German Bundestag from its first to its fourth term.

Dohrman, Elsie – (1875 – 1909)
Anglo-New Zealand educator and temperance campaigner
Elsie Low was born (July 25, 1875) at Horndon Hill in Essex, the daughter of a storekeeper. She arrived at Canterbury in New Zealand as an immigrant with her parents aboard the Soukar (1876). She attended secondary school in Christchurch and then studied English, French and botany at Canterbury College. Her first eaching position was at the Christchurch Girls’ High School (1899 – 1902). Elsie was married (1903) to Heinrich Dohrman, a farmer of German background. She bore him a daughter. Mrs Dohrman became a prominent figure within the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and served as president of the Waimate branch (1906 – 1909). She wrote articles on this subject which was published in the Waimate Times. Elsie Dohrman died (Feb 14, 1909) aged thirty-three, at Waimate.

Dokuwa (Dokua) – (c1790 – 1855)
Ghaniana queen
Sometimes called Nana Dokua, she was the maternal granddaughter of Adu Darko, chief of the Asamankesi. She became ruler of the Akan state of Akyem Abuakwa in southern Ghana for two decades from 1817. Dokuwa developed the use of bands of warriors known as asafo, as an effective means of protecting her capital of Kyebi, and the three important, adjacent villages. Queen Dokuwa formally renounced her ties with the Asante (1822), and personally led her army against them at the battle of Katamanso (1826). Her victory in this conflict effectively brought about the end to Asante dominance of the coastal states, and of Akyem Abuakwa. Queen Dokuwa provided refuge in her lands for Asante and Bosome exiles, and the lands that she granted to these groups, in the west of Akyem Abuakwa, developed into the modern Akyem Bosome state. She later welcomed Kotoku exiles into Gyadam, north of her capital, and provided refuge for the royal family of Dwaben (1832). She later abdicated (before 1839) in favour of Atta Panin, the elder of her twin sons, but remained a powerful force in politics until her death.

Dokuz Khatun    see   Doquz Khatun

Dolci, Agnese – (c1653 – 1689)
Italian painter
Agnese Dolci was the daughter of the Florentine artist Carlo Dolci (1616 – 1686). Taught to imitate her father’s style, Agnese’s work possessed a more austere tone, which is borne out by her copy of her father’s, Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus, now in the Galleria Corsini, Rome. Another of her known works, Christ Breaking Bread, is in the Louvre, Paris. Agnese married a silk weaver named Bacci, but survived her father only three years.

Dolgar – (fl. c570)
Welsh nun
Dolgar was the daughter of the historian, soldier, and poet Gildas (Aneurinus). She was the sister to Gwinnoc and six other saints, and was aunt to St Garci. Her grandfather, Caw, came from Strathclyde in Scotland, and settled on the Isle of Anglesea. The church venerated Dolgar as a saint (Oct 26).

Dolgorukaya, Catherine Alexievna (Ekaterina) – (1712 – 1739)
Russian princess and courtier
Catherine Dolgorukaya was born at Gorenko, the daughter of Prince Alexei Grigorivich Dolgoruky. An attractive girl, she was first betrothed to Iur Yurievich Dolgoruky, no relation to her family. This arrangement was broken when Catherine became enamoured of Conte Millesimo, an Austro-Hungarian diplomat accredited to the Russian court, and they became engaged privately. Her father however, had other ideas, wishing to marry Catherine to the youthful Tsar Peter II (1727 – 1730), grandson of Peter the Great and Empress Catherine I, who was already engaged to Maria Menshikova. Prompted by her father, Peter II visited the family at Gorenko, where he had become attached to Catherine before hearing that Menshikova had died. The public announcement of the betrothal of the tsar and Catherine followed (Dec 18, 1729) but the young tsar suddenly sickened, and died the day of their planned wedding (Jan 30, 1730). Prince Dolgoruky then put Catherine forward as a candidate for the Imperial throne, but her claims were not seriously considered and were quickly brushed aside. The new empress, Anna Petrovna (1730 – 1740), ordered the banishment of Catherine, her father and brother, to Siberia. Almost a decade later, all of them were executed by Imperial order.

Dolgorukaya, Catherine Mikhailovna (Ekaterina) – (1847 – 1922)
Russian Imperial mistress and morganatic wife
Catherine Dolgorukaya was born Moscow, the daughter of Prince Mikhail Mikhailovitch Dolgoruky, and his wife Vera Gavrilovna Visnevskaya. When her father died bankrupt, Tsar Alexander II undertook to provide for the education of Catherine and her siblings, and she was educated at the Smolny Institute in St Petersburg. The tsar declared his passion for her she was eighteen (1865), but she did not agree to become his mistress for several years (1869). As Imperial mistress, she did not flaunt her position, and shunned court society, the tsar providing her with apartments at St Petersburg, the Peterhof, and Tsarskoe Selo. With the births of two children (1872 – 1873) the tsar secretly created them prince and princess Yurievsky.
Her position, now made public, was resented by both the Imperial family and the Russian people. Finally, after receiving letters which threatened herself and her children, Catherine agreed to remove to the reltive safety of the Winter Palace. With the death of the empress, Marie Feodorovna, the tsar married Catherine morganatically (Julky 11, 1880), granting her the title of Princess Yurievskaya, with the title of Serene Highness. Catherine was present at Alexander’s deathbed (March 12, 1881) after he was mortally wounded by an assassin’s bomb. With his death she retired to private life with her children. She was the author of, Alexander II in details inedits sur sou vie intime et sur mort (1882), whilst her memoirs, My Book, were published posthumously (1924). Princess Catherine died at Nice, France (Feb 15, 1922) and was interred in the Russian cemetery at Caucade.

Dolgorukaya, Elisaveta – (1763 – 1798)
Russian courtier
Elisaveta was the elder sister of Paul Bakunin (1776 – 1805), the director of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. They were the grandchildren of Serge Tatischev and his wife Praskovia Ilarionovna Vorontzova, and was cousin to Princess Dashkova, the empress’s favourite. She was also cousin to Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876), the famous Russian anarchist. Elisaveta became the wife of Prince Mikhail Dolgoruky and they were members of the empress’s favoured group of courtiers. Princess Elisaveta was mentioned in the Memoires of her cousin Princess Dashkova.

Dolgorukaya, Martha   see   Vorontzova, Martha

Dolgorukaya, Natalia Borisovna Cheremteyevna, Princess – (1714 – 1771)
Russian exile and memoirist
Natalia Cheremteyevna was the daughter of field-Marshal Count Boris Cheremeteyev. A rich and beautifl heiress she was betrothed to Prince Vassili Lukich Dolgoruky (1670 – 1739), a favourite of Peter II. Before they could be married, Peter died, and his successor, Tsarina Anna, banished the prince to Siberia. Natalia insisted on marrying him and followed him into exile (1729). The couple lived for eight years at Tobolsk, and she bore two children before Vassily was finally executed (1739). The empress Elizabeth allowed the princess to return to European Russia (1741). Having completed the education of her children, Natalia entered a convent at Kiev. Whilst there, at the request of her son Mikhail, she composed her Memoirs (1768), which her grandson, Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Dolgoruky (1764 – 1823) had published (1810). Princess Natalia died at Kiev. Three Russian poets have celebrated her memory.

Dolina, Maria Ivanovna – (1868 – 1919)
Russian contralto
Born Maria Saiushkina in Novgorod, she received her vocal training under Grening-Vilde, and spent twenty years with the Mariinski theatre (1886 – 1904), adopting the stage name of Dolina. She staged and organized the first symphonic concerts for the public in St Petersburg (1904). With the revolution Dolina emigrated to Paris, France, where she continuted to promote the interests of Russian music. Maria Dolina died in Paris aged fifty-one (Dec 2, 1919).

Dollar, Jean Margeurite – (1900 – 1982)
British opthalmic surgeon
Dollar was born (July 23, 1900) and was educated at the London School of Medicine for Women. She was appointed a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FRCS). Dollar served as the surgical registrar at the Royal Eye Hospital in London, and was house surgeon at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, and at the King Edward VII Hospital, at Windsor in Berkshire. She wrote articles for medical journals and periodicals, and remained unmarried. Jean Dollar died aged eighty-one (April 20, 1982).

Dolling, Hazel Marion – (1923 – 2006)
American preservationist
Hazel Staples was born (June 13, 1923) the elder daughter of Sir Robert Staples (1894 – 1970), thirteenth baronet (1943 – 1970) of Lissan in the Sperrin Mountains in County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, and his wife Vera Lillian Jenkins, the daughter of John Jenkins of Inveresk. She attended school in Staffordshire in England and served as a section officer with the WRNS (Women’s Royal Naval Service) during WW II. Staples was later employed as a purser aboard the liner the Mauretania, and also worked as a travel agent at Liverpool in Lancashire.
With the death of her father (1970) Hazel returned to the family estate at Lissan and was married to her cousin Harry Dolling, the family land agent. With her husband’s death she remained living at Lissan as the chatelaine and appeared on the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) program Restoration (2003) which featured Lissan. Mrs Dolling bequeathed the historic house to a trust in order to preserve it. Hazel Dolling died (April 24, 2006) aged eighty-three.

Dolly, Rosie – (1892 – 1970)
Hungarian-American vaudeville performer and vocalist
Born Roszicka Deutsch in Hungary (Oct 25, 1892), she was a twin with her sister Janszieka. Both were raised in New York City after immigrating to the USA with their parents. The striking beauty of the sisters established them as a success on Broadway, taking the names of Rosie and Jennie Dolly, and they appeared in productions such as, The Echo (1910), and, Ziegfeld Follies (1911), and then starred together in, The Million Dollar Dollies (1918). With the end of WW II, the two sisters came to London with their stage revue, The League of Notions. Jennie committed suicided there during the war (1941). The film concerning Rosie’s career and that of her sister entitled, The Dolly Sisters (1945) starred Betty Grable and June Havers. Rosie Dolly died of a heart attack in New York, aged seventy-seven (Feb 1, 1970).

Domenech-i-Escate de Canyellas, Maria – (1877 – 1952)
Spanish sociologist and author
Maria Domenech was born at Alcover, near Tarragona, where she studied music and painting. Her early written work appeared in periodicals under the pseudonym of ‘Josep Miralles.’ After her marriage she resided in Barcelona, where she founded the women’s union, the Federacion Sindical de Obreras. Domenech lectured extensively, exhorting Spanish women to work further their education and achieve financial independence. All her work was written in Castilian, the language of the working class. She produced the sociological studies, El profesionalismo y los sindicatos (Professionalism and the Labour unions), and, Constitucion y finalidad de la federacion Sindical de Obreras (Establishment and purposes of the Women Worker’s Labor Union).
The publication of her first novel, Neus (Neus) (1914) gained Domenech literary recognition, and she reduced female neurotiscism to nothing more than a defence mechanism which enabled women to survive in the world, whilst warning of the changes being wrought in society by Catalan industrialization. Other works included the short novel, Contrallum (A view against the light) (1917), and, Gripaus d’or (Golden toads) (1919), a satirical swipe at the Catalan nouveau riche. Perhaps her most important work was, Herencies (Heredity) (1925), which dealt with the tragic problems which develop when two young people of different classes are forced to marry by their respective families because of social and financial considerations. Her last two works, Confidencias (Confidences), a collection of Castilian short stories and Al rodar del temps (As time passes) a collection of Catalan poetry, were both published in 1946. Maria Domenech-i-Escate de Canyellas died in Barcelona, aged seventy-four.

Domentzia – (fl. 602 – 610)
Byzantine imperial princess
Domentzia was the daughter of the Emperor Phokas and his wife Aelia Leontia. She was married (607), to the patrician Priscus (c550 – 613), military commander in the East and Thrace, sometimes erroneously called Crispus. Games were held in honour of their marriage, and portraits of Domentzia and Priscus were displayed alongside those of Phokas, which action brought a violent reaction from the emperor, and turned his son-in-law against him. Domentzia’s fate after the overthrow of her father (610) remains unrecorded, though, like her mother, she was probably confined to a convent. Her husband was later removed from public office (Dec, 612) and was confiend within the monastery of Chora in Constantinople, where he died soon afterwards. Her marriage was recorded by various historians, including Theophanes in his, Chronographia, Joannes Zonaras in his, Epitome Historiarum, and by Nikephorus Kallistus in his, Historia Ecclesiastica.

Domin, Hilde – (1909 – 2006)
German novelist and lyric poet
Born Hilde Lowenstein (July 27, 1909), into a Jewish family, she studied at Heidelberg and Cologne until 1932, when she and her family fled the rise of Nazisim and went to reside in Italy.
Hilde finished her education in Florence, and was married (1936) to fellow student, Walter Palm. She and her husband visited England for several years, before immigrating to the Dominican Republic, where she was then employed as an educator and translator for over a decade (1940 – 1954). She then returned to Florence, where she adopted the literary pseudonym ‘Hilde Domin’ (1951). She produced the work, Das zweite Paradies.Roman in Segmenten (The Second Paradise.A Novel in Segments) (1968) and the story, Die andalusische Katze (The Andalusian Cat) (1971). Domin also produced a collection of verse, Hohlenbilder, Gedichte 1951 – 1953 (Cave Paintings, Poems 1951 – 1953) (1968).
Widowed in 1988, Domin produced a last collection of poems entitled, Der Baum bluht trotzdem (The Tree blossoms nevertheless) (1999). She also left two volumes of autobiography, Von der Natur nicht vorgesehen (1974), and, Aber die Hoffnung, Autobiographisches aus und uber Deutschland (1982). Domin was awarded the State Prize of North Rhine-Westphalia (1999), and the highest order of the Dominican Republic, the Ordern del Merito de Duarte, Sanchez y Mella, en el grado de Commendador (2005). Hilde Domin died (Feb 22, 2006) aged ninety-six, in Heidelberg.

Domina Clarae     see    Clare, Elizabeth de

Dominica – (fl. 590 – 597)
Byzantine patrician
Dominica was probably the daughter of Narses the Imperial comes in the East (597) and of his wife Hesychia, and was the sister to Eudochia. Dominica was known from letters preserved in the Epistolarum Registrum of Pope Gregory I. She is named in several letters sent by the Pope to her father in Constantinople (590) (593) and (597). Dominica herself wrote to Pope Gregory (593) but he refused to reply because she wrote in Greek. It would appear also that Dominica held a position within the imperial household but that she had relinquished this sinecure by 597 in order to become the head of a convent, and the Pope asked Narses to ensure that she was free to devote herself to the religious life.

Dominici, Maria de – (1645 – 1703)
Italian painter
Maria de Dominici was born (Dec 6, 1645), at Vittoriosa, Malta, the daughter of Onofrio de Dominici, a wealthy goldsmith, and sister to the noted painters, Raimondo (1644 – 1704) and Francesco de Dominici (1655 – 1733). Her nephew was the noted biographer, Bernardo de Dominici (1684 – 1750). Maria became a Carmelite tertiary nun and continued to paint after her profession. The sacristy in the parish church of Zebbug on Malta contained The Visitation of the Virgin, was one of her works, and in the late twentieth century (1989), the Carmelite church of Valletta revealed Dominic’s painting Beato Franco.
The Cathedral Museum of Valletta preserves a Dominici drawing of the Annunciation. Apart from painting, Sister Maria also produced wood and papier-mache sculptures, most notably cult figures of Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary. She is believed to have carved a wooden Virgin of the Immaculate Conception for the Collegiate Church of Cospicua, and another version of the same sculpture in stone. Dominici later travelled to Rome under the protection of Carlo Maria Carafa, Prince di Butera (1682), and resided with his wife, Isabel d’Avalos. Whilst in Rome her work was much admired by the famous painter, Carlo Maratta, of the prestigious Academy of Sant’ Luca, and she painted an altar dedicated to St Andrea Corsini in the church of Sant’ Maria della Traspontina (1684). Maria de Dominici died in Rome (March 18, 1703), aged fifty-seven and was buried in the church of Traspontina.

Domitia Ahenobarba Maior – (c7 BC – c12 AD)
Roman member of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – 68 AD)
Domitia was the eldest daughter of Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul (16 BC), and his wife, Antonia Maior. Her mother was the eldest daughter of the triumvir Marcus Antonius, and his wife Octavia, the sister of the emperor Augustus. Domitia figures in the Ara Pacis monument which was dedicated in 9 AD but no husband is recorded for her and she probably died young and unmarried.

Domitia Ahenobarba Minor – (6 BC – 59 AD)
Roman Imperial patrician
Domitia was the second daughter of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul (16 AD), and his wife Antonia Maior, the niece of the Emperor Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). She was married three times, firstly (c10 AD) to Quintus Haterius Agrippa (c4 BC – c33 AD), consul (22 AD), secondly to Quintus Junius Blaesus (c6 BC – 36 AD), consul suffect (26 AD), and thirdly to, Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus (c10 BC – 48 AD), consul suffect (27 AD), commonly known as Passienus Crispus. As the wife of Haterius Agrippa in 20 AD, she was divorced from him (c29 – 30 AD) during the regime of the praetorian prefvect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus, and was then remarried to Blaesus who was a distant connection of his. He second husband committed suicide rather than waiting to be condemned by the Emperor Tiberius. By her second husband she was the mother of Junius Blaesus (c30 – 69 AD) whom the historian Tacitus praised as a man of style and integrity.
Quintilian mentioned Domitia when she was still married to her last husband, refering to litigation between her and her brother, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (father of Nero). This suit concerned a financial matter in which Domitia was defended by her husband. Domitia was divorced from her last husband Crispus (c40 AD) who then remarried to Agrippina, mother of Nero, and widow of Domitia’s brother. Domitia and Agrippina disliked each other and the two women became involved in a bitter family dispute (55 AD), which also involved the actor Paris and Junia Silana, a cousin who also hated Agrippina. When this vague plot was uncovered by Afranius Burrus Agrippina successfully shifted the blame on Domitia, whom she accused of adulterous relations with Paris and another lover Atimetus. According to Suetonius Nero ordered Domitia’s physicians to hasten her death, and cassius Dio stated that she was poisoned so that the emperor could get his hands on her extensive properties which included estates at Baiae and Ravenna and extensive gardens across the Tiber River.

Domitia Corbula – (fl. c50 – c65 AD)
Roman patrician
Domitia Corbula was the elder daughter of Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, the famous general, and his wife Cassia Longina. Her younger sister was Domitia Longina, the wife of the emperor Domitian (81 – 96 AD), and her paternal aunt was the Empress Caesonia, the wife of Gaius Caligula. Corbula was married to senator Lucius Annius Vinicianus, the son of C. Annius Pollio. Her husband killed himself (67 AD) after the failure of the conspiracy of Scribonianus, intended to remove the Emperor Nero. Corbula’s fate remains unknown, though the historian Suetonius mentions their son in his life of Domitian.

Domitia Lepida – (c4 BC – 54 AD) 
Roman Imperial princess
Domitia Ahenobarba Lepida was the third daughter of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul (16 AD), and his wife Antonia Maior, the elder daughter of the triumvir Marcus Antonius and of Octavia Minor, the sister of the Emperor Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Lepida was married firstly Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus (c27 BC – c19 AD), by whom she left a daughter, Valeria Messallina (c15 – 48 AD), later the wife of Claudius, and married secondly, Faustus Cornelius Sulla, by whom she left a son, Faustus Sulla, consul (52 AD). Through the marriage of her daughter she was the maternal grandmother of Britannicus, and of Octavia, the first wife of Nero.
Her third marriage (41 AD) with C. Appius Junius Silanus, consul (28 AD), ended the following year, when Silanus was removed due to the intrigues of Messallina and of the emperor’s freedmen, Pallas and Narcissus. The resulting estrangement which remained between mother and daughter was never resolved, though when her intrigues had finally brought about Messallina’s downfall, Lepida attended her daughter during her final hours, and was present at her death, after which she arranged for the proper rites of burial (48 AD).  After the emperor’s remarriage with the younger Agrippina who resented any influence Lepida had over her son Nero, her relationship with Britannicus also aroused the empress’s jealousy. Agrippina engineered her death on the grounds that Lepida was posing a threat to the peace by not keeping proper control over her slaves in Calabria.

Domitia Longina – (c49 – c136 AD)           
Roman Augusta
Domitia Longina was the daughter of the famous general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, whom the emperor Nero forced to commit suicide (67 AD). She was married firstly to Lucius Aelius Lamia Aemilianus, but divorced him on the insistence of Domitian, younger son of the emperor Vespasian, who then married her (70 AD). Longina’s two children died in infancy, and her married life was not particularly amicable. Though granted the title of Augusta (81 AD), Domitian divorced her because of her amorous liasion with the actor Paris. He soon had Paris executed (84 AD) and remarried her and restored her Imperial rank, but she also had to share the palace with his niece, Julia Sabina, the daughter of Emperor Titus. Finally, fearing for her own life at the hands of her increasingly deranged husband, the empress became involved in the conspiracy to remove Domitian and give the throne to the elderly and respectable Marcus Nerva (96 AD). Treated with honour and respect by Nerva and Trajan, Longina retired from court into comfortable private life and survived another forty years. Several coins survive.

Domitilla Maior, Flavia – (c15 – c56 AD)
Roman Augusta (80 AD)
Flavia Domitilla was born in Ferulium, the daughter of Flavius Cerealis, a law clerk in the court of the praetor who obtained full Roman citizenship for Domitilla during her childhood. She was the concubine of an African of equestrian rank, Statilius Capella, before she became the wife of the Emperor Vespasian (38 AD). Flavia Domitilla was the mother of the future emperors Titus (79 – 81 AD) and Domitian (81 – 96 AD). She herself died before Vespasian assumed the Imperial throne (69 AD), and was posthumously granted the title of Augusta by her son Titus, as was her only daughter, also called Flavia Domitilla.

Domitilla Minor, Flavia – (c45 – c68 AD)
Roman Augusta (80 AD)
Flavia Domitilla Minor was the daughter of the Emperor Vespasian (69 – 79 AD) and his wife Flavia Domitilla Maior, the daughter of Flavius Liberalis. She became the second wife (c63 AD) of Quintus Petillus Cerealis Rufus, consul (74 AD) to whom she bore a daughter. She died young before her father became emperor and was posthumously granted the rank of Augusta, togther with her late mother, by her brother Titus.

Domitilla, Miriamne – (fl. 1730 – 1748)
Italian dancer
Born Miriamne Campanini in Parma, she was sister to the celebrated dancer, Barbarina Campanini. She appeared in London, England (1741), billed as Signora Domitilla, with her sister in a New Tambourine dance, and also performed in the ballet, Orpheus and Eurydice, where she appeared as a nymph. Domitilla performed several times before the Prince of Wales (George II), and appeared at Covent Garden for several seasons in productions such as, Les Savoyards and, The Rape of Proserpine. She was highly popular with London audeinces, and when a young man from the gallery declared his disapproval at her performance, he was beaten senseless by other patrons. She later performed in Paris and in Berlin, Prussia (1747), with her sister. Her later life remains unrecorded.

Dommanget, Ghislaine Marie Francoise – (1900 – 1991)
French soprano
Ghislaine Dommanget was born at Rheims, near Paris (Oct 13, 1900), the daughter of Colonel Robert Joseph Dommanget, an officer with the French Cavalry and his wife Marie Louise Meunier. She was trained for the stage and persued a successful career as a comic actress. Dommanget was married firstly to Colonel Andre Brule, though their marriage remained childless. She became involved in a romantic liasion with Prince Louis II of Monaco, and divorced Brule.
Ghislaine Dommanget was then married to Prince Louis (July 24, 1946) and accorded royal titles and prerogatives becoming HSH (Her Serene Highness) the Princess consort of Monaco (1946 – 1949) and this marriage also remained childless. She was a member of the Legion d’Honneur and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of St Charles. Princess Ghislaine survived Louis forty years as Princess Dowager of Monaco (1949 – 1991). Her relations with Rainier III and his family remained formal, and the princess resided mainly in the south of France. Princess Ghislaine died (April 30, 1991) aged ninety, in Paris.

Domna, H. – (fl. c1220 – 1240)
French trobairitz
No personal details are recorded of her life, and she used an initial to conceal her real identity. She produced a tenson with which to test the strength of the man referred to as Rosin, who was the object of her affections. He failed the test as Domna desired a real relationship, not a courtly one.

Domnica, Albia – (c337 – after 378 AD)
Roman Augusta (375 – 378 AD)
Albia Domnica was the wife of the emperor Valens. She is said, without proof, to have urged her husband to persecute the Trinitarian sect. Her husband perished in battle against the Goths at Adrianople (378 AD), and the empress paid the citizens from the public treasury to arm themselves against the barbarian invaders. Domnica’s only son Valerianus Galates (366 – 373 AD) died young, and she left two daughters, Anastasia and Carosa. With the accession of her husband’s nephew Gratian (378 – 383 AD) the empress retired from public life.

Domnina – (fl. 379 – 395 AD)
Roman Christian nun
Domnina was a companion to another matron, Maura. They travelled together from Rome to Constantinople, where, with finances made available to them through the patronage of the emperor Theodosius the Great, the women established two convents where they retired from the world, achieving a reputation for religious sanctity. Hers was later named the convent of saint Domnina or Alexander, and they were regarded as saints.

Domnola – (c540 – 585)
Gallo-Roman landowner
Domnola was the daughter of Victorinus, Bishop of Rennes in Brittany. She was first married to Burgolenus who was later executed after being accused of treason sometime between 578 – 585. By this marriage Domnola left a daughter Constantina who became a nun, firstly at Poitiers and later at Autun (589). Domnola’s second husband was Nectarius who was unjustly accused of theft by Queen Fredegonde, the widow of King Chilperic I of Neustria.
Gregory of Tours in his Historia Francorum recorded that Domnola disputed the ownership of a vineyard, probably situated at Angers, with Bobolenus an official of Queen Fredegonde, claiming it as the property of her father. Whilst attempting to occupy this estate, Domnola and some of her servants were attacked and killed by Bobolenus. Her murder was avenged by Antestius, an official of King Guntram of Burgundy, who caused the property of Bobolenus to be confiscated (587).

Donada – (c980 – c1027)
Scottish princess and dynastic heiress
Donada was the daughter of King Kenneth II (971 – 995), and his queen, an unidentified princess of Leinster. She was married firstly to Finalay MacRory, earl (mormaer) of Moray, who died c1005, by whom she was mother to Macbeth, the future king of Scotland (1040 – 1057). Donada was married secondly (c1007) to to Sigurd Hlodverson, earl of Orkney (c965 – 1014), whom she survivied, and was the mother of Thorfinn, jarl of Orkney and Caithness (c1009 – c1059), whose widow, Ingeborge of Halland, remarried to become the first wife of King Malcom III Canmore (1058 – 1093).

Donahue, Wilma Thompson – (1900 – 1993)
American psychologist
Wilma Donahue was born in Mitchellville, Iowa, and was educated at the University of Michigan from which she graduated with three degrees in psychology, and later a doctorate (1937).
Donahue practised with the Student Health Service (1935) and was then appointed as instructor to the department of psychology (1938). An expert on the psychology of aging, Donahue became the founding director of the gerontology division at the University of Michigan (1951). When this division evolved into the Institute of Gerontology, she was appointed director until her retirement (1966 – 1970). She then served for a decade as director of the International Center for Social Gerontology in Washington, D.C. (1973 – 1983). Donahue served on various state commissions concerned with the problems of aging, and was the founding president of the Michigan Society of Gerontology. She was later inducted into the Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame (1983). Wilma Donahue died (Aug 17, 1993) aged ninety-two, at Ann Arbor.

Donald, Janet – (c1817 – 1892)
New Zealand church leader and religious activist
Janet Martin was born in Wigtownshire, Scotland, the daughter of Andrew Martin, a farmer. Raised a devout Baptist, she was married in Glasgow to John Main, to whom she bore several children. With her his early death, Janet and her children immigrated to Auckland in New Zealand (1850). In Auckland, Janet became closely involved with the local activities of the Baptist church, and she was one of the fifteen foundation members of the Wellesley Street Baptist Church. She was remarried (1864) to a young farmer, Andrew MacKenzie Donald, about fifteen years her junior. The couple resided at Otahuhu but there were no children. With her second husband she established the Baptist congregation at Otahuhu, which had begun with meetings in their own home (1878), and a chapel was built soon afterwards (1879). Janet Donald died in Auckland (March 27, 1892), aged about seventy-four. The noted journalist, George Martin Main, was her son.

Donalda, Pauline – (1882 – 1970)
Canadian soprano
Born Pauline Lightstone in Montreal, she received her earliest musical education at the Royal Victoria College there. Later she travelled to Paris where she became the pupil of Victor Alphonse Duvernoy (1842 – 1907). She adopted her stage name in honour of her patron Sir Donald Smith, Lord Strathcona and made her stage debut in the title role of Jules Massenet’s, Manon (1904). Upon her retirement she operated a singing school in Paris (1922 – 1937). She was later honoured for her contribution to music by being made an Officer of the Order of Canada (1967). Pauline Donalda died in Montreal aged eighty-eight (Oct 22, 1970).

Donaldson, Anna Maria   see   Falkner, Anna Maria

Donaldson, Frances Annesley Lonsdale, Lady – (1907 – 1994)
British author and biographer
Frances Lonsdale was the daughter of Frederick Lonsdale, the dramatist and his wife Leslie Hoggan. She married John Stuart Donaldson, who was made a life peer (1967) as Baron Donaldson of Knightsbridge (1907 – 1998) to whom she bore three children. Lady Donaldson was a well known writer on agricultural matters, and produced, Approach to Farming (1941), and, Four Years’ Harvest (1945). She also became famous for her historical and biographical writings. Her biographical subjects include her father, Freddy Lonsdale (1955), Evelyn Waugh, portrait of a country neighbour (1967), Edward VIII (1974) (the duke of Windsor), for which she won the prestigious Wolfson History Award (1975), King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (1977), and, P.G. Wodehouse (1982). Lady Donaldson produced her own memoirs, Child of the Twenties (1959) and a concise history of the British local government process, The British Council: The First Fifty Years (1984).

Donata – (d. 304 AD)
Roman Christian martyr
Donata was tortured and killed because of her adherence to the Christian faith in Nikomedia in Asia Minor during the persecutions initiated by the Emperor Diocletian. Her martyrdom was shared by the emperor’s chamberlain Peter, which seems to imply that Donata may also have been of the Imperial household. Several other unidentified persons were killed with them. The church venerated Donata as a saint and her feast (March 12) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Donegall, Harriet Anne Butler, Marchioness of – (1799 – 1860)
Irish peeress
Lady Harriet Butler was born (Jan 1, 1799) the daughter of Richard Butler, first Earl of Glengall and his wife Emily Jeffreys, the daughter of James St John Jeffreys. Part of her youth was spent at the court of the Emperor Napoleon in France, and Harriet was married (1822) at the Church of St James at Westminster in london, to George Hamilton Chichester (1797 – 1883), the Earl of Belfast, sin and heir of the second Marquess of Donegall and became the Countess of Belfast. She bore him three children.
Lady Belfast was notoriously hot-tempered and society referred to the couple as ‘Bel and the Dragon.’ She became the Marchioness of Donegall when Lord Belfast succeeded as the third Marquess of Donegall (1844 – 1860). A contemporary described Lady Donegall thus ‘She was partly brought up in France by the Empress Josephine … and she has all the discernment and finesse of a clever Frenchwoman.’ Lady Donegall died (Sept 14, 1860) aged sixty-one, in Paris. Lord Donegall remarried (1862) to Lady Harriet Ashworth, the widow of General Ashworth, and daughter of Sir Bellingham Graham, seventh baronet but this marriage remained childless. Lady Donegall’s children were,

Dones, Florence Harriette Zena   see   Dare, Zena

Dones, Phyllis   see   Dare, Phyllis

Donhoff, Countess Marion Hedda Ilse – (1909 – 2002)
German journalist and political analyst
Countess Marion Donhoff was born (Dec 2, 1909), the daughter of an East Prussian landowner. She is considered the most prominent cultural historian of the century, producing such books as, Names die keiner mehr kennt (Names Which No One Remembers) (1962), Weit ist der Weg nach Osten: Berichte und Betrachtungen aus funf Jahrzehnten (Long is the Way to the East: Reports and Reflections from Five Decades) (1970) and Preussen – Mass und Masslosigkeit (Prussia – Constraint and Excess) (1990). Countess Marion Donhoff died aged ninety-two (March 11, 2002).

Donhoff, Sophia Juliana Frederica, Countess von – (1768 – 1834)
German courtier
Countess Sophia von Donhoff was born in Prussia (Oct 17, 1768), the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Count von Donhoff. She became lady-in-waiting (1789) to Queen Frederica Louisa, the wife of King Frederick William II 1786 – 1797. Blonde and beautiful, the king married her morganatically (and bigamously) (April, 1790) but eventually she became the victim of an intrigue organized by the king’s former favourite Mme Rietz. She seems to have made vigorous efforts against Mme Rietz and her coterie, but proved unsuccessful, and Sophia was eventually banished from court (1792). The king is said to have resented her interference in political matters, and to have considered her secret dealings with Paris dangerous. After the birth of her daughter Julie (1793) the countess left Prussia and resided at Angermunde in Switzerland. During her absence Frederick granted her the title of countess von Brandenburg. Her children by the king were granted the title of count and countess von Brandenburg. Sophia survived the king over thirty-five years, and died at Werneuchen, near Berlin. Her memoirs were published posthumously as Sophie Schwerin: ein Lebensbild (1868).

Donlon, Mary Honor – (1894 – 1977)
American judge
After studying law, she began her own practice in New York in 1921. Donlon served as chairman of the New York State Workmen’s Compensation Board for over a decade (1944 – 1955), and was then appointed Customs Court judge to the federal bench (1955), becoming the first woman from New York to hold such a life appointment. Mary Honor Donlon died in Tuczon, Arizona, aged eighty-two (March 5, 1977).

Donnadieu, Margeurite   see  Duras, Margeurite

Donne, Marie delle – (1776 – 1842)
Italian obstetrician
Marie delle Donne graduated with honours in medicine from the University of Bologna (1799), but because of her sex, and despite the patronage of Napoleon Bonaparte, she was not appointed to the chairs of Physics. Eight years later, with the help of the French emperor, Marie was finally officially recognized, and admitted to the French Academy of Science (1807).

Donnelly, Airini – (c1854 – 1909)
New Zealand Maori tribal leader and landowner
Born Airini Karauria at Puketapu in Hawke’s Bay, she was the daughter of the chief Karuaria Pupu and his wife Haromi Te Ata. Her grandfather Tiakitai was the ruler on the Waimarama Islands. She was raised by an uncle who arranged for her to receive an excellent education in all forms of her traditional culture and spoke fluent English. Airini later represented her people before the Native Land court at Rangitikei, where she argued with such success for the Maori claimants that she was awarded one thousand acres of land in her own right.
Airini married (1877) an Irish emigrant from Tipperary named George Donnelly who supported her in various land claims, and assited her to convince various relatives. However several of these land claims caused long-standing litigation to ensue, most notably in the case for ancestral land at Wiamarama which had been leased to German emigrants of the Meinertzhagen family (1869). With the death of the original leasee (1895) Airini claimed ownership of the lands in question but was vigorously opposed by Gertrude Meinertzhagen until 1909 when the court found in Airini’s favour. She died (June 7, 1909) at Otratara.

Donnelly, Eleanor Cecilia – (1838 – 1917)
American poet
Donnelly was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Sept 6, 1838). She produced several volumes of poetic verse such as, Domus Dei (1875), The Children of the Golden Sheaf, and Other Poems (1884), and, The Secret of the Statue, and Other Verses (1907). She wrote several novels. Eleanor Donnelly died (April 30, 1917), aged seventy-eight.

Donnelly, Honoria Adeline Murphy – (1917 – 1998)
American artistic personality and socialite
Honoria Murphy was born in New York (Dec 19, 1917), the only daughter of Gerald Murphy and his wife Sara, the niece of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Her mother was the model for the famous artist Pablo Picasso’s noted painting, Woman in White. Attractive, blonde haired and blue eyed, she was raised with her brothers in Europe, most notably at the family’s estate, Villa America at Antibes, on the French Riviera. As a child, Donnelly had shared the avant-garde lifestyle led in Europe by her wealthy, modernist, parents, and was the co-author of, Sara & Gerald: Villa America and After (1982) with Richard Billings.Honoria’s first marriage ended in divorce, and she remarried secondly (1950) to a businessman, William Donnelly, to whom she bore several children. Widowed in 1988, she survived her husband a decade. Honoria Donnelly died in Palm Beach, Florida (Dec 22, 1998), aged eighty-one.

Donnelly, Ruth – (1896 – 1982)
American actress and comedienne
Donnelly was born at Trenton, the daughter of a newspaper editor and columnist. Trained for the stage she began her acting career as a chorus girl, and then appeared in several stage plays produced by George M. Cohan. Donnelly appeared in many films, such as, Transatlantic (1931), Heat Lightning (1934), Hands Across the Table (1935), with Fred MacMurray and Carole Lombard, Rise and Shine (1941), The Bells of St Mary’s (1945), with Ingrid Bergman, in which she portrayed a nun, Cinderella Jones (1946), The Snake Pit (1948), in which she played an insane asylum inhabitant, The Spoilers (1955), and, Autumn Leaves (1956). Her other notable credits included, A Slight Case of Murder (1938), where she played the wife of Edward G. Robinson, and, My Little Chickadee (1940) with W.C. Fields and Mae West, as well as appearances in the two Frank Capra classics, Mr Deeds Goes to Town (1936), and, Mr Smith Goes to Washington (1939). Donnelly appeared in several famous musicals with Jimmy Cagney such as, Footlight Parade (1933), Happiness Ahead (1934), and Thank Your Lucky Stars (1943). Ruth Donnelly died in New York, aged eighty-six (Nov 17, 1982).

Donniges, Helene von – (1843 – 1911)
Bavarian actress
Marie Josephine Helene von Donniges was born in Munich, the daughter of Wilhelm Donniges. Her first husband, Prince Racowitza, was killed in a duel with Ferdinand Lasalle (1864), and her second husband was the actor Siegwart Friedmann, whom she later left. Donniges became an actress in Berlin, and travelled to America with her third husband (1877), where she continued her theatrical career, but also spent time engaged upon the stury of medicine and theosophy. She returned to Europe (1890) and resided mainly in Munich, Bavaria. Helene was the author of memoirs, Meine Beziehungen zu Lassalle (1879), and of a novel, Ererbtes Blut (1892). Helene von Donniges committed suicide in Munich.

Donnissan, Marie Francoise de Durfort-Civrac, Marquise de – (1747 – 1839)
French courtier
Marie Francoise de Durfort-Civrac was born (Sept 30, 1747), the daughter of Aymeric Joseph de Durfort, Duc de Civrac, and his wife Anne Marie de La Faurie de Monbadon. She married (1760) Guy Joseph, Marquis de Donnissan, who was shot at Angers during the Revolution (Jan 8, 1794). The marquise survived the revolutionary horrors, and later returned to France. She left reminiscences of her life as lady-in-waiting to the princesses, the daughters of Louis XV, which were dedicated to her granddaughter, Laurence de La Rochejacquelein, Comtesse d’Albertas, and covered the period (1769 – 1791). These remained in the archives of the Chastellux family until being published (1912). The marquise died at Orleans (May 19, 1839), aged ninety-one.

Donnithorne, Eliza Emily – (1832 – 1886)
Australian eccentric
Donnithorne was the daughter of Judge Donnithorne, who had served with the East India Company for several decades before retiring to Camperdown Lodge, in Newtown, Sydney, New South Wales in the 1850’s. Within two years of her father’s death, Eliza was to be married. The guests had been invited and the wedding breakfast laid out, the ceremony taking place in the nearby church of St Stephen. The intended husband never arrived. Greatly distraught, Eliza ordered the astonished servants to leave the food to decay where it was, whilst she herself remained attired in her decaying wedding dress for the next thirty years until she died of heart disease (May 20, 1886). Miss Donnithorne is thought to have been the original upon which the character of Miss Havisham in Charles Dicken’s, Great Expectations (1861), was based.

Donoughmore, Dorothy Jean Hotham, Countess of – (1906 – 1995)
Irish Red Cross activist and patron
Dorothy Hotham was the daughter of John Beaumont Hotham and his wife Gladys Mary, the daughter of Captain John Gerald Wilson. She was married (1925) to John Michael Hely-Hutchinson (1902 – 1981), the seventh Earl of Donoughmore, who succeeded to the title in 1948, and to whom she bore three children, including Richard Hely-Hutchinson, the eighth Earl (born 1927). Lady Donoughmore was a serving sister of the Order of St John of Jerusalem during WW II, and later served as the vice-president of the London Branch of the British Red Cross Society. Her efforts on behalf of the Red Cross were acknowledged by George VI, when she was appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) (1947). Thirty years later, the countess and her husband were kidnapped by the IRA (Irish Republican Army) and held captive for five days, before being released unharmed, the countess remarking that they had been treated with every possible courtesy by their captors. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Donoughmore (1981 – 1995). Lady Donoughmore died aged eighty-nine (Dec 29, 1995).

Donzy, Adelaide de (Adelais) – (c1140 – c1173)
French heiress
Adelaide de Donzy was the daughter of Geoffrey II, seigneur de Donzy in the Nivernais region. Sometimes referred to as Ermesinde, she was originally betrothed to Ancel de Trainel, but was then married (1153) to Stephen II (Etienne), Comte de Sancerre (c1131 – 1191) as his first wife, and was mother to his successor, Count William I (c1158 – 1219).  This marriage provoked disagreements between William IV of Nevers and with Adelaide’s brother, Herve III de Donzy (d. c1187), concerning ownership of the seigneurie of Saint-Aignan. As a result William of Nevers pillaged Sancerre (1157). Attempts by her husband to revenge this action ended with his complete defeat (1165).

Donzy, Agnes de    see   Nevers, Agnes de

Doolittle, Hilda (H.D.) – (1886 – 1961)
American poet
Doolittle is remembered as one of the first English speaking poets to use the Imagist style. She was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (Sept 10, 1886), and was a noted Greek scholar, and the classical influence is obvious in her works, such as her translation of, Ion of Euripides (1937), and, Helen in Egypt (1961). Doolittle was married (1913 – 1937) to the British poet and biographer, Richard Aldington (1892 – 1962). Prior to their divorce the couple resided in France. Doolittle, ususally known only by her initials ‘H.D,’ produced several collections of verse such as, Hymen (1921), Heliodora, and Other Poems (1924), Collected Poems (1940), as well as the verse play Hippolytus Temporizes (1927). Hilda Doolittle died (Sept 27, 1961), aged seventy-five.

Doquz Khatun – (c1215 – 1265)
Mongol empress
Doquz Khatun was the daughter of Abaqu amd was the granddaughter of Ong Khan. She was married firstly to Khan Tolui (1190 – 1232), as his last wife. This union remained childless. Doquz then remarried to her stepson, Hulagu, Ilkhan of Persia (1217 – 1265), which also remained childless. Passionately attached to the Nestorian sect, she openly disliked Islam, and the Muslim historian, Rashid ad-Din, recorded her great influence and eagerness to help Christians of all sects. The emperor Abaga (c1240 – 1282) was her stepson. Empress Doquz Khatun died aged abourt forty-five (June 27, 1265).

Doran, Carrie    see    Allen, Rose

Dorcas, Claudia – (fl. 14 – before 41 AD)
Roman Imperial slave
Dorcas was born on the Isle of Capri, a slave to Livia, the wife of the emperor Augustus, and was brought up in the Imperial household, being trained as Livia’s personal hairdresser (ornatrix) during her widowhood when she held the title of Julia Augusta.  Dorcas was the wife of Lycastus, an Imperial freedman, who held the office of polling clerk. She died sometime before 41 AD, and her tomb inscription survives. Dedicated to the goddess Juno (one of Livia’s attributes), it reveals that it was set up by Lycastus in memory of himself and Dorcas.

Dorchester, Charlotte Hobhouse, Lady – (1831 – 1914)
British editor
The Hon. (Honourable) Charlotte Hobhouse was born (March 31, 1831) the second daughter and coheir of Sir John Cam Hobhouse (1786 – 1869), Baron Broughton de Gyfford and his wife Lady Julia Tomlinson Hay, the daughter of George Hay (1753 – 1804), seventh Marquess of Tweeddale. She became the wife (1854) of Dudley Wilmot (1822 – 1897) who later succeeded as the fourth Baron Dorchester (1875 – 1897). The marriage remained childless and Lady Charlotte survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Dorchester (1897 – 1914). In London she edited the memoirs of her father entitled Recollections of a Long Life (1865) and caused them to be published in six volumes. Lady Dorchester died (June 11, 1914) aged eighty-three.

Doree, Doris – (1909 – 1971)
American soprano
Doree was born in Newark, and studied dancing at the American Academy of Dramatic Art. After forming her own dancing school, she attended the Settlement School of Music in Philadelphia. In 1942 Doris first performed publicly in Richard Wagner’s, Gotterdammerung at the Metropolitan Opera House. For several years she also performed at the Covent Garden Opera in London, as the leading soprano, and also performed in Stockholm and Copenhagen as a guest artist with the opera companies of those two cities. Doris Doree died of heart failure in New York.

Doremus, Sarah – (1802 – 1877)
American social reformer
Sarah Doremus was a married woman with nine children and established a school for poor women and children. She became president of this school (1867), and also of the board of a hospital for women she founded over a decade earlier. (1855). Doremus later served as president of the Women’s Union Missionary Society, which dealt with assistance for women in the East, and was a co-founder of the Gould Memorial Home in Italy.

Doria del Carretto, Zenobia – (1541 – 1590)
Italian princess and ruler
Zenobia del Carretto was born at Melfi (Nov 30, 1541), the elder daughter and heiress of Marcantonio Doria del Carretto, Prince of Melfi, admiral of Philip II, king of Spain. She was married at Gaeta (1558) to Giovanni Andrea I Doria (Feb 5, 1540) – Feb 2, 1606), Duca di Tursi and marchese di Torriglia, and general admiral of Spain. Zenobia succeeded her father (1578) as sovereign princess of Melfi (1578 – 1590) and margravine of Finale, which titles were held by her husband in her right. Duchess Zenobia died in Genoa, aged forty-nine (Dec 18, 1590). Her first four sons, all named Andrea, died young by 1568, and her remaining children were,

Doricha     see    Rhodophis

Dorinskaia, Alexandra Alexandrovna – (1896 – 1978)
Russian ballerina
Dorinskaiawas trained in St Petersburg, and went on to become the partner of Vaclac Fomich Nijinski (1890 – 1950) in Serge Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes in Paris, most notably in the famous Le Spectre de la rose (1911). Known as ‘Pasia’ she travelled to London but upon her return to St Petersburg was trapped there by the outbreak of WW I. She later became a friend to both the futurist revolutionary poet, Vladimir Valdimirovich Mayakovsky (1894 – 1930) and his Jewish mistress, Lili Iurevna Brik (1891 – 1978), whose private teacher she became. Alexandra Dorinskaia died aged eighty-three.

Doris of Idumea – (c61 – 4 BC)
Jewish queen
The daughter of a priest, Doris became the first wife (c47 BC) of King Herod I the Great of Judaea (73 BC – 4 BC). She was the mother of his eldest son Antipater (46 – 4 BC). She was divorced (c39 BC) so that Herod could make a political marriage with Mariamne of Hasmonea but remained resident in the royal household and the king placed her in charge of the royal wardrobe. Her son was later sent to Rome where he was educated and served as a cavalry officer with the Imperial army.
Doris and her son were both implicated in Queen Mariamne’s trial (29 BC) and Herod banished them from the court, though they wre recalled to favour a decade afterwards (17 BC). A few years afterwards Herod’s sister Princess Salome caused Doris to become implicated in a conspiracy against the king. Doris and others were tortured and then exiled from the palace. Doris and her son were both implicated in the last conspiracy against Herod and were arrested for conspiracy and imprisoned. Both were quietly murdered five days before Herod’s own death (March, 4 BC).

Doris of Lokri – (c415 – c370 BC)
Queen consort of Syrakuse
Doris was born into a noble family in the city of Lokri. She became the third wife (399 BC) of King Dionysius I (431 – 367 BC) at the same time he married his second wife the Syrakusan Aristomache, political alliances designed to strengthen his position on the throne. Queen Doris was the mother of the future King Dionysius II (c397 – c325 BC). Her eldest son was designated as his father’s heir but this created unrest with the Syrakusans who preferred the son of that their native born queen to be heir rather than the son of Doris but as Plutarch recorded ‘but Doris had the good fortune to become a mother first, and by presenting Dionysius with his eldest son she atoned for her foreign birth.’ He also recorded that Doris’s mother was put to death by order of Dionysius after it was discovered that she had been administering drugs to her daughter’s rival Aristomache to prevent her from conceiving. Queen Doris appears to have predeceased her husband as she receives no mention during the reign of her son who did inherit considerable estates in Lokri through her.

Dorival, Anne Margeurite – (c1754 – 1788)
French dancer
Dorival was performing in Paris in 1773, and by 1776 was a solo dancer at the Paris Opera. In 1784 – 1785 she performed at the King’s Theatre in London, in roles choreographed by Lepicq. Other dance roles included The Deserter, Il convito degli dei, Le Judgement de Paris, Macbeth, and, A la plus sage, as well as a dance role in Gluck’s opera, Orfeo. Anne Margeurite Dorival died at Marseilles.

Dorliak, Xenia Nikolaievna (Ksenia) – (1882 – 1945)
Russian soprano
Dorliak was born into the wealthy patrician family of d’Orleac, in St Petersburg, her mother being lady-in-waiting to the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, the wife of Nicholas II. Dorliak received her vocal training from La Gladkaia and Natalia Iretskaia at the Petersburg Conservatory. She became the mother of the actor Dmitrii Dorliak and the soprano, Nina Lvovna Dorliak, and was appointed a professor at the Petrograd Conservatory (1918). Twelve years later she was also appointed a professor of the Moscow Conservatory (1930), and held a doctorate in art history. Her pupils included her daughter Nina and Elena Krugilkova. Xenia Dorliak died in Moscow aged sixty-three (March 8, 1945).

Dorman, Elizabeth – (c1732 – 1773)
British actress and vocalist
Born Elizabeth Young, she was the niece of singer Cecilia Arne, whom she accompanied to Ireland (1755). There she made her stage debut in Dublin, and appeared as Lucy in the ever popular, The Beggar’s Opera (1758), before joing the Drury Lane Theatre in London (1759). There she performed and sang in, Romeo and Juliet, Isabella, Hearts of Oak, The Reprisal, and other popular productions. She was married in London (1762), to the violinist, Ridley Dorman, and she appeared mainly at Drury Lane throughout the next decade. Favoured roles included Mrs Peachum in, The Beggar’s Opera, Dorcas in, Thomas and Sally, Ariel in, The Tempest, Rheum in, The Old Women Weatherwise, and Mother in, The Chances. Dorman also appeared at the Haymarket Theatre and the King’s Theatre, and sang at popular public venues such as Finch’s Grotto Gardens and Marylebone Gardens. Elizabeth Dorman died in London (April 12, 1773) aged barely forty.

Dormer, Agnes   see   Woodville, Agnes

Dormer, Jane – (1538 – 1612)
English Catholic courtier
Jane Dormer was born at Heythrop in Oxfordshire (Jan 6, 1538), the daughter of Sir William Dormer, of Ayscot, Buckinghamshire, and his first wife Mary, the daughter of Sir William Sidney.
Jane was raised in the household of her paternal grandmother from 1542 until she joined the household of Princess Mary (Mary I) being also companion to Edward VI. She was to remain one of that lady’s closest companions until the queen’s death sixteen years later (1558). It was to Jane that Mary, on her deathbed, consigned her jewels, to be given to her sister Elizabeth I.
During Mary’s reign, Jane had formed an attachment to Don Gomez de Figueroa, Duque de Feria, a courtier of Philip II of Spain, the queen’s husband. Beautiful and sweet natured, Jane had received proposals from several English peers, including the Earl of Nottingham and Devonshire, and the Duke of Norfolk, but at Queen mary’s request, she accepted the suit of de Feria, and they were married in London, a month after the queen’s death (Dec, 1558).  The duque left England for Flanders, but Jane remianed at Durham House until she was officially escorted to join him there (July, 1559), being permitted by Queen Elizabeth to take with her to Flanders, several members of Catholic religious orders so they could reside in Europe. With her husband’s death (1571) the duchess was left guardian of their son and manager of his estates at Zafra and elsewhere. She welcomed English Catholic exiles to her home and provided for them financially, though whether she was involved in espionage at any level remains undetermined. She retained her beauty well into old-age, and ook the habit of the Third Order of St Francis, being a generous patron of the church. She broke her arm in a fall (1609), but never really recovered. Jane Dormer died at Madrid, aged seventy-four (Jan 13, 1612). She was interred within the convent of Santa Clara at Zafra.

Dormer, Marion Ruth – (1930 – 2001)
Australian author
Born Marion Sherriff in Wagga Wagga, in the Riverina district of New South Wales, she was educated at Sydney Girls’ High School before she married Jim Dormer, who became the manager of a sheep station at Collie, near Gilgandra. Dormer became involved in local activities in Gilgandra, including the CWA (Country Women’s Association) and the Red Cross, and became of the first women to serve as a secretary for the United Farmers’ and Woolgrowers’ Association. She and her husband later removed to Dubbo (1980), where she became an editor at Macquarie Publications. There she oversaw works published by the humourist Keith Harvey, and local histories such as, Cobar – Founding Fathers, Country Sketchbook, and, Bushman’s Arms, produced by the Gilgandra Historical Society. Dormer herself wrote, Settlers on the Marthaguy, and then, Dubbo to the Turn of the Century, for which she received the Currey Fellowship award. This was followed by, Dubbo – City on the Plains, and she was admitted as a member of the Royal Historical Society of New South Wales and the Australian Society of Authors. Her work was later recognized by her receiving the OAM (Order of Australia Medal) (1988). Marion Dormer died in Dubbo, aged seventy (Oct 4, 2001).

Dormer, Mary – (c1553 – 1637)
English Tudor and Stuart noblewoman
Mary Dormer was the daughter of Sir William Dormer of Eythorpe in Buckinghamshire, and his wife Dorothy Catesby, the daughter of Anthony Catesby of Whiston in Northampton. She was married firstly (c1572) to the Hon. (Honourable) Anthony Browne (1552 – 1592), the son and heir of Anthony Browne, the first Viscount Montagu. The couple had six children but Browne narrowly predeceased his father and their son Anthony Maria succeeded his grandfather in the peerage.
Mary Browne remarried secondly to Sir Edmund Uvedale of Holt Park in Dorset. With his death Lady Uvedale remarried thirdly to Sir Thomas Gerard, first baronet of Bryn in Lancaster. Lady Mary resided at River Park at Tilleton in Sussex. Mary Gerard died (before Nov 23, 1637) aged over eighty, and was buried at Midhurst, near her first husband. In her will she was styled ‘Dame Marie Gerard.’ The children of her first marriage were,

Doroteia of Portugal – (1739 – 1771)
Infanta
Born Infanta Maria Francisca Doroteia in Lisbon, Estramadura (Sept 21, 1739), she was the third daughter of King Joseph I and his wife Mariana Victoria of Spain, the daughter of Philip V, King of Spain (1700 – 1746). She remained unmarried. Infanta Doroteia died in Lisbon (Jan 14, 1771) aged thirty-one. She is interred within the national pantheon in the monastery of Sao Vicente de Fora in Lisbon.

Dorothea of Brandenburg – (1420 – 1491)
German duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Dorothea was born (Feb 9, 1420) at Cadolzburg, near Zirndorf and Nuremburg, the daughter of Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (1417 – 1440), and his wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Frederick, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut (1392 – 1393). Dorothea was married (1432) to Henry II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1417 – 1477) and was his duchess consort for forty years (1436 – 1477). With Henry’s death (March 9, 1477), Dorothea survived him as the Dowager Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1477 – 1491). Duchess Dorothea died (Jan 19, 1491) aged seventy, and was buried with her husband at Doberan. She had borne Henry eight children,

Dorothea of Brandenburg-Kulmbach – (1430 – 1495)
Twice queen consort of Denmark (1445 – 1448) and (1449 – 1481)
Dorothea was the daughter of Johannes the Alchemist, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, and his wife Barbara, the daughter of Rudolf III, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg. Her first marriage (1445) with Christopher III of Denmark remained childless. With his early death (Jan 6, 1448), Dorothea was remarried (Oct 26, 1449) to his successor, Count Kristian of Oldenburg (1425 – 1481), who was elected king by the Danish nobility, and became King Kristian I. Her children by her second marriage included kings Hans I (1455 – 1513), and  Frederik I (1471 – 1533), both of whom left issue, and, Margaret of Denmark (1456 – 1486), the wife of James III, king of Scotland. Through her daughter, Queen Dorothea was the great-grandmother of Mary Stuart (1542 – 1587). She was the paternal grandmother of two Danish kings, Kristian II (1513 – 1523), who was deposed, and Kristian III (1535 – 1559).
Through another grandson, Duke Adolphus of Holstein-Gottorp (1526 – 1586), Queen Dorothea was ancestress of the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, the emperors of Russia, the kings of Sweden, and the Grand dukes of Oldenburg. Queen Dorothea and her husband greatly favoured the Scottish alliance for their daughter, and they jointly granted Margaret a dowry of sixty thousand florins Rhenish, and the Orkney Islands (1468). The queen made a pilgrimage to Rome (1475) where she was received at the papal court and was granted several concessions which had been desired by Danish merchants, which her husband had been unable t procure. She possessed sound business acumen, and worked consistently to establish the rights of her younger son Frederik to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, but was opposed by her eldest son, who did not favour the scheme. Eventually, the two brothers came to an agreement and partitioned the disputed provinces (1490). Part of her correspondence with her sister Barbara, the Marchesa of Mantua have survived, and she visited the Mantuan court during her Italian visit, when a great public fair was held in her honour. She was Queen Dowager of Denmark for over a decade (1481 – 1495). Queen Dorothea died at Kalundborg, aged seventy-five (Nov 25, 1495), and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Her granddaughter Dorothea of Denmark was the wife of Albert, Duke of Prussia.

Dorothea of Cappodocia – (c290 – c313 AD)
Greek Christian martyr
Popularly known as St Dorothy, she was brought up as a Christian, she became renowned for her knowledge of science and philosophy. Eusebius states that she was brought before Maximian Daia during his persecutions of the Christians. The emperor did not harm her, despite her open defiance, though he ordered her property to be confiscated, and she was banished from the city (c308 AD). Dorothea then travelled to lands near the Arabian mountains, and was probably martyred several years later. A variation of her story was that Dorothea fled from the city and her estates in order to escape the lechery of the emperor. Another version of her life which places her in Alexandria, Egypt is considered fabulous, and she is probably confused with St Catherine of Alexandria. Her Acts are not authentic, and her name does not appear in the early Greek calendars. However, her worship was universal throughout the western church by the beginning of the eighth century, and she was honoured as a saint (Feb 6 and March 28). St Dorothea was the patron of brewers, apples, gardeners and young lovers. In religious art Dorothea is represented with a sword and a palm, wearing a wreath of roses, and with a small boy, carrying a basket of apples and roses.

Dorothea of Denmark (1) – (1504 – 1547)
Danish-German letter writer and educational promoter
Princess Dorothea was born in Gottorp, Denmark (Aug 1, 1504), the daughter of King Frederick I, and his first wife Anna Catharina of Brandenburg, and sister to King Christian III. She was married (1526) to Albert of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia (1490 – 1568) as his first wife. Her surviving letters reveal that her marriage was mutually happy one, and in them she expresses her love and longing for her husband (then absent) in a very open and honest manner. The duchess supported her husband in the transition of Prussia into a secular state, and promoted continued links, both cultural and otherwise, with her native Denmark. She herself organized Protestant church services for the court and people, which assisted with the promotion of the Lutheran ideal, and corresponded with contemporary German scholars. Dorothea assisted her husband with the foundation of the University of Konigsberg. Duchess Dorothea died at Konigsberg, aged thirty-eight (April 11, 1547).

Dorothea of Denmark (2) – (1520 – 1580)
Electress Palatine consort of the Rhine
Dorothea was born (Nov 10, 1520), the daughter of Kristian II, King of Denmark, and his wife Isabella of Austria. Dorothea was niece to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who first considered the suits of Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrucken (1502 – 1532), and James V, King of Scotland, but instead she was married (1535) to Frederick II the Wise, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, a more politically important alliance, but almost four decades her senior. The marriage was aimed to keep the Palatine Wittelsbachs loyal to the Hapsburgs, and the emperor entrusted his brother, Ferdinand, King of the Romans (later emperor Ferdinand I) with the task of retaining the loyalty of Frederick and Dorothea. Dorothea inherited claims to the Danish throne, and when Henry VIII was considering marriage with Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan, he demanded that Dorothea and Frederick renounce these claims (1539), but they refused. When Dorothea’s father, Kristian II entered into an alliance with the French at Fontainebleau (1541), Frederick claimed the crown of Denmark, but these claims were put aside after much wrangling, and the couple contented themselves with their emption pretentions to the throne. Their marriage remained childless.Later, officially because of her Lutheran religion which she refused to change, but also because of her husband’s continued liasion with his mistress Madame Hornung, she left the Rhenish court and travelled to Saxony, where Duke Maurice took her under his protection. Dorothea survived Frederick over two decades as the Dowager Electress Palatine of the Rhine (1559 – 1580). Electress Dorothea died aged fifty-nine (Sept 20, 1580).

Dorothea of Denmark (3) – (1546 – 1617)
Duchess consort of Brunswick
Dorothea was born at Koldinghus (June 29, 1546), the daughter of Kristian III, King of Denmark and his wife Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. Piously educated, she and her sisters were noted more for their religious virtues instead of their beauty. She was married at fifteen (1561) to Wilhelm V, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (1535 – 1592) and bore him a large family of fifteen children. A woman of domestic rather than intellectual attainments, the Duchess devoted her life to the upbringing and education of her numerous children.
With her husband’s death (1592) the duchess ruled as regent of Luneberg for their son George (1592 – 1600). A woman of considerable ruling ability she distrusted the councilors of her late husband and made her own decisions with success. When Duke George came of age the dowager retired to her own small court at Winsen. There she supervised the marital arrangements of her daughters, and devoted herself to charitable concerns. Dorothea survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Brunswick-Luenburg for twenty-five years (1592 – 1617). Her children included, Ernest (1564 – 1611), Christian (1566 – 1633), Augustus (1568 – 1636), and Frederick (1574 – 1648), successive dukes of Brunswick-Celle, who all died unmarried. Her daughter Margaret (1573 – 1643) became the second wife of Johann Kasimir, Duke of Saxe-Coburg, whilst her youngest son George, Duke of Brunswick-Luenburg (1582 – 1641) was the direct ancestor of the present British royal family, through the Hanover line. Duchess Dorothea died (June 6, 1617) aged seventy, at Winsen, and was interred with her husband in the ducal vault at Celle.

Dorothea of Holstein-Glucksburg – (1636 – 1689)
Electress consort of Brandenburg
Dorothea was born at Glucksburg Castle, Holstein (Oct 9, 1636), the daughter of Philip, Duke of Holstein-Glucksburg, and his wife Sophia Hedwig, the daughter of Franz II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenberg. She was married firstly (1653) to Christian Louis, Duke of Brunwick-Celle, which union was childless, and secondly (1668) as his second wife, Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg (1620 – 1688) to whom she bore seven children. Though not an intellectual like the elector’s first wife Louisa Henrietta, Dorothea was witty and temperamental, possessed robust health and energy, and devoted herself to helping her husband in any way he needed her. This was seen as interference by some, and made the electress highly unpopular with her husbands’s subjects, as did her rumoured dislike of her stepchildren. Despite this however, the elector remained both devoted too, and dependent upon Dorothea and she enjoyed considerable political influence at the Brandenburg court, where she supported the expansion of the city of Berlin, where the Dorotheenstadt district was named for her. Dorothea nursed her husband devotedly during the illnesses that afflicted him during the last years of his life, and survived him only fourteen months. Electress Dorothea died at Karlsbad, aged fifty-two (Aug 16, 1689).

Dorothea of Medem       see     Kurland, Duchesse de

Dorothea of Montau – (1347 – 1399)
German mystic and saint
Dorothea Swartz was born st Montau on the Isle of Marienburg, Pomerania (Feb 6, 1347), the daughter of Wilhelm Swartz. She married one Adalbert, but all their sons died in infancy. Their last child, a daughter Elizabeth, was born in 1380, after which Dorothea took a vow of celibacy. Deeply religious from childhood, husband and wife made a pilgrimage together (1382) to Aix-la-Chapelle. From this time Dorothea began to have visions, which left people wondering about her sanity. She travelled to Rome (1389 – 1390) but Adalbert died during her absence. The finally obtained permission (May, 1394) to build a cell in the church of Marieninsel at Marienwerder, where she remained a recluse until her death, aged forty-six (June 25, 1394). Renowned for her visions and miracles, her fame spread throughout Poland, Silesia, Bohemia, Livonia and Lithuania. The church revered her memory (June 25 and Oct 30). The first record of her revelations the, Septilium, was written by her confessor, Johann Marienwerder. Dorothea of Montau was the patron saint of Prussia, Poland and Silesia. Her daughter Elizabeth became firstly a Benedictine nun at Culm, and but later joined the Cistercian order at Oliva.

Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg – (1511 – 1571)
Queen consort of Denmark (1533 – 1559)
Dorothea was born at Lauenburg, Saxony (July 9, 1511), the daughter of Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and his wife Catherine of Brunswick. Her younger sister Catherine was the first wife of Gustavus I, King of Sweden. Princess Dorothea was married (1525) to Kristian III, King of Denmark (1503 – 1559), to whom she bore five children including, King Frederik II (1534 – 1588), whose daughter Anne became the wife of James VI of Scotland (I of Great Britain), and, Magnus, King of Livonia (1540 – 1583), who left two daughters. Her elder daughter Anna (1532 – 1585) became the first wife of Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, whilst her youngest daughter Dorothea (1546 – 1617) was married to her German cousin, Duke William V of Brunswick-Luneburg. Through her younger daughter’s marriage, Queen Dorothea was ancestress of the British Hanoverian royal house (1714 – 1837), and of Queen Victoria and her descendants.
Dorothea had little impact on Danish politics, apart from her duties as consort. With the death of Kristian (Jan, 1559), Dorotheas was Queen Dowager for the first twelve years of the reign of her son Frederik II (1559 – 1571). Queen Dorothea died (Oct 7, 1571) aged sixty, at Sonderburg.

Dorothea of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen – (1579 – 1639)
German duchess consort
Dorothea was born at Sonderhausen (Aug 25, 1579), the daughter of Johann Gunther, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen, and his wife Countess Anna Sophia of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst. She was married at Oldenburg (1605), to Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Beck (1573 – 1627). With his death Dorothea became the Dowager Duchess of Holstein-Beck for over a decade (1627 – 1639). Duchess Dorothea died (July 5, 1639) at Sonderburg, aged fifty-nine, having borne eleven children, of whom seven survived infancy,

Dorothea Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp – (1602 – 1682)
Duchess consort of Holstein-Ploen
Dorothea Augusta was born (April 12, 1602), the daughter of Johann Adolf, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. She became the wife (1633) of Joachim Ernst I (1595 – 1671), Duke of Holstein-Ploen, and was the mother of his successor, Duke Johann Adolf (1634 – 1704), who was in the military service of the Holy Roman emperor. With her husband’s death (Oct 5, 1671), the Dowager Duchess managed the government of Ploen during her son’s absence from the duchy (1671 – 1673), and later shared power with her daughter-in-law, Duchess Dorothea Sophia of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel.  Her other seven children included, Augustus (1635 – 1699), Duke of Holstein-Norburg, who left descendents, Joachim Ernst II (1637 – 1700), Duke of Holstein-Rethwisch, who left children, and Agnes Hedwig (1640 – 1698), the second wife of Christian, duke of Holstein-Glucksburg (1627 – 1698). Duchess Dorothea Augusta died (March 31, 1682) aged seventy-nine.

Dorothea Charlotte of Ansbach – (1661 – 1705)
Landgravine consort of Darmstadt
Dorothea Charlotte was born (Nov 18, 1661), the daughter of Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1634 – 1667), and his second wife Countess Sophia Margaret von Oettingen, the daughter of Joachim Ernst, Count von Oettingen. Dorothea Charlotte was married (1687) to Ernst Ludwig (1667 – 1739), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and was landgravine consort until her death (1687 – 1705). Landgravine Dorothea Charlotte died three days before her forty-fourth birthday (Nov 15, 1705), and left five children,

Dorothea Hedwig of Holstein-Norburg – (1636 – 1692)
German princess
Dorothea Hedwig was born at Gottorp Castle, Holstein (April 18, 1636), the second daughter of Frederik (1581 – 1658), Duke of Holstein-Norburg and his second wife Princess Eleonore of Anhalt-Zerbst. The princess did not marry during her youth, and was placed in the Protestant abbey of Gandersheim, near Goslar to become a nun. Later elected as abbess (1665) she ruled for twelve years until she renounced her position and her faith, to convert to Roman Catholicism (1678).
The same year, aged forty-two, she was married to Count Christopher von Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625 – 1696), a childless widower whom she then accompanied to Rome in Italy. They were formally congratulated on their marriage by Pope Innocent XI. This marriage produced a son Count Alexander Christopher Anton von Rantzau (1681 – 1747) born in Rome whose sponsors wre Queen Christina of Sweden and the Emperor Leopold I. The legitimacy of whom caused great speculation at the court of Holstein due to the adavanced age (45) of his mother, and the fact that she and Count Christopher were then living apart, the count residing at Neustadt. Count Christopher did no formally acknowledge the child as his legitimate heir but he never disavowed his legitimacy prior to his death. Princess Dorothea Hedwig died (Sept 23, 1696) aged fifty-six, in Hamburg.
With the death of Count von Rantzau (1696) a formal investigation took place to establish the legitimacy or not of Dorothea Hedwig’s son. This commission declared Alexander to be the legitimate child and heir of both his parents and he was sent to the court of Wolfenbuttel to be raised by his maternal aunt the Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Count Alexander Leopold later became an army officer and served with the Wolfenbuttel military and became a major-general. He was married to the Baroness Catherine Sophie Hoym (1684 – 1748) and left three sons.

Dorothea Maria of Anhalt – (1574 – 1617)
German princess and scholar
Dorothea Maria was daughter to Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and his wife Eleonore, the daughter of Christopher, Duke of Wurttemburg. She was married (1593) to Duke John of Saxe-Weimar, to whom she bore eleven sons, including John Ernest of Saxe-Weimar (1589 – 1628), Albert, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (1595 – 1644), Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1601 – 1675) and Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604 – 1639). Widowed in 1605, once her eldest son had settled into his duties as ruler in Weimar, the duchess was free to devote herself to the arts and sciences, of which she became a generous patron. Dorothea Maria was instructed in Latin and Hebrew by the eminent linguist, Wolfgang Ratichius, and she left twenty thousand florins in her will, in order to make provision for professorships at the University of Jena. Her death occurred from shock and fright (July 18, 1617) after her horse had panicked and carried the duchess into the river Ilm. She was carried several dozen yards downstream before her servants were able to affect her rescue, but had the prescence of mind to keep her head above the water till they could reach her. A monument with a Latin inscription was later erected on the spot where her horse had reared.

Dorothea Maria of Saxe-Weimar – (1641 – 1675)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Zeitz (1656 – 1675)
Dorothea Maria was born (Oct 14, 1641), the younger daughter of Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1605 – 1662) and his wife Eleonore Dorothea, the daughter of Johann George, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Dorothea Maria was named for her paternal grandmother, Dorothea Maria of Anhalt-Zerbst, the wife of Duke Johann of Saxe-Weimar (1573 – 1605). She was married (1656) to her cousin, Duke Maurice (Moritz) of Saxe-Zeitz (1619 – 1681) as his second wife, and predeceased him, dying (June 11, 1675) from the effects of childbirth. Duchess Dorothea Maria left ten children,

Dorothea Maria Henrietta Augusta Louisa – (1881 – 1967)
Last duchess consort of Schleswig-Holstein (1898 – 1921)
Princess Dorothea was born (April 30, 1881), in Vienna, Austria, the only daughter of Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and his wife Louise, the daughter of Leopold II, King of the Belgians (1865 – 1909). Dorothea was married (1898) at Coburg in Thuringia, to Duke Ernst Gunther (1863 – 1921), the last reigning duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1880 – 1921). Her husband was the son and heir of Duke Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Adelaide of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the niece of Queen Victoria of England. The couple remained childless.
Her only sibling Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg died childless in Vienna (1916) and with the deaths of both her parents (1921) and (1924) the duchess became their sole heir. Dorothea survived her husband as the Dowager Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein for over forty-five years (1921 – 1967). Duchess Dorothea died (Jan 21, 1967) aged eighty-five, at Taxis, in Wurttemburg.

Dorothea Sophia of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel – (1653 – 1722)
Duchess consort of Holstein-Ploen
Princess Dorothea Sophia was born (Jan 17, 1653), the daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1666 – 1704) and his wife Countess Christina Elisabeth von Barby-Muhlingen, the daughter of Count Albrecht Friedrich of Barby, Rosenberg, and Muhlingen. Dorothea Sophia was married (1673) to Duke Johann Adolf of Schleswig-Holstein-Ploen, and was duchess consort (1673 – 1704). The duchess bore her husband six children, four of whom died young, including Adolf August (1680 – 1704), who predeceased his father by four days, and was the father of Duke Leopold August (1702 – 1706), who succeeded his grandfather, but died as a small child. Her daughter Dorothea Sophia (1692 – 1765) was married to Adolf Friedrich II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1686 – 1752). With the absence of Johann Adolf from Ploen on Imperial military service, Dorothea Sophia and her mother-in-law, Dorothea Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp, shared the government of Ploen (1671 – 1673). With the death of the elder duchess (1682), Dorothea Sophia ruled the duchy as sole regent during her husband’s continued abscences. With Johann Adolf’s death (July 2, 1704), she became Dowager Duchess and was appointed as titular duchess of Reinfeld during her widowhood. Duchess Dorothea Sophia died aged sixty-nine (March 21, 1722).

Dorothea Sophia of Palatine-Neuburg – (1670 – 1748)
Italian duchess
Princess Dorothea Sophia was born at Neuburg an der Donau in Bavaria (July 5, 1670), the daughter of Philip Wilhelm, Count and Elector Palatine of Neuburg (1658 – 1690), and his second wife Elisabeth Amalia, the daughter of George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Three of her sisters married crowned heads, Maria Sophia, Queen of Portugal, Maria Anna, Queen of Spain, and Eleanora Magdalena, Empress of Austria. Dorothea Sophia was married firstly (1690) to Odoardo II Farnese, Duke of Parma, by whom she had an only surviving child and heiress, Elisabeth Farnese (1692 – 1766), later the powerful second wife of Philip V, King of France (1700 – 1746). Several years after Odoardo’s early death, the duchess remarried (1695) to his younger brother and successor, Duke Francesco Farnese (1678 – 1727), nearly a decade her junior. Her second marriage remained childless.
A woman possessed of a rather striking looks and forceful character, she was somewhat feared by courtiers and servants alike. The duchess and her husband received the English Prince of Wales, Jamed Edward Francis Stuart at Piacenza (March, 1716), on his way to Rome, and presented him with costly gifts. Her younger sister, Hedwig Elisabeth, Princess Sobieska, connived at the marriage of her daughter Maria Clementina, with James Edward Stuart, despite Imperial disapproval of such a union. She arranged with Charles Wogan for the escape of her daughter from detention at Innsbruck, and herself sufferred indignities at the hands of Emperor Charles VI’s agent, General Hester, because of her involvement. The chance arrival of Duchess Dorothea Sophia in Innsbruck on a visit, spared her sister any further suffering. A woman of more dominant character than her weak-willed sister, the Duchess put the general firmly in his place, and even had a French girl, who had assisted with her niece’s escape secreted amongst her own serving-women, thus ensuring the girl’s escape, and her life. With her husband’s death (1727), Dorothea Sophia was Dowager Duchess of Parma for two decades (1727 – 1748). With the death of her brother-in-law, Duke Antonio (1727), the last of the male Farnese, the duchy passed to Dorothea Sophia’s grandson, Charles III, King of Spain. She then ruled Parma as regent in his name until 1735, when Parma was ceded to Austria after the War of the Polish Succession (1733 – 1735). Duchess Dorothea Sophia died (Sept 15, 1748) aged seventy-eight, at Parma.

Dorothea Susanna of Simmern – (1544 – 1592)
German duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar
Princess Dorothea Susanna was born at Simmern, Bavaria (Nov 15, 1544), the daughter of Friedrich III, Elector Palatine of Simmern (1559 – 1576) and his first wife, Maria, the daughter of Kasimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. She was married at Heidelburg (1560) to Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1530 – 1573), and was duchess consort (1572 – 1573). Her husband died at Weimar, Saxony (March 2, 1573) and Dorothea Susanna was Duchess Dowager for nearly two decades (1573 – 1592).
Duchess Dorothea Susanna died at Weimar (March 29, 1592), aged forty-seve. She left five children,

Dorothea Wilhelmina of Saxe-Zeitz – (1691 – 1743)
German landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
Princess Dorothea Wilhelmina was born (March 20, 1691), the daughter and only surviving child and heiress, of Maurice Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Zeitz (1664 – 1718), and his wife Maria Amalia of Brandenburg, the widow of Karl, hereditary pince of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg (1620 – 1688). Dorothea Wilhelmina was married at Zeitz in Saxony (1717) to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (1682 – 1760). She was the first lady of the Hessian court at Kassel (1730 – 1743) when her husband ruled the landgraviate as regent for his absent elder brother, Frederick I, King of Sweden. He only succeeded as sole ruler after his wife’s death, when he became Landgrave Wilhlem VIII (1751).
The landgravine died (March 17, 1743) aged fifty-one, leaving three children,

Dors, Diana – (1931 – 1984)
British actress
Born Diana Fluck, at Swindon, Wiltshire, she was one of twenty children of a railway clerk. She studied acting at RADA (Royal Academy of Dramatic Art), and made her film debut in, The Shop at Sly Corner (1946). Dors was taken on by the Rank Corporation on a long-term contract and remodelled into a platinum blonde star of earthy sexual proportions, which epitomized the good-time girls popularized in films of the 1940’s and 1950’s. Despite this sterotyping, Dors produced memorable acting talent such as in, Yield to the Night (1956), though she never managed to escape her early, more sexual representations, though her popularity with the general public remained ever undiminished. At the height of her career, in the late 1950’s, she was Britain’s highest paid actress. Her second husband (1959 – 1967) was the Canadian comedian, Dick Dawson. The couple had two childrrn but were later divorced. During the later part of her career, which included cabaret and television work, she did magnificent work in the stage play, Three Months Gone (1971), which was followed by character roles in films such as, Deep End (1970), and, The Amazing Mr Blunden (1972). Her last film, Steaming (1984) was released shortly before her death. Diana Dors died (May 4, 1984) aged fifty-two, at Windsor, Berkshire.

D’Orsay, Fifi – (1904 – 1983)
French-Canadian film actress
Born Marie Rose Angelina Yvonne Lussier in Montreal, Quebec (April 16, 1904), she went to New York as a young woman, becoming determined upon a career in films. She succeeded, and as ‘Fifi D’Orsay’ was a famous leading lady in Hollywood, California, throughout the decade of the 1930’s, appearing in such films as, They Had to See Paris (1929), Hot for Paris (1930), Just Imagine (1931), and, Silk Stockings (1933). Often cast as the saucy French girl, D’Orsay worked with such acting luminaries as Buster Crabbe and Bing Crosby, though her career declined after the end of WWII. Despite this D’Orsay appeared in several other later films such as, Accent on Youth (1945), The Gangster (1947), Wild and Wonderful (1963), The Art of Love (1965), and, Assignment to Kill (1968), her last film, before finally retiring from the screen.  D’Orsay appeared on Broadway in the musical, Follies (1971). Fifi D’Orsay died at Woodland Hills, California (Dec 2, 1983), aged seventy-nine.

Dorsch, Agnes Marie Johanna – (1871 – 1958)
Australian educator
Agnes Heyne was born (Dec 18, 1871) in Adelaide, South Australia, the daughter of a florist of Saxon background. She studied Latin and Greek in secondary school and then attended the University of Adelaide, becoming only the second woman to graduate from that university. She was married (1893) to Caspar Dorsch, a widowed Lutheran clergyman, and bore him eight children. Her husband’s frequent ill-health meant that Mrs Dorsch ahd to assist with the family’s income and she became a teacher at the Presbyterian Ladies’ College and at Concordia College, the Lutheran school. Her pupils included the grandchildren of the poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Mrs Dorsch retired from Concordia (1942) but continued to teach for several years until incapacitated by bad health. Agnes Dorsch died (Oct 13, 1958) aged eighty-six, at Fullarton.

Dorset, Arabella Diana Cope, Duchess of – (1769 – 1826)
British courtier and diplomatic figure
Arabella Cope was the daughter of Sir Charles Cope and his wife Catherine Bisshopp, later the wife of Lord Liverpool, and daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshopp, sixth baronet of Parham. She was married (1790) to John Frederick Sackville, Duke of Dorset to whom she bore three children. With the duke’s death (1799) she remarried (1801) to her husband’s friend, the diplomat Charles Whitworth (1752 – 1825).
A capable woman with a taste for power and pleasure, her first husband’s death left her with thirteen thousand pounds annually, plus the borough of East Grinstead. Dorset House and Knole Park subsequently passed into her hands. She accompanied Whitworth to France when he was appointed British ambassador (1802) and the duchess was formally received at St Cloud by Napoelon and Madame Bonaparte. Possessed of a pronounced hauteur, she had considerable scruples about calling on the wife of the Prince de Talleyrand. The couple later revisited Paris after the restoration of the Bourbons (1819) accompanied by an impressive entourage. At a state banquet held by the Prince Regent at Carlton House the duchess claimed the precedence of a duchess but this was refused her on account of her remarriage and attended as the Countess Whitworth.
The duchess survived her second husband little over a year as the Dowager Countess Whitworth (1825 – 1826), he having left her as his only beneficiary. The Duchess of Dorset died of apoplexy at Knole Park, aged fifty-seven (Aug 1, 1826). She was buried at Withyam in Sussex, with twenty-two horseman accompanying her coffin. The only son of her first marriage, George John Frederick Sackville had succeeded his father as duke but died childless (1815). As a result the duchess’s large properties, estimated to be worth thirty-five thousand pounds annually, which were divided between her two sons-in-law, Lord Plymouth and Lord De La Warr. Her children were,

Dorset, Cecily Bonville, Marchioness of    see   Bonville, Cecily

Dorset, Eleanor St John, Marchioness of – (c1478 – c1512)
English Tudor courtier
Eleanor St John was the daughter of Sir Oliver St John, of Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry Le Scrope, Lord Scrope of Bolton, and later the wife of Sir John Bigod. Eleanor was married (c1495) to Lord Thomas Grey (1477 – 1530), the son and heir of Lord Dorset, the half-brother of Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII, as his first wife. The marriage was a dynastic alliance arranged by Henry VII, but there were no surviving children. Eleanor became marchioness of Dorset when her husband succeeded his father (1501) and that year, the couple formed part of the court that attended the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales with Catharine of Aragon, and attended them at their court at Ludlow Castle in Wales. Lady Dorset and her husband were later present at the coronation celebrations of Queen Catharine after her remarriage with Henry VIII (1509).

Dorset, Elizabeth Colyear, Duchess of – (1689 – 1768)
British Stuart and Hanoverian courtier
Elizabeth Colyear was the daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Colyear, and niece to David Colyear, the first Earl of Portmore. She attended the court as maid-of-honour to Queen Anne (1706 – 1709) before her marriage (1709) with Lionel Sackville (1688 – 1765), first Duke of Dorset (1720). With the accession of George I, the duchess, generally considered something of a beauty, according to Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu, served at court a second time as lady-of-the Bechamber and mistress of the Robes (1720) to Caroline, Princess of Wales (wife of George II), retaining that position after she became queen consort (1727). She and the duke attended the coronation of George III and Queen Charlotte (Sept, 1761). Elizabeth survived her husband as Dowager Duchess of Dorset (1765 – 1768). Elizabeth was the mother of  six children, including Charles Sackville, second Duke of Dorset (1711 – 1769), Lord John Philip Sackville (1713 – 1765), the father of John Frederick, third Duke of Dorset (1745 – 1799), Lord George Sackville (1716 – 1785), the father of Charles, fifth Duke of Dorset (1767 – 1843), and Lady Caroline Sackville (1718 – 1775), wife of Joseph Damer, first Earl of Dorchester (1718 – 1798), by whom she left issue. The Duchess of Dorset died (June 12, 1768) aged seventy-eight, and interred at Withyam with her husband.

Dorset, Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of – (c1481 – 1541)
English Tudor courtier
Margaret Wotton was the daughter of Sir Robert Wotton, of Boughton Malherbe, Kent, and his wife Anne de Bealknap, the daughter of Sir Henry de Bealknap, who was himself the grandson of Sir Robert de Bealknap (c1340 – 1400), the famous judge. She was the elder sister to Sir Edward Wotton (1489 – 1551), treasurer of Calais under Henry VIII, and of the noted diplomat and Secretary of State, Dr Nicholas Wotton (1497 – 1567). Margaret was married firstly (c1500) to William Medley (died 1509) to whom she bore children. Several years afterwards she became the second wife (c1513) of Sir Thomas Grey (1477 – 1530), second Marquess of Dorset (1501 – 1530), kinsman to Henry VIII.
Lady Dorset was a prominent figure at the court of King Henry and Catharine of Aragon, who stood godmother to her eldest daughter. The young Elizabeth Darrell, beloved of the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder was trained in her household prior to going to court as a lady-in-waiting. Despite her loyalty to Catherine of Aragon, as a widow The Dowager Marchioness of Dorset made the transition to the court of Anne Boleyn, whom she attended at her coronation. The marchioness was appointed to stand as one of the godmothers to Anne’s daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth I. Her children were,

Dorset, Mary Curzon, Countess of – (1592 – 1645)
English Stuart courtier
Mary Curzon was the daughter and heiress of Sir George Curzon of Croxhall in Derbyshire. She became the wife (1612) of Edward Sackville (1591 – 1652), the fourth Earl of Dorset and became the Countess of Dorset. He was the son of Robert Sackville, third Earl of Dorset and his wife Lady Margaret Howard, the daughter of Sir Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke of Norfolk. Mary and Edward had several children. A lady of impeccable Anglican ideals Lady Dorset was later appointed as governess to Charles Stuart, Prince of Wales (Charles II) and to his brother James Stuart, Duke of York (James II) for a period of twelve years (1630 – 1642).
Ladt Dorset then received charge of the younger children of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester and his sister the Princess Elizabeth, and received an allowance of six hundred pounds a year from Parliament together with Knole House and Dorset House, in recognition of her loyal service. A woman of kindly temperament the countess did what she could for these children, now separated from their royal parents by order of Oliver Cromwell, and it was due to her own insistence that certain improvements were made to their conditions. Her devotion to them ensured their devotion to her. Lady Dorset died just as she was about to be relieved of her duties, and as a reward for her ‘godly and conscientious cares and pains’ she received a public funeral in Westminster Abbey in London. The two royal children were then transferred to the care of the Earl and Countess of Northumberland. Lady Curzon’s children were,

Dorsey, Sarah Anne – (1829 – 1879)
American novelist
Born Sarah Ellis at Natchez, Mississippi (Feb 16, 1829), she was the daughter of a plantation owner. She was later married to another plantation owner and moved to Louisiana. During the upheavals of the Civil War, her home was burned by the Yankees and she and her husband fled to Texas. With her husband’s death, Dorsey returned to reside in Mississippi. Her works included the novel, Agnes Graham (1863), a biography of Henry Watkins Allen, the Confederate governor of Louisiana (1866), and the novels, Lucia Dare (1867), for which she drew on her experiences during the war, Athalie: or, A Southern Villeggiatura (1872), and perhaps her best remembered work, Panola, A Tale of Louisiana (1877), which told the romantic story of the life of a half-white native American woman. Dorsey assisted the former Southern president Jefferson Davis, with his two volume work, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (1881). Sarah Anne Dorsey died aged fifty (July 4, 1879).

D’Orta, Rachele – (c1761 – 1800?)
Italian comic actress and vocalist
Rachele D’Orta had appeared on stage in her native land before travelling to London, where she fist appeared at the King’s Theatre, where she sang the role of Dorina in the production of, I rivali delusi (1784). D’Orta appeared in other comical and farcical productions such as La schiava, and appeared as Livietta in Li due gemelle. She also sang Clorinda in Il curioso indiscreto and Cintia in Il pittor parigino. She described herself as the leading comic actress at the King’s Theatre Company, in a letter to the Lord Chamberlain (1785). Rachele was married in England to an Italian musician named Signor Giorgi, whose exact identity remains uncertain. He was probably identical with the James Giorgi (or Georgi), who committed suicide in Ireland (1798). Madame Giorgi received financial assistance from the Irish Musical Fund, but died only eighteen months after her husband (July or Aug, 1800).

Dorval, Marie Thomasse Amelie – (1798 – 1849)
French actress
Born Marie Delauney in Lorient, she was the daughter of strolling players. She appeared on the stage from a very early age, and was married young (1813) to a dance-master, Allan Dorval.
Mme Dorval appeared on stage in the theatre in Paris from 1818, and was particularly admired for her decidedly Romantic style. She appeared with the classic performer Madamoiselle Mars (1835), but their styles clashed. She celebrated her greatest stage triumph in 1845, after whuch her health and career declined. Marie Dorval died in poverty.

Dostoyevskaia, Anna Grigorievna – (1846 – 1918)
Russian author and literary figure
Anna Grigorievna was the daughter of Grigor Snitkina. She was originally employed as stenographer to the novelist Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (1821 – 1881), who eventually married her as his second wife (1867). The couple were forced to go abroad because of Dostoyevsky’s disordered financial situation, and to avoid his creditors, which caused the writer great personal embarrassment, but under Anna’s influence their situation recovered so that they could return to Russia. Anna survived Dostoyevsky almost forty years. She left a diary, Dnevnik 1867 (1923), and memoirs, Vospominaniia (1925), which were both published posthumously.

Dou – (c202 – 135 BC)
Chinese empress
Dou was the wife of emperor Wendi (202 – 157 BC) who reigned (180 – 157 BC). An ardent Daoist, her influence over the emperor was politically beneficial, and Dou restrained Wendi from becoming involved in wasteful foreign military ventures. Thus the peaceful accession of their son Jingdi (188 – 141 BC) at his father’s death was the result of Dou’s moderating influence, and provided the dynasty with a much needed sense of stability. This moderating influence was exercised by Dou again during the reign of her grandson Wudi (141 – 87 BC), and it was only after her death that Wudi’s reign careered into disaster.

Douai, Ida de – (fl. c1240 – c1270)
Flemish heiress
Ida de Douai was the daughter of Gerard III, provost of Douai, and a descendant of Robert (died c1150), the first provost of Douai. Ida was married to Alard, seigneur d’Antoing and d’Epinoy. Alard held the provostship of Douai in Ida’s right, as did her son, Hugh I, and his descendants. Ida was the ancestress of Jean de Melun, Constable of France (died 1484), Francois de Melun, Bishop of Arras (died c1521), Maximilien de Bethune, Duc de Sully (1559 – 1641), the famous minister of Henry IV, Florent de Montmorency, Comte de Berlaymont (died 1590), and Louis II, Duc de Melun (died 1724). Lamoral, Prince de Ligne, the husband of Marie de Melun, later ceded the provostship to his wife’s nephew, Guillaume de Melun (1635), and this cession was later confirmed by the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1653).

Doubleday, Betty Constance Laura – (1913 – 1976)
Australian librarian
Doubleday was born in Melbourne, Victoria, and was educated at the Presbyterian Ladies’ College and the University of Melbourne. She served for almost two decades as the chief librarian of the CSIRO library in Melbourne (1955 – 1974), and introduced scientific directories such as the, Australian Scientific Index, the CSIRO Index, and, Scientific Serials in Australian Libraries. She served as president of the Library Association of Australia (1962 – 1963). Betty Doubleday died in Melbourne, aged sixty-three (Dec 7, 1976).

Douce I (Dulcia) – (c1095 – 1127)
Countess of Provence
Douce I was the daughter of Gilbert I, Vicomte of Gevaudan and Millau, and his wife Gerberga II, Countess of Provence. She inherited the counties of Provence and Melgeuil from her mother (1112), and was married at Arles (1113) to Ramon Berenger III, Count of Barcelona, as his first wife. Their eldest son, Count Ramon Berenger IV (1115 – 1162) was the consort of Queen Petronilla of Aragon and the father of King Alfonso II (1162 – 1196). Countess Douce ceded her rights in the county of Provence, Gevaudan, and the vicomte of Millau to her husband (1113) and her inheritance thus became joined with Catalonia. Her death heralded a period of political instability in Provence, which continued until the termination of the Baussenque Wars (1144 – 1162), in which the Provencals defeated the Catalans. Of the countess’s two younger sons, Berenger Ramon I (1114 – 1144) became count of Provence, whilst Bernard died young (c1117). Her elder daughter ,Berengaria of Barcelona, became the first wife of Alfonso VII, King of Castile (1105 – 1157), whilst of her younger daughters, Estefania (Stephanie) was married to Centule III, Count of Bigorre and Ramon II Arnaldo, Vicomte de Dax, and Almodis (1126 – after 1171) became the wife of Ponce de Cervera, Vicomte de Bas.

Douce II (Dulcia) – (c1150 – 1172)
Titular countess of Provence (1166 – 1167)
Douce II was the only child and heiress of Ramon Berenger V, Count of Provence, and his wife Richesa, daughter of Vladislav I, Duke of Silesia in Poland. Her father died whilst trying to conquer the city of Nice (1166), and Douce inherited the county of Provence as the next legitimate heir. However, she was a child and unmarried, and her claims were immediately opposed by her male cousin, Alfonso, Count of Barcelona (Alfonso II of Aragon), who refused to recognize female succession, and maintained that as her father had no direct male heir, Provence passed to him. Alfonso took control of the county (1167), and Douce and her claims were negated by her being forced to take the veil as a nun. She died young.

Doudeauville, Benigne Le Tellier de Louvois, Duchesse de – (1764 – 1849)
French courtier
A prominent figure of the court of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette at Versailles, Benigne Le Tellier was the daughter of Charles Francoise Cesar Le Tellier de Louvois, Marquis de Montmirail, and his wife Charlotte Benigne Le Ragois de Bretonvilliers. She was married (1779) to Ambroise Polycarpe de La Rochefoucald, Duc de Doudeauville (1765 – 1841). Her husband and children all survived the horrors of the Revolution, and she later attended the Bourbon court with her husband after the Restoration (1814 – 1830). She survived her husband as the Dowager Duchesse de Doudeauville (1841 – 1849). Her children included,

Doudeauville, Marie Georgine Sophie Hedwige Eugenie de Ligne, Duchesse de – (1843 – 1898)
French aristocrat
A prominent courtier of Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenie during the Second empire (1852 – 1870), Princess Marie Georgine de Ligne was born (April 19, 1843) at Brussels, Belgium, the younger daughter of Eugene I Francois Charles Lamoral, eighth Prince de Ligne (1804 – 1880) and his third wife Hedwige, the daughter of the Polish peer, Prince Henry Lubomirski.Marie Georgine was married (1862) at Beloeil to Sosthenes de La Rochefoucald (1825 – 1908), the fourth Duc de Doudeauville, and bore him five children. A famous beauty, her portrait was painted by Franz Winterhalter. The duchesse died in Paris (March 3, 1898), aged fifty-four. Her children were,

Doudney, Sarah – (1842 – 1926)
British novelist and hymn writer
Doudney was born in Portsmouth (Jan 15, 1842), the daughter of a soap manufacturer, and was educated at Southsea. Her literary career began early in life, and Doudney contributed many articles to various magazines and periodicals. She produced the collection of hymns, Psalms of Life (1871), and the collection of stories, Under Grey Walls. Doudney remained unmarried, and produced several romantic novels for young girls such as, A Woman’s Glory (1885), Thy Heart’s Desire (1888), A Romance of Lincoln’s Inn (1894), Katherine’s Keys (1896), The Vanished Hand (1896), Lady Dye’s Reparation (1899), and, Shadow and Shine (1906), though her particular writing skill lay in her accurate portrayal of the beauties of the English countryside. Sarah Doudney died (Dec 15, 1926), aged eighty-four.

Dougall, Lily – (1868 – 1923)
Canadian novelist and essayist
Dougall was born (April 16, 1868) in Montreal of Scottish ancestry. She was educated at home by a governess but later travelled to Scotland where she studied literature and philosophy at the universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh. She wrote novels and religious works such as The Practice of Christianity (1914) but was best known for the acclaimed novel Beggars All (1891) and the collection of essays entitled What Necessity Knows (1893). Dougall’s other works included The Mermaid (1895), Zeitgeist (1895), A Dozen Ways of Love (1897), The Spanish Dowry (1906) and the collection of verse Arcades Ambo (1919). Lily Dougall died (Oct 9, 1923) aged fifty-five, at Cumnor, near Oxford in England.

Dougherty, Ellen – (c1843 – 1919)
New Zealand nurse and matron
Dougherty was born at Cutters Bay, Marlborough, the daughter of a whaler, and was raised in Wellington, where she was educated at home. Dougherty remained unmarried and joined the staff of the Wellington District Hospital by 1885, where she was appointed to head of the accident and surgical wards, and was later appointed as acting matron.Dougherty was then appointed as matron of the Palmerston North Hospital (1893), and ran the dispensary, later being formally registeres as a pharmacist (1899). With the introduction of state registration for nurses, Ellen Dougherty became one of the first to to be registered (1901). She retired in 1908, and went to reside at Carterton, near Wairarapa. Ellen Dougherty died (Nov 3, 1919) at Carterton.

Doughty, Dame Adelaide Baillieu – (1908 – 1986)
British politician
Adelaide Bailleu Shackell was born (Dec 2, 1908) in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. She was educated at St Catherine’s School in Melbourne, and at St Hilda’s College at Oxford, in England. She was married (1931) to Charles Addison Doughty, Queen’s Counsel, to whom she bore two children. Doughty entered Conservative politics, and was appointed as chairman of the National Women’s Advisory Committee for the Conservative Party (1963 – 1966). She also served as chairman and then president (1978) of the National Union of the Conservative and the Unionist Party. She also served as governor of the English-Speaking Union (1958 – 1972), and was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1964), and DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1971) in recognition of her public service. Dame Adelaide Doughty (Auig 12, 1986) aged seventy-seven, in London.

Doughty, Dorothy – (1892 – 1962)
British painter
Doughty was born at San Remo in Italy. She studied painting at the Eastbourne School of Art in London. She travelled throughout the USA in order to study and produce drawings for her bird subjects. Doughty is best remembered for her famous series of birds modelled for the Worcester Royal Porcelain Factory. Dorothy Doughty died (Oct, 1962) aged seventy.

Douglas, Ada Christine Lightsey – (1874 – 1955)
American author
Ada Lightsey was born at Hickory in Mississippi (June 28, 1874), the daughter of Ransom Jones Lightsey, and was educated at Daleville in Mississippi. She was later married to Luther Douglas (1919). The marriage remained childless. Ada Douglas produced a collection of verse and prose which celebrated those who had fought with the Confederate forces entitled, The Veteran’s Story: Dedicated to the Heros Who Wore the Gray (1899). Ada Lightsey Douglas died at Meridian in Mississippi (Dec 19, 1955), aged eighty-one.

Douglas, Lady Agnes – (1574 – 1607)
Scottish beauty
A prominent courtier to King James VI (James I), Lady Agnes Douglas was the daughter of William Douglas, Earl of Morton and his wife Agnes Leslie, the daughter of George Leslie, Earl of Rothes. She was married (1592) to Archibald Campbell, seventh earl of Argyll (1575 – 1638) as his first wife.  A famous beauty, Agnes was popularly renowned as one of the ‘Seven Pearls of Lochleven.’ Her portrait (1599), now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, is attributed to the Dutch painter Adrian Vanson, who was court painter in Edinburgh during this period. This portrait is unique in that Vanson used gold leaf rather than gold paint to depict the countess’s magnificent jewellery. Agnes died from the effects of childbirth, and her son Archibald Campbell was the marquess of Argyll executed (1661) by order of Charles II, for his complicity with the death of Charles I (1649).

Douglas, Amanda Minnie – (1831 – 1916)
American novelist and writer
Douglas was born in New York (July 14, 1831) and educated privately. A friend of the famous novelist, Louisa May Alcott, she took up a career as a writer in order to financially assist her family, several of her works being published in popular magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post and the Lady’s Friend. Her novels included the popular, In Trust (1866) and, Home Nook (1874), in which the heroine becomes a successful architect. Her works for children included, Larry (1893), for which she was awarded a fiction prize from the juvenile magazine, Youth’s Companion, and the ten volume Little Girl series (1897 – 1909). Amanda Douglas died (July 18, 1916) aged eighty-five.

Douglas, Anne Howard    see   Irvine, Anne Howard, Lady

Douglas, Clementina Johannes Sobiesky – (c1740 – 1771)
Scottish Jacobite mystery figure
Commonly known as the ‘Finnisthwaite Princess,’ she died unmarried, aged around thirty, and became the subject of many Jacobite legends. She is now generally believed to have been the illegitimate daughter of Charles Edward Stuart, the ‘Young Pretender,’ perhaps by Clementina Walkinshaw. If so, she was the elder sister of Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany.

Douglas, Eleanor Tuchet, Lady – (1590 – 1652)
English prophetess
Lady Eleanor was the daughter of George Tuchet (1551 – 1617), first Earl of Castlehaven, and his wife Lucy, the daughter of Sir John Mervyn, of Fonthill Giffard, Wiltshire. She was married firstly (1609) to Sir John Davies (1569 – 1626), the attorney-general of Ireland, and noted poet. Lady Davies became convinced of her own prophetic calling in 1625, when she discovered that her name, Eleanor Audley, was an anagram of ‘Reveale O Daniel,’ though her husabnd burned her written works, as did her second husband, Sir Archibald Douglas, whom she married in 1626. Despite this, Lady Douglas was highly regarded as a prophet in court circles, and she was even consulted by Queen Henrietta Maria, but her successful prediction of the assasination of the royal favourite, the Duke of Buckingham (1628) earned her the disfavour of Charles I, who caused her to be brought before the court of the High commission (1633), which ordered her to suffer several periods of imprisonment and was also confined to the Bethlehem Hospital for a time.
Lady Douglas publicly and sacreligiously opposed the episcopacy of the William Laud and was confied for a period to Bedlam. Over the period of a decade (1641 – 1652) Lady Douglas produced over thirty fragmentary works, written in an obscure, rhapsodical style, such as Stay of the Wise (1643), The Restitution of Property …. By the Lady Eleanor, which related to events mentioned in the Bible, and Tobit’s Book (1652). She addressed a favourable ‘Benediction’ to Oliver Cromwell (1651), who had received her politely though he had little faith in her supposed mystic abilities.

Douglas, Helen Mary – (1900 – 1980)
American actress and politician
Helen Gahagan was born (Nov 25, 1900) and attended Barnard College. She performed on Broadway in New York, and later performed in opera in Europe. Helen Gahagan became the wife (1931) of actor Melvyn Douglas (1901 – 1981). After her successful entry into politics she was elected the Democratic reprentative for the state of California (1944 – 1950). She was later appointed as US delegate to the United Nations (1946) but was defeated in her bid for the US Senate by Richard M. Nixon (1950). Helen Douglas died (June 28, 1980) aged seventy-nine.

Douglas, Lady Jane – (1696 – 1753)
Scottish celebrity figure
Lady Jane Douglas was born (March 27, 1696), the only daughter of James Douglas (1645 – 1700), the second Marquess of Douglas and his second wife Lady Mary Ker, the daughter of Robert Ker, the first Marquess of Lothian. She was raised at Merchiston Castle in Edinburgh and entered society. A match with Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith was broken off (1720) and she remained unmarried. Lady Jane later resided at Drumsheugh House in Edinburgh where she hid the Chevalier Johnstone after his escape from the battle of Culloden (1746).
Lady Jane was eventually married at the age of fifty (1746) to Sir John Stuart (died 1764) of Grandtully, and became mother of twin sons when she was fifty-two years of age (1748). Lady Jane Douglas died (Nov 22, 1753) when her two sons were only five years old, aged fifty-seven. Her sons were the subject of the famous ‘Douglas Case’ (1769) which dealt with their legitimacy, family members insisting the children were spurious and had been procured by Lady Jane in Paris. This accusation seems to have stemmed from an estrangement between Lady Jane and her brother Archibald, the first Duke of Douglas. At length the courts permitted them to succeed to the Douglas family esates as the legitimate heirs of their late father and mother.

Douglas, Janet – (c1497 – 1537)
Scottish witchtrial victim
Janet Douglas was the daughter of George Douglas, master of Angus, and his wife Elizabeth Drummond, and sister to Archibald Douglas, sixth Earl of Angus. She was married firstly (c1512) to John Lyons, sixth Baron Glamis (1491 – 1528), to whom she bore four children, including a son and heir, John Lyons, seventh Baron Glamis (1529 – 1558). Her younger daughter, Elizabeth Abernethy, had four husbands.
James V detested his stepfather, Archibald Douglas, and Lady Janet shared in this hatred directed at her brother. James tried several times, without success, to have her arrested on some charge, before finally receiving some evidence that enabled him to have her arrested and imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle (1537) on charges of poisoning and witchcraft. With her went five so-called accomplices including her second husband, Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, son of the second Earl of Argyll, John Lyon, a kinsman, her son John, Lord Glamis, and an old priest, Alexander Makke, who was said to have concocted poisons for her. All were put to the rack, but none spoke against Janet, except her young son, who, terrified of the agony and pain, cried out that his mother was guilty of the charges brought against her. She was then condemned without proper proof. The fact of her innocence was later to be proved by the deathbed confessions of one of her accusers.
Lady Janet was burnt at the stake on Castle Hill (July 17, 1537), aged about forty, impressing the crowds both with her beauty and her extraordinary courage. Her second husband, Archibald Campbell died soon after her, falling from rocks whilst trying to escape from Edinburgh Castle. The estates of Glamis were declared forfeit, and the castle ransacked of furnishings and silver, though some years afterwards, her son John was restored to his inheritance.

Douglas, Lady Margaret – (1515 – 1578)
Scottish Tudor royal
Lady Margaret Douglas was born (Oct 7, 1515) at Harbottle Castle, in Northumberland, England, the daughter of Archibald, sixth Earl of Douglas and Queen Margaret Tudor, the widow of King James IV of Scotland. She was niece to Henry VIII of England. Lady Margaret was married firstly, in secret, to Lord Thomas Howard, a younger son of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk. Howard was imprisoned within the Tower of London for daring to raise his eyes to the king’s niece, and died there. Lady Margaret was sent away from the court in disgrace and stayed with nuns at Syon Abbey, before being permitted to return to the court. She later served as lady-in-waiting to Queen Catharine Howard, but was not involved in her disgrace. Lady Margaret became the wife of Mathew Stewart (1516 – 1571), fourth Earl of Lennox, to whom she bore two sons, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Charles Stewart, fifth Earl of Lennox. Through her elder son Margaret was the paternal grandmother of James I of England (VI of Scotland), and through her younger, she was grandmother to the ill-fated Lady Arbella Stuart.

Douglas, Margaret Erskine, Lady    see   Erskine, Margaret

Douglas, Marian   see   Robinson, Annie Douglas Green

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman – (1890 – 1998)
American environmentalist and author
Douglas was born in Florida (April 7, 1890). She worked as the assistant editor of the Miami Herald (1920 – 1923) and became known for her lifelong campaign to preserve the Florida Everglades. Forty over her short stories were published in the Saturday Evening Post and other periodicals (1923 – 1938), and she wrote several books for children. She was the recipient of the O. Henry Award. Her best known work was, The Everglades: River of Grass (1947), a best-selling travel guide and history of the Everglades, and spear-headed the successful campaign which led to the establishment of the Everglades National Park. Douglas later formed the conservational society Friends of the Everglades (1969). Marjory Stoneman Douglas died in Miami (May 14, 1998), aged one hundred and eight years.

Douglas, Dame Mary – (1921 – 2007)
British anthropologist
Born Margaret Mary Tew (March 25, 1921) at San Remo, Italy, she was the daughter of a member of the Indian Civil Service. She studied anthropology at Oxford University under Professor E.E.Evans-Pritchard. She was married (1951 – 2004) to James Douglas, to whom she bore three childre, and whom she survived. Douglas lived among the Lele tribe of the Kasai region of the Belgian Congo from 1949, who regarded the native pangolin (ant-eater) as by dangerous and sacred. She studied their rituals and customs and wrote the classic works, The Lele of the Kasai (1963), and, Purity and Danger (1966), in which she argued against the ancient Hebrew ideas of holiness and completeness as explained in the biblical book of Leviticus. Douglas was admired as the leading anthropologist if the second half of the twentieth century. She was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (2007) in recognition of her contribution to cultural studies, and died a few months afterwards. Dame Mary Douglas died (May 16, 2007) aged eighty-six.

Douglas, O. – (1878 – 1948)
Scottish novelist
Anna Buchan Douglas was the daughter of a Protestant minister. She assisted her father with his duties and never married. She published several novels which dealt with Victorian domestic life prior to WW I such as The Setons (1917) which proved enormously successful, and The Proper Place (1926). Her dozen novels were later re-issued under the title People Like Ourselves (1938).

Douglas, Peggy Zinsser – (1898 – 1992)
American art patron
Peggy Zinser was born in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, her family being the founders of the Zinsser Chemical Company. Her cousin married the West German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. Zinsser graduated from Smith College and married the Democratic congressman, Lewis W. Douglas, who served as ambassador to England during the presidency of Harry S. Truman, the couple becoming friends with Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Devoted to the patronage of the arts and many charitable causes, Douglas’s planning oraised more than 100 million dollars for the Metropolitan Opera alone. She served on the boards of the National Conference of Christians and Jews, the Red Cross, the United Negro College Fund, and the Lincoln Center, where she retired from the board of directors at the age of eighty-two (1980). Peggy Zinser Douglas died in Tuczon, Arizona (Aug 15, 1992).

Douglass, Dorothea     see    Chambers, Dorothea Katharine Lambert

Douvilliers, Suzanne Theodore – (1773 – 1826)
French-American actress
Born Suzanne Vaillande in Dole, France, she was trained for the stage in Paris. She attracted the attention of the dancer and theatrical manager, Alexandre Placide, who took her with him to Santo Domingo (1788) and New York (1792). Vaillande later transferred her affections to the actor Louis Douvilliers, whom she eventually married, though both remained with Placide’s dance troupe. She appeared at the French Theatre in Charlston as Louisa in, The Deserter (1794) and, together with her husband she toured with Lailson’s Circus in Philadelphia (1797) and appeared in the heroic pantomime, Le Quatre Fils Aymond in the role of Clare. She again appeared with her husband in New York in, Mirza and Lindor (1798), but eventually they both retired to the New Orleans Theatre.  During her career there, Douvilliers staged and directed several ballets, being accounted as one of the first female chorographers in America. Suzanne Douvilliers died in New Orleans, Louisiana (Aug 30, 1826).

Dove, Billie – (1900 – 1997)
American actress
Born Lillian Bohny in New York City, she worked as a model from childhood. Florenz Ziegfeld signed her for his theatrical revues after seeing her picture on a billboard. Her early movie credits included, Get-Rich-Quick Wallingford, At the Stage Door, The Black Pirate (1926), with Douglas Fairbanks, The Stolen Bride, The Yellow Lily, The Night Watch, and over thirty more. After playing the title role in, American Beauty (1927) she was billed unde that title. Dove was a beautiful and versatile actress, appearing in epics, romances, westerns, war films and romantic comedies. She played a French actress in, Cock of the Air, written by Robert E. Sherwood, and produced by Howard Hughes, and a murderous showgirl in, One Night at Susie’s. Dove’s first husband, whom she divorced in 1930, was the film director Irving Willat. With her second marriage to the rancher Robert Kenaston (1933), she retired from films, though she returned for a bit part in, Diamond Head (1962). Widowed after forty years (1973), she remarried to architect John Miller, but this marriage ended in divorce. Billie Dove died aged ninety-seven in Los Angeles, California (Dec 31, 1997).

Dove, Dame Frances – (1847 – 1942)
British educational pioneer
Jane Frances Dove was born at Bordeaux in Normandy, France (June 27, 1847), the daughter of a British curate from Swaton, in Lincolnshire. Frances Dove was one of the first female graduates from Girton College in Cambridge, and was appointed as headmistress of St Leonard’s School at St Andrews (1882 – 1896).  Dove then founded Wycombe Abbey School (1896), a public school of distinction for girls, and retired in 1910. A second school, following similar principles was later established at Benenden in Kent (1923). Her work to further public education for girls was recognized when she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1928). Dove remained unmarried. Dame Frances Dove died at High Wycombe, aged ninety-four (June 21, 1942).

Dow, Peggy – (1780 – 1820)
American Methodist and literary wife
Peggy was the wife of the poet and editor Lorenzo Dow (1777 – 1834), the eccentric Methodist clergyman and author. Mrs Dow accompanied her husband on his travels visiting various fledgling Methodist communities in rural America. She kept a private journal which was later published in Liverpool, England as Vicissitudes in the Wilderness: Exemplified in the Journal of Peggy Dow (1818).

Dowding, Muriel Albino, Lady – (1908 – 1993)
British animal rights campaigner
Muriel Albino was the daughter of John Albino. She was married firstly to Maxwell Whiting, a pilot with the RAF (Royal Air Force), who was killed in action during WW II. Muriel then remarried (1951) to Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding (1882 – 1970), first Baron Dowding from 1943, as his second wife. There were no children of her second marriage by which she became stepmother to Derek Hugh Dowding, the second Baron Dowding (born 1919). Lady Dowding became noted in Britain for her support of animal rights, and created the famous organization Beauty Without Cruelty (BWC) (1959) which helped to highlight the suffering caused to animals by the use of scientific testing to produce cosmetics for women. She also drew the world’s attention to the ongoing suffering caused to animals world-wide by the continuing fur, ivory, and exotic leather trade, and by factory farming, establishing branches of the organization in Australia, the USA, South Africa, and India. For her work in this field, Dowding received several awards from the British RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). Lady Dowding died (Dec 20, 1993) at Hove, Sussex, aged eighty-five.

Dowdle, Freda Mary Eliza – (1907 – 2000)
Australian nursing sister and matron
Freda Dowdle was born in Narromine, New South Wales, the daughter of a pastoralist. She trained as a nurse and worked in hospitals in Kiama and Coledale before going on to train in midwifery. She joined the senior nursing staff at the Manning River Hospital in Taree. With the arrival of WW II Dowdle became a lieutenant colonel of the AANC (Australian Army Nursing Corps) and served with the Australian General Hospital in the Middle East. She became the senior sister at the surgical hospital in Gaza and was promoted to the rank of major after her return to Australia. Dowdle was later appointed as the first matron of the Baulkham Hills Hospital in western Sydney (1957 – 1972) and introduced trainee nurses from New Guinea and Malaysia. She was a foundation member of the College of Nursing. Freda Dowdle died at Eastwood in North Sydney, aged ninety-three.

Dowie, Menie Muriel – (1866 – 1945)
British novelist and travel writer
Menie Dowie was born in Liverpool, Lancashire, and was educated at home, and abroad in Paris and in Germany. She married firstly (1891) to Sir Henry Norman, from whom she was later divorced (1903), and secondly to Major Edward Fitzgerald, with whom she resided some years in India. Dowie travelled extensively and edited the biographical work, Women Adventurers: The Lives of Madame Velazquez, Hannah Snell, Maryanne Talbot, and Mrs Christian Davies (1893). She also wrote the feminist novel, Gallia (1895), which was attacked by the noted anti-feminist author, Margaret Oliphant, and the satirical work, The Crook of the Bough (1898). Some of her work was printed in the Yellow Book and the magazine Country Life.

Dowlatabadi, Sediqeh – (1882 – 1962)
Iranian scholar
Dowlatabadi was born at Isfahan, and became one of the leading pioneering figures of the fledgling women’s movement in modern Iran. She was the editor and publisher of the first ever female periodical, Zaban-e-Zanan (1919). Sediqeh Dowlatabadi died aged eighty (July 30, 1962).

Dowling, Alice Bevier Hall – (1899 – 1970)
American socialite and philanthropist
Alice Hall was married firstly to William Bartle, Jr., to whom she bore three sons. After their divorce (1930), she remarried (1934) to Robert W. Dowling, a wealthy investment executive and inventor, to whom she bore an only daughter, but from whom she was also divorced (1968). Mrs Dowling was the founder of the Spence-Chapin Adoption service (1943) in New York, of which organization she twice served as president, (1950 – 1953) and (1968 – 1970). She also assisted with the establishment of the Harlem-Dowling Children’s Service (1969) which was named in her honour. Alice Hall Dowling died in New York (Feb 2, 1970) aged seventy.

Downer, Una Stella Russell, Lady – (1871 – 1955)
Australian wood carver and painter
Una Russell was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of Henry Russell. She studied at Julian Ashton’s Art School in Sydney, and later travelled to London where she studied under Walter Bayes. Una was married firstly to Sir John Downer, KCMG, the Premier of South Australia, and secondly (1919) to D’Arcy Wentworth Addison (1872 – 1955), the agent-general for Tasmania, in London.

Downie, Freda – (1929 – 1993)
British poet
Freda Downie was born in London, and was educated in Northampton and Kent, and then in Australia. She was employed with art agents and music publishers, and resided at Berkhamsted. She only began publishing her own works after the age of forty. She wrote collections of verse such as, Night Music (1974), Night Sucks Me In (1977), Plainsong (1981), and, Even the Flowers (1989). She co-wrote the collection, A Berkhamsted Three (1978), with Fred Sedgwick and John Cotton. Downie was a friend of the poet, George Szirtes, who edited her posthumous collection of verse Collected Poems (1995).

Downing, Cecilia – (1858 – 1952)
Australian civic leader
Born Cecilia Hopkins in London, England, she immigrated with her family to Victoria in Australia during her youth. She studied at Williamstown and at the Teachers’ Training College in Melbourne. She was married (1885) to John Downing and produced six children. Downing was employed as a probation officer with the Melbourne Children’s Court and also served as state president of the WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union). She was best known for her public role as federal president of the Housewives’ Association (1940 – 1952). Cecilia Downing died in Melbourne, aged ninety-four (Aug 30, 1952).

Downing, Lucy Winthrop – (1600 – 1679)
Anglo-American colonist and letter writer
Lucy Winthrop was born (Jan 9, 1600) in England, and was raised as a Puritan. She became the wife (1622) of the lawyer Emanuel Downing. Lucy’s brother John Winthrop led the first resettlement of the Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay colony. Mrs Downing and her family later left England (1638) for Boston, and then settled in Salem. Lucy maintained a correspondence with relatives in England covering five decades (1626 – 1674) which was later published posthumously as Letters of Mrs Lucy Downing (1871). The family later went to reside in Scotland (1654). As a widow Lucy Downing returned to England and died there. She was the heroine of the romantic novel The Winthrop Woman (1958) by British author Anya Seton.

Downshire, Mary Sandys, Marchioness of   see   Sandys, Mary

Dowriche, Anne – (fl. 1587 – 1598)
English poet
Born Anne Edgecumbe in Devonshire, she became the wife, firstly, of Hugh Dowriche, the rector of Honiton in Devon. She married secondly to Richard Trefusis of Trefusis, Cornwall. Anne was the author of the lengthy poem, The French Hidtorie. That is, a lamentable Discourse of three of the chiefe, and most famous bloodie broiles that have happened in France for the Gospell of Jesus Christ (1589), which was dedicated to her brother, Piers Edgecumbe.

Dowthwaite, Susanna – (fl. c1670 – 1676)
English businesswoman
Susanna was the wife of a registered goldsmith John Dowthwaite (sometimes called Dowthett), from Newcastle-upon-Tyne. With her husband’s death (1673), Susanna carried on the running of his business at All Hallows in Newcastle until she remarried (1676) to his former apprentice, Francis Batty.

Draga Lunyevica – (1867 – 1903)
Queen consort of Serbia 1900 – 1903, the wife of King Alexander I (1876 – 1903)
Draga Lunyevica was born at Jornji Milanovac, the daughter of Andrei Lunyevic. She married firstly Colonel Mashin, whose death left her a childless widow. She then became lady-in-waiting to Queen Nathalie, but her behaviour was far from discreet, and she became known as a woman of dubious moral character. Despite this, King Alexander, ten years her junior, fell in love with her, and insisted upon their marrying. On hearing of the intended marriage, the Serbian government resigned, but eventually the Russian tsar Nicholas II agreed to act as best-man of the wedding (1900).
To placate the political parties who were greatly alienated by the marriage, King Alexander granted a liberal constitution. Eventually, a group of army officers broke into the royal palace in Belgrade one evening (June 11, 1903) and brutally murdered the king and queen, who had been hiding in a closet. Their bodies were dropped out of the window into the courtyard below the palace. The soldiers had acted on behalf of Peter Karageorgevich (1844 – 1923), who was then proclaimed king as Peter I.

Dragomira of Bohemia    see   Margaret of Bohemia

Dragonette, Jessica Valentina – (1903 – 1980)
American radio vocalist
Dragonette was born in Calcutta, India, of American parents. With the deaths of her parents she was raised by Roman Catholic nuns, and was educated at Georgian Court College, at Lakewood, New Jersey, in the USA. She was the unseen voice in the stage production of Max Reinhardt’s, The Miracle (1924), but began her career in radio in 1926, when she appeared in, The Coca-Cola Girl serial as Vivian. Jessica then sang on, The Philco Hour (1927 – 1930), and later she sang for eight years with the Cities Service Concert program (1930 – 1937), during which she presented and sang operettas and semi-classical musical works to an American audience that numbered over sixty-five million.  Prior to WW II, during the years of the mid-Depression she was voted by radio listeners as the most popular performer on American radio (1935). During the war yeays she worked for the war effort, performing for servicemen and assisting with the promotion of war bonds. For this work, she was honoured by Pope Pius XII with the Pro Ecclesia de Pontifice. During the 1940’s Dragonette was the star of the CBS network’s popular program, Saturday Night Serenade. She was married to a wealthy contracter (1947), and left a volume of autobiography, Faith Is a Song (1967). Jessica Dragonette died in New York, aged seventy-six (March 18, 1980).

Drahomira – (c885 – c958)
Duchess of Bohemia
Surnamed the Arrogant, she was a member of the noble Veletian family of von Stodar, who resided in Brandenburg, Germany. She was married (c900) to Duke Vratislas I of Bohemia (c870 – 921), to whom she bore two sons, Saint Wenceslas (Wenzel) (903 – 929), Duke Boleslav I (c905 – 972), and several daughters, including Strezislava and Mlada Bolesla, who became abbess of St George in Prague. Drahomira was a woman of some considerable political importance, actively assisting her husband during his war with the Saxons. With Vratislav’s death (Feb, 921), Drahomira and her mother-in-law, the Dowager Duchess Ludmilla, shared the government of Bohemia for the new duke, her elder son Wenceslas. Drahomira had remained proudly pagan, unlike her mother-in-law and Wenceslas, who were committed to the new religion, and is said to have permitted several massacres of Christians to take place. This led to severe friction between the two women, and within months, Drahomira caused Ludmilla to be murdered at her prayers at Tetin Castle (921), sending two agents, Tunna and Gommon to accomplish this crime.
When Wenceslas achieved full power to rule, he caused the duchess to be exiled to Budec for some time, but later permitted her to return to court. This proved fatal to Wenceslas, and the duchess became involved with intrigues which resulted in the murder of her elder son, which enabled her favourite, the pagan Boleslav, to succeed to the throne. According to contemporary monkish chronicles, the duchess‘s crimes were so abhorrent that she was swallowed up be an earthquake. In actuality she survived Wenceslas for over twenty years, dying as dowager duchess late in the reign of her favoured son Boleslav, aged in her seventies.

Drake, Fabia – (1904 – 1990)
British stage and film actress
Born Ethel McGlinchy at Herne Bay in Kent (Jan 20, 1904), she was the daughter of Irish actor, Francis Drake. She was educated for the stage at (RADA), the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London (1914 – 1917), and also trained in Paris. Drake made her stage debut in London in, The Fairy Doll (1913), also performing in The Merry Wives of Windsor (1916), and, Major Barbara (1921), amongst many others. In her films she was best remembered for playing angry or vitriolic characters. Her films included, Meet Mr Penny (1938), All Over the Town (1949), Fast and Loose (1954), Not Wanted On a Voyage (1957), A Nice Girl Like Me (1969), Tam-Lin (1971), Valmont (1989), and many others over a five decade career.  Drake also appeared in popular television series such as The Jewel in the Crown, (1982), A Room With a View (1985), and, The World of Wooster. Drake wrote the autobiography Blind Fortune (1978), the preface of which was written by her friend, Sir Laurence Olivier. She retired from acting in 1985. Fabia Drake died in London (Feb 28, 1990), aged eighty-six.

Drake, Judith – (fl. 1696 – after 1723)
British feminist author and medical practitioner
Judith Drake was the daughter of Robert Drake, a solicitor from Cambridge, and was sister to James Drake, the noted Tory physician and political author, who may have trained her in medical knowledge. She was later summoned to appear before the president of the College of Physicians (1723) to defend herself against a charge of medical malpractice. Drake is generally credited as the author of the famous early feminist tract, An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex (1696), which was published anonymously, and had previously been attributed to Mary Astell. The tract was published by her brother James. She published her brother’s acclaimed medical treatise, Anthropologia Nova (1707).

Drake, Sylvia – (1784 – 1868)
American embroiderer and diarist
Sylvia Drake was a seamstress who worked with Charity Bryant, the aunt of William Cullen Bryant. She kept a private diary which dealt with domestic issues, and with the travels enjoyed by the two women. Her narrative account of her life was later published posthumously as Sylvia Drake, 1784 – 1868: The Self Portrait of a Seamstress of Weybridge (1966) in the Vermont History publication.

Drake-Brockman, Grace    see    Bussell, Grace Vernon

Drake-Brockman, Henrietta Frances York – (1901 – 1968)
Australian writer and historian
Born Henrietta Jull in Perth, Western Australia (July 27, 1901), she was educated in Perth, at Mittagong in New South Wales, and in Scotland. Her first written works appeared in the West Australian newspaper, where she adopted the male pseudonym of ‘Henry Drake.’ Her novels dealt with the themes of early Australian pioneers and explorers, and these included, Blue North (1934), and Sheba Lane (1936). She also wrote plays which explored these themes such as The Man From the Bush (1934), and, Men Without Wives (1938). She is perhaps best known for her detailed historical account of the wreck of the seventeenth century Dutch ship, the Batavia, entitled, Voyage to Disaster (1963). Henrietta Drake-Brockman died in Perth, aged sixty-six (March 8, 1968).

Drane, Augusta Theodosia – (1823 – 1894)
British Roman Catholic nun and author
Augusta Drane was born (Dec 29, 1823) at Bromley, near Bow, Kent, into an Anglican family. Having been influenced by the religious teachings of the Tractarian sect, after her entry into the Catholic Church (c1850), Drane severely questioned her former beliefs and interests in an essay on Tractariansim, which had been formerly believed to have been written by Cardinal John Henry Newman (1801 – 1890). Drane travelled to Rome, where she remained for some time before leaving the world, and joining the third order of St Dominic as a nun (1852). After returning to England she was appointed superior of the convent at Stone, Staffordshire. Her other written works included, The History of Saint Dominic (1857), The Knights of St John (1858), The Life of St Catherine of Siena (1880), and The Three Chancellors (1859), which provided details of the lives of three important English religious figures, William de Wykeham, William de Waynflete, and Sir Thomas More, courtier to Henry VIII. Augusta Drane died (April 29, 1894) aged seventy, at Stone.

Draper, Eliza – (1744 – 1778) 
Anglo-Indian literary figure
Draper was born at Anjengo, near Cape Cormorin, Malabar, India the granddaughter of Charles Whitehill, a prominent pepper merchant of Anjengo. Educated in England she married (1758) Daniel Draper, a Marine paymaster. Eliza’s friendship with the poet Laurence Sterne dates from the period April- Aug, 1767, though she and her husband had probably met Sterne sometime before this date. Sterne’s private diary provides the details we do know concerning Mrs Draper and her relationship with him. He wrote that, ‘Not Swift so loved his Stella, Scarron his Maintenon, or Waller his Sacharissa, as I will love thee and sing thee, my wife elect.’ She became the heroine of his Sentimental Journey. Returning to India, she became prominent in Bombay society, causing some scandal when she later eloped with a naval captain, Sir John Clark. Later, she returned to England (1774) she had Sterne’s letters to her published as, Letters from Yorick to Eliza (1775). She was interred in Bristol Cathedral, where her monument and inscription remains.

Draper, Elisabeth Carrington Frank – (1900 – 1993)
American interior designer
Elisabeth Frank was born in New York, the daughter of banker Charles Frank. She left school to be trained as a radio operator during World War I, after which she married a banker, Seth Low. The couple were later divorced (1929). With her sister Tiffany Taylor she began to build a career as a deocrator, and they formed the firm of Taylor & Low. She remarried to Dr George Draper (1935) and then established her business under own name (1936).  Her clients included President and Mrs Dwight Eisenhower, whose New York home and their farmhouse at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, she redecorated. She decorated the American Embassy in Paris for Ambassador Amory Houghton, and worked on several interiors in the White House. Elisabeth Frank Draper died in Manhattan, New York (July 5, 1993).

Draper, Heidi Vosseler – (1917 – 1992)
American ballerina
Heidi Vosselaer performed with the American Ballet (1935 – 1938) which had been co-formed (1934) by the famous Georgian-American choreographer, George Balanchine (1904 – 1983). She performed in his ballets, Serenade and Alma Mater, as well as performing in dances that he had created for two opera productions at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. She was married (1941) to the tap dancer, Paul Draper, and appeared in two musicals on Broadway, The Boys from Syracuse, which was choreographed by Balanchine and in Louisiana Purchase. She resided in Europe with her husband (1941 – 1954). Heidi Draper died at Woodstock, New York, aged seventy-four (March 9, 1992).

Draper, Ruth – (1884 – 1956)
American diseuse and monologuist
Draper was born (Dec 2, 1884) in New York, and made her debut on stage in 1915. She toured extensively throughout WW I, notable for the American forces fighting in France. In 1926 she appeared before George V and the royal family at Windsor Castle in Berkshire.  Her repertoire of dramatic works comprised thirty-six of her own devising, and included nearly sixty separate characters. She became famous throughout the English speaking world for her ironic and dramatic monologues.
Draper was appointed as CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1951), the same year she was awarded the LLD from the University of Edinburgh. Ruth Draper died (Dec 30, 1956) aged seventy-two. Her private letters written to friends whilst on tour over a thirty year period (1915 – 1956) were lated edited by Neilla Warren and published in London as The Letters of Ruth Draper, 1920 – 1956: A Self-Portrait of a Great Actress (1979).

Draper, Sarah – (fl. c1775 – 1796)
British novelist
Darper is known as the author of the popular work the Memoirs of the Princess of Zell, consort to King George the first (1796), a fictionalised account of the life of Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle (1666 – 1726), the mother of George II, King of Great Britain (1727 – 1760). The novel was published by subscription in London in two volumes.

Draskovitch de Trakostjan, Marie Festetics von Tolna, Countess – (1850 – 1946)
Hungarian courtier
Countess Marie Festetics von Tolna was the daughter of Dionys, Count Festetics von Tolna (1813 – 1891) and his wife Caroline, Countess Zichy zu Zich und Vasonykeo (1820 – 1906).
Marie was married to Count Paul Draskovitch de Trakostjan (1846 – 1889), whom she survived almost six decades. Their granddaughter, Countess Maria Draskovitch de Trakostjan (1904 – 1969) was the first wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria (1905 – 1996). The countess served in Budapest as lady-in-waiting to the Archduchess Clothilde, and was praised for her frankness, wit, and natural intelligence. The Forein Minister, Count Julius Andrassy, brought the countess to the attention of the empress Elisabeth, the wife of Emperor Franz Josef. At her request, Marie, after some considerable hesitation, entered the household of the empress, accompanied her in her various travels, and remained there, a loyal friend, until that lady’s assassination (1898). She kept a carefully annotated private journal which was used by historian Joan Haslip to write her biography of Elisabeth entitled, The Lonely Empress (1965).

Dresdel, Sonia – (1909 – 1976)
British actress
Born Lois Obee at Hornsea in Yorkshire, her family moved to Scotland and she was educated at the University of Aberdeen. She made her London stage debut as Lady Faulconbridge in Shakespeare’s, King John (1941), and received brilliant reviews performing the lead role in Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler (1942). She appeared in films such as, The Fallen Idol (1948), and, The Trials of Oscar Wilde (1960), as well as making appearances in popular television seires such as The Pallisers and The Onedin Line.

Dresselhuys, Mary – (1907 – 2004)
Dutch stage and film actress
Dresselhuys was born (Jan 22, 1907) at Tiel and began acting whilst still in school. She later attended a British boarding school. Her first stage role was in, Men trouwt geen meisjes zonder geld (One doesn’t marry girls without money) (1929), and she then joined the theatrical company ‘Centraal Tooneel’ for fifteen years (1931 – 1945). Dresselhuys had over one hundred and fifty roles in her repertoire, but was best known for her appearance as the, Queen of Comedy. She appeared in several films such as, De Kribbebijter (1935), Dorp anan rivier (Village on the River) (1958), Vroeger kon je lachen (1983), and Eline Vere (1992) where she played Madame van Raat. The dramatist Paul Haenen wrote the play, Een bijzonder prettig vergezicht, in which she appeared with her own daughter. Mary Dresselhuys died (May 19, 2004) in Amsterdam, aged ninety-seven.

Dressler, Marie – (1869 – 1934)
Canadian actress
Born in Coburg, Ontario, as Leila Marie Koerber, she was the daughter of a vocal teacher. She made her stage debut in, Under Two Flags (1886), and toured extensively with a light opera company before making her first appearance on the Broadway stage in New York in, Robber on the Rhine (1892). Famous for her vaudevillian roles, she was an actress who was equally comfortable with comedy, tragedy, and straight roles, her unremarkable appearance combined with her great acting versatility, led to her becoming a performer of public great popularity.
Her debut with films occurred with her role as Charlie Chaplin’s co-star in the silent film, Tillie’s Punctured Romance (1914), followed by, Tillie’s Tomato Surprise (1915), Tilly Wakes Up (1917) and other films, but her involvement with a strike for better conditions for actors in 1917, affected her career badly, and when she returned after a decade in 1927, thanks to the efforts of a Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer screenwriter, she played only supporting roles, until appearing opposite Greta Garbo in Anna Christie (1930) in the role of Marthy, the water front crone, which helped restore her career.  This triumphant return was cemented when she received an Oscar award for Best Actress, for her performance in, Min and Bill (1930), opposite Wallace Beery, which restored her career.
The remainder of her career was spent playing sympathetic older ladies who were possessed of a worldy wise mentality. Other noteworthy film roles for Marie Dressler occurred in films such as, Reducing Politics (1931), Emma (1932), Dinner at Eight (1933), and, Christopher Bean (1933). She left memoirs, The Story of an Ugly Duckling (1924).

Dreuillet, Elisabeth Thomas de Monlaur – (1656 – 1730)
French literary salonniere and writer
Dreuillet was born in Toulouse, and was the author of Nouveaux contes de fees allegoriques (1735). Elisabeth Dreuillet died at Sceaux, near Paris.

Dreux, Aenor de Saint-Valery, Comtesse de (Eleonore) – (1192 – 1250)
French heiress
Aenor de Saint-Valery was the daughter of Thomas, seigneur de Saint-Valery and his wife Adela, daughter of Jean I, Comte de Ponthieu. She was married (1210) to Robert III, Comte de Dreux (1185 – March 3, 1234), a descendant of the Capetian king Louis VI (1108 – 1137). Comtesse Aenor inherited the seigneurie of St Valery de Gamaches, as well as those fiefs of d’Anir-sur-Mer, de Dommart de Bernaville, and de Bonnin, which eventually passed to her eldest son Jean. With Robert’s death, she remarried secondly (1237) to Henry I de Blois, seigneur de Sully (c1183 – 1252), as his second wife. He assumed the syle of Comte de Dreux, in her right. Aenor’s four children from her first marriage included, Yolande de Dreux (1212 – 1248), first wife of Hugh IV, duke of Burgundy, and Jean I, Comte de Dreux and Braine (1215 – 1249), who left descendants. The comtesse was living aged fifty-eight (Nov 15, 1250), and died soon afterwards.

Dreux, Mamilie de – (1166 – 1200)
French nun
Mamilie was the third daughter of Robert I, Comte de Dreux, and his third wife, Agnes de Baudement, comtesse de Braine. Through her father she was a granddaughter of the Capetian king, Louis VI (1108 – 1137). She never married and became a nun at the abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault, Poitiers, together with her younger sister Margeurite. Later, she left Fontevrault and was appointed as prioress at Warinville. Her sister later removed to the abbey of Charmes in Soissons. Mamilie de Dreux died aged thirty-four (June 23, 1200).

Drew, Dame Jane Beverley – (1911 – 1996)
British architect
Jane Drew was born at Thornton Heath, Surrey, and was trained at the Architectural Association in London (1929 – 1934), after which she worked with J.T. Allison before establishing her own architectural design offcie during Ww II. For over three decades (1945 – 1978) she worked in collaboration with her husband, Maxwell Fry. Drew spent much time in India, and was appointed as the senior architect (1951 – 1954) at Chandigarh, the new capital of the Punjab region. There she designed the Government College for Women and the high school. She later spent several decades in South Africa (1947 – 1965), and was responsible for the Wesley Girls’ School in Ghana (1946), and the Olympic Stadium and swimming pool at Kaduna in Nigeria (1965). Drew worked on the Open University project (1969 – 1977) and her other works included the hospital for the Kuwait Oil Company (1949 – 1951) and the Festival of Britain Restaurant in London (1951). Appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) shortly before her death (1996), she collaborated with her husband to write Village Housing in the Tropics (1945) and Tropical Architecture in the Humid Zone (1956).

Drew, Louisa Lane – (1820 – 1897)
Anglo-American actress
Louisa Lane was born in London into an established theatrical family, and appeared on the stage during early childhood. The death of her father led to Louisa accompanying her mother to America in 1827, and there she received further theatrical training.  During the earlier stages of her career, Louisa Lane established her self as a notable stage actress. After her third marriage with the actor John Drew, Louisa adopted her married name as her professional name. Later turning her talents to theatrical management, Louisa successfully managed the Arch Street Theatre Company in Philadelphia for over thirty years 1861 – 1892. During this time she maintained her acting career and was famous for the role of Mrs Malaprop in Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals. She died five years later.

Drew, Mary – (1847 – 1927)
British author
Mary Gladstone was born (Nov, 1847), the daughter of Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and his wife Catherine Glynne, of Hawarden in Chester. She was educated at home under the supervision of a governess, and married when almost forty (1886), to Harry Drew, the rector of Hawarden, to whom she bore a daughter. Drew had acted for many years prior to her late marriage, as private secretary and amanuensis for her famous father and also to her mother. She resided with them both prior, and after her own marriage. Her published works included Some Hawarden Letters, Catherine Gladstone, and Forty Years Friendship, amongst others. Mary Drew died at Hawarden, aged seventy-nine (Jan 1, 1927). Her private correspondence was later edited and published posthumously by Lucy Masterman in New York as Mary Gladstone: Her Diaries and Letters (1930).

Drexel, Katherine Mary – (1858 – 1955)
American Catholic nun, educator and saint
Drexel was born (Nov 26, 1858) in Philadelphia, the daughter of a prominent banking family, and was educated at the academy of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. Certain of her religious vocation, Katharine refused offers of marriage, and became quietly determined to use her wealth and life for the benefit of others. With this ideal in mind, she joined the Sisters of Mercy (1889). Only two years later (1891) she founded the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Coloured People, to deal particularly with the problems of the black and indigenous portions of the American population. She remained Mother Superior of this new order for almost sixty-five years, and died in office.  Mother Drexel established convents for nuns and schools in five states of America, the most notable of these foundations being St Catherine’s School in Sante Fe, established in 1894, and Xavier University in New Orleans, Lousiana, founded in 1915. Besides these she also established orphanages and hospitals. Mother Drexel died at Cromwell Heights, Pennsylvania, aged ninety-seven (March 3, 1955). She was beatified by Pope John Paul II (1988).

Drexel, Ruth – (1930 – 2009)
Bavarian actress and theatre manager
Drexel was born (July 14, 1930) at Vilshofen an der Donau, near Passau. She was trained for the stage in Munich and was later a member of the Berlin Ensemble (1955 – 1956). Drexel received acclaim after appearing in works by such playwrights as Franz Xaver Kroetz and Felix Mitterer. She assisted with the establishment of the Tiroler Volksschauspiele in the Tyrol, and was the theatrical director for some years. She appeared in the television adaptation of George Bernard Shaw’s Candida (1963) and appeared in the series Munchner Geschichten (1974) and Freiheit (1987). She was perhaps best known for the character Resi Berghammer in Der Bulle von Tolz (2005). Ruth Drexel died (Feb 26, 2009) aged seventy-eight.

Dreydel, Anne – (1918 – 2007)
British educator
Dreydel was born (May 27, 1918) and studied English at St Anne’s College in Oxford. She was co-founder of the Oxford English Centre (1953), which later became St Clare’s, Oxford, and later served as principal (1972 – 1983). She received the OBE (Order of the British Empire) from Queen Elizabeth II (1981) in recognition of her services to education, and was awarded the Commander’s Cross by the German government (2001). Anne Dreydel was later appointed to head the American International School of Florence and died (July 3, 2007) aged eighty-nine.

Dreyer, Rosalie – (1895 – 1987)
British nursing leader
Dreyer was born in Berne, Switzerland (Sept 3, 1895), the daughter of a dairy manager, and was raised by Roman Catholic nuns. She travelled to England (1914) where she later trained as a nurse at Guy’s Hospital, London, and qualified as a midwife (1926). She was later appointed matron of theBethnal Green Hospital (1934 – 1950), run by the London County Council, and became a figure of some influence. During WW II, Dreyer visited bombed areas, with a driver at her disposal, and evacuated and re-organized hospitals and staff. After the war she oversaw the development of the London County Council nursing service into separate units of the National Health Service, and served on the management committees of large hospitals such as Stepney (1952 – 1964) and Lewisham (1955 – 1964). Dreyer remained unmarried. Rosalie Dreyer died at Wimbledon in London (May 21, 1987) aged ninety-one.

Driggs, Elsie – (1895 – 1992)
American painter
Driggs was born in Hartford, Connecticut and attended the Art Students League in Manhattan, New York (1918 – 1921), where she studied under John Sloan and George Luks. She later travelled to Italy (1922) where she discovered the works of the Renaissance artist Piero della Francesca whose classical style was to heavily influence her own abstract exact style, which came to be known as ‘Prescisionism.’ During the Depression years she was the first artist to be invited to join the Public Works of Art, the precursor of the Works Progress Administration, by which the government sponsored work for painters. Driggs was married (1935 – 1968) to fellow painter Lee Gatch with whom she resided in New Jersey. With his death she removed to Manhattan and held an exhibition of her work at the Martin Diamond Fine Arts Museum (1980). This was followed by a retrospective exhibition of her work held at the New Jersey State Museum in Trenton (1994). Elsie Driggs died in Manhattan, aged ninety-seven (July 12, 1995).

Drinker, Elizabeth Sandwith – (1743 – 1807)
Irish-American Quaker, loyalist and diarist
Elizabeth Sandwith was born in Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, of Irish ancestry. She studied under the abolitionist Anthony Benezet but was largely self-taught. Elizabeth became the wife (1761) of the Quaker colonist Henry Drinker of Philadelphia to whom she bore nine children of whom five survived. She kept a personal journal, begun prior to her marriage (1758) and which consisted mainly of details of various battles between British forces and the revolutionaries. It also described how she fought to have her husband released when he was imprisoned for refusing to take the oath to the rebel government (1777). This was later edited and published posthumously by Henry D. Biddle in Philadelphia as Extracts from the Journal of Elizabeth Drinker from 1759 – 1807 A.D. (1889).

Drogheda, Olive Meatyard, Countess of   see   May, Olive

Drolling, Louise Adeone – (fl. c1810 – 1824)
French painter
Drolling was the daughter of Martin Drolling, the German interior and genre painter, who settled in Paris. She studied with her brother Michel Martin under their father, but never achieved his public success or recognition. Her one known work, Interior with Young Woman Tracing a Flower, was exhibited at the Paris salon in 1824. Quietly acclaimed, it was originally purchased by Caroline, Duchesse de Berry, the mother of King Henry V.

Droseria – (fl. 417 – c440 AD)
Roman Imperial courtier
Droseria held the important position of cubicularia (female attendent) to the Empress Galla Placidia, the mother of Valentinian III. Droseria was a person of political consequence and Cyril of Alexandria, succeeded in bribing her to support his case at the Council of Ephesus (431 AD).

Droste-Hulshoff, Annette von – (1797 – 1848)
German novelist and poet
Annette von Droste-Hulhoff was born in Westphalia and became writing poetry from childhood. Her best known work was the novel, Judenbuche (The Jew’s Beech) (1842), the originality of which principally lies in its combination of realistic descriptions of the Westphalian countryside and its inhabitants with a subtle evocation of the mysterious and often evil motives which can determine human actions. Annette often produced poetry, some of which was reprinted in a collection entitled, Gesitliche Jahre (The Spiritual Year), which was published posthumously (1851), and include some intense devotional verses written between 1818 and 1820, but which were not completed until 1839. Her circle of acquaintances included the brothers Grimm and Frederick Schlegel, and she travelled quite extensively. She was also the author of the epic novel, Das Hospizam Grossen Saint Bernard (1828).

Droste zu Vischering, Maria von – (1863 – 1899)
German nun
Countess Maria von Droste zu Vischering was born in Munster, Westphalia, the daughter of Count Klemenz Droste zu Vischering, and was educated at the college of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart in Reidenburg (1879 – 1881). Maria refused to marry, but her parents declined permission for her to take holy orders because she sufferred from constant ill-health. She took vows in private, and eventually she was permitted to enter the convent of the Good Shepherd, Munster (1888). She was appointed Mother-Superior of the order in Porto, Portugal (1894), which position she held until her death, and was later beatified by Pope Paul VI.

Drouet, Juliette – (1806 – 1883)
French actress and letter writer
She was the mistress of writer Victor Hugo. Her correspondence with Hugo was edited posthumously by Louis Cuimbaud and then translated into English by Lady Theodora Davidson as Juliette Drouet’s Letters to Victor Hugo (1915).

Drouin, Madeleine Michelle Angelique – (1731 – 1794)
French actress
Madeleine Drouin was married (1750) to the comic performer, Pierre Louis Dubus (1721 – 1799), who was popularly called Preville. She was famous for her roles in Le Legs and Tartuffe, and was much admired by Sir Horace Walpole.

Drozela – (c230 – c251 AD)
Graeco-Roman Christian martyr
Also known as Drosis and Drusilla she was of noble birth but suffered from delicate health. She had professed adherence to the Christian faith and was arrested, condemned and executed during the persecution initiated by the Emperor Traianus Decius (249 – 251 AD). She perished with Kallinica, Basilissa and two others at Antioch in Syria, Drozela being burnt to death. The three women may have been deaconesses. Drozela was revered as a saint (Sept 22) her feast being recorded in the Graeco-Slavonian Calendar. Spurious legend called her the daughter of the Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD).

Dru, Joanne – (1923 – 1996)
American actress
Born in Logan, West Virginia (Jan 27, 1923) as Joanne Letitia LaCock, she was the daughter of a pharmacist, and was sister to the noted entertainer, Peter Marshall. She adopted the professional surname of ‘Dru,’ and became a fashion model and a dancer before beginning her career as an actress. Dru was married firstly (1941 – 1949) to the actor Dick Haynes (1918 – 1980), from whom she was divorced, and secondly (1949 – 1956) to the Canadian actor John Ireland (1914 – 1992), from whom she was also divorced. Dru was best remembered for her roles in western films such as, Abie’s Irish Rose (1946), Red River (1948), All The King’s Men (1949) and, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949) with John Wayne. During the mid 1950’s Dru switched to television, appearing in, Playhouse 90 (1956) and, Guestward Ho (1961), though she still made occasional films such as, September Storm (1960), Sylvia (1964), and, Supersnooper (1981). Joanne Dru died in California (Sept 10, 1996) aged sixty-three.

Drugeth de Homonna, Katalin Nadasdy de Nadasd, Countess – (1594 – 1620)
Hungarian patrician
Katalin Nadasdy de Nadasd was the youngest daughter of the noted general Count Ferenc Nadasdy de Nadasd et Fogarasfold, and his infamous wife, Countess Erzsebet Bathory. She was married to Count Gyorgy Drugeth de Homonna. Countess Drugeth de Homonna died aged twenty-five, leaving three children,

Drummond, Annabella      see     Annabella

Drummond, Cherry    see    Strange, Cherry Drummond, Lady

Drummond, Flora – (1869 – 1949)
Scottish suffragette
Popularly known as ‘General’ Drummond, she was raised in the Scottish highlands. She was trained as a telegraphist, but was denied the position of postmistress because of her short stature.
Drummond went to Manchester in Lancashire, England, where she worked in a factory to gain firt-hand experience of working-life for women, before joining the co-operative Movement. She later served as an organizer for the Women’s Social and Political Union, and was renowned for her famous powers of oratory, being imprisoned on several occasions. Much opposed to strikes and Communism, she was later appointed as commander-in-chief of the Women’s Guild of Empire (1928).

Drummond, Lady Marie Louise – (1854 – 1937)
Scottish aristocrat
Lady Marie Louise Susan Edith Grace Drummond was born (April 29, 1854), the second daughter of George Drummond, sixth Duke of Melfort and his second wife Susan Henrietta Sewall, the widow of Colonel Burrowes of Dangan Castle, Meath. Marie Louise never married and with the death of her father (1892) she inherited his French titles which had been granted in 1841. Her elder sister Lady Fraser had died childless and Marie Louise was then her father’s sole heiress. For forty-five years (1892 – 1937) she was the Comtesse de Lussan and the Baronne de Valrose. Marie Louise died (July 22, 1937) aged eighty-three, and the two French peerages then became extinct.

Drummond, Margaret – (c1472 – 1502)
Scottish courtier
Margaret was the youngest daughter of John, first Lord Drummond and his wife Lady Elizabeth Lindsay, the daughter of Alexander, fourth Earl of Crawford. She was raised at court and became the mistress of the youthful James IV (1496), to whom she bore a daughter, Margaret Stuart (1497), who was recognized and raised in the royal household. Margaret and two of her sisters, Euphemia and Sibylla died suddenly, after sharing breakfast together. Their deaths were rumoured to have been caused by either disaffected members of the Scottish clans, jealous of the favour estended to the Drummond family, or by agents desiring the marriage of the king with Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, and to which Margaret Drummond was proving an obstacle, as King James had expressed a desire to marry her legally. Her daughter was married firstly to Lord John Gordon, master of Huntley, and secondly to Sir John Drummond, of Innerpeffray.

Drusilla, Julia (1) – (16 – 38 AD) 
Roman goddess
Julia Drusilla was born at Abitarvum, near Koblenz in Germany (Sept 16, 16 AD), the second daughter of the younger Drusus, stepson of the Emperor Augustus, and brother of the Emperor Tiberius (14 – 37 AD). Her mother was the elder Agrippina, the granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus. She was the sister, and supposedly the lover, of the Emperor Caligula (37 – 41 AD), though there remains no actual proof of their traditionally incestuous union. Drusilla was married (33 AD) to Lucius Cassius Longinus, but they later divorced (37 AD), and the union remained childless. Her second husband, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, was reputedly her brother’s lover as well.
Drusilla died of a virulent fever (June 10, 38 AD), aged only twenty-one, and was deified by order of the Senate as ‘Diva Drusilla.’ The emperor, over whom she had exercised some restraint and control, has been accused, for one reason or another, of being responsible for her death, though his own infant daughter by Caesonia was named for her (39 AD). She was represented on surviving coinage as the deity Concordia, together with emperor and her two sisters, and in film by Teresa Ann Savoy in the famous film, Caligula (1979).

Drusilla, Julia (2) – (39 – 41 AD)
Roman Imperial princess
Julia Drusilla was the only child of the Emperor Gaius Caligula and his fourth wife, Milonia Caesonia, the stepdaughter of Titidius Labeo. Her birth was the occasion of the public announcement of her parents’ marriage. The historian Suetonius recorded that Caligula paraded the child before all the temples in the city, before entrusting her destiny to the goddess Minerva. It is said that the child’s vicious and untable temperament was the reason he was convinced of his paternity. When Caligula was assassinated (Jan 24, 41 AD), Drusilla and her mother were killed by a centurion, Julius Lupus, who dashed the child’s brains out against a wall.

Drusilla, Julia (3) – (38 – after 79 AD)
Queen consort of Emesa
Princess Julia Drusilla was the youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I, Kinng of Judaea and his wife Kypros, the daughter of Prince Pharsaelus. She was named in honour of her father’s friend, Drusus the Younger, son of the emperor Tiberius (14 – 37 AD). Drusilla was betrothed during her childhood to Antiochus (V), son of Antiochus IV, king of Commagene, but he refused to accept the Jewish faith and married his sister Iotape instead (c52 AD). Her brother Agrippa II then gave Drusilla in marriage (53 AD) to Azizus, king of Emesa, in Syria, who procured a divorce from his first wife in order to marry her. The story of Antiochus of Commagene and her subsequent marriage into the Emesan royal house is recorded by the Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus in his Antiquities.
Extremely beautiful, Queen Drusilla attracted the attention of the Roman procurator Marcus Antonius Felix (c5 BC – 62 AD), who employed the services of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon to gain her for his wife. Felix divorced his second wife, Drusilla of Mauretania, the daughter of King Ptolemy, whilst Simon persuaded Queen Drusilla to flee her husband’s court and reside with Felix as his mistress. She became his third wife soon afterwardds (Oct, 54 AD), though her husband, King Azizus did not die till some time afterwards (55 AD). Her predecessor, the Mauretanian Drusilla then became the wife of Sohaemus of Emesa, the brother of King Azizus.
This marriage is said to have caused consternation in Drusilla’s Jewish family, and she remained on bad terms with her eldest sister, Queen Berenike (later mistress of the Emperor Titus), who was said to have been jealous of her younger sister’s acclaimed beauty. Drusilla remained married to Felix until his death, and bore him a son, Marcus Agrippa Antonius (born 55 AD). She is the Queen Drusilla mentioned in the biblical book of Acts in front of whom St Paul preached his Christian message. According to the Codex Bezae, an ancient manuscript containing the text of Acts, Queen Drusilla arranged for Paul’s audience before herself and her husband, , but added that when Felix was not responsive to Paul’s message, it was her wish that Paul remain in prison.
The queen’s only son, Agrippa, together with his wife, yet another Drusilla, perished in the city of Pompeii during the fatal eruption of Mt Vesuvius (Aug 9, 79 AD). Drusilla was living at the time of this calamity, but details of her later life remain unrecorded.

Drusilla of Mauretania (1) – (c5 BC – c40 AD)
African-Roman princess
Princess Drusilla was the daughter of Juba II, King of Mauretania, and his wife Cleoptra Selene, the daughter of the Roman triumvir Mark Antony and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. At the time of her marriage (c10 AD) with Marcus Antonius Felix (c5 BC – 62 AD), a freedman in the household of Antonia, whose brother Pallas, would later serve as the chief influential adviser to Antonia’s son, the emperor Claudius I. This Drusilla was the first of the three wives of Felix who bore this name. Her husband was not appointed as procurator of Judaea until after her death. His second wife was her niece, the daughter of King Ptolemy of Mauretania (25 – 40 AD).

Drusilla of Mauretania (2) – (fl. c25 – c68 AD)
African-Roman queen
Princess Drusilla was the daughter of Ptolemy, King of Mauretania (25 – 40 AD), and his queen, Julia Urania. Her eponymous aunt was the first wife of the Roman procurator, Marcus Antonius Felix. Her father was assasinated by order of the Emperor Caligula (40 AD), and Drusilla had probably been raised and educated at the Imperial court in Rome, possibly under the guidance of Antonia, the mother of Claudius I. She was married firstly to Antonius Felix, the widower of her aunt (c42 AD), the union dictated by the dynastic policy of the emperor Claudius I. Felix later divorced this Drusilla (54 AD) in order to marry a third Drusilla (Julia Drusilla), the daughter of Herod Agrippa I, king of Judaea. Drusilla then became the wife of Sohaemus, King of Emesa in Syria, who succeeded his childless brother Azizus as king (55 AD).
Their son Gaius Julius Alexius succeeded his father as king of Emesa (c74 AD), and through him Drusilla was ancestress to Augusta Julia Domna, second wife of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus, and further ancestress to four Roman emperors, Geta (211 – 212 AD), Caracalla (211 – 217 AD), Elahgabalus (218 – 222 AD), and Alexander Severus (222 – 235 AD). Her daughter Iotape married in the Commagenian royal house, which made Drusilla the ancestress of the famous Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, prominent during the late third century AD.

Druskowitz, Helene Maria Franziska – (1858 – 1918)
Austrian author
Helene Druskowitz was born in Vienna, and studied piano at the Vienna Conservatory, before attending the University of Zurich, in Switzerland, where she graduated in 1878. A firm advocate of equal rights for women, Helene was the founder of the women’s journals, Der heilige Kampf and Der Fehderuf.  Druskowitz was the author of works such as, Moderne Versuche eines Religionsersatzes (1886) in which she took a critical attitude to the ideas and works of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, and Pessimistische Kardinalsatze (1905). She was also the author of the biography, Percy Bysshe Shelley (1884). She spent the last three decades of her life in and out of various mental institutions. Helene Druskowitz died at Mauer-Ohling, Lower Austria (May 31, 1918).

Druziakina, Sophia Ivanovna – (1880 – 1953)
Russian soprano
Druziakina was born in Kiev, and received her vocal training from Anna Santagano-Gorchakova. She was appointed solist with the Zimin Opera (1910 – 1917). Druziakina appeared with the Russian Seasons in Paris (1910), and was later appointed as asolist with the Theatre of the Moscow Soviet of Workers’ Deputies (1917 – 1924). Appointed a professor at the Moscow Conservatory (1930), Druziakina retired fifteen years later (1945). Sophia Druziakina died in Moscow, aged seventy-three (Oct 30, 1953).

Dryadia, Julia – (c309 – c370 AD)
Gallo-Roman patrician
Julia Dryadia was the daughter of Julius Ausonius from Aquitaine in Gaul, praetorian prefect of Illyria (377 AD), and his wife Aemilia Aeonia. She was sister to the famous poet Decimus Magnus Ausonius (c310 – c394 AD) and became the wife of a senator, Pomponius Maximus of Bordeaux. Widowed when young, Dryadia never remarried and died aged sixty. Her son, Pomponius Maximus Herculanus was a pupil of Ausonius and later became a grammaticus at his uncle’s school in Bordeaux, but died young. Her daughter Megentira became the wife of Paulinus, governor of Tarraconensis, and left descendants.

Dryantilla, Sulpicia – (fl. c250 – 261 AD)
Roman Augusta
Sulpicia Dryantilla was perhaps of Lycian origins, daughter to either Sulpicius Justus or Sulpcius Pollio from Asia Minor. She became the wife of the ursurper Regalianus (260 – 261 AD), who was declared emperor by his troops in Illyricum, but was murdered by them several months afterwards. Her own fate remains unrecorded. Dryantilla is attested as Augusta on the coinage issued by her husband at Carnuntum, in Pannonia, which portrays a bust of the empress behind a crescent on the obverse, and the legend SVLP DRYANTILLA AVG. The coin is particularly notable as bearing one of the least flatterring Imperial female portraits in the entire surviving Roman collection, though this issue has been overstruck on an earlier piece.

Dryer, Moira – (1957 – 1992)
American abstract artist
Dryer was born in Toronto, Canada, the daughter of Douglas Dryer, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, and his wife, the architect Pegeen Synge. She attended the Sir George Williams University in Montreal, and at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, where she studied under painter Elizabeth Murray. Influenced by the styles of Milton Avery and Frank Stella, Dryer was also inspired by the thin paint surfaces of Italian frescoes in Florence, Dryer perfected her own method which involved the application of diaphanous washes of either casein or acrylic paint to large squares of wood, which created veiled, undulating patterns, redolent of open landscapes or seascapes. Exhibitions of her work were held in Manhattan, Boston, and Santa Monica, in California. Moira Dryer died of cancer (May 21, 1992) aged only thirty-four, in Manhattan in New York.

Drypetis – (c341 – 323 BC)
Persian princess
Drypetis was the younger daughter of Darius III and his wife Statira. The princess was captured with her family as Issus (333 BC) by the forces of Alexander the Great of Macedonia and with the death of her mother Queen Statira (331 BC) Alexander returned Drypetis and her sister to the care of the their grandmother Queen Susygambis at Susa. The ling caused Drypetis to be married (324 BC) to his closest friend Hephaestion amidst magnificient ceremonies and at the same time Alexander married her elder sister Statira. Tacitus recorded in his Campaigns of Alexander that ‘To Hephaestion he gave Drypetis, another of Darius’ daughters and sister of his own wife Barsine (The Greek name for Statira), as he wanted to be uncle to Hephaestion’s children. His death soon afterwards left her a childless widow, and with Alexander’s death (June, 323 BC) Drypetis and her sister were soon murdered through the agency of Alexander’s other widow Roxana, in order to eliminate any possible rivals to her son Alexander IV.

Duarte, Eva    see    Peron, Eva

Duarte y Diez, Rosa – (1819 – 1888)
Caribbean biographer and chronicler
Rosa Duarte was born in the Rominican Republic, the sister of patriot and leader Juan Pablo Duarte (1813 – 1876). She never married and was the author of Apuntes para la historia de la isla de Santo Domingo.

Duatentopet – (fl. c1180 – c1140 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Duatentopet, sometimes called Tentopet, was the daughter of King Ramesses III, the second ruler of the XXth Dynasty (1185 – 1069 BC) and the granddaughter of King Setnakhte. During her father’s reign the princess had served in the religious role of ‘Adoratrix’ at the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. Duatentopet probably became the wife of her half-brother King Ramesses IV (c1195 – c1145 BC).
The wife of Ramesses IV is not named in surviving sources but she is believed to have been identical with the Queen Duatentopet whose tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Queens, near Thebes. Surviving reliefs and the funerary equipment found there give her the titles of ‘King’s Daughter,’ ‘King’s Wife’ and ‘King’s Mother.’ Duatentopet survived into the reign of her son King Ramesses V. The tomb of her steward Amunhotep has also been discovered and excavated.

DuBarry, Marie Jeanne Gomard de Vaubarnier, Comtesse – (1743 – 1793)
French courtesan, mistress of Louis XV
Jeanne Vaubarnier was born at Vaucouleur (Aug 19, 1743), the illegitimate daughter of a cook, Anne Becu, and supposedly of a monk named du Vaubarnier. Educated at the convent of St Anne, in Paris, she became a shopgirl in Paris, under the name of Jeanne Vaubarnier, and was introduced into society (1765) as ‘Madamoiselle Lange’ by her lover and protector, Comte Jean DuBarry (1723 – 1794). First noticed by the dissolute Duc de Richelieu, Jeanne succeeded in attracting the attention of Louis XV (1768). She became his mistress, and a suitable marriage was arranged with Comte Guilllaume DuBarry (1721 – 1811), the brother of her mentor. She was presented at court by the Vicomtesse de Bearn (1769), and thus she bcame the last official ‘maitresse en titre’ of Louis XV, a post that had been left vacant since the death of Madame de Pompadour (1764).
Politically, Madame DuBarry assisted the Duc d’Aiguillon, Chancellor Maupeou, and the Abbe du Terray in bringing about the downfall of the king’s finance minister, the Duc de Choiseul (Dec, 1770), who, with his wife, and sister, the Duchesse de Gramont, left Versailles for exile on his estates at Chanteloup. Mme DuBarry wielded considerable influence and was a generous patron of literature and the arts, and was painted by Drouais. But her extravagance made her unpopular with the masses, despite her own innate kindly nature. With Louis’s death from smallpox (1774) the comtesse was detained in the convent of Pont-aux-Dames, near Meaux, and at the Chateau de St Vrain, before being exiled from the court to her estate at Louvenciennes, near Marly, by order of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.
During the initial years of the revolution, the comtesse remained unmolested at Louvenciennes, but during a trip to England (1793) with the duchesse de Brancas, both women were observed by French agents, attending a memorial service for Louis XVI attired in deepest mourning. Upon their return both were arrested by the Revolutionary Tribunal, after the comtesse was denounced by her Negro servant Zamor. Referred to as ‘Messalina,’ and imprisoned in the prison of St Pelagie, she was charged with wilfully wasting the state finances, was found guilty, and guillotined in Paris (Dec 7, 1793).
Much was made by the Royalists, of the comtesse’s anguished mental breakdown during her ride to execution, but she had, in fact, refused an offer to escape, so that the Duchesse de Mortemart, the daughter of her lover, the Duc de Brissac, who had already been brutally murdered by the Paris mob (1792), could be rescued from hiding in Calais, and taken to safety in England. In the Irving Thalberg film Marie Antoinette (1938) the comtesse was portrayed by Gladys George. In the 2006 film Marie Antoinette with Kirstin Dunst she was portrayed by Italian actress Asia Argento.

Duben, Emerentia von – (1669 – 1743)
Swedish courtier
Emerentia was originally employed at the court of Ulrika Eleanora of Denmark, the Queen consort of Sweden in Stockholm as a domestic servant. From 1690 she was placed in charge of the queen’s younger daughter Princess Ulrika Eleanora, later the Queen Regnant. She was raised to the nobility and was created a baroness (1707) being formally appointed as a lady-in-waiting. Though a person of considerable influence in the queen’s household Madame von Duben did not abuse her favoured position, though she did accumulate considerable wealth. With the queen’s death (1741) Emerentia received a considerable bequest.

Duberly, Frances Isabella (Fanny) – (1829 – 1903)
British traveller and author
Fanny Locke was the daughter of Wadham Locke, of Rowdeford House, Rowde, in Wiltshire, a wealthy banker in Devizes, Cornwall. She became the wife (1854) of a military officer, Captain Henry Duberly, of the 8th Royal Irish Hussars, who was the regimental paymaster. Blonde and statuesque, she accompanied her husband on campaigns to the Crimea (1854) and to India during the Great Mutiny (1857 – 1858). Her presecence attracted much admiration from the troops and she witnessed the battles of Balaclava and Sebastopol. She witnessed the famous charge of the Light Brigade seated upon her own horse, which she had insisted be brought along with her.
With the eventual fall of Sebastopol, Duberly was amongst the first group of people to enter the city. Her experiences led to the publication of her Journal kept during the Russian War: From the Departure of the Army from England in April, 1854, to the Fall of Sebastopol (1855). Eighteen months later she accompanied her husband to India where he had been sent to join the Rajputana Caolumn in Bombay.  However, the weather was extremely inclement she she was forced to travel almost two thousand miles in a covered litter (dhoolie). Thus, her second book, Campaigning experiences in Rajpootana and Central India, during the Suppression of the Mutiny, 1857 – 1858 (1859) was not nearly as entertaining as her first. The Duberly’s returned to England a decade later (1869). She was widowed in 1891. Her letters, addressed to her sister Selina Locke (later Marx) were preserved in the British Museum. Fanny Duberly died (Jan, 1903) aged seventy-three, at St Clair, Cheltenham.

Duberly, Rebecca Elizabeth – (1766 – 1804)
British Hanoverian socialite and scandal figure
Popularly known as ‘Helen of Hampstead,’ she was born (March 5, 1766) in London, the daughter of Gerard Howard, and his wife Ann, the daughter of Coller Mawhood. She was married to James Duberly, to whom she bore a son and heir, James (born 1788). Her husband was later knighted (1803). Rebecca became involved in a romantic liasion with Major-General John Gunning (1742 – 1797), husband of the authoress Susannah Minifie. The scandal generated when the affair became public knowledge meant that Rebecca would never be received in society again, but she had two family properties at her disposal, and was not in financial need. She lived abroad in Naples, Italy, for a period, but later returned to London, where she died (Feb, 1804) aged thirty-seven.

Dubin, Maria Elvira de Bourbon – (1942 – 2003)
Spanish royal family member
Born Anna Margarita Maria Elvira (June 20, 1942), she was the daughter of Filberto de Bourbon (1904 – 1968), and his wife, Lucia Vazquez y Carrisoza (1907 – 1986). Her father was the third natural son of Princess Elvira de Bourbon (1871 – 1929) and her lover, Filippo Folchi. Thus, she was the maternal great-granddaughter of the Infant Carlos of Spain, Duque de Madrid. By her second marriage in New York City, with an American citizen, Ronald Nelson Dubin (1967), she left one son and two daughters. Maria Elvira Dubin died (Aug 14, 2003) aged sixty, in Norwalk, Connecticut, USA.

Du Bois, Dorothea Annesley, Lady – (1728 – 1774)
British author
Lady Dorothea Annesley was born in Ireland, the eldest daughter of Richard Annesley, sixth earl of Anglesey, and his second wife Anne Simpson. Her father made financial provision for Dorothea in 1737, but later repudiated his marriage, declared Dorothea and her siblings illegitimate, and cast them all out (1740). She later married (1752) a French musician to whom she bore six children. In 1760 she travelled to her father’s estate of Camolin Park, Wexford, in an attempt to induce him to acknowledge his marriage with her mother, but she was indignantly repulsed by Lord Anglesey’s third wife, Juliana Donovan, whose son inherited the family estates soon afterwards (1761). Lady DuBois brought her story to the attention of society in Poems of a Lady of Quality (1764) which she dedicated to George III. With her mother’s death, she wrote a vindication entitled, The Case of Anne, Countess Anglesey, lately Deceased (1766) which appealed for help to prosecute her claims. Her other written works included the novel, Theodora (1770), which was dedicated to the Countess of Hertford, The Divorce (1771), a musical entertainment which was presented at Marylebone Gardens (1772), and, The Lady’s Polite Secretary (1772). Lady Dorothea Du Bois died in poverty in Grafton Street, Dublin, of apoplexy, aged thirty-five.

Dubois, Marie Madeleine – (1746 – 1779)
French actress
Born Marie Madeleine Brouin, she was the daughter of the famous actor, Dubois (1706 – 1775), who was born Louis Blouin. She appeared at the Comedie Francaise during the reigns of Louis XV and XVI. Marie Madeleine Du Bois died tragically young.

Du Bois, Shirley Graham – (1907 – 1977)
American author and composer
Shirley Graham was born (Nov 11, 1907), and was married (1951) to the famous black civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, with whom she joined in supporting social welfare reforms and civic organizations. Shirley wrote instructive biographies of famous black leaders such as, Frederick Douglass, Paul Robeson and George Washington Carver, for juvenile readers. Shirley Du Bois died in Beijing, China, aged sixty-nine (March 27, 1977).

Dubois, Silvia – (c1768 – 1888)
Black American slave
Silvia was the natural daughter of a revolutionary fifer, Cuffee Bard, and a slave mother, Dorcas Compton. Throughout her lifetime she belonged to four different white masters before being emancipated. Her last master, Minical Dubois, was a tavern keeper in Pennsylvania. She and her baby were granted their freedom after Silvia had suffered harsh and unfair treatment at the hands of Mrs Dubois (1782). In this particular instance, Silvia had physically retaliated against Mrs Dubois whom no-one stepped forward to defend. Silvia later inherited property from her white paternal grandfather, and lived to a great age, reputedly about one hundred and twenty years old, surviving the Civil War by over two decades. Her written biography was based upon personal interviews between Dubois and the author, C.W. Lawson as Sylvia Dubois, A Biography of the slav who whipt her mistress and gand her fredom. This work was later edited and translated by Jared Lobdell of New York (1988).

Dubourg, Victoria – (1840 – after 1893)
French-Anglo painter
Victoria Dubourg specialized in producing still-lifes and flowers. She was married to the painter Ignace Fantin-Latour, and painter using his style though she retained her maiden name. Whilst working in London her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Suffolk Street Gallery, the New Water Colour Society, and the Grosvenor Gallery.

Dubravka (Dabrowska, Dobrawa) – (c935 – 977)
Queen consort of Poland
Princess Dubravka was the daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia, and his wife Biagota of Stockau. She was the niece of St Wenceslas (Wenzel) and was brought up in the Christian faith. She was married firstly (c950) to Gunther of Thuringia (c930 – 982), Margrave of Merseburg, to whom she bore several children including Ekkehard I (died 1002), Margrave of Meissen and Thuringia. This marriage ended in divorce in 965, when her father desired to make a more powerful alliance for his family. In 966 Dubravka became the second wife of Mieszko I (c925 – 992), first prince and king of the Piast dynasty in Poland, to whom she bore further children including King Boleslav I Chrobry (the Brave) (967 – 1025). At the time of Dubravka’s marriage with Mieszko, he and his nobles accepted mass Christian baptism as the price of this prestigious foreign alliance. The queen possessed some influence over her husband, at least concerning the matter of religion, and working in concert with other foreign missionaries, the queen hepled to ensure that Poland would become fully converted, and thus part of the Western Christian world and culture.

Du Brey, Claire – (1892 – 1993)
American actress of both silent and sound films and of television
Claire Du Brey was born at Bonner’s Ferry, Idaho (Aug 31, 1892). Du Brey appeared in well over sixty silent movies, such as, Peggy (1916), The Reward of the Faithless (1917), where she played a princess, and Midnight Madness (1918), in which she portrayed the famous courtesan, Lola Montez. With the advent of sound, Du Brey appeared in mainly minor roles, in over one hundred films, including Jane Eyre (1934), where she portrayed the mad Bertha Rochester, Marie Antoinette (1938), with Norma Shearer and Tyrone Power, All This and Heaven Too (1942) with Charles Boyer and Bette Davis, in which she played a nun, Blossoms in the Dust (1941), with Greer Garson, and, Dragon Seed (1944), with Katharine Hepburn. Du Brey later made the move to telelvison, appearing in such popular series as, Four Star Playhouse (1954), Dragnet (1956), The Adventures of Superman (1958), and, The Californians (1959), before retiring in the same year after appearing in her final film, The Innocent and the Damned. She survived her acting career over three decades. Claire Du Brey died in Los Angeles, California (Aug 1, 1993), aged one hundred.

Dubuc de Rivery, Aimee – (1776 – after 1788) 
Creole patrician captive
Marie Marthe Aimee Dubuc de Rivery was born on the island of Martinique (Dec 19, 1776), and was cousin to the French empress Jospehine, the wife of Napoleon I. The daughter of a wealthy plantation owner, she had been sent to fracne to obtain a convent education. She was carried off by Barbary pirates whilst returning by ship to Martinique (July or Aug, 1788), and was never ever heard of again. The Ottoman sultana Naksidil (c1766 – 1817), formerly a captive slave, who became the mother to Sultan Mahmud II (1808 – 1839), was long erroneously thought to have been Aimee, but this theory has now been disproved, and Naksidil proved to be a native of the Caucasus in Georgia. She died or was sold into slavery and her real fate remains undiscovered. The Ottoman version of Aimee’s legend was brought to the screen in, Intimate Power (1989), in which the Aimee/Naksidil character was protrayed by actress Amber O’Shea.

Duchamp, Alexina – (1906 – 1995)
American artistic figure
Alexina Sattler was born (Jan 6, 1906) in Cincinnati, Ohio, the daughter of an ophthalmologist. She studied sculpture under Brancusi in Paris and became the wife (1929) of Pierre Matisse, the son of the famous painter Henri Matisse, to whom she bore three children. With her husband she ran a successful gallery on Madison Avenue in New York. After the war Alexina and Matisse were divorced (1949) and she remarried (1954) to the noted Dada artist Marcel Duchamp (1897 – 1968). With his death Alexina became friends with such artists as John Cage and Jasper Johns. Alexina Duchamp died (Dec 20, 1995) aged eighty-nine, at Villiers-sous-Grez, near Paris.

Duchatel, Louise – (c1581 – 1645)
French salonniere and precieuse
Louise Duchatel was the wife (1600) of Claude de Charmoisy. Louise frequented the precieuse salon of Madame de Rambouillet in Paris, where she was known by her classical name of ‘Philothee.’ Madame Du Deffand was much impressed by her in the following century.

Du Chatelet, Marquise     see    Chatelet-Lomont, Marquise du

Duchesne, Rose Philippine – (1769 – 1852)
French nun, missionary, and pioneer educator
Duchesne was born in Grenoble. She was educated at home and by the nuns of the Visitation Order. She remained unmarried, due to both the upheavals of the Revolution and her own religious inclinations, and later joined the Society of the Sacred Heart (1804), before arriving in the USA, as a teacher and missionary. Duchesne founded the convent and school at St Charles in Missouri (1818), and then went on to establish several other convents, schools, and orphanages, such as those of St Louis, Missouri (1827) and at Grand Cocteau in Louisiana for pioneer settlers and Creole children. She later travelled to preach Roman Catholicism to the Potawatomi Indians in Kansas. Duchesne was later beatified (1940), and finally canonized by Pope John Paul II (1988), her feast being observed annually (Nov 17).

Ducie, Elizabeth Dutton, Countess of – (1805 – 1865)
British peeress
Hon. (Honourable) Elizabeth Dutton was the elder daughter of John Dutton (1779 – 1862), second Baron Sherborne, and his wife Mary Legge, the only child of Henry S. Bilson Legge, second and last Baron Stawell. She was married (1826) to Henry George Francis Moreton (1802 – 1853), later second Earl of Ducie (1840). She survived her husband for over a decade as the Countess Dowager of Ducie (1853 – 1865). Lady Ducie died (March 15, 1865) aged fifty-nine, leaving fourteen children,

Ducker, Sophie Charlotte – (1909 – 2004)
German-Australian botanist
Born Sophie von Klemperer in Berlin, Prussia (April 9, 1909), she was educated privately at home, and then abroad in London and in Switzerland. She came to Australia in 1941 where she was employed as a research assistant to the noted academic, Ethel McLennan (1891 – 1983) at Melbourne University in Victoria. Ducker was particularly noted for her research into the antiobiotic properties of fungi, and did ecological research with conservationist, John Stewart Tuner (1908 – 1991), on the Bogong High Plains. Appointed lecturer in botany (1957), and then senior lecturer (1961) at Melbourne University, Ducker conducted leading research into the properties of seaweeds (phycology). She retired officially in 1974, but continued as a senior research associate. Awarded an honorary LLD from Melbourne University (1993), she also received the ANZAS Mueller Medal in recognition of her work (1996). She edited the letters of the fellow botanist, W.H. Harvey (1988). Sophie Charlotte Ducker died (May 20, 2004) in Melbourne, aged ninety-five.

Duckrey, Marjorie Hunt – (1914 – 1975)
American social welfare reformer and club organizer
Marjorie Duckrey was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, and graduated from Shaw University and the Bryn Mawr School of Social Work. During World War II she served in Britain with the Red Cross. An executive director of Duckrey Associates, a consultative service in education and social welfare, her own voluntary activities were extensive, but Marjorie’s particular interest lay with the establishment of girls’ clubs. Elected to the board of directors of the National Girls Clubs (1969) she served as president (1972 – 1973) and then president (1974 – 1975). Marjorie Hunt Duckrey died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Duckworth, Dortha – (1905 – 1996)
American character actress
Dortha was born Dorothea Duckworth (Sept 28, 1905) in Newton, Kansas. Having had stage experience, she appeared in popular television shows such as, The Philco Television Playhouse (1951) and, Kraft Television Theatre (1955). This led to several film roles, and she appeared on over a dozen films, most notably in Rachel, Rachel (1968), The Honeymoon Killers (1970), with Shirley Stoler, Tony Lobianco and Doris Roberts, where she played the mother of the serial killer Martha Beck, Grace Quigley (1984), in which she played suicide seeking victim with Katharine Hepburn. Her last film role, when she was eighty-five, was as the librarian in Stanley & Iris (1990). Dortha Duckworth died (Nov 14, 1996) in Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, aged ninety-one.

Du Coudray, Angelique    see    Coudray, Angelique Margeurite le Boursier du

Ducrest, Georgette – (1783 – after 1828)
French courtier and memoirist
Born Georgette Bocher, she was niece to the famous Comtesse de Genlis. With the outbreak of the revolution, she emigrated with her family, and spent a decade living in exile in London. She later returned to France (1800), where she married, and attended the court of the empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon. She remained with the empress after her divorce, attending her at the palace of Malmaison until her death (1814). She later wrote reminiscences in three volumes entitled, Memoires sur l’imperatrice Josephine, ses contemporains, la cour de Navarre et de La Malmaison (1828).

Duczynska, Ilona – (1897 – 1978)
Austrian politician and journalist
Helene Marie Duczynska was born at Maria Enzersdorf, Lower Austria, and was known as Ilona, the Hungarian version of her name. Ilona studied physics and mathematics at the Swiss School of Technology in Zurich. Influenced by revolutionary groups she then travelled to Vienna (1917) where she became the co-founder of the Communist Party of Hungary (1918) and was then appointed a member of the People’s Commissioner’s Department for Foreign Affairs (1919).  A leading member of the Austrian Communist Party, she founded the Der linke Sozialdemokrat newspaper and edited the Osterreichischer Volkswirt journal.Expelled from the party in 1929, Ilona later joined the adminstration of the defence corps of the city of Vienna (1935), but eventually went to England (1936). Ilona immigrated to Canada after WW II (1947), and was the author of, Der Demokratische Bolschewik (1975).

Duczynski, Irma von – (1869 – 1932)
Austrian landscape and genre painter, and sculptor
Duczynski was born at Lemberg, near Lviv, and studied at Angelica Kauffman’s School of Art in Vienna. Influenced by the style of Ferdinand Andri, she exhibited her work for the first time at the Vienna Secession (1901). Further exhibitions of her work followed in the majot European capitals such as Dresden, Cracow, Venice, Rome, and Paris. Irma produced the famous bronze group, Der Kleine Bruder (1907). She also produced woodcuts and impressionist portraits of children. Prior to WWI she retired to Munich, Bavaria. Irma von Duczynski died (Jan 19, 1932) aged sixty-two.

Dudarova, Veronica – (1916 – 2009)
Russian musician and conductor
Dudarova was born (Dec 5, 1916) into an aristocratic family at Baku in Ossetia, where she learned music under Stephen Strasser, and studied the piano at the Leningrad conservatory (1933 – 1937). She then spent eight years training as a symphony conductor at the Moscow Conservatory (1939 – 1947). Dudarova served as the junior conductor for the Moscow State Orchestra (1947 – 1960) before being appointed as the principal conductor (1960 – 1989), being the first Russian woman to receive such an appointment. She founded the Symphony Orchestra of Russia (1991) which she led until her retirement at the age of eighty-six (2003). Veronica Dudarova died (Jan 15, 2009) aged ninety-two, in Moscow.

Du Deffand, Marie de Vichy-Champrond, Marquise – (1697 – 1780) 
French salonniere and letter writer
Marie de Vichy-Champrond was born in Champrond, Burgundy, and was orphaned in 1703. Educated in a Paris convent, she became famous during her girlhood for her wit, vivacity, and beauty. She was married (1718) to Jean Baptiste Charles de la Lande, Marquis Du Deffand, and was briefly the mistress of the Regent Duc d’Orleans and the Duc du Maine, son of Louis XIV, at Sceaux. Her affair with Charles Henault, president of the Chambres des Enquetes (Court of Inquiry) subsided into a life-long firendship. She seperated from her husband (1722), and for quite a number of years she presided over a brilliant literary salon in the Rue de Beaune, Paris, which was frequented by the leading literary figures of the day.

The marquise was a correspondent of Voltaire, and the philosophers Charles Louis de Montesquiou and Jean d’Alembert, and received Denis Diderot, Francois Marmontel, Mme Du Chatelet, and  Madame de Tencin at her prestigious salon, which was later moved to her apartments in the convent of St Joseph, in the Rue de St Dominique. She became blind in 1753, and invited Mlle Julie de Lespinasse (natural daughter of the Comtesse d’Albon, her own kinswoman) to join her household, to help her continue to preside over her popular salon. Ten years later the two women violently quarrelled, and Julie left Madame Du Deffand’s house, in order to set up her own salon, and took several of Madame Du Deffand’s former admirers with her. From 1766 she corresponded on some scale with the British antiquarian, Sir Horace Walpole, who offerred her assistance when she fell into financial trouble. At her death, aged eighty-three (Sept 23, 1780), she left Walpole her letters which were later edited by Mary Berry (1810), and Walpole also gave a home to her little dog at Strawberry Hill in London.

Dudgeon, Elspeth – (1871 – 1955)
Anglo-American stage and film actress
Dudgeon was born in London (Dec 4, 1871). After a successful stage career in England, she went to California, USA, where she began to appear in films, being best remembered for her role as an elderly man, Sir Roderick Femm, in the film, The Dark House (1932), for which she was billed under the male pseudonym ‘John Dudgeon.’ Other film roles and credits included those of Miss Barbara Pinkerton in, Becky Sharp (1935), The Great Garrick (1937), Mrs King in, Pride and Prejudice (1940) with Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier, Random Harvest (1942) with Ronald Coleman and Greer Garson, Aunt Hester in, Now, Voyager (1942), with Claude Rains and Bette Davis, The Canterville Ghost (1944), and the the elderly female gambler in, The Great Sinner (1949). Dudgeon worked until the end, appearing in her last film, Moonfleet (1955) just prior to her death. Elspeth Dudgeon died (Dec 11, 1955) aged eighty-four, in Los Angeles, California.

Dudgeon, Louisa – (fl. 1861 – 1868)
British painter
An unmarried lady who was a native of Leicester, she produced still-life paintings which wre exhibited over a period of years at the Suffolk Street Gallery in London.

Dudley, Alicia Leigh, Duchess – (1578 – 1668)
English peeress (1660 – 1668)
Alicia Leigh was born at Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwickshire, the daughter of Thomas Leigh, Earl of Ellesmere. She became the first wife (1594) of Sir Robert Dudley (1573 – 1649), the illegitimate son of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, the favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, and Lady Douglas Sheffield. Alicia bore her husband five daughters before he finally deserted her (1605) for Elizabeth Southwell, a maid-of-honour to Queen Elizabeth. The couple eloped to Italy, where Dudley divorced Alicia and married Southwell. Alicia became well known in London for her philanthropic activities, and was created a duchess for life (1645) by Charles I, which rank was later confirmed by his son Charles II (1660).
Alicia Dudley died at Dudley House, London (Jan 22, 1668), the home of her former husband, the rights to which she had enjoyed by royal order for over sixty years. She was aged eighty-nine, and her funeral sermon by Robert Bateman was published. She was interred at Stoneleigh Abbey with her eldest daughter, Alicia Dudley (1595 – 1621), who remained unmarried. Her surviving tomb, which was prepared by Alicia prior to her death, featured the duchess in recumbent position wrapped in a shroud. An illustration of the tomb appeared in William Dugdale’s famous work, The Antiquities of Warwickshire (1656).

Dudley, Amy Robsart, Lady    see     Robsart, Amy

Dudley, Diana Howard, Lady – (1686 – 1709)
British peeress
Diana Howard was the only daughter of Thomas Howard, of Ashstead, a teller of the Exchequer, and his wife Diana Newport. She was the paternal granddaughter of the poet, Sir Robert Howard (1626 – 1698), of Vasterne, Wiltshire. Diana was married (1703) to Edward, eighth Baron Dudley, who died less than a year later, leaving her as the mother of a posthumous son, Edwward, ninth Baron Dudley and fourth Baron Ward (1704 – 1731) who died unmarried. With Diana’s death (March 17, 1709), the family estates she had inherited as her grandfather’s last direct descendant, passed to her kinsman Henry Howard, fifth Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire (1627 – 1709).

Dudley, Dorothy – (fl. 1775 – 1776)
American colonial diarist
Dorothy Dudley resided in Cambridge, Massachusetts and kept a diary over a thirteen month period (April, 1775 – July, 1776) during the revolutionary war. This was later edited by A.G. Gilman and published posthumously in Theatrum Majorum: The Cambridge of 1776, wherein is set forth an Account of the Town, and of the Events It Witnesses. With which is incorporated the Diary of Dorothy Dudley (1867).

Dudley, Georgina Elizabeth Moncrieffe, Countess of – (1846 – 1929)
British society leader and beauty
Georgina Moncrieffe was born (Aug 9, 1846), the daughter of Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, baronet, and his wife, Lady Louisa Hay. She was married (1865) at Knightsbridge in London, to William ward, first Earl of Dudley (1817 – 1885), as his second wife. She bore him five sons, including William Ward, second Earl of Dudley (1867 – 1932). Her marriage with Lord Dudley is thought to have come about after the failure of Lord Tyrone, with whom Georgina believed herself to be in love, to propose to her. Wilfred Scawen Blunt thought her tall and goddess-like, but possessed of an unattractive voice. Lady Dudley and Louisa, Duchess of Manchester, were considered by contemporaries to be the two most beautiful women in England. With the death of her husband (1885), the countess became a member of the Prince of Wales’s close circle of friends, and she frequently dined with him, most notably on the evening when his horse Persimmon famously won the Derby (June 3, 1896). During her widowhood the countess became involved in a family row with her eldest son over a set of family pearls, which he intended for his own bride. Instead, the countess sold them to Lord Burton for seventeen thousand pounds. Rumour hinted that Lady Dudley would remarry to the widowed Lord Rosebery, but this never eventuated. Lady Dudley died aged eighty-two (Feb 2, 1929).

Dudley, Gertrude Millar, Countess of   see   Millar, Gertie

Dudley, Jane Grey, Lady     see     Jane Grey

Dudley, Lettice    see    Knollys, Lettice

Dudley, Teresa – (1623 – c1695)
Italian aristocrat and courtier
Lady (Donna) Teresa Dudley was born in Florence, the daughter of Sir Robert Dudley (1573 – 1649), styled Duca di Northumbria, the illegitimate son of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, favourite of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603), by his pretended second marriage with Douglas Howard, Lady Sheffield. Teresa’s mother was Robert Dudley’s, second wife Elizabeth Southwell, a former maid-of-honour to Queen Elizabeth I. Teresa was a prominent member of Florentine society, and attended the court of Ferdinando II de Medici and his wife Vittoria della Rovere. She was married firstly to Mario de Campegnino, Duca di Cornia (died 1647), and secondly to Mario, Conte Carpegna di Montefeltro.

Dudley Ward, Freda – (1894 – 1983)
British courtier, the mistress to Edward VIII
Freda was born Winifred May Birkin (July 28, 1894), and was the elder daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Wilfred Birkin (1865 – 1932), a textile manufacturer and busienssman, and his American wife Claire Lloyd Howe, of New York. Freda, as she was generally known, became the wife (1913) of Hon. (Honourable) William Dudley Ward, to whom she bore two daughters, Penelope Ann Dudley Ward (Lady Reed), the actress, and Claire Angela Dudley Ward (1916 – 1999).
As a fashionable society figure, she became the mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales (David, later Edward VIII) in 1918, and relationship continued for several years. Divorced from her husband in 1931, after her liasion with the prince ended, Mrs Dudley Ward remained his close friend until the beginning of his relationship with Wallis Simpson (1934), when she was permanently displaced. She was divorced from her first husband (1931), and later remarried (1937) to Pedro Jose Isidro Manuel Ricardo Mones (Peter), Marques de Casa Maury, who built the Curzon Cinema in London, and from whom she was divorced nearly two decades later (1954). The Marques de Casa Maury died in 1968. She was foundress of the famous ‘Feathers’ club. The model and actress Jane Birkin (born 1946) is her great-niece, and actress Charlotte Gainsbourg (born 1971) is her great-great-niece. Freda Dudley Ward died (March 16, 1983) aged eighty-eight.

Dudley Ward, Penelope Anne Rachel – (1914 – 1982)
British actress
Penelope Dudley Ward was born in London (Aug 4, 1914), the elder daughter of Hon.(Honourable) William Dudley Ward and his wife Freda Dudley Ward, the mistress of Edward VIII.
Dudley Ward appeared in a dozen British films, as a beautiful and dignified leading lady, most notably as Toppy LeRoy in, The Citadel (1938), Isla Crane in, The Case of the Frightened Lady (1940), Sarah Undershaft in, Major Barbara (1941), Joan Heseltine in, English Without Tears (1944), and Mrs Perry in, The Way Ahead (1944), her last film. She retired from acting in 1944. She was married firstly (1939 – 1944) to Anthony Pelissier, to whom she bore a daughter, the actress Tracy Reed (born 1942), before their divorce. She was married secondly (1948) to Sir Carol Reed (1906 – 1976), the actor, to whom she bore a son. She survived her second husband five years. Lady Reed died (Jan 22, 1982) aged sixty-seven.

Duff, Caroline Paget, Lady   see   Paget, Lady Caroline

Dufferin, Harriet Georgina Rowan-Hamilton, Marchioness of – (1843 – 1936)
British Vicereine of India (1884 – 1888)
Harriet Rowan-Hamilton was born at Killyleagh Castle, Down, Ireland (Feb 5, 1843), the daughter of Archibald Rowan-Hamilton, and his wife, Catherine Anne Caldwell. She was married (1862) to Frederick Temple Blackwood, earl and later first Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (1826 – 1902), to whom she bore seven children. Lady Dufferin accompanied her husband on his official postings to Canada and later as viceroy of India (1884 – 1888). She established the Countess of Dufferin’s Fund for Supplying Female Medical Aid to the Women of India (1885), and was genuinely concerned at the appalling conditions endured by the poor of India, to which her attention had been drawn by the promptings of Queen Victoria herself.
Lady Dufferin also established (1886) the Dufferin Female Hospital for the Training of Women Doctors in Durbhanga, which was assisted with funds supplied by a local maharaja. The noted British poet, Rudyard Kipling performed in the comic play, A Scrap of Paper, at Simla (1888) in order to raise money for Lady Dufferin’a medical aid fund, and also composed the eulogistic, The Song of the Women (1888), as a lament of the Indian women in gratitute for Lady Dufferin’s efforts on their behalf. Returning to England, she was awarded the VA (Order of Victoria & Albert) (1889) by Queen Victoria, in acknowledgement of her work in India. Later, she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1917) by King George V, in recognition of her valuable nursing and hospital work during WW I. She left memoirs entitled, Our Vice-Regal Life in India (1889), and letters. Lady Dufferin died aged ninety-three (Oct 25, 1936).

Dufferin, Helen Sheridan, Lady    see   Sheridan, Helen Selina

Duff-Gordon, Lucie Austin, Lady – (1821 – 1869)
British author and translator
Lucie Tasylor was born at Westminster, London, the only child of the jurist John Taylor, and married (1840) Sir Alexander Duff-Gordon, baronet. Amongst her friends numbered literary giants such as Charles Dickens, William Thackeray, Lord Tennyson and Kinglake, and her house in Queen Anne’s Gate became famous as a centre of intellectual society. Later in her career ill health forced her to settle abroad, and she resided in Egypt, dying in Cairo. The Egyptians loved and respected her and gave her the name of ‘Sitteh’ (the Lady). She learned the Arabic language and obtained a reputation amongst the Egyptians as a healer. Her chief known works are, Letters from Egypt (1865), and a translation of Von Ranke’s, Ferdinand I and Maximilian II of Austria (1853).

Duffield, Mary Elizabeth – (1819 – 1914)
British floral and water colour painter
Mary Elizabeth Rosenberg was born at Bath, the eldest daughter of Thomas Elliott Rosenberg, the miniature and landscape painter, and the granddaughter of the silhouettist Charles Christian Rosenberg. Educated at Bath, she married (1850) William Duffield (1816 – 1863) the portraitist and still life painter.  Specializing as a flower painter herself, in 1834 she was awarded a silver medal by the Society of Arts. In 1861, Mrs Duffield was elected a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and also wrote a treatise on flower painting entitled, Art of Flower Painting (1856) which was reprinted several times. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy, the New Water Colour Society, and at the Grosvenor Gallery. Mrs Duffield had a long artistic career, and exhibited her works over a period of sixty years, the last being held in 1912, when she was ninety-two years old.

Duffy, Nellie – (1872 – 1908)
Australian murder victim
Eleanor Duffy was born in Mackay, Queensland, the daughter of an Irish immigrant baker. Nellie had been teaching at the Normanton School of Arts in the Gulf of Carpentaria before obtaining the position of housekeeper/companion to the wife of Henry Wilson, owner of the rural station Carpentaria Downs, near Georgetown. Duffy’s throat was slit as she slept (Sept 27, 1908) and Fanny Wilson and an Aboriginal station-hand were charged with her murder. Local legend had it that Henry Wilson was involved in cattle theft, and that Duffy had been sent to Carpentaria Downs, ostensibly as a book-keeper, but in fact, as an agent to gain secret information on her employer. Whatever the truth of these claims, modern research would seem to indicate that Wilson himself was the killer.

Duffy, Olive Elaine   see   Thomas, Olive

Dufour, Camilla – (fl. c1790 – 1809)
British vocalist and actress
Camilla Dufour studied singing under Mrs Crouch and Michael Kelly, prior to her first performance at a concert in the King’s theatre, London (Feb, 1796). As an actress, her first role was that of Adela in, The Haunted Tower (Oct, 1797).  Her singing and acting were considered to be rather mediocre, though she continued to appear at Drury Lane and the Haymarket Theatre for several years afterwards, and sang in oratorios. Camilla was the author of the popular novel, Aurora (1803) and was married to Jacob Henry Sarratt. Her last recorded role was that of Polly Peachum in, The Beggar’s Opera (July, 1809). No other details of her career are recorded.

Dufrenoy, Adelaide – (1765 – 1825)
French poet
Dufrenoy was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was married at a young age (1780). Her husband held a post at the palace of Versailles, and they emigrated with the outbreak of the Revolution. They only returned to France after two decades of exile (1812). Madame Dufrenoy was a writer of erotic verse published as, Elegies (1807), which caused the Academie Francaise to style her the ‘French Sappho.’ Other works included, Etrennes a’ ma fille (New Year’s Gift to my Daughter) (1815), Les Francaises nouvelles (The New Frenchwomen) (1818), and, Le Live des femmes (The Women’s Book) (1823).

Dufresnoy, Jacqueline Charlotte    see   Coccinelle

Dugan, Ruby Lilian Abbott, Lady – (1892 – 1985)
Australian philanthropist and civic leader
Ruby Lilian Applewhaite Abbott was born at Pickenham Hall, at Swaffham in Norfolk. She was married in Kensington, London (1911) to Winston Joseph Dugan (1876 – 1951), who served during WW I and was later appointed as ADC (aide-de-camp) to King George V (1928) and then raised to the rank of Major-General (1930). She became Lady Dugan (1934 – 1951) when her husband was appointed KCMG (Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George) and she accompanied Dugan to Adelaide in South Australia that same year when he was appointed as governor of that state.
Lady Dugan and her husband were popular public figures who immersed themselves completely in their new duties. They travelled extensively around South Australia, and Lady Dugan herself, as well as her husband, was a talented public speaker. Lady Dugan was the supporter of a variety of worthy philanthropic and charitable causes. She accompanied Dugan to Melbourne in Victoria (1939) when he was appointed to replace Lord Huntingfield as the governor of Victoria. There she converted one of the ballrooms at Government House into a workroom for the Australian Red Cross, and Lady Dugan served as the national president of that association. She visited rural hospitals and was very critical of the conditions she observed in them, always campaigning for more government funds to improve conditions.
Together with her husband Lady Dugan was a supporter of foreign Christian missionaries. Due to their personal popularity the Dugans served in office for five terms. Sir Winston retired in 1949 when he was created Baron Dugan of Victoria and of Lurgan by King George VI. Lord and Lady Dugan then returned to England where they resided at Pickenham Hall, the estate of Lady Dugan’s family. With her husband’s death Lady Ruby survived him for over three decades as the Dowager Baroness Dugan (1951 – 1985) and attended the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (1953) as a dowager peeress. She was interred with her husband in the Applewhaite family vault at Swaffham, and lad left her personal fortune of over eight hundred thousand pounds to vharitable causes.

Dugdale, Blanche Elizabeth Campbell – (1868 – 1947)
American political figure and letter writer
The niece of the statesman Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (1830 – 1903), Marquess of Salisbury, she was the sister of Prime Minister Arthur Balfour (1848 – 1930). Her private journal and letters were lated edited and published posthumously in London as Baffy: The Diaries of Blanche Dugdale, 1936 – 1947 (1973).

Dugdale, Eva Sarah Louisa Greville, Lady – (1860 – 1940)
British courtier
Lady Eva Greville was the only daughter of George Guy Greville, fourth Earl of Warwick (1818 – 1893), and his wife, Lady Anne Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas, the daughter of Francis Wemyss-Charteris, ninth Earl of Wemyss (1796 – 1883). Lady Eva was married (1895) to Colonel Frank Dugdale, who died (Nov 26, 1925). She was Lady Dugdale (1895 – 1925) and survived her husband for fifteen years, being styled the Dowager Lady Dugdale (1925 – 1940). Lady Dugdale was a close friend to Princess Mary, Duchess of York, and then as Princess of Wales, whom she served as Extra Lady of the Bedchamber. Lady Eva Dugdale died (July 12, 1940) aged seventy-nine. She left three children,

Dugdale, Henrietta Augusta – (1826 – 1918)
Australian feminist and writer
Henrietta Dugdale was born in London, and immigrated to Victoria with her first husband, Davies. She remarried, taking the surname Dugdale, and became the president of the first women’s suffrage society in Victoria. Dugdale took part in public campaigns on behalf of birth control, dress reform, and anti-violence to women, and made impassioned speeches in favour of greater educational and economic opportunities to be provided for women. She was the author of A few Hours in a far-off Age (1883).

Duggan, Eileen May – (1894 – 1972)
New Zealand poet
Her own verses were heavily influenced by the work of William Keats, her own Celtic background and upbringing, and her Roman Catholic training. Eileen Duggan wrote five volumes of verse over three decades (1921 – 1951). Her work was criticised by the anthologist Allen Curnow, compiler of, The Book of New Zealand Verse 1923-45, and sufferred literary oblivion for several decades after her own death. However, interest in her work revived distinctly after the publication of her, Selected Poems (1994), and her connection with the metaphysical poets has been recognized.

Duhem, Virginie – (1866 – 1978)
French centenarian
Virginie Duhem was born (Aug, 1866), and died aged 111 years, and about 210 days. Her details were recorded in the Guiness Book of Records (1980).

Duill, Catherine Mary – (1763 – 1789)
British actress
Born Catherine Mary Satchell, she was related to the famous Kemble family. She firstly became the wife of John Lewis Duill, of the Inner Temple (1780). Her second husband was the poet John Taylor, author of Records of My Life (1832). Duill made one known appearance at Covent Garden Theatre, appearing as Evandra in Timon of Athens (1786). Catherine Duhill died (Jan, 1789) aged twenty-five.

Duke, Ivy – (1896 – 1937)
British silent film actress
Ivy Duke was born at Kensington, London (June 9, 1896), and appeared in such early silent films as The March Hare (1916), The Double Life of Mr Alfred Burton (1919), Duke’s Son (1920), which was released in America as, Squandered Lives, The Persistent Lovers (1922), in which she played Lady Audrey Beaumont, and, The Great Prince Shan (1924), in which she appeared in the role of Lady Maggie Trent. Duke played Perdita in, Decameron Nights (1924), which was released in Germany (Dekameron-Nachte) as was her last film, A Knight in London (1928) (Eine Nacht in London). With the advent of sound films, Duke retired from movies. Ivy Duke died in London (Nov 8, 1937), aged only forty-one.

Duke, Sherelle – (1978 – 2006)
British equestrienne
Duke was born in Portadown County in Armagh, her father being the manager of the Dukes Transport Company. A talented and promising equestrian figure, and friend to Zara Phillips, the granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II, Duke became a World Young Rider Champion, and was a member of the Irish team in the European Championships (2003). Sherelle Duke died tragically young (Aug 20, 2006) aged only twenty-eight, at Brocklehust Park, Southampton, England, from head injuries received from a fall from her horse.

Duke, Winifred – (c1879 – 1962)
British novelist and historian
Winifred Duke was born in Liverpool, the daughter of a clergyman and was educated privately at home, and at the Belvedere School. She remained unmarried. Duke was a prolific author of novels, and also of historical works, such as, The House of Ogilvy (1922), Lord George Murray and the ’45 (1927), Madeleine Smith: a Tragi-Comedy (1928), Prince Charles Edward and the ’45 (1938), and, In the Steps of Bonnie Prince Charlie (1953). With a passionate interest in crimonology, Duke also wrote books connected with famous cases and trials, such as, Trial of Harold Greenwood (1930), Trial of Field and Gray (1939), and, Trial of Frederick Nodder (1950), her accounts of which cases were published in, Notable British Trials. Winifred Duke died (April 4, 1962) in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Dukes, Dame Marie      see     Rambert, Dame Marie

Dulcia of Barcelona – (1158 – 1198)
Queen consort of Portugal (1185 – 1198)
Infanta Dulcia of Aragon was born in Barcelona, Aragon, the daughter of Ramon Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona and his wife, Queen Petronilla of Aragon. She was married (1174) to King Sancho I Martino of Portugal (1154 – 1212).  Her children included, King Alfonso II the Fat (1185 – 1223), whose wife Urraca of Castile was the sister to Queen Blanche, the mother of St Louis IX. Queen Dulcia died in Coimbra, in Beira, aged forty (Sept 1, 1198).

Dulcia of Gevaudan   see   Douce I

Dulcia of Leon – (1194 – after 1243)
Spanish Infanta
Infanta Dulcia was the third and youngest daughter of Alfonso IX (1171 – 1230), King of Leon, and his first wife Teresa, the daughter of Sancho I, King of Portugal. Her parents were divorced during her childhood, and her father remarried to Berengaria, eldest daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile. This affected her royal legitimacy and Dulcia was never married. Together with her mother, she and her sister Sanchia, and their half-brother, Ferdinand III of Castile, later made important legal arrangements concerning family property, in order to end a damaging feud in the royal dynasty (1243). She probably died as a nun, perhaps at the royal Abbey of Las Huelgas.

Dulcia of Provence  see   Douce II

Duleep Singh, Bamba Muller, Princess – (1848 – 1887)
German-Indian maharani
Bamba Muller became the first wife of Prince Duleep Singh (1838 – 1893), formerly the reigning Maharajah of Lahore (1843 – 1849). She resided with her children at Elveden in England though her married life was not happy. She and died there and left six children,

Duleep Singh, Princess Bamba Sofia Jindan – (1869 – 1957)
Anglo-Indian aristocrat and heiress
Princess Bamba was born (Sept 29, 1869) in London, the eldest daughter of the Maharajah Duleep Singh of Lahore, and his first wife Bamba Muller. She was raised in England and was educated at Somerville Hall at Oxford. She received the grace and favour home of Faraday House at Hampton Court Palace and and remained unmarried until aged forty-five. She then became the wife (1915) of Lieutenant-Colonel David Waters Sutherland, the Principal Physician at the King Edward Medical College in Lahore (1909 – 1921).
Though she resided all her life in England the princess made several visits to India. She returned to England just prior to independence (1947) and resided at Hilden Hall and Blo Norton. The formation of Pakistan had split the Pinjab down the middle and Princess Bamaba felt the decimation of her ancestral heritage keenly, as she believed the Punjab and Kashmir had represented that last of her family’s possessions. She sometimes referred to herself as the ‘Queen of the Punjab’ and was sometimes apoken of incorrectly as ‘Princess Sutherland.’ Princess Bamba Duleep Singh died (March 10, 1957) aged eighty-seven, and was interred at Lahore.

Duleep Singh, Princess Catherine Hilda – (1871 – 1942)
Anglo-Indian aristocrat and heiress
Princess Catherine was born (Oct 27, 1871) the second daughter of Maharajah Duleep Singh and his first wife Bamba Muller. Through her father she was the granddaughter of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore and his wife the Maharani Jindan Kaur. She attended Somerville Hall at Oxford, but was also educated by her German governess Lina Schafer and was giving singing instruction and taught the violin. Though attractive and of fair-haired European appearance the princess remained unmarried and spent most of her life traveling through Germany, Switzerland and Europe in the company of her governess. With the death of Fraulein Schafer (1937) the princess became alarmed by the rise of Nazism and sold her possessions and returned to England via Switzerland before war was declared. Princess Catherine died (Nov 8, 1942) aged seventy-one.

Dulles, Eleanor Lansing – (1895 – 1996)
American economist and diplomat
Eleanor Lansing Dulles was born (June 1, 1895) at Watertown in New York, the daughter of a clergyman, and was the sister of the statesman John Foster Dulles (1888 – 1959) who served as Secretary of State to President Dwight Eisenhower, and attended Bryn Mawr College where she studied social science. She went on to study at the London School of Economics, Radcliffe College and Harvard University. She was married (1932) to the Jewish philologist David Simon Blondheim to whom she bore two children before he committed suicide (1934). Eleanor Dulles then entered the government service and was appointed as the director of financial research for the Social Security Board (1936).
Dulles later moved to the State Department (1942) and was later sent to Vienna (1945) as the financial attache of the department. She served as the special assistant to the director of the State Department’s office of German affairs, and was responsible for releasing large amounts of funding which helped to rebuild West Berlin after the war. A woman of formidable drive and character she was a pioneer in the governmental and diplomatic services at a time when few women were accepted. She left Germany in 1959 and retired in 1962. Eleanor Lansing Dulles died (Oct 30, 1996) aged one hundred and one years.

Dumaresq, Deborah – (c1653 – 1720)
Anglo-French landowner
Deborah Trumbull was the daughter of William Trumbull, of Easthampstead, Berkshire. She was married (1672), at the Savoy Chapel, in London, to Philip Dumaresq, seigneur de Samares in Jersey (c1650 – 1690).  Her only child, another Deborah, was married to her cousin, Philip, son of Benjamin Dumaresq, of the Dumaresq des Augres family, but she died childless. The last of the Dumaresq family to hold the seigneurie of Samares, it was, at Madame Dumaresq’s death, conveyed to the Seale family. Madame Dumaresq survived her husband thirty years, and died at Hertford. She left instructions she to buried at Easthampstead ‘as near my dear father as may be.’ Her will (dated Dec 25, 1715), and with two late codicils, was proved in London (Dec, 1720).

Du Maurier, Angela – (1904 – 2002)
British novelist
Angela Du Maurier was born (March 1, 1904) in St Pancras, London, the eldest daughter of the actor and theatrical manager, Sir Gerald Du Maurier, and his wife, the actress Muriel Beaumont. She was the granddaughter of George Du Maurier, the author and cartoonist for Punch magazine, and was the elder sister of novelist, Dame Daphne Du Maurier. Du Maurier worked for several years in the theatre, and later travelled extensively in Europe. She never married and was a resident of Cornwall for most of her life. She later turned to writing and published almost a dozen novels such as, The Road to Leenane, The Perplexed Heart, and Treveryan. She also published two volumes of autobiography including It’s Only the Sister (1951). Angela Du Maurier died aged ninety-seven, in Wandsworth, London.

Du Maurier, Dame Daphne Winifred – (1907 – 1989)
British novelist
Daphne Du Maurier was born in Regent’s Parl, London (May 13, 1907), the daughter of the noted actor and theatrical manager, Sir Gerald Du Maurier (1873 – 1934), and his wife, the actress muriel Beaumont. She was the paternal granddaughter of the novelist and cartoonist, George Louis Palmella Busson Du Maurier (1834 – 1896). She was married (1932) to Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Arthur Montague Browning, to whom she bore three children.
Du Maurier resided in Cornwall, and wrote several famous novels set in the region, most of which were made into highly successful and suspenseful thrillers, such as, Jamaica Inn (1936), Rebecca (1938), starring Laurence Olivier, Joan Fontaine, Gladys Cooper and Judith Anderson, and, My Cousin Rachel (1951) with Olivia De Havilland as the Contessa Sangaletti. She was the author of the novel, The Scapegoat (1957), and of the short story (1952) which was filmed for the stage as, The Birds (1963) by Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Robert Taylor and Tippi Hedren.
Widowed in 1965, DuMaurier was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1969) in recognition of her contribution to literature. She was the author of memoirs entitled, Vanishing Cornwall (1967), and of the autobiography The Shaping of a Writer (1977). Her two daughters were Tessa Brownrigg, wife of David Montgomery, second Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, and Flavia Brownrigg, the second wife of General Sir Peter Leng (1925 – 2009). Dame Daphne Du Maurier died at her home at Par, in Cornwall, aged eighty-one (April 19, 1989).

Dumay, Alison – (c1395 – 1431)
French concubine
Alison Dumay was a member of the lower classes of the town of Nancy in Lorraine. Her beauty attracted the attention of Duke Charles of Lorraine, whose mistress she became. This association which bore five children, led to the seperation of the duke from his wife Margaret of Bavaria, who retired from the royal court. However, Alison incurred popular hatred because of her abuses of the power which her relationship with the duke permitted. After Charles’s death in 1431, the local population rebelled, and Alison was put to death. The manner of her death remains unrecorded.

Dumont, Luise – (1862 – 1932)
German actress and theatrical director
Hubertine Maria Dumont was born in Cologne (Feb 22, 1862), and received theatrical training under Hugo Gottschalk in Berlin. Known as Luise she made her debut at the Berlin Residenztheater, and was employed (1887 – 1889) at the Vienna Burghteater. She became a favourite performer with the Wurttemburg court at Stuttgart, and made a tour of Russia. Eventually she remained attached to the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, and became famous for her presentations of the works of Danish author Henrik Ibsen. Luise married Gustav Lindemann with whom she established (1905) and directed the playhouse in Dusseldorf. A talented and perennially popular actress, her husband published her speeches and written works after her death in his, Vermachtnisse (1932). Luise Dumont died at Dusseldorf (May 16, 1932) aged sixty.

Du Montet, Alexandrine Prevost de La Boutetiere de Saint-Mars, Baronne – (1785 – 1866)

French memoirist

Alexandrine de La Boutetiere de Saint-Mars came from an ancient Vendean family, being the daughter of the émigré memoirist Adelaide Francoise Paule de La Fare, Comtesse de La Boutetiere de Saint-Mars. A child at the outbreak of the Revolution, her memoirs, Souvenirs de la baronne Du Montet (1785 – 1866) contained memories of her family’s emigration to safety in Germany (1791) and there residence in exile in Vienna, Austria until 1801. The work was dedicated to her grand-nephews and nieces, but was not published until 1904.

Dunana – (fl. c827 – c836)
Carolingian noblewoman
Variations of her name include Dynama, Donnana or Dunna. She was the wife of Childebrand III (c790 – before 836), Count of Autun and Lord of Perracy, to whom she bore at least four children. The Donatio Ecchardi (Jan, 876) made by their son Ekkehard names Childebrandi genitonis mei et gentricis mei Donnanae but provides no clue as to her origins. Her children were,

Dunayevskaya, Raya – (1910 – 1987)
Russian-American Marxist Humanist philosopher and founder
Dunayevskaya was born into a Jewish family in the Ukraine (May 1, 1910), she was exposed to the revolutionary movement from her early childhood, and when she immigrated to the USA with her family, this association only strenghtened. Raya became the secretary to the Russian leader, Leon Trotsky, and accompanied him to exile in Mexico (1937 – 1939). Soon afterwards she differed in political outlook and the association ended. Dunayevskaya was the founder of Marxist Humanist philosophy in the USA, which had developed from her study (1941 – 1942) of Karl Marx’s, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844.  She went on to found the still-running Marxist-Humanist newspaper, News and Letters (1955), and was the author of three works known collectively as her ‘trilogy of revolution,’ Marxism and Freedom (1958), Philosophy and Revolution (1973), and, Rosa Luxemburg, Women’s liberation, and Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution (1982). Raya Dunayevskaya died (June 9, 1987) aged seventy-seven.

Dunbar, Agnes Randolph, Countess of – (c1305 – 1369)
Scottish heroine
Lady Agnes Randolph was the elder daughter of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, the nephew of King Robert I the Bruce, and his wife Isabel, the daughter of Sir John Stewart, of Bonkill. She was married (1320) to Patrick, Earl of Dunbar and March (1282 – 1369), as his second wife, and bore him a son and two daughters. Because of her dark facial complexion, the countess was known popularly as ‘Black Agnes.’
Her husband had once favoured the English, but later renounced his allegiance to Edward III, and joined the nationalist cause permanently (1334). During his absence on a military campaign (1337) the English forces led by Lord Salisbury and Lord Arundel beseiged Dunbar Castle. Agnes was determined to withold against them, took charge of the defence, and displayed amazing courage throughout the seige, mounting the battlements so she could jeer at the enemy. Agnes was even said to have sent out beautifully dressed maids with large handkerchiefs, to wipe the leaden ball marks off the castle walls. She and her forces held out for nineteen weeks, though the castle nearly fell twice, once through lack of provisions, and once through treachery.
Legend has it that her captured brother, John, earl of Moray was brought before the battlements by the English, who threatened to kill him if Agnes did not surrender. She merely replied that they might do as they wished, as she was his heir anyway. The English were finally forced to retire from the siege and negotiate a truce. Her brother was eventually killed (1346) and Agnes did, in fact, inherit his earldom and various baronies. Their elder daughter, Agnes Dunbar, the wife of Sir James Douglas, was the mistress of King David II, whilst the younger, Elizabeth, became the wife of Sir John Maitland. Agnes and Lord Dunbar died within a few months of each other.

Dunbar, Andrea – (1961 – 1991)
British dramatist and screenwriter
Dunbar was a single mother with three children. She wrote her first play, The Arbour (1977), when she was aged only fifteen, which was produced for the stage by Max Stafford-Clark at the Royal Court Theatre in London (1980), and won her the Young Writers’ Festival award. She was best known for Rita, Sue, and Bob Too (1982), the story of the sexual adventures of two teenage girls from Bradford, which was filmed (1986), and later adapted for television (1988). Andrea Dunbar died at the age of only twenty-nine, after years of alcohol abuse.

Dunbar, Christian de Seton, Countess of    see   Seton, Christian de

Dunbar, Evelyn Mary – (1906 – 1960)
British painter
Evelyn Dunbar studied art at the Chelsea School of Art and the Royal College of Art in London (1929 – 1933). Dunbar worked under Cyril Mahoney from the Royal College of Art, and produced a panel, The Country Girl and the Pitcher of Milk, a scene from Aesop’s fables, for the hall of Brockley County School, in East London. With Mahoney, she co-wrote and illustrated Gardener’s Choice (1937). Dunbar also co-wrote A Book of Farmcraft (1942) with Michael Greenhill, and was later employed as a visiting teacher at the Ruskin School of Art (1950 – 1952) before retiring to live in Kent. Three examples of her work are preserved at The Tate Gallery in London.

Dunbar, Janet – (c1429 – after 1494)
Scottish heiress
Lady Janet Dunbar was the eldest daughter of James Dunbar, tenth Earl of Moray and his wife Katherine, the daughter of Sir Alexander Seton, of Gordon. She was married (before 1446) to James Crichton, twelfth Earl of Moray, to whom she brought the small lordship of Frendraught as her dowry, and by whom she was the mother of William, thrid Baron Crichton (c1446 – 1493), who left issue. With the death of her first husband (1454), the countess remarried (c1456) to John Sutherland, to whom she bore a son.
After the deaths of both her husband and her father-in-law, William, Lord Crichton, the countess, due to a bid made by the earls of Huntly for the Dunbar inheritance, was powerless to maintain her claim to these estates. Thereafter the crown retained control of them, a political move to prevent the noble families from becoming too independent and united agains the royal power.
That Janet did make some efforts to maintain her rights after her husband’s death is evident by the style she used in Nov, 1454, and later, as Janeta de Dunbar, Comitissa Murravie et domina de Frendracht et de Crechton, but when the earldom was conferred upon Prince David (Feb, 1456), the son of James II (1437 – 1460), all her hopes of reclaiming her inheritance ended. The countess survived these events by at least four decades, possibly longer and she later resigned the barony of Frendraught to her grandson, Sir James Crichton. Her heirs remained de jure earls of Moray until the forfeiture of the fourth Viscount Frendraught (1690). Janet Dunbar was still living in 1494 (March 18), but had died by 1506. Early in the nineteenth century the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland recorded the existence of a charter, written by the countess (1454), but now lost, but which was the earliest known recorded signature of a Scottish woman in existence.

Dunbar, Maureen Daisy Moore, Lady – (1906 – 1997)
British baronetess
Maureen Moore was born (Aug 16, 1906) the daughter of Courtenay Edward Moore and his wife Janie King Askins. She was educated at Headington School and graduated from the Royal College of Music (1928). She was married (1940) to Leonard James Blake to whom she bore two children. Her only brother Edward Francis Courtenay Moore had been killed in action during WW I (1918), and forty-five years later Mrs Blake succeeded her kinsman Sir George Cospatrick Duff-Sutherland-Dunbar, seventh baronet, who died childless (1963). She succeeded as eighth holder of the baronetcy under the special terms of the remainder, which had ben originally granted (1706) to Sir James Dunbar, the first baronet, of Hempriggs, ‘to his heirs whomsoever.’  She then assumed the surname of Dunbar and her petition to be recognized as Baronetess of Hempriggs was granted by the Lyon Court (1965). At the same time her son Richard Francis Blake (b. 1945) assumed the surname of Dunbar of Hempriggs in lieu of Blake and eventually succeeded his mother as ninth baronet. Lady Dunbar died aged ninety (Feb 15, 1997).

Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Ruth – (1875 – 1935)
Black American poet, journalist, and essayist
Born Alice Ruth Moore in New Orleans, Louisiana, she was the daughter of a merchant marine and a black seamstress. She was educated at Straight University (now Dillard) and was trained as a schoolteacher. One of her sketches published in the Monthly Review led to her meeting with writer and poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872 – 1906), whom she married (1898) as her first husband, though they were divorced five years later (1902) and she retained her married name. She worked for almost two decades as a teacher at a high school in Wilmington, Delaware only to be dismissed for being involved in political activities.
Alice Dunbar-Nelson published two volumes of sketches, essays, and poems entitled, Violets and Other Tales (1895), and, The Goodness of St Rocque (1899), as well as contributing articles to such popular newspapers as the, Washington Eagle. She lectured widely and sought to call public attention to African-American history, and with her third husband, Robert Nelson, she published and edited the Wilmington Advocate newspaper. Her private journal covering the period (1926 – 1931) was later edited and published by Gloria Hull in New York as Give Us Each Day: The Diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson (1984).

Duncan, Anna – (1894 – 1980)
Swiss-American dancer
Born Anna Danzler, in Geneva, Switzerland, she was trained as a dancer at the school of Isadora Duncan in Berlin, Prussia.  Duncan adopted Anna who thus assumed her name for the rest of her life. She performed thoughout Europe with the famous dance troupe, ‘les Isadorables,’ and also toured the USA before the group finally dispersed. Duncan then began her liasion (1921) with the noted pianist, Walter Morse Rummel (1887 – 1953), formerly the lover of Isadora Duncan. She worked in New York as a solo performer, and her last major appearance was at Jacob’s Pillow (1941), where she represnted the dance styles of Isadora Duncan. She appeared in several plays on Broadway, portraying Princess Salome in, John, by Philip Barry.  Duncan was the leader and director of the Greek chorus in Electra, which starred Mrs Pat Campbell and Blanche Yurka, and also appeared in the classic George Cukor film, Dinner at Eight (1933). Anna Duncan died in the Bronx in New York (March 7, 1980) aged eighty-five.

Duncan, Arletta – (1914 – 1938)
American actress and vocalist
Duncan was born in New Orleans, Louisiana (Dec 31, 1914), and appeared on the stage during her childhood. She won a trip to Hollywood in a photpgraphic contest and was contracted to Universal Studios.  Duncan appeared in only a handful of films such as, Frankenstein (1931), The Gallant Fool (1933), Unknown Blonde (1934), and, Teacher’s Beau (1935). Her last two film appearances were as Wynne Drexel in, Mile a Minute Love (1937), which was also released as, The Man Who Pawned His Soul, and as Henrietta Dupont in, Damaged Goods (1937), which was also released as, Forbidden Desire. Arletta Duncan committed suicided in a dramatic manner (Oct 28, 1938), by jumping from the ‘Hollywood’ sign at Santa Ana in California, aged only twenty-three.

Duncan, Elizabeth Caldwell Smith – (1808 – after 1875)
American political and social leader and diarist
Elizabeth was the wife of Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illinois. She left a childhood diary (1824 – 1825) which was supplemented five decades afterwards by reminiscences recorded and edited by Mrs Duncan’s daughter Elizabeth Duncan Putnam. This work was published in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society as the Diary of Mrs Joseph Duncan (1928).

Duncan, Isadora – (1878 – 1927)
American dancer
Reknowned for her colourful and independent character, she was born Angela Duncan, in San Francisco, California. She made her professional dance debut in Chicago, Illinois (1899), after which she travelled widely throughout Europe where she performed her own style of flowing, sinuous dance routines, which were inspired by classical Greek mythology and art. Duncan founded schools and dance academies in various European cities, becoming the mistress of the theatrical designer, Gordon Craig, son of the noted actress, Ellen Terry, who was the father of her eldest daughter. She was then the companion of the sewing-machine businessman, Isaac Singer for seven years (1905 – 1912), and bore him a son. Only months after Singer stormed out of her life, Duncan’s two children were both killed in a tragic car accident in Paris. After a liasion with the much younger pianist, Walter Rummel, Duncan travelled to Russia to found a dance school. There she eventually was married (1922) to the youthful, but alcoholic poet, Sergei Yesenin (1895 – 1925), who committed suicide a few years afterwards. After the deaths of her children, Duncan’s public behaviour, fuelled by her intense depression, spiralled out of control. She had written her autobiography entitled, My Life (1926). Isadora Duncan died tragically, being accidentally strangled by her scarf, which had become entangled in the wheel of the car she was driving.

Duncan, Nell (Helen) – (1897 – 1956)
Scottish spiritualist and medium
Nell Duncan claimed powers of prophecy, and was accused of betraying state secrets during a time of war, and was believed to be a risk to national security. She was born Helen MacFarlane at Callander in Perthshire, Scotland (Nov 25, 1897). A rebellious child, she received the popular appellation of ‘hellish Nell,’ a nickname that had nothing to do with her later notoriety. She was married to Henry Duncan, a cabinet maker, to whom she bore six children. Duncan established her career as a medium, and had used the finances made for her sittings to supplement the family income. She was arrested and was tried in the Old Bailey in London (1943) under the provisions of the Witchcraft Act (1735). Her case was the most famous of such prosecutions which took place before the Act was finally repealed (1951). Duncan spent a nine month stretch in the infamous Holloway Prison. Nell Duncan died in Edinburgh (Dec 6, 1956) aged fifty-nine.

Duncan, Rosetta – (1901 – 1959)
American comic actress
Rosetta Duncan was born in Los Angeles, California. With her sister Vivian, she made her stage debut in Gus Edwards’ production, Kiddies Revue in New York (1913), when they appeared with George Jessell and Walter Winchell, amongst others. The sister also worked in London, where they appeared in the revue by Albert de Courville, Pins and Needles at the Royalty Theatre (1921 – 1922). Duncan and her sister later returned to New York, where they worked with George M. Cohan and Fanny Brice. She then appeared with her sister in the famous vaudeville duo Topsy and Eva (1928 – 1937) at the Palace Theatre in New York. The sisters returned to England before WW II (1937) and then returned to the USA, where they continued to work in night clubs. Rosetta Duncan died aged fifty-eight (Dec, 1959).

Duncan, Sara Jeanette (Janet) – (1861 – 1922)
Canadian novelist and traveller
Sara Duncan was born at Brandtford in Ontario. At the time she joined the staff of the Toronto Globe newspaper (1886) she became the first woman ever to work in the editorial department of a Canadian newspaper. Duncan wrote articles and columns for other newspapers using the male pseudonym ‘Garth Grafton,’ She later travelled round the world with a friend, Lily Lewis, and wrote, Round the World by Ourselves (1890). She later married (1890) Everard Cotes, a museum curator in Calcutta, India, and spent the next two and a half decades residing in India. Her other works included, The Simple Adventures of a Memsahib (1893) and, The Imperialist (1904), which dealt with daily life in a small Ontarian town. Sara Duncan died at Ashstead, in England.

Duncker, Dora – (1855 – 1916)
German author
Born in Berlin, Prussia (March 28, 1855), she was the daughter of Alexander Duncker, and was educated privately. She travelled to Italy, Austria and Switzerland, and after marrying, and bearing a daughter she settled in Berlin (1888). There she became the editor of the children’s calendar Buntes Jahr (1886 – 1897), and also of the monthly publication Zeitfragen. Dora was the author of the semi-biographical work, Das Haus Duncker. Ein Buchhardterroman aus dem Biedermeier (1918), published posthumously. Dora Duncker died in Berlin (Oct 19, 1916) aged sixty-one.

Duncker, Kathe – (1871 – 1953)
German politician and functionary
Paula Kathinka Duncker was born in Lorrach, Baden (May 23, 1871), and was married to the economist and historian Hermann Duncker (1874 – 1960). Trained as a teacher, she taught in Leipzig and Hamburg (1890 – 1897) before becoming a teacher with the Workers’ Education Association in Leipzig. Duncker joined the Social Democratic Women’s and Girls’ Association in Leipzig as a functionary (1898) and later served as president. Kathe served as deputy editor of the journal, Die Gleichheit from 1908, and sufferred a period of exile in Denmark (1919 – 1920) at the end of World War I. When she returned she was a member of the Thuringian Landtag from 1921 – 1923. She was the author of, Die Kindererarbeit und ihre Bekampfung (1906). Kathe Duncker died in Bernau bei Berlin, Prussia (May 2, 1953), aged eighty-one.

Duncombe, Mary – (1685 – 1717)
English heiress
Mary Duncombe was the daughter of Thomas Duncombe (formerly Browne) of London, and his wife Ursula Duncombe, the daughter of Alexander Duncombe of Drayton in Buckinghamshire and his wife Mary Paulye (1619 – 1716), the daughter of Richard Paulye and the heiress of Sir Charles Duncombe (c1640 – 1711) the Lord Mayor of London. Her mother was also the sister of Thomas Duncombe of Duncombe Park.
Mary’s mother inherited the fortune of her uncle Sir Charles (1711), and she and her husband John Campbell (1680 – 1743) assumed the surname of Duncombe. Mary’s marriage contract with John Campbell was dated (Dec 30, 1701). She became the Countess of Greenwich (1705 – 1717) when Campbell received that title. The marriage did not prove successful and remained childless. Countess Mary later seperated from her husband and resided in the home of her uncle acting as his official hostess. She died after a long illness (Jan 16, 1717) aged thirty-one, and was interred within Westminster Abbey. Her estranged husband later succeeded as the second Duke of Argyll and remarried.

Duncombe, Susanna – (c1725 – 1812)
British letter writer and illustrator
Susanna was daughter to the painter Joseph Highmore, who instructed her in drawing, and generally supervised her education. A member of the literary circle that surrounded Elizabeth Carter and Samuel Richardson, Susanna’s sketch of Richardson reading his novel Sir Charles Grandison was used as the frontspiece of his personal correspondence, which was edited and published by Anna Laetitia Barbauld (1804). Her own suitor, Reverend John Duncombe, whom she eventually married (1761) eulogized her in his work the, Feminiad, which was a poetic catalogue of the famous and learned women in British history. Eight of her poems appeared in the, Poetic Calendar (1763) and she executed some of the illustrations in her husband’s, History and Antiquities of Reculver and Hearne (1784). Her own portrait of the salonnier and author Hester Mulsho Chapone appears as the fronstpiece of that lady’s, Collected Works.

Dundas, Agnes – (fl. 1863 – 1873)
British still-life and flower painter
Agnes Dundas was a native of London. Many of her works were exhibited at the Suffolk Street Gallery, the British Institution, and at the Royal Academy.

Dundy, Elaine – (1921 – 2008)
American actress, journalist, dramatist and writer
Elaine Rita Brimberg was born (Aug 1, 1921) in New York, the daughter of a manufacturer. She attended Sweetbriar College in Virginia and then studied drama at the Jarvis Theatre School in Washington adopting the name of ‘Elaine Dundy.’ She appeared in an episode of Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Presents (1953) and in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) television production of Dinner at Eight.
Elaine became the wife (1951) of the noted theatre critic Kenneth Tynan (1927 – 1980). They were part of the social set and were friends with the likes of Marlene Dietrich, Ernest Hemingway, Orson Welles, and Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh. Dundy was best remembered for her novel The Dud Avocado (1958), which was written in an attempt to save her declining marriage with Tynan, and became a best-seller. They were later divorced (1964). Dundy later worked as as writer for the satirical BBC program That Was the Week That Was (1962) and wrote articles for The New York Times. She published several novels including The Old Man and Me (1964), the biography of Elvis Presley and his mother entitled Elvis and Gladys (1985) and the autobiography entitled Life Itself ! (2001). Elaine Dundy died (May 1, 2008) aged eighty-six.

Dungannon, Anne Lewis, Lady – (c1631 – 1692)
English literary patron
Anne Lewis was the daughter of John Lewis, of Anglesea. She was married firstly to John Owen, of Orielton, Pembroke, and secondly (c1657) to Mark Trevor, first Viscount Dungannon (1618 – 1670), as his second wife. Lady Dungannon was a friend of the noted poet, Katherine Philips, and the two women corresponded together, Philips as ‘Orinda’ and Anne as ‘Lucasia.’ Philips penned verses to commemorate her friend’s second marriage, which have survived. Her second marriage had produced seven children, including Louis Trevor (c1662 – 1692), second viscount, and Mark Trevor (1669 – 1706), the third viscount Dungannon, who both died childless. She survived her husband over two decades as the Dowager Viscountess Dungannon. Lady Dungannon was buried at Kensington, London (Oct 5, 1692).

Dunham, Katherine – (1909 – 2006)
Black-American dancer and choreographer
Dunham was born in Chicago, Illinois (June 22, 1909), where she later studied anthropology. She went on the do research into dance in the West Indies and the Caribbean prior to her appointment as dance director at the Federal Theatre Project (1938). Dunham produce her first New York concert (1940), which launched her career as a successful and leading choreographer of African-American dances. Known for her glamorous, flamboyant style, and devotion to Haitian voodoo, Dunham later worked on Broadway, most notably with the musical Cabin in the Sky (1940) and with Stormy Weather (1943), which was produced in Hollywood.
She established the Katherine Dunham School of Cultural Arts in New York (1945), where she blended classical ballet with African and Caribbean-American dance techniques. She trained famous actors such as Marlon Brando and James Dean, and her other pupils included the ballerina, Norah Kaye. After the ending of her early first marriage (1931), Dunham remarried (1939 – 1986) to thetrical designer, John Pratt. She later taught at the Southern Illinois University, and left an autobiography, A Touch of Innocence (1959). Katherine Dunham died aged ninety-six (May 21, 2006).

Duniway, Abigail Jane Scott – (1834 – 1915) 
American feminist and author
Abigail Duniway was born in Groveland, Illinois. Devoted to social reform and the promotion of suffrage for women, she founded The New Northwest magazine for women (1871), of which she served as editor till 1887. In 1873 Abigail founded the Woman Suffrage Association. Apart from a collection of poems, David and Anna Matson (1876), she was the author of several novels, including, Captain Gray’s Company; or Crossing the Plains and Living in Oregon (1859), and, From the West to the West (1905).

Dunkley, Lucretia – (c1815 – 1843)
Australian murderess
Born Lucretia Davis, she was brought to Australia, having been convicted of housebreaking. She was later married (1834) to pardoned convict, Henry Dunkley and the couple ran a farm at Gunning, near Goulburn in New South Wales. Her husband was violent and Lucretia an alcoholic. At Gunning she indulged in an adulterous affair with a convict labourer, Martin Beech, with the result that they conspired together to kill Henry Dunkley, who was brutally hacked to death with an axe whilst in bed (Sept 13, 1842). Attempts had been made to hide the crime, but neighbours alerted the police to Dunkley’s mysterious disappearance. Whe confronted with his body, Lucretia broke down and blamed Beech for the murder, maintaining that she had only helped dispose of the body. Dunkley and Beech were taken to Berrima Jail, and their trial was presided over by Justice Sir James Dowling. Both were found culpable and sentenced to death, Dunkley still maintaining that Beech was the trude culprit, whilst her lover seemed completely unpertubed by the entire proceedings. They were hanged in the jail (Oct 16, 1843) and buried in the grounds, though their skulls were preserved at the Australian Museum

Dunlap, Jane    see    Davis, Adelle

Dunlap, Susan – (1850 – 1916)
Canadian pioneer settler and diarist
Mrs Dunlap settled with her family in the Stewiacke Valley of Nova Scotia and kept a diary for over six decades. Extracts from the first two years (1866 – 1868) were published as Susan Dunlap: Her Diary (1966) in the Dalhousie Review.

Dunlo, Isabel Bilton, Viscountess   see   Bilton, Belle

Dunlop, Eliza Hamilton – (1796 – 1880) 
Australian poet
Eliza Hamilton was born in County Armagh, Ireland, the daughter of Solomon Hamilton, an Anglo-Indian judge. She married firstly James Sylvius Law, and secondly (1823), David Dunlop (1794 – 1863) a police magistrate. Elizabeth arrived in Sydney, Australia (1838) with her second husband, and her poetry appeared in The Dublin Penny Journal, The Australian, The Maitland Mercury, and in Australian Melodies. A supporter and champion of the aboriginals, she learnt their languages and translated poems into English. Eliza Hamilton Dunlop died at Wollombi, NSW.

Dunn, Gertrude – (1932 – 2004)
American athlete
Dunn was a noted hockey and baseball player, being a member of two regional baseball teams, the ‘Battle Creek Belles,’ and the ‘South Bend Blue Sox,’ and was named as Rookie of the Year (1952). Dunn later joined the American Professional Baseball League, which was made famous by the film, A League of Their Own (1992), and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame and the U.S. Field Hockey Hall of Fame (1988). Gertrude Dunn died in an air crash in Avondale, Pennsylvania (Oct 6, 2004), aged seventy-two.

Dunne, Dominique Ellen – (1959 – 1982)
American actress
Dominique Dunne was born in Santa Monica, California (Nov 23, 1959), and was the sister to the leading actor and producer, Griffin Dunne (born 1955), and, niece to the famous novelist, Joan Didion. She was educated in Beverly Hills and the University of Colorado, and travelled to Italy where she studied art in Florence and at the British Institute. Dunne appeared in several films such as, Valentine Magic on Love Island (1980) and Poltergeist (1982), in which she played the elder daughter, Diana Freeling. She also worked in television, appearing in telemovies such as, The Shadow Riders (1982), and, Haunting of Harrington House (1982), as well as featuring in such popular series such as, Fame (1981), Hart to Hart (1981), St Elsewhere (1982), and, Hill Street Blues (1982). Dunne was long involved in a violent relationship, which she eventually ednded. On that same day she was brutally attacked by her former lover, John Thomas Sweeney, outside her own home in Los Angeles, and died in hospital five days later (Nov 4, 1982) aged only twenty-two.

Dunne, Irene – (1898 – 1990)
American actress
Born Irene Marie Dunne in Louisville, Kentucky, she was trained at the Chicago Musical College and she made her stage debut on Broadway in, The Clinging Vine (1922). Dunne established herself as a successful and leading musical comedy star, and made her debut in Hollywood in the movie, Leathernecking (1930). Her first Best Actress Oscar nomination for her appearance in the western movie Cimarron (1931), was followed by four others. Particularly successful in comic or melodramatic roles, she appeared in classic films such as, Show Boat (1936), The Awful Truth (1937), Love Affair (1939), My Favourite Wife (1940), The White Cliffs of Dover (1944), Anna and the King of Siam (1946) opposite Rex Harrison, and, I Remember Mama (1948). She appeared in, The Mudlark (1951) as Queen Victoria, and retired from films in 1952. Irene Dunne was invited to receptions given at the White House by President and Mrs Reagan, and was honoured by the Kennedy Arts Centre (1985).

Dunne, Mary Chavelita     see    Egerton, George

Dunnett, Dorothy – (1923 – 2001)
Scottish historical novelist
Born Dorothy Halliday at Dunfermline (Aug 23, 1923) in Dunfermline, she was educated at the James Gillespie High School for Girls in Edinburgh. She was employed with the Civil service prior to her marriage (1946) to the journalist, Sir Alastair Dunnett. Her works included the Francis Crawford of Lymond series of novels, the House of Niccolo series of novels, several mystery novels, and her epic novel concerning the career of the the Scottish king Macbeth entitled King Hereafter (1982). Lady Dunnett also collaborated with her husband to produce a volume of the photographic work of David Paterson. She was appointed as a director of the Edinburgh Cook Festival (1990), was awarded an OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1992). Dunnett was also a noted portrait painter and her works were exhibited with the Royal Academy and the Scottish Society of Women Artists. She also wrote a series of detective novels, which began with Dolly and the Singing Bird (1968). Lady Dunnett died (Nov, 2001) aged eighty-eight.

Dunnock, Mildred – (1904 – 1991)
American actress
Mildred Dunnock was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and graduated from Goucher College, Baltimore, and later from John Hopkins and Columbia universities. At the insistence of her parents, and despite her own desire for an acting career, Mildred trained as a schoolteacher, and was employed at the Brearly School, in New York. After working and making stage appearances with various theatrical groups, she made her debut on Broadway (1931). She made an acclaimed character performance as the Welsh schoolteacher, Miss Ronberry, in The Corn is Green (1940), with Ethel Barrymore, which role she would repeat for the movie of the same name (1945) where she appeared with Bette Davis. She originated the role of Big Mama in the Broadway production of, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, by Tennessee Williams (1956), and appeared in the role of the deranged aunt in, Babydoll, also by Tennessee Williams, and produced by Elia Kazan in the same year
Film credits include, Kiss of Death (1947) with Richard Widmark, who pushed her down the stairs whilst in a wheelchair, Linda Loman in, Death of a Salesman (1947) for which she received a Best Supporting Actress nomination, Peyton Place (1957), The Nun’s Story (1959), Butterfield 8 (1960), with Elizabeth Taylor, Sweet Bird of Youth (1962), and Behold a Pale Horse (1964). She appeared as a murdered housekeeper in the murder thriller, Whatever Happened to Aunt Alice? (1969) which stared Geraldine Page and Ruth Gordon. Her last film role was in, The Pick-Up Artist (1987) when she was eighty-three. Dunnock died in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts (July 5, 1991). She was the mother of actress Linda McGuire, and the grandmother of actress Patricia McGuire. Mildred Dunnock died (July 5, 1991) in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts.

Dunraven, Caroline Wyndham, Countess of – (1788 – 1870)
British genealogist and historian
Caroline Wyndham was the only child and heiress of Thomas Wyndham, of Dunraven Castle, Glamorgan, and his wife Anna Maria Charlotte, the daughter of Thomas Ashby. Caroline was married (1810) to Windham Henry Quin, second Earl of Dunraven and Mount Earl (1782 – 1850), who incorporated the Wyndham family name into his own (1815), for himself and his decsendants. They were the parents of Edwin Richard Windham Wyndham-Quin, third Earl of Dunraven (1812 – 1871), Member of Parliament for Glamorganshire (1836 – 1850). She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Dunraven for two decades (1850 – 1870). Lady Dunraven was the author of a history of the Irish family of Adare entitled, Memorials of Adare Manor (1865). Lady Dunraven died aged eighty-one (May 26, 1870).

Dunrossil, Allison Swan, Viscountess – (1900 – 1983)
Australian public figure
Katharine Allison Swan was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the daughter of Reverend William Swan, the minister of the South Leith parish church. Allison studied law at the University of Edinburgh in preparation to being called to the bar, and was married at South Leith (1924) to Captain William Shepherd Morrison (1893 – 1961) to whom she bore four sons. Mrs Morrison was appointed C.St.J (Commander of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem) in recognition of her volunteer service during WW II.
When her husband was chosen to succeed Sir William Slim as the governor-general of South Australia (1959) he was created Viscount Dunrossil of Vallaquie by Queen Elizabeth II and Mrs Morrison became the Viscountess Dunrossil (1959 – 1961). Lady Dunrossil was present with her husband during the swearing-in ceremony held in Canberra (Feb 2, 1960). During her husband’s tenure of office Lady Dunrossil accompanied him on his extensive travels throughout Australia, and when illness prevented him performing his public duties she discharged them with great competence in his name. Lord Dunrossil died in office at Government House in Canberra, and Lady Dunrossil was present at his state funeral.
Lady Allison durvived her husband for two decades as the Dowager Viscountess Dunrossil (1961 – 1983) and as a widow she returned to England where she resided partly in London and partly at the family estate at Withington in Gloucestershire. She died in England and her ashes were later sent to Australia to be interred in her husband’s grave at Reid in Canberra. Her eldest son John William Morrison (born 1926) succeeded his father as the second Viscount Dunrossil (1961) and was married twice and left issue.

Dunsany, Madeleine Babington, Lady – (c1575 – 1609)
Irish peeress and murder victim
Sometimes called Maud, Madeleine Babington was the daughter of Henry Babington of Dethick in Derby and his first wife Frances Markham, the daughter of Sir John Markham. She became the wife (c1593) of Christopher Plunkett (c1574 – 1603), the eighth Baron Dunsany, and was the mother of Patrick Plunkett (c1594 – c1668), ninth Baron Dunsany. Madeleine survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Dunsany. She was murdered in her own home and a servant girl was accused and publicly burnt to death for this crime. Soon afterwards the real criminal, at his own execution, confessed his guilt.

Dunser, Margret – (1926 – 1980)
Austrian journalist, author and radio presenter
Dunser was born at Dornbirn, near Vorarlberg (July 27, 1926). She became a radio presenter after the end of World War II, becoming head of the literature department (1952), and then program director of the West Radio Group. Margret later joined the South German Broadcasting Corporation in Stuttgart, Wurttemburg, as a journalist, becoming editor in 1960. She wrote and presented Rom Aktuell, London Aktuell, and Paris Aktuell, and left numerous books, including an autobiography, Highlife (1979). Margret Dunser died at Basel, in Switzerland (July 5, 1980), aged fifty-three.

Dunsheath, Cissie (Joyce) – (1902 – 1976)
British mountaineer and author
Cissie Dunsheath co-wrote Mountains and Memsahibs (1958) with the other members of the Abinger Himalayan expedition (1956). She visited Russia (1957), where, by especial permission of the Soviet government, Dunsheath became the first British woman to climb Mount Ebrus (18, 482 ft) in the Caucasus region. Her expedition to climb Mir Samir (19, 880 ft) in the Hindu Kush region of India (1960) failed, but led the first the first successful Indian Women’s Expedition to the Garwhal mountains in the Himalayas (1962). Dunsheath was the author of several publications, including, Guest of the Soviets: Moscow and the Caucasus, 1957 (1959), and, Afghan Quest: The Story of the Abinger Afghanistan Expedition, 1960 (1961), which she co-wrote with Eleanor Baillie. She successfully scaled Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa (19, 340 ft), at the age of seventy-one (1973) before retiring.

Dunstanville, Sarah de    see   Sarah of Cornwall

Du Parc, Francoise – (1726 – 1778)
French painter
Francoise Du Parc was the daughter of artist Antoine Du Parc, and the granddaughter of sculptor Albert Du Parc. Du Parc studied painting under Van Loo in Marseilles, but with the deaths of her parents, she and her sister removed to Paris. With her sister’s subsequent death, Du Parc went to England where she exhibited her work in London throughout the 1760’s, being noted for her depictions of the sitter’s individuality such as in The Infusion-Seller. She was admitted to the Academie Francaise (1776) shortly before her death.

Du Peloux, Alphonse Magdeleine – (fl. 1789 – 1794)
French memoirist
Born Alphonse Julien, she became the wife of a provincial aristocrat and the mother of three children. During the revolutionary Terror, her family were twice arrested and imprisoned at Pas-de-Calais, near the Flemish border. Her own account of these times, was published posthumously as, Journal de la captivite de la famille Du Peloux de Saint-Romain, en 1794, par Mme Alphonse Magdeleine du Peloux, nee Julien (1888).

Dupin, Louise Marie Madeleine – (1707 – 1799)
French salonniere
Born Louise Madeleine de Fontaine, she was married to Monsieur Dupin, a wealthy financier. She presided over a notable literary salon during the reign of Louis XV and Louis XVI, and entrusted the education of her son to the famous philosopher, Jean Jacques Rousseau. Madame Dupin survived the horrors of the Revolution.

Duplay, Eleonore – (1768 – 1832)
French beauty and revolutionary figure
Eleonore Duplay was born in Paris, the daughter of a carpenter. Her sister Elisabeth became the wife of the revolutionary figure Philippe Le Bas. Eleonore studied painting in Paris under Jean Baptise Tegnault prior to the Revolution. Maximilien Robespierre was said to have formed an attachment to Eleonore, and they resided together without the benfit of marriage. After the fall of Robespierre (1794) she shared the imprisonment of her sister and brother-in-law Le Bas but was later released. Eleonore dressed in black mourning for the rest of her life, refusing to consider marrying, and became popularly known as la Veuve Robespierre (the Widow Robespierre). Eleonore Duplay died (July 26, 1832) aged sixty-four. Her pastel self-portrait is preserved at the Musee Carnavalet in Paris.

Dupleix, Jeanne – (c1703 – 1756) 
French diplomat and political correspondent
Jeanne Albert was the widow of a Monsieur Albert, a councillor of the French company, and colleague of Joseph Francois Dupleix (1697 – 1763), the French governor of Pondicherry in India. Jeanne married Dupleix at Chandernagore, Bengal in 1741. He was appointed governor-general of all French establishments in India until 1754. Known to the Hindus as ‘Joanna Begum’, Mme Dupleix possessed extensive knowledge of statecraft, and ably assisted her husband in his role as governor. Devotedly attached to her husband she remained loyal to him during his failures as well. Her knowledge of many Indian languages proved to be of great use to her husband in his negotiations with the native princes, and also enabled Jeanne to maintain an extensive correspondence with the courts of various Indian rulers. Her letters to the Indian interpreter of the British government at Madras were intercepted and the interpreter was hanged. Her husband was removed from office in Oct, 1754 when the French government wished to make peace with the British. Madame Dupleix then accompanied her husband back to France, where she died not long afterwards.

Duplessis, Marie     see    Plessis, Alphonsine

Du Plessis-Guenehaud, Comtesse   see   Plessis-Guenegaud, Comtesse du

Du Poilloue de Saint-Mars, Gabrielle Anne Cisterne de Courtiras, Vicomtesse de – (1804 – 1872)
French novelist
Gabrielle Cisterne de Courtiras was born in Poitiers, Poitou, and married (1824) the Vicomte Du Pouilloue de Saint-Mars, a cavalry officer. This marriage proved unhappy, and the couple formally seperated (1835). The vicomtesse worked as a journalist until 1839, when she devoted herself to writing novels, and in this ares she proved to be extremely prolific, taking the pseudonym of ‘Countess Dash.’ One of her works, La Comtesse de Bossut (1855) was a fanciful work, loosely based upon the life of Mlle Charlotte Robespierre (1760 – 1834) sister of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.
Madame Du Pouilloue also wrote under the male pseudonym ‘Jacques Reynaud,’ and produced Portraits contemporains (1859) which provided details of her frindship with Alexandre Dumas. Other of her works included, L’Ecran (The Screen) (1839), Les Bals Masques (The Masked Balls) (1842), Le Marquise Sanglante (1850), La Duchesse de Lauzun (1858), Un Amour a’ la Bastille (A Love Affair at the Bastille) (1862), and,  L’Arbre de la vierge (The Tree of the Virgin) (1872). She also wrote newspaper articles and memoirs. Madame Du Pouilloue de Saint-Mars died in Paris.

Du Pont, Gabrielle Josephine – (1770 – 1837)
French diplomatic figure, traveller and letter writer
Gabrielle Josephe de la Fite de Pellepont became the wife of the diplomat Victor Du Pont. Whilst living in New York and in Charleston in North Carolina Madame Du Pont maintained a cocontinuous exchange of letters with Margaret Izard Mannigault. This correspondence lasted over three decades (1796 – 1824) and continued after Madame Du Pont returned to reside in Paris. Extracts of this voluminous communication were later edited and published posthumously as Of Muslins and Merveilleuses: Excerpts from the Letters of Josephine Du Pont and Margaret Mannigault (1974).

Dupont, Jeanne Josephine Grace – (c1775 – 1858)
French courtier
Jeanne Dupont was the wife of Comte Pierre Dupont, a general of Napoleon I. She left memoirs entitled, Paris et Orleans a’ la veille du 20 mars. Recit de madame la comtesse Dupont from Alfred Nettements’s Souvenirs de la Restauration (1858), which was published in Paris. Madame Dupont later resided in the Hotel de Beauvau in the Faubourg St Honore in Paris, which estate her heirs sold after her death to the noted financier, Ernest Andre.

Dupplin, Agnes Duff, Lady    see   Cooper, Agnes Cecil Emmeline Duff, Lady

Dupre, Eleanor Caroline – (fl. c1760 – 1787)
French dancer
Eleanor Caroline Dupre first appeared in England at the Drury Lane Theatre in 1776, dancing roles in two ballets, The Double Festival, and, The Triumph of Love. Well paid, Eleanor also performed dance roles in, The Tempest and Love in a Village. Eleanor later performed in Europe, in, Medonte, in Alexandria, Egypt in 1783, and in the libretto, Il trionfo di Clelia, at Turin in Piedmont (1787). No other details of her career are recorded.

Dupre, Grace Annette – (1894 – 1984)
American painter and violinist
Grace Dupre taught music at the University of Virginia and at Guildford College in Greensboro, North Carolina. Her professional career began in 1931, and she won various awards for her work, including accolades from the Catherine Lorillard Wolfe Art Club Annual in New York and the Fine Arts League of the Carolinas. Miss Dupre specialized in portraits of American statesmen including President Harry Truman, as well as a portrait of Hu Shih, the Chinese philosopher and diplomat. From 1942 – 1964 she had a studio at the National Arts Club in New York. She remained unmarried. Grace Dupre died at Spartanburg, South Carolina.

Du Pre, Jacqueline – (1945 – 1987) 
British cellist
Jacqueline Du Pre was born in Oxford (Jan 26, 1945), the daughter of en editor and financial writer. She studied at the London Violincello School and then at the Guildhall School of Music under Rostropovich. She married the pianist Daniel Barenboim (1967). Du Pre made her debut at Wigmore Hall, London (1961), and gave recitals with her husband, the couple making musical recordings together. She herself favoured the concerto works of Schumann, Haydn, Edward Elgar, Boccherini, Delius and Dvorak. She performed Romanze (1968) which had been written for her by Alexander Goehr. Awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II, for her services to music (1976), her career was cut tragically short by multiple sclerosis, and she was confined to a wheelchair prior to her death (Oct 19, 1987), at the early age of forty-two.

Dupre de Saint-Maur, Jenny – (1785 – 1856)
French Bonapartist courtier
Jenny dupre de Saint-Maur served as lady-in-waiting to Napoleon’s sister Pauline, the wife of Prince Camillo Borghese, whom she survived over thirty years. She left memoirs entitled Pauline de Borghese jugee par une femme, Memoires de Madame de Saint Maur (1948), which were pritned ninety years after her death in two volumes.

Durach    see    Duthrucht

Durack, Elizabeth – (1915 – 2000)
Australian painter and writer
Elizabeth Durack was born in Claremont, Perth, Western Australia (July 6, 1915), the daughter of the noted pastoralist and politician, Michael Patrick Durack (1865 – 1950), and was younger sister to historian, Dame Mary Durack, and aunt of aviatrix, Robin Miller. She was educated at the Loreto Convent in Perth, and later travelled to England, to study at the Chelsea Polytechnic in London. Most of her work was related to the remote Kimberley regions of Western Australia, which dominated her childhood memories, as did her asscoaitions with the Aboriginal Miriuwong people of the region. In acknowledgment of her service to art and literature, Durack was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1966), and was later appointed CMG (Companion of St Michael and St George) (1982). During the last years of her life she achieved some unwanted notoriety in the news and television media when some artworks which had been entered into exhibitions under an indigenous name (Eddie Burrup), was revealed to be her own. Elizabeth Durack died in Perth (May 25, 2000), aged eighty-four.

Durack, Fanny Sarah – (1889 – 1956)
Australian swimmer
Fanny Durack was born in Sydney, New South Wales (Oct 27, 1889). An excellent swimmer from early childhood, Durack raced comeptitively, and became Australia’s first female Olympic gold medallist, when she won the 100 metres freestyle at the Stockholm Games in Sweden (1912). Durack broke twelve world swimming records during a six year period (1912 – 1918). She was prevented from attending the 1920 Olympics because of illness, and devoted her energy to promoting women’s swimming, though she became emeshed in much unpleasant controversy. She finally retired (1921) and became a children’s swimming coach. Fanny Durack died in Sydney (March 20, 1956), aged sixty-six.

Durack, Dame Mary – (1913 – 1994)
Australian historian and children’s writer
Mary Durack was born in Adelaide, South Australia (Feb 20, 1913) the daughter of the noted pastoralist and politician, Michael Patrick Durack, and was sister to writer Elizabeth Durack. She was married (1938 – 1980) to Captain Horace Clive Miller, OBE (Order of the British Empire), to whom she bore six children, including the famous aviatrix, Robin Miller. Durack was best remembered for her saga of the Durack family until 1898 entitled Kings in Grass Castles (1959). This story was continued with Sons in the Saddle (1983). She was also the author of, The Rock and the Sand (1969) and, Swan River Saga (1975), concerning the settlement of that name in Western Australia. She composed the libretto for the opera Dalgerie, with music written by the composer James Penberthy. This was based on her novel, Keep Him My Country (1955), and was eventually produced at the Sydney Opera House (1973). Durack was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1977) by Queen Elizabeth II. Dame Mary Durack died aged eighty-one (Dec 16, 1994).

Durancy, Francoise Marie – (fl. c1730 – after 1766)
French actress
Born Francoise Dessuslefeur, she was married the actor Jean-Francois Fienzal, called M. Durancy, to whom she bore a daughter, the child actress Magdelaine Celeste Fienzal de Frossac, called Madamoiselle Durancy (born 1746). Around the time of her marriage Francoise was known professionally as Madamoiselle Darimante, and performed in Brussels with Favart (1746). In 1749 husband and wife joined Monnet’s troupe at the Haymarket Theatre in London, but their opening night proved a disaster. Both appeared in, Les Amans reunis in London (1746). Madame Durancy later performed in Brussels (1753) and at Versailles (1760), and together with her husband, made her debut at the Comedie Francaise (Jan, 1762). Madame Durancy was still performing in Brussels in 1766.

Durand, Annie – (1822 – 1857)
British civil wife and letter writer
Annie McCaskill was the daughter of Major-General Sir John McCaskill, KCB (Knight Commander of the Order of Bath), and became the first wife of Major-general Henry Marion Durand (1812 – 1871), who was knighted after her death. Some of her letters pertaining to events from the Indian Mutiny have been preserved. She accompanied her husband and other British resident, including women and children who had survived a massacre by native troops, in the retreat from Indore. She died soon afterwards at Mhow in the Punjab. Mrs Durand left three sons and four daughters,

Durand, Ella Rebe Sandys, Lady – (1852 – 1913)
British novelist
Ella Sandys was the daughter of Teignmouth Sandys, of the Bengal Civil Service (BCS), and was married (1875) to Sir Henry Mortimer Durand (Feb 14, 1850 – June 8, 1924), the noted colonial diplomat and civil servant. Lady Durand co-wrote several works with her husband, including, An Autumn Tour in Western Persia (1902) and, Nadir Shah.An Historical Novel (1908). She left two children, Henry Marion Durand, who served with the army during the South African war (1899 – 1902) and WW I, and Amy Josephine Durand, who became the wife of Arthur Clement Wilmot, of Farnham Royal, Wiltshire. Lady Durand died (April 29, 1913) aged sixty.

Durand, Emily Augusta Allnatt, Lady – (1826 – 1905)
British civil wife, she was the daughter of Charles Blake Allnatt, of Shrewsbury. Emily was married firstly to Rev. Henry Polehampton, whom she accompanied to India. Reverend and Mrs Polehampton were present during the siege of the British residency at Lucknow during the Mutiny (1857), where her husband eventually died after being hit by musket shot, and was evacuated to Allahabad. She then became the second wife (1859) of the noted civil servant and diplomat, Sir Henry Marion Durand (1812 – 1871), to whom she bore two daughters, Ethel Durand (1860 – 1933), married firstly James Sligo Jameson (died 1888), of Glen Lodge, Sligo, and secondly, Roberto, Conte di Villamarina (died 1916), and Muriel Durand (died 1933), who remained unmarried. The Dowager Lady Durand survived her second husband over three decades (1871 – 1905). She was stepmother to Sir Edward Law Durand, first baronet (1845 – 1920) and Sir Henry Mortimer Durand (1850 – 1924). Lady Durand died (March 30, 1905) aged seventy-eight.

Durand, Margeurite – (1864 – 1936)  
French feminist and writer
Margeurite Durand was born in Paris and trained to become an actress at the Comedie Francaise (1881). She later abandoned this career and was married to George Laguerre from whom she was ultimately divorced. Durand was vice-president of La ligue francaise pour le droit des femmes and was the founder if the first women’s daily newspaper, La Fronde (The Insurrectionist). She campaigned vigorously for improved working and financial conditions for women, and served as co-director of the newspaper Les Nouvelles in Paris. She established the feminist archive in Paris, the Bibliotheque Margeurite Durand (1931).

Durand, Sophie – (1772 – 1850)
French Bonpartist courtier and memoirist
Born Sophie Cohondet, and was married to General Durand. She later served as lady-in-waiting to the Empress Marie Louise, Napoleon’s second wife. Madame Durand left three works of reminiscences, Anecdotes sur la Cour et l’interieur de la famille de Napoleon Bonaparte (1818), Mes souvenirs sur Napoleon, sa famille et sa cour, par Mme Vve du general Durand (1819), in two volumes, and, Napoleon – Im hauslichen Kreise und sein Hof, nebst Anekdoten aus seiner letzten Regierungszeit. Nach Erinnerungen der Witwe des General Durand, ehemaligen Hofdame der Kaiserine Marie-Louise (1821), which was published in Dresden, Saxony.

Duran de Leon, Lluisa – (1845 – after 1883)
Spanish poet
Lluisa Duran de Leon was born in Barcelona and was then educated at the private girls’ school in Marseilles, in Provence, France, the San Carlos de la Belle de May, from the age of six (1851), where she studied languages. With the completion of her education, Duran de Leon returned to family and became involved with the cultural society of Valencia.  She published several examples of her work in periodicals such as the, Boletin revista del ateneo de Valencia (Valencia), El cascabel (Madrid) and, Paris charmant artistique (Paris), amongst others. Her mediaeval poem ‘Lo castell d’En Perello’ (Perello’s castle) (1879) received critical acclaim, and she wrote Catalan poetry which was published in periodicals such as, La renaixenca, Calendari catala, and, La Ilumanera. Duran de Leon corresponded with the musicians and composers Franz Liszt and Anton Rubenstein, as well as with the politician, essayist, and author, Victor Balaguer (1824 – 1901). Some of her letters to Balaguer are preserved in the Biblioteca Museo Balaguer, in Valanova i la Geltru, in Barcelona. Her last written work appeared in 1883.

Durand-Greville, Alice Marie Celeste     see    Greville, Henry

Durand-Wever, Anne Marie – (1889 – 1970)
German gynaecologist
Born Katharina Ulrike Fanny Elisabeth in Paris (Oct 30, 1889), she was the daughter of a diplomat, and studied at theUniversityof Chicago, Illinois (1907 – 1910) priotr to being employed at the zoological gentre in Naples, Italy. Anne-Marie studied medicine at the universities of Marburg, Munich, and Strasburg, before receiving her doctorate (1917). She established herself as a gynaceologist in Munich (1921 – 1927), and then moved to Berlin, where she had been appointed to head the Confidential Centre for Engaged and Married People (1928 – 1932), which she herself had founded. She resigned her public positions (1933), though she continued her private practice and the provision of birth-control advice. Anne-Marie later headed the Centre for Rescue Operations in Berlin (1945) and she campaigned to reform the abortion laws. She was author of, Methoden der Empfangnisverhutung (1947). Anne-Marie Durand-Wever died at Overath, near Cologne (Sept 14, 1970).

Durant, Ariel – (1898 – 1981)
Russian-American historian and author
Born Ada Kaufman, she was married to the historian Will Durant (1885 – 1981). Ariel Durant was awarded the Pulitzer Prize (1968) and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977).

Duras, Charlotte Antoinette de La Porte-Mazarin, Duchesse de – (1719 – 1735)
French Bourbon peeress and courtier
Charlotte de La Porte-Mazarin was born (March 24, 1719), the daughter of Paul de La Porte-Mazarin, third Duc de La Meileraye and de Mazarin, and his first wife Charlotte antoinette de Durfort. She became the first wife (1733) of Emanuel Felicite de Durfort (1715 – 1789), Duc de Duras. The Duchesse de Duras died (Sept 6, 1735) aged only sixteen, in Paris, five days after the birth of her only child and heiress, Louise Jeanne de Durfort de Duras (1735 – 1781), the wife of Louis Marie, Duc d’Aumont (1732 – 1799). Her daughter inherited the dukedom of Mazarin through her.

Duras, Claire Louise Rose Bonne de Coetnempren de Kersaint, Duchesse de – (1778 – 1828)
French salonniere and novelist
Claire de Coetnempren de Kersaint was the daughter of Armand Guy Gimon de Coetnempren, Comte de Kersaint (1742 – 1793), the noted sailor and politican, who perished under the guillotine during the Revolution, and his wife Claire Louise Francoise Alesso d’Eragny. She travelled considerably during her childhood following her father on his official postings, and spent several years on the Island of Martinique, birthplace of the future Empress Josephine.
Claire was married in England (1797) to Amedee Bretagne Malo de Durfort, Duc de Duras (1771 – 1838) as his first wife, and presided over a celebrated salon in London where she received many exiled emigres. The duchesse later returned to France (1807) under Napoleon I where she became a friend to Madame de Stael and the Vicomte de Chateaubriand (1768 – 1842), with whom she became involved in a platonic relationship. Madame de Duras wrote several novels which were widely read such as Ourika (1823), Edouard (1825) and Olivier ou le secret (Olivier or the Secret) (1971) which was published over one hundred years after her death. Her style of writing was influenced by that of Samuel Richardson and Jacques Rousseau. The Duchesse de Duras died (Jan 16, 1828) in Nice. She left two daughters,

Duras, Louise Henriette Charlotte Philippine de Noailles, Duchesse de – (1745 – 1832)
French courtier and memoirist
Louise Henriette de Noailles was born (Aug 23, 1745), the eldest daughter of Philip Maurice de Noailles, first Duc de Mouchy, and his wife Anne Claudine Louise d’Arpajon. She was married (1760) to Emmanuel Celeste Augustin de Durfort, marquis and fifth Duc de Duras (1741 – 1800) and was a prominent member of the court of Louis XV and then of Louis XVI, her mother serving as superintendent of the household of Marie Antoinette, whom Mme Duras herself served as a lady-in-waiting.
The duchesse was arrested by the revolutionaries at her chateau at Oise (Aug, 1793), and was kept a prisoner at Beauvais, at the chateau of Chantilly, and in Paris. She survived the Terror, and was finally released (Oct, 1794). With the death of her husband (1800), Mme de Duras survived the Bonaparte regime, and lived to see the restoration of the Bourbons (1814). Her memoirs were entitled, Journal des prisons de mon pere, de ma mere et des miennes, par Madame la duchesse de Duras, nee Noailles (1888), and were published five decades after her death, and included the memoirs of Madame Latour, who accompanied her parents to their prison, and cared for them during the final days of their lives. The duchesse was the mother of Amedee Bretagne Malo de Durfort, sixth Duc de Duras (1771 – 1838), who left issue. The Duchesse de Duras died aged eighty-six (Feb 12, 1832).

Duras, Margeurite – (1914 – 1996)
French novelist and screenwriter
Born Margeurite Donnadieu in Gia Dinh in French Indo-China (April 4, 1914), she studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and later took part in the Resistance activities during the Nazi occupation. She later joined the Communist party was later ejected because of her refusal to co-operate with partyline policy (1945). Duras’s works included the semi-autobiographical La Douleur (1985), L’Amant (The Lover) (1984), for which she received the Prize Goncourt, and several novels, including Un Barrage contre le Pacifique (The Sea Wall) (1952) and Detruire dit-elle (Destroy, She Said) (1969). Duras also produced the filmscript Hiroshima Mon Amour (Hiroshima My Love) (1960) and she adapted the novel Moderato Cantabile (1958) for film. She was later awarded the Prix Goncourt (1984) for her semi-autobiographical novel, L’Amante Anglaise. During the latter part of her career, Duras began directing her own films, and made an international name for herself as a pioneer of avant-garde films, such as India Song (1975), which was adapted from her novel, Le Vice-Consul (1965) and La Douleur (1985). Margeurite Duras died in Paris, aged eighty-one (March 3, 1996).

Durastanti, Margherita – (c1685 – after 1734)
Italian vocalist
Margehrita Durastanti as born in Italy, and made her first appearance at the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo in Venice, and performed the title in Geroge Frederic Handel’s production of Agrippina (1709). She was leading performer there by 1712, and later performed in Naples (1715 – 1716), and was married to Casimiro Avelloni. Durastanti appeared in Dresden, Saxony (1719), where she was later engaged by Handel to perform at the Royal Academy of Music in London. She appeared at Haymarket, performing Romolo in Numitore and the title role in Radamisto (1720), before causing a furore with the Academy directors, who were paying her a considerable salary, when it was discovered that she was pregnant. Despite this, Durastanti performed as scheduled, singing just before the birth of her daughter, to which George I and Caroline, Princess of Wales, stood as godparents (1721). Durastanti continued to work in England, but also travelled to France to perform in Paris (1723). A decade later, her voice having mellowed to a mezzo-soprano, she appeared at the King’s Theatre (1733) to perform the title in Semiramis, and continued to appear there in the following year. She disappears from the records in 1734, and may have returned to Italy. No reliable details of her later life are recorded.

Duras, Marquise de    see   Goth, Marquise de

Durazzo, Agnes de Perigord, Princess di – (1305 – 1345)
French-Neapolitan patrician
Agnes de Talleyrand de Perifgord was the daughter of Elias de Talleyrand, Comte de Perigord, and his wife Brunissende, the daughter of Roger Bernard III, Count of Foix. She married (Nov 14, 1321) Jean d’Anjou, Prince of Durazzo (1294 – 1335), to whom she bore three sons, Charles d’Anjou, Prince of Durazzo (1323 – 1348), Louis d’Anjou, Count of Gravina (1324 – 1362), and Robert d’Anjou, Prince of the Morea (1326 – 1356). In Jan, 1343, the princess and her sons were present at the deathbed of King Robert of Naples, at Castel-Nuovo. Agnes was murdered in her bedchamber by her eldest son Charles, to avenge the family honour, he mistakenly believing malicious rumours of adultery concerning his mother, which had been spread and fostered by the supporters of Queen Joanna I, as part of a political intrigue at the court, who feared his ambitions towards the Neapolitan throne.
The princess had for several months been suffering a lingering depression, and contemporary chroniclers record that Agnes’s fate was orchestrated by her son’s aunt, Catherine II of Taranto, as part of a planned revenge upon Charles and his family. A lady of virtuous character amidst a court which was a sea of corruption, the Princess of Taranto used subterfuge to cause Agnes’s physician to believe that she was expecting an illegitimate child. The physician, alarmed, informed Charles of his suspicions, and the prince had the man quickly and quietly murdered, and his mother poisoned.

Durazzo, Clelia   see   Grimaldi, Clelia

Durey de Noinville, Pauline – (1778 – after 1863)
French memoirist and émigré
Pauline Durey de Noinville was born into the minor nobility. With the outbreak of the Revolution (1789), her family emigrated to the safety of Germany, and their estates and possessions in France were seized by the revoutionaries and never regained. Her unpublished memoirs, written down during old age (1861), and entitled, ‘Les Emigres pendant la Revolution. Souvenirs d’une octogenaire, presentes par Jacques Dinfreville,’ were printed over one hundred years after her death in Ecrits de Paris (Jan-Feb, 1973).

Durfee, Minta – (1889 – 1975)
American actress
Minta Durfee was born in Los Angeles, California (Oct 1, 1889), and was raised in a seedy neighbourhood. After joining the stage as a chorus girl, she became the first wife (1908 – 1923) of the notorious Roscoe ‘Fatty Arbuckle (1887 – 1933). Durfee and Arbuckle joined the Mack Sennett comedy troupe, and Minta then rose to become a popular star in many of the early silent comedy films (1914 – 1916), in some of which, such as, Making a Living (1914), and, Caught in a Cabaret (1914), in which she played a dacner, she appeared with the famous Charlie Chaplin (1889 – 1977), being remembered as his first leading lady.
Prior to the scandal which involved the death of a young Hollywwod starlet, Virginia Rappe, in her Arbuckle’s hotel suite in San Francsico (1921), Minta and Arbuckle had seperated. After her eventual divorce from Arbuckle (1925), Durfee retired from silent  films, though she later returned to the screen to play small parts in sound films such as, Naughty Marietta (1935) and, Rose Marie (1936), with Jeanette MacDonald and Nelson Eddy, How Green Was My Valley (1941), with Maureen O’Hara and Roddy McDowell, An Affair to Remember (1957), with Deborah Kerr, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, (1964), and, It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963). Minta Durfee died in Woodland Hills in Los Angeles (Sept 9, 1975) aged eighty-five.

Durfort, Marie Francoise de – (1717 – 1793)
French nun and royalist heroine
Marie Francoise de Durfort was born (April 27, 1717), the sister of Aymeric Joseph de Durfort, Duc de Civrac. She became a nun at the abbey of Saint-Ausone, in Angouleme, where she was later appointed abbess. Arrested during the latter part of the Revolution, the abbess refused to take the oath of allegiance to the new regime. Condemned to death, she was guillotined at Angers in Anjou (Dec 10, 1793) aged seventy-six.

Durgavati – (1524 – 1564)
Indian Mughal queen and ruler
Durgavati was at Banda, in Uttar Pradesh, the daughter of Keerat Rai, of the Chandella family. She was married (1542) to Dalpatshah, the ruler of Gondwana, and when he died, she became regent for their son Bir Narayan (1548 – 1564). Queen Durgavati led her forces against those of the invading Mughal emperor, Akbar the Great, commanded by General Asaf Khan, but her army was defeated. The queen committed suicided with her own dagger, rather than be dishonoured by capture.

Durham, Edith – (1863 – 1944)
British missionary, traveller, writer, painter and anthropologist
Mary Edith Durham was born in London (Dec 8, 1863), the daughter of a surgeon. She remained unmarried and devoted her life to revitalizing Christianity in the Balkan states of Montenegro, Bosnia, Serbia, Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and Albania from for more than a decade (1900 – 1914). Linguistically talented, Durham travelled vast distances by horseback with only a guide and boy to look after the horse. Durham’s political sympathies lay with the nationalists, which earned her the popular sobriquet ‘Queen of the Mountains’ within Albania. She brought medical aiistance and food to the Albanian tribespeople during various revolts and wars. At the end of the war the Albanian government offerred Durham a permanent home there, but she preferred to retire to London, where she continued to work tirelessly as a spokesperson for the Balkan region. Her written works include, Through the Lands of the Serb (1904), High Albania (1909), Twenty Years of the Balkan Tangle (1920), and, Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans (1928). Edith Durham died in London (Nov 15, 1944) aged eighty.

Durham, Hermia – (1873 – 1948)
British civil servant
Frances Hermia Durham was the daughter of a surgeon, and received her education at Notting Hill High School and at Girton College, Cambridge. She was awarded the Alexander Medal by the Royal Historical Society (1899). Durham served as honorary secretary of the Registry and Apprenticeships Committee of the Women’s University Settlement in Southwark (1900 – 1907) before becoming an organizer and inspector with the London County Council (1907 – 1915). During WW I, the Board of Trade asked her to head a movement to place women in jobs formerly held by men, and she was appointed chief woman inspector of the Employment Department of the Board of Trade, which was later transferred to the Ministry of Labour (1917). For this work for the war effort, Durham was awarded the CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1918). Durham was later appointed as assistant secretary within the British Civil Service (1923), the first woman to achieve that rank, and headed the Juvenile Employment section. She retired in 1933.

Durham, Louisa Elizabeth Grey, Countess of – (1797 – 1841)
British peeress, letter writer and diarist
Lady Louisa Grey was born (April 7, 1797), the eldest daughter of Charles Grey, second Earl Grey and his wife Mary Elizabeth Brabazon Ponsonby, the daughter of William Brabazon Ponsonby, first Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly. She became the second wife (1816) at Howick of Sir John George Lambton (1792 – 1840) later the first Baron Durham (1828), and then first Earl of Durham (1833) by which Louisa became the Countess of Durham (1833 – 1840). Lord Malmesbury described Lady Louisa as being possessed of charm and high-spirited in nature.
Lady Durham accompanied her husband to Canada when he served as Governor-General (1838) and performed her vice-regal duties admirably. When Lord Durham’s tenure was over they returned to England where the countess served at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria. She briefly survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Durham (1840 – 1841) and he left her his entire fortune valued at a quarter of a million pounds. Lady Durham died (Nov 26, 1841) aged forty-four, at Genoa in Italy. Her body was returned to England for burial with her late husband at Chester-le-Street. Her private correspondence was edited posthumously and published in Toronto as Letters and Diaries of Lady Durham (1979). Her children included Charles William Lambton (1818 – 1831) painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence as ‘Master Lambton,’ and George Frederick d’Arcy Lambton (1828 – 1879) who succeeded his father as the second Earl of Durham (1840 – 1879) and was married and left issue.

Durie, Winifred – (1932 – 2007)
Australian viola player and music teacher
Durie was born at Booragul on Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, the daughter of an electrical engineer and a piano teacher. She studied at the Conservatorium of Music in Sydney under the direction of Eugene Goossens and later at the Wiener Hochsule in Vienna under Ernst Morawec. She performed chamber music with Jacqueline Du Pre in London, and joined the London Philharmonia Orchestra under Walter Legge.
Durie performed solo on the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) before returing to Sydney. Winifred Durie was a founding member of the Australian Chamber Orchestra, and was particularly noted for her use of the viola. She became a tutor and taught the viola her students working with internationally acclaimed orchestras such as the Sydney and Melbourne Symphony Orchestras, the Berlin Philharmonic and the Academy of St Martin in the Fields. Durie died aged seventy-five, in Sydney.

Durieux, Tilla – (1880 – 1971)
Austrian actress
Born Ottilie Godefroy, in Vienna (Aug 18, 1880), she received training at the Arnau drama school. She made her stage debut at Olmutz (1901). Adopting the professional name of ‘Tillie Durieux,’ she was one of the first actresses to perform under the director of Max Rheinhardt in Berlin (1903 – 1911). She performed the title role of Oscar Wilde’s Salome in Berlin, and toured Europe and North America. With the rise of the National Socialists to power (1933) she decided to go abroad on tour, and eventually settled in Zagreb, though she still performed in Vienna periodically.  When her husband Paul Cassirer was deported by the Nazi regime, Tilla survived by making puppets for a theatre in Croatia. She returned to Germany (1952), joining the Deutsches Theater, and performing in Bremen and Berlin. Tilla also appeared in films and television productions such as, Anastasia, letzte Zarentichter (1956), and was honoured by East and West Germany for her contributions to the theatre. She wrote two autobiographical works, Eine Tur fallt ins Schloss (1928) and, Eine Tur steht offen (1954). Tilla Durieux died in Berlin, Prussia (Feb 21, 1971), aged ninety.

Durocher, Marie Josefina Mathilde – (1809 – 1893)
Brazilian physician and midwife
The early death of her husband left Durocher with children to provide for. She decided upon a career as a midwife, and earned her degree at the medical school in Rio de Janeiro, becoming one of the first female physicians accredited in Brazil. She remained in practice for over five decades.

Durocher, Marie Rose – (1814 – 1849)
French-Canadian saint
Born Eulalie Durocher, into a wealthy family in Quebec, she sufferred from continual ill-health and was educated at the convent of St Denis there. With her mother’s death (1830), she joined the household of her priest brother, and acted as his housekeeper. Durocher later took religious vows, taking the name of Marie Rose in religion, and founded the teaching Order of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary in Quebec. Her order spread around the world to Africa, Japan, the USA, and Peru, amongst other countries. Marie Rose Durocher died young and was beatified by Pope John Paul II (1982).

Duronceray, Marie   see   Favart, Marie Justine

Durova, Elena Robertovna – (1873 – 1967)
Russian circus performer and entertainer
Elena Robertovna became the wife of circus dynast, Anatoly Anatolievich Durov (1894 – 1928), who took over the family business at the death of his father (1916). Durova herself appeared in the ring as a talented circus rider. With the early death of her husband in a shooting accident, during a hunt, Elena continued to work tirelessly for decades to organize, train, and maintain a troupe of the best trained circus animals in Russia.

Durova, Nadezhda Andreievna – (1783 – 1866)
Russian soldier and memoirist
Nadezhda Durova was the daughter of a hussar officer, she fled from home (1802) disguised as a male, taking the name of Alexander Sokolov. She then enlisted in a light cavalry regiment. Nadezhda gained a reputation for courage on the field, and participated in the Russian campaign against Napoleon Bonparte (1807), being awarded the St George Cross for heroism. By the time of her retirement (1816) she was a staff captain. Her memoirs The Cavalry Maiden were immensley popular and achieved Durova lasting fame.

Durruhsehvar (Durruhsehvar Osmanoglu) – (1913 – 2006)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Born Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayse Durruhsehvar Osmanoglu at Tchamlidcha-Skutari in the Crimea (March 12, 1913), she was the daughter of Abdulmecid II, Sultan of Turkey (1922 – 1924), and his third wife, Mihisti.  With the fall of the Ottoman caliphate (1924), she accompanied her family into exile in France. Durruhsehvar was originally sought as a bride by King Fuad I of Egypt, but married instead at Nice (1931) to Hymayat Ali Khan Azam Jah (Feb 22, 1907 – Oct 9, 1970), Prince of Berar in India, to whom she bore two sons, and whose father, the Nizam Asaf Jah VII had granted her family a pension. The political ramifications of her marriage included the hope that it would produce a Muslim ruler who would be acceptable to the world powers in the place of the Ottoman sultans, but this was not to be.
Beautiful and highly cultured, being well educated linguistically, and with an interest in philosophy and literature, the princess was best remembered for the striking photography taken of her by the famous British coutourier Cecil Beaton, both in London (1937), which she visited to attend the coronation of George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and in Bombay (March, 1944). She learnt the Urdu language, and was a friend to the Swedish actress Greta Garbo, entertaining her international friends at her residence of Hyderabad House in London. In India the princess supported the removal of purdah for women and the need for them to be able to earn their own living to support their families. She officially opened Hyderabad’s first airport in the 1940’s and was a co-founder of the Osmania General Hospital, and the Durrushevar Children’s & General Hospital in Hyderabad. The princess was the last surviving member of the Ottoman royal house’s first generation in exile. Princess Durrushsehvar died at Hyderabad House, Kensington, London (Feb 7, 2006), aged ninety-two.

Du Rumain, Constance Simone Flore Gabrielle Roualt de Gamaches, Comtesse – (1725 – 1781) 
French society figure
Constance Roualt de Gamaches was the daughter of the Marquis de Gamaches, Comte de Cayeux, and his wife Catherine Constance Emilie Arnaud de Pomponne, the heiress of the famous Jansenist family. She married Charles Yves Levicomte, Comte du Rumain to whom she bore two daughters, the elder of whom, Constance Gabrielle Bonne Du Rumain, married Marie Louis Alexandre, Marquis de Polignac. However, unlike her pious ancestors, the comtesse was interested in the more esoteric myteries. She became a freemason, and a dabbler in cabalism. Noted alike for her beauty and loose-living, the Italian adventurer Casanova was at one time her lover (1757) and he mentions her in his memoirs, as does the British antiquarian Horace Walpole in his letters. When Casanova was charged with abducting an English girl, the comtesse, with the help of fellow freemasons, was able to prove that he could not responsible for the girl’s pregancy.

Duse, Eleonora – (1858 – 1924)
Italian tragedienne
Eleonora Duse was born near Venice, into a theatrical family and made her stage debut at the age of four (1862). During her teenage years, whilst her mother was incapacitated by illness, Eleonora stepped in to perform her roles. Duse performed the role of Emile Zola’s Therese Raquin in Naples, but achieved her first acknowledged success in Les Fourhcambaults (1878), and toured with Erneste Rossi as his leading lady (1879). Duse then visited toured Russia (1881) and Latin America (1885). With Rossi she founded her own successful theatre company, the Dramatica compagnia dell Citta di Roma, which toured Vienna, Berlin, New York, and London, and rivalled that of French actress Sarah Bernhardt.

The poet Gabriele D’Annunzio was fascinated by Duse, and he wrote several plays especially for her, including, La Gioconda (1899) and, Francesca da Rimini (1902). She was best remembered for her interpretation of the roles of Henrik Ibsen’s works, such as, Hedda Gabbler, Romersholm, Ellida in, Lady from the Sea, and, The Doll’s House. George Bernard Shaw admired her craft and style, and Anton Chekhov is said to have used Eleonora as a model for, The Seagull (1898). Duse made a second tour of South America (1906 – 1907) and retired from the stage at the beginning of World War I (1914) due to ill-health. She returned to perform seven years later (1921) due to financial necessity, and made a successful tour of the USA shortly before her death (1923). Her considerable correspondence has survived.

Dussek, Olivia – (1799 – 1847)
British musician
Olivia was born in London, the daughter of the Czech pianist, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and his wife, the composer, Sophia Giustina Dussel, nee Corri. She was raised in the home of her maternal grandfather after she and her mother were abandoned by Dussek (1800). She received most of her musical training from her talented mother at her piano academy in Winchester Row, Paddington, and later received tuition from her stepfather, the musician John Avis Moralt. She was married to George Buckley, and was employed as the organist of the Kensington parich church for a period of several years. Dussek was the author of several musical compositions, including pieces for the harp and piano. She also wrote several songs and pieces designed to aid music teaching.

Dussek, Sophia Giustina – (1775 – c1830)
British vocalist, composer and musician
Sophia Dussek was born in Edinburgh, Scotland (May 1, 1775), the daughter of Domenico Corri, the Italian musician and music publisher. She received her musical training from her father, as well as lessons from the singer Luigi Marchesi and from the composer Giambattista Cimador. She appeared in public as a pianist at the early age of four years (1779). Sophia removed to London with her family, where she performed as a soprano. She was married (1792) to the noted composer and pianist, Jan Lsadislav Dussek, who polished her knowledge of the piano and harp. She sang excerpts from Handel’s works and accompanied Madame Banti on the harp. The marriage was not happy, and when the family business failed, Dussek abandoned her and their infant daughter, and fled to Europe. With her husband’s eventual death (1812), she remarried to the viola player Johann Avis Moralt. Dussek continued to give concerts in public to support herself and her daughter, and was later engaged by the King’s Theatre, to replace the soprano, Angelica Catalani, in case she should have fallen ill (1808). She established herself as a piano teacher in Paddington. She was the mother of musician Olivia Dussek.

Dustmann-Meyer, Marie Louise – (1831 – 1899)
German soprano vocalist
Born in Aachen (Aug 22, 1831), she received vocal training under Louis spohr in Kassel. She made her singing debut at the theatre in Josefstadt, Vienna (1848), and continued her training with Albert Lortzing. Marie Louise performed at Breslau, Kassel and Prague, before joing the Vienna court opera ensemble, at the especial request of the Hapsburg archduke Franz Karl, father to the emperor Franz Joseph (1857). She performed the role of Donna Anna in Mozart’s Don Giovanni (1860) at the first performance given at the court opera in the Ringstrasse. She is best remembered for her interpretations of Richard Wagner’s works, especially famous for performing the role of Elsa in Lohengrin, and corresponded with Richard Wagner. She retired from stagework (1875) and was appointed a professor at the Vienna Conservatory. Marie Louise Dustmann-Meyer died in Charlottenburg, Prussia (March 2, 1899), aged sixty-eight.

Duston, Hannah – (1657 – 1736)
American colonial heroine
Hannah Duston was amongst a group of white women and children who were captured by native Indians. With the assistance of a young lad, also a captured prisoner, Duston carried out the furtive massacre of the entire Indian group, which consisted of five adults and seven children, scalping them all as they slept. Hannah killed nine of them herself, and returned to her home settlement with the scalps, to prove their story. She received a reward for twenty-five pounds.

Duthe, Catherine Rosalie Gerard – (1748 – 1830)
French opera dancer
Popular in France during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, she was blonde haired and beautiful. Despite possessing beauty, she was famed for her lack of intelligence, and was a favourite courtesan of the king’s brother, Charles, Comte d’Artois (Charles X). Duthe survived the horror of the Revolution, and was interred in Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris, where her monument remains. Her portrait in oils was painted by Henri Pierre Danloux, and Frederic Schall (1752 – 1825) produced, Madamoiselle Duthe Dancing. She left a volume of memoirs entitled, Galanteries d’une demoiselle du monde; ou, Souvenirs de Mlle Duthe (1833), published anonymously in Paris in four volumes by Etienne Leon, Baron de Lamothe-Langon (1786 – 1864).

Duthrucht – (fl. c550 – c600)
Irish saint
Sometimes called Durach, she was the daughter of Enna, and granddaughter of Corbmach, of the prominent family of Colla-da-Chrioch. She appears to have taken vows of chastity and resided as a recluse at Lemchoille. Duthrucht was recorded as a saint (Oct 25) in the Acta Sanctorum and the Martyrology of Tamlacht.

Dutrieu, Helene – (1877 – 1961)
French aviatrix
Helene Dutrieu was born in Belgium (July 10, 1877), and trained as a cyclist and sportswoman. She won the World Championship Track Speed in Osten two years in a row (1897 – 1898), being sponsored by the Simpson Lever Chain team. A pioneer of aviation, Dutrieu was the fourth woman to become a licensed pilot in Europe, and she was the first in France to fly solo (1909). She caused a celebrated stir when she flew in Belgium wearing her corset. The following year she flew non-stop from Ostend to Bruges. Dutrieu won the King’s Cup (Coup du Roi) in Florence (1911), and was awarded the Legion d’Honneur by the French government (1913). During WW I she joined the French Air Patrol and flew reconnaissance flights to report German troop movements. She also worked as an ambulance driver and superintendent of a military hospital. She later married Pierre Mortier, and began a career as a journalist. Helene Dutrieu died (June 26, 1961) aged eighty-three.

Dutt, Kalpana   see   Joshi, Kalpana

Dutt, Toru – (1856 – 1877)
Indian author, poet and translator
Toru Dutt was born into a Hindu family in Calcutta, and received an exemplary education. Some of her verses appeared in The Dutt Family Album (1870) and attended lectures at Cambridge University with two of her sisters. She translated many verse into English which were then published as A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields (1876), whilst her novel Le Journal de Mademoiselle d’Avers (1879) was published posthumously.
Her own collection of verse was published as Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan (1882) which was also published posthumously. Toru later resided at Nice in France as she suffered from tuberculosis. Her private correspondence was edited posthumously and published in English in New York and London as Life and Letters of Toru Dutt (1921).

Duttenhofer, Luise – (1776 – 1829)
German silhouettist and painter
Luise Duttenhofer was born in Waiblingen (April 5, 1776), she married the engraver, Christian Friedrich Traugott Duttenhofer (1778 – 1846). She travelled with him to Italy, and studied ancient antiquities during her visit. Luise chose silhouette as her favoured mode of expression, and studied drawing under Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, until she was able to sketch in Munich. Her work included mythological scenes and portraits of the philosophers Goethe, Schiller, and Schelling, the best known being that of Friedrich Matthisson. Luise Duttenhofer died in Munich, Bavaria, aged fifty-three (May 16, 1829).

Duval, Mary Virginia – (1850 – 1930)
Southern American historian and author, she was born in Rome, Georgia, and later came to live with her family in Sardis, Mississippi, where she finished her education. She was trained as aschoolteacher. Noticing the distinct dearth of suitable textbooks dealing with the history and government workings of the state of Mississippi, she proceeded to compile and publish two such works, the, Students’ History of Mississippi : From the Earliest Discoveries and Settlements to the End of the Year 1886 (1887), and the, History and Mississippi and Civil Government: Compiled and Arranged for the Use if the Public Schools of Mississippi (1892). She remained unmarried.

Duvalier, Simone – (c1913 – 1997)
Haitian First Lady (1957 – 1971)
Born Simone Ovide, near Leogane in southern Haiti, she was the natural daughter of Jules Faine, a mulatto scholar. She was raised and educated in the orphanage at Petionville, near Port-au-Prince. Trained as a nurse’s aide, she met and married (1939) her husband, Francois ‘Doc’ Duvalier, who became a government minister (1949), and was elected to the presidency (1957).
Throughout her hisband’s period in office, Madame Duvalier wielded much political power, and stringently controlled access to the president, whilst simultaneously developing and promoting her own coterie of favourites. When her son Jean-Claude succeeded her husband as ‘President for Life,’ his youth and unmarried status meant that Madame Simone, popularly known as ‘Mama Doc,’ because of her imperious manner and reputation for vanity, retained the position of First Lady for a further ten years until her son eventually married (1981). Rumours of her involvement with voodoo led to her being feared by the poor and illiterate, and her corruption and tast for luxury continued unabated during the presidency of her son. With his downfall and exile (1986), Madame Simone accompanied the family into exile, first in the French Alps, and then in Paris. Madame Duvalier died (Dec 26, 1997) in Paris.

Duvanel, Adelheid – (1936 – 1996) 
Swiss journalist and author
Born Adelheid Feigenwinter in Basel, she was first employed as an apprentice textile drawer, studying painting and graphics. Adelheid resided in Basel (1962 – 1968) and on Fromentera in Spain (1968 – 1969) and wrote many short stories, using the pseudonym ‘Judith Januar’ such as, Wande, dunn wie Haut (1979), Das verschwundene Haus.Erzahlungen (1988) and, Die Brieffreundin.Erzahlungen (1995). She was awarded the Basel literary prize (1987) and the Bern Canton Prize for literature (1995). Adelheid Duvanel died in Basel (July 8, 1996).

Duverger, Madamoiselle    see   Clery, Marie Elisabeth

Duvvuri, Subbamma – (1887 – 1964)
Indian political activist and social reformer
Subbamma Duvvuri was born into a middle class Brahmin family in the East Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh. Subbamma was married in childhood to a man with no prospects. His death left her a youthful and childless widow, and she attached herself to her relative, the poet Tirupati Venkata Sastri. From 1921 she became closely associated with the nationalist movement, and was arrested on several occasions because of her subversive politicial activities, and sufferred several periods of imprisonment, most notably during the Quit India Movement (1942). Duvvuri devoted herself to the cause of improving social conditions for women in general. She established a school for widows at Rajahmundry (1924) and organized a female branch of the Provincial congress. With the achievement of independence (1947), Duvvuri retired from political life.

Dux, Claire – (1885 – 1967) 
German soprano
Claire Dux was born in Witkowicz, and received vocal training with Maria Schwadtke and Adolf Deppe in Berlin befor travelling abroad to Italy for further training in Milan. Claire made her debut at Cologne (1906) in the role of Ramina in Die Zauberflote, and performed in that city until 1911, when she joined the court opera in Berlin, and became famous for her interpretation of the goose girl in Humperdinck’s fairytale, Konigskinder.  Dux gave concert performances after the end of World War I, and appeared at the Royal Opera in Stockholm, Sweden. Claire later emigrated to America (1921) and toured North America with the German Opera Company (1923 – 1923)., also becoming a member of the Chicago Opera (1923). She retired in 1926, and died in Chicago, Illinois (Oct 8, 1967).

Dvorak, Ann – (1912 – 1979)
American actress
Dvorak was born Ann McKim, and worked as a stage dancer before joing Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as an extra. She was discovered by Howard Hughes and became a leading actress of the 1930’s and was famous for appearances in films like Scarface (1932), Folies Bergere (1935), Dr Socrates (1935), We Who Are About to Die (1936), Merrily We Live (1938), Blind Alley (1939) and Café Hostess (1940). With the end of the war her film career wound down, but Dvorak still made excellent appearances in several classic films such as Flame of the Barbary Coast (1945), the western, Abilene Town (1946) and The Secret of Convict Lake (1951) which was her last film.
During WW II Miss Dvorak resied in London and worked as an ambulance driver. Ann Dvorak appeared on stage in New York in The Respectful Prostitute (1948), directed by Jean Paul Sartre. Notorious for her liasion with the director Howard Hawks (1896 – 1977), who name was also famously associated with that of Joan Crawford. Dvorak was married (1932 – 1945) to the British born actor and director Leslie Fenton (1902 – 1978). Ann Dvorak died (Dec 10, 1979) aged sixty-seven, in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Dwight, Margaret van Horn – (1790 – 1834)
American pioneer settler and diarist
As a young woman Mrs Dwight made an overland journey by wagon from New Haven in conncecticut to Warren in Ohio. She wrote a narrative account of this arduous trip which was published posthumously in New Haven as A Journey to Ohio in 1810. As Recorded in the Journal of Margaret van Horn Dwight (1912).

Dworkin, Andrea – (1946 – 2005)
American radical feminist and social critic
Andrea Dworkin was born in Camden, New Jersey (Sept 26, 1946) into a Jewish family, and attended Birmingham College. She was variously employed as a waitress, receptionist and factory worker, and was quickly associated with the contemporary feminist movement. A staunch fighting agains the misogyny of the male dominated society, Dworkin wrote such works as Woman Hating (1974), Out Blood: Prophecies and Discourses on Sexual Politics (1976), and The New Woman’s Broken Heart (1980). She also spearheaded the campaign against pornography, which she believed was the true cause of the sexist culture, and wrote Take Back the Night: Women on Pornography (1981) and Pornography: Men Possessing Women (1981). Dworkin campaigned unsuccessfully with fellow feminist Catherine Mackinnon to have pornography condemned legally as an infringement upon the equal rights of women. Andrea Dworkin died at her home in Washington, D.C. (April 9, 2005), aged fifty-eight.

Dwyer, Florence Price – (1902 – 1976)
American Republican politician
Florence Price was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, and left the University of Toledo in Ohio in order to marry the football coach, Joseph Dwyer, a future public relations specialist. The couple settled in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Dwyer first became involved with Republican politics, when she was involved with the unsuccessful campaign of Wendell L. Wilkie to challenge President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1940). A lobbyist for the New Jersey Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, she was appointed as a delegate at the 1944 presidential convention. She was finally persuaded the stand for election for the State Assembly (1949), and retired twenty-two years later (1972), after serving eight successive, and undefeated terms in the House of Representatives for Union County, New Jersey. Dwyer was remembered particularly for her advocacy of consumer protection. Florence Price Dwyer died at Elizabeth (April 30, 1976).

Dwyer, Kate – (1861 – 1949) 
Australian suffragist and civic activist
Born Catherine Winifred Golding at Tambaroora, New South Wales (June 13, 1861), she was the daughter of Joseph Fraser, and married (1887) Michael Dwyer. Trained and employed as a teacher before her marriage, she continued her career in Broken Hill, the couple removing to Sydney (1894). A prominent figure in the women’s suffrage movement, she founded the Women’s Progressive Association (1901). A fervent Catholic, Kate was a tireless in her work for the poor and underprivileged. A member of the Senate of Sydney University and a member of various hospital boards, Kate was one of the first female justices of the peace (J.P.) appointed in New South Wales. Kate Dyer died aged eighty-seven (Feb 3, 1949).

Dwywe – (fl. c550)
Welsh saint
Dwywe was born into a princely family her mother Gwallog later becoming Abbess of Llenog. She became the wife of Prince Dunawd, the son of Brochwell Ysythrog, Prince of Powys. Little is known of her save that she became a nun. She was revered locally as a saint. The date of her feast is now lost and there were no churches dedicated to her.

Dybka, Anne – (1921 – 2007)
Anglo-Australian glass engraver
Born Anne Hutchings, in Portsmouth, she was the daughter of a naval commander. She worked with such famous companies as Orrefors, Lalique, and Baccaret, and she received the OAM (Order of Australia Medal) (2003). Her second husband was the Austrian ceramic artist Rudolf Dybka.

Dybwad, Johanne – (1867 – 1950)
Norwegian stage actress and director
Johanne Dybwad was born in Bergen and trained at the National Scene. She made her stage debut at the age of twenty (1887), and swiftly managed to establish herelf as an actress of considerable talent and ability. With a natural and unaffected style of acting, Dybwad quickly became the leading actress of the National-Theatre in Oslo (1904), a theatrical pre-eminence she retained for the next four decades. Noted especially for her work with the famous director, Bjorn Bjornsson, she was particularly remembered for her interpretations of the characters in the works of dramatist Henrik Ibsen.

Dyce, Jessie Reid – (1911 – 1997)
Australian activist and writer
Jessie Dyce was born in Eastwood, Sydney, in New South Wales, daughter of a headmaster. She studied at Sydney University and trained as a teacher herself. She worked on the staff of the Canowindra District Rural School with L.C. Rodd, the husband of noted author, Kylie Tennant, during the 1930’s. Prior to 1957 she studied and lectured in drama at Sydney Teacher’s College, and then ttravelled to the USA and England. She was later appointed to Newcastle Teacher’s College as principal lecturer in English (1961) and retired in 1975. Dyce was president of the Newcastle Regional Gallery (1984 – 1986) and was editor of its magazine, Artemis, for almost a decade. She was the author of Five Hunter Valley Poets (1974). Jessie Reid Dyce died in Newcastle, New South Wales, aged eighty-five.

Dyer, Harriet – (1721 - 1814)
British actress and dancer
Harriet Dyer was born Henrietta Maria Bullock (Feb or March, 1721), into a theatrical family, the daughter of actor Christopher Bullock, and granddaughter of the actor William Bullock. She probably made her first appearance on the stage during her childhood (1731). Her father died during her infancy and she was taken with her family to Smock Alley Theatre in Dublin (1737) where she began her acting and dancing career in earnest, and where she met and married fellow actor, Michael Dyer (1744), to whom she bore several children. The couple performed several seasons at Smock Alley, where her talent and beauty were much admired, though on one occasion, the actress George Anne Bellamy was forced to rescue her from the unwanted attentions of a drunken patron.
Dyer accompanied her husband to London (1749), but worked only intermittently, appearing as Imoinda in Oroonoko (1749) and Octavia in All for Love (1751). She performed in Bristol and Covent Garden, continually adding to her repertoire. Dyer appeared in such roles as Queen Catherine in Henry V, the Duchess of York in Richard III, Lady Percy in Henry IV, Violante in The Wonder, and Jaqueline in The Royal Merchant, but was particularly popular as Colombine in pantomimes such as Harlequin Statue, The Jealous Farmer Deceived, and The Rape of Proserpine.
With encroaching age, her career opportunities began to dwindle, and Dyer finally retired from the stage (1773) and was widowed soon afterwards (1774), her relationship with her husband having been somewhat unstable for some years, the details concerning this marital rift remaining unknown. Harriet Dyer survived her husband four decades, and died in poverty and obscurity (Aug 9, 1814), aged ninety-three.

Dyer, Louise Berta Mosson – (1884 – 1962)
Australian music publisher and patron
Louise Mosson Dyer was born in Melbourne, Victoria, and was trained from he